allopurinol (a-loh-PYOOR-rih-nol) is a drug that lowers high levels of uric acid (a byproduct of metabolism) in the blood caused by some cancer treatments.
Information about Allopurinol
Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and a widely used medication for gout.
Liver safety of Allopurinol
Allopurinol is a rare but well known cause of acute liver injury that has features of a hypersensitivity reaction and can be severe and even fatal.
Mechanism of action of Allopurinol
Allopurinol (al' oh pure' i nol) is an analog of hypoxanthine and a potent inhibitor of the enzyme xanthine oxidase that is responsible for converting hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid in the breakdown pathway of purines. Allopurinol lowers serum and tissue uric acid levels and has potent activity against gout, largely in preventing rather than treating acute attacks of gout. Allopurinol
FDA approval information for Allopurinol
Allopurinolwas approved for use in the United States in 1963 and is still widely used. Current indications include therapy and prevention of gout, uric acid nephropathy, and the hyperuricemia caused by malignancy and anticancer therapy. It is not recommended for treatment of asymptomatic hyperuricemia.
Dosage and administration for Allopurinol
Allopurinol is available in multiple generic forms and under the brand name of Zyloprim or Aloprim in tablets of 100 and 300 mg. Intravenous formulations are also available. The recommended initial dose for therapy of gout is 100 mg daily, with increases of 100 mg in daily dose weekly until uric acid levels fall to 6 mg/dL or below, but not to exceed 800 mg daily. The average daily dose in therapy of gout is 300 mg.
Side effects of Allopurinol
The following drugs are considered antigout medications:
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