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Acetazolamide sodium

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What is acetazolamide?

The sodium salt of acetazolamide, a nonbacteriostatic sulfonamide derivative with diuretic and anticonvulsant properties.


Mechanism of action

  • Acetazolamide is a potent inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase that plays an important role in the control of fluid secretion.
  • Inhibition of this enzyme in the kidney results in a reduction in the availability of hydrogen ions for active transport in the renal tubule lumen, thereby leading to increased bicarbonate and cation excretion, and increased urinary volume.
  • Reduced bicarbonate level in circulation induces reduction of intraocular pressure via osmotic mechanism.
  • The anticonvulsant activity of acetazolamide may contribute to inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the CNS, which decreases carbon dioxide tension in the pulmonary alveoli, thus increasing arterial oxygen tension.
Acetazolamide ball-and-stick animation
Acetazolamide ball-and-stick animation

Side effects

Acetazolamide may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:

  • upset stomach
  • vomiting
  • loss of appetite
  • numbness and tingling
  • increased thirst and urination
  • drowsiness
  • headache
  • confusion
  • fever
  • rash
  • blood in urine
  • painful urination
  • yellowing of the skin or eyes
  • seizures
  • sore throat
  • unusual bleeding or bruising

Brand names

  • Diamox®
  • Sequels®

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