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Morphine

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Information about Morphine

Morphine is one of the natural plant alkaloids found in opium and is the prototype opiate, against which other derivatives are measured in terms of analgesic effects and side effects.

Liver safety of Morphine

Morphine has not been linked to serum enzyme elevations during therapy or to clinically apparent liver injury.

Mechanism of action of Morphine

Morphine is a natural alkaloid that is derived from resin extracts from the seeds of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. Morphine has potent and profound analgesic effects and has been used in clinical medicine for almost two hundred years. Morphine acts by engagement in cell surface opiate receptors (predominant ยต type receptors) that are found in the central nervous system, but also heart, lung, vascular and intestinal cells. Current indications are for severe pain, pre- and postoperative analgesia, control of pain from angina pectoris or acute myocardial infarction and therapy of pulmonary edema.

Dosage and administration for Morphine

Morphine is available in multiple formulations, including oral tablets and syrups, suppositories, and solutions for injection in multiple concentrations. The typical dose of morphine for analgesia in adults is 10 mg every 3 to 4 hours by the subcutaneous, intramuscular or intravenous route. Morphine is well absorbed orally, but has extensive and variable first pass metabolism, so that its effect orally is somewhat variable.

Side effects of Morphine

Side effects of opiates are many and include sedation, respiratory depression, confusion, euphoria, agitation, itching, abdominal bloating, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

DEA controlled substance classification of Morphine

Morphine is a controlled substance and classified as a Schedule II drug, indicating that it has medical usefulness, but also a high potential for physical and psychological dependency and abuse.

Full and partial opiod agonists:

Opiate antagonists:

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