An adnexal mass is a lump in tissue of the adnexa of uterus (structures closely related structurally and functionally to the uterus such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or any of the surrounding connective tissue). Adnexal masses can be benign or cancerous, and they can be categorized as simple or complex. One of the most important factors used to determine the clinical suspicion of malignancy of an adnexal mass is the sonographic appearance of the mass. Indications that the mass is at a higher risk of being malignant include the presence of loculations, nodules, papillary structures, or septations or a size greater than 10 cm.
In premenopausal women, adnexal masses include ovarian cysts, ectopic (tubal) pregnancies, benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous) tumors, endometriomas, polycystic ovaries, and tubo-ovarian abscess. In females of reproductive age, adnexal masses can be physiologic or complex masses. Most common causes for adnexal masses in premenopausal women are follicular cysts and corpus luteum cysts. Abscesses can form as a complication of pelvic inflammatory disease.
Other masses include endometriomas, polycystic ovaries, and benign neoplasms.
Removal is sometimes referred to as "adnexectomy".
- Roman LD, Muderspach LI, Stein SM, et al. Pelvic examination, tumor marker level, and gray-scale and Doppler sonography in the prediction of pelvic cancer. Obstet Gynecol 1997; 89:493.
- Curtin JP. Management of the adnexal mass. Gynecol Oncol 1994; 55:S42.
- Koonings PP, Campbell K, Mishell DR Jr, Grimes DA. Relative frequency of primary ovarian neoplasms: a 10-year review. Obstet Gynecol 1989; 74:921.