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Alemtuzumab

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Drug Name

Alemtuzumab [USAN:INN:BAN]

Synonyms

Synonyms of Alemtuzumab [USAN:INN:BAN]

  • Alemtuzumab
  • Campath
  • Campath 1H
  • Campath 1H/LDP03
  • Campath-1H
  • HSDB 8177
  • LDP-03
  • Lemtrada
  • UNII-3A189DH42V

Description

An anti-CD52 ANTIGEN monoclonal antibody used for the treatment of certain types of CD52-positive lymphomas (e.g., CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA; CUTANEOUS T-CELL LYMPHOMA; and T-CELL LYMPHOMA). Its mode of actions include ANTIBODY-DEPENDENT CELL CYTOTOXICITY.

Categories

  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological

Information about Alemtuzumab

Alemtuzumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody to human CD52 which is used in the therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and off-label for induction regimens for solid organ transplantation and for resistant or relapsing multiple sclerosis. 

Liver safety of Alemtuzumab

Alemtuzumab has been linked to occasional serum enzyme elevations during therapy and, while alemtuzumab has not been linked to cases of idiosyncratic, clinically apparent liver injury, it is a potent immunosuppressive agent and can lead to reactivation of chronic hepatitis B and exacerbations of chronic hepatitis C that can be severe and even fatal.   

Mechanism of action of Alemtuzumab

Alemtuzumab (al” em tooz’ ue mab) is a recombinant, humanized IgG1 kappa monoclonal antibody which is directed at and binds avidly to the human cell surface marker CD52 which is present on T and B cells, monocytes, macrophages and other bone marrow cells.  Alemtuzumab therapy leads to depletion of lymphocytes with suppression of B cells for 6 to 12 months and T cells for 12 to 24 months. 

FDA approval information for Alemtuzumab

Alemtuzumab was approved in the United States in 2004 for use in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  It has also been used extensively off-label as a part of induction therapy for prevention of rejection after solid organ transplantation.  It is currently under evaluation in several autoimmune diseases including resistant or relapsing multiple sclerosis. 

Dosage and administration for Alemtuzumab

Alemtuzumab is available in single use vials of 30 mg/mL under the brand name Campath.  The typical dose and regimen varies with indication. 

Side effects of Alemtuzumab

Alemtuzumab has significant adverse side effects, largely due to the profound immunosuppression.  Common adverse events include epistaxis, headache, hypertension, rhinitis, dry skin, back pain, excessive bleeding and skin rash.  Uncommon, but serious complications include severe infusions reactions, cytopenias (including fatal autoimmune anemia and thrombocytopenia) and opportunistic infections.

The following drugs used to prevent transplant rejection.

Immunosuppressants

Monoclonal Antibodies

Antithymocyte Globulin 
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