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Antineoplastic agents pq

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  • P.DOM-wt1-126 dna vaccine - A fusion DNA vaccine containing the first domain of fragment C (FrC) of tetanus toxin (TT865-1120) (p.DOM) fused to the human Wilms' Tumor gene-1 (WT1)-derived MHC class I-binding epitope WT1.126, with potential antitumor activity. Upon vaccination with p.DOM-WT1-126 DNA and subsequent electroporation, this vaccine may induce a WT1 epitope-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT1 expressing cells, resulting in cell lysis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in WT1-overexpressing cancer cells. WT1, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in a variety of solid cancers. The FrC of tetanus toxin contains the MHC II-binding sequence, p30, which induces T-helper cell activation for long-lasting immunity.
  • P.DOM-wt1-37 dna vaccine - A fusion DNA vaccine containing the first domain of fragment C (FrC) of tetanus toxin (TT865-1120) (p.DOM) fused to the human Wilms' Tumor gene-1 (WT1)-derived MHC class I-binding epitope WT1.37, with potential antitumor activity. Upon vaccination with p.DOM-WT1-37 DNA and subsequent electroporation, this vaccine may induce a WT1 epitope-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT1 expressing cells, resulting in cell lysis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in WT1-overexpressing cancer cells. WT1, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in a variety of solid cancers. The FrC of tetanus toxin contains the MHC II-binding sequence, p30, which induces T-helper cell activation for long-lasting immunity.
  • P300/cbp bromodomain inhibitor ccs1477 - An orally bioavailable, small molecule inhibitor of the highly conserved bromodomains of the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) paralogs, p300 (E1A-associated protein p300; p300 HAT) and CREB binding protein (CBP), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, p300/CBP bromodomain inhibitor CCS1477 selectively and reversibly binds to the bromodomains of p300 and CBP. This disrupts the acetylation of histones and other proteins and prevents the co-activation of key transcription factors that contribute to tumor progression including the androgen receptor (AR), androgen receptor splice variants (AR-SV), hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1-alpha) and Myc proto-oncogene protein (c-Myc). The HAT paralogs p300 and CBP are key transcriptional co-activators that are essential for a multitude of cellular processes and are implicated in the progression and therapeutic resistance of certain cancers.
  • P38 mapk inhibitor ly3007113 - An orally active p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor with potential immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, LY3007113 inhibits the activity of p38, thereby preventing p38 MAPK-mediated signaling. This may result in the inhibition of the production of proinflammatory cytokines and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. p38 MAPK, a serine/threonine protein kinase often upregulated in cancer cells, plays a crucial part in the production of a variety of cytokines involved in inflammation and cellular proliferation such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-1 and -6.
  • P53 peptide vaccine mps-128 - A peptide-based cancer vaccine composed of amino acids 264 to 272 of the wild-type protein encoded by the P53 gene. p53 peptide vaccine may elicit an HLA-A2.1-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte immune response against tumor cells that overexpress p53 protein.
  • P53/hdm2 interaction inhibitor cgm097 - An orally bioavailable HDM2 (human homolog of double minute 2) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, p53/HDM2 interaction inhibitor CGM097 inhibits the binding of the HDM2 protein to the transcriptional activation domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. By preventing this HDM2-p53 interaction, the proteasome-mediated enzymatic degradation of p53 is inhibited, which may result in the restoration of p53 signaling and, thus, the p53-mediated induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HDM2, a zinc finger nuclear phosphoprotein, is a negative regulator of the p53 pathway, often overexpressed in cancer cells and has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival.
  • P53-hdm2 interaction inhibitor mi-773 - An orally available spiro-oxindole HDM2 (human double minute 2) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, the p53-HDM2 protein-protein interaction inhibitor MI-773 binds to HDM2, preventing the binding of the HDM2 protein to the transcriptional activation domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. By preventing this HDM2-p53 interaction, the proteasome-mediated enzymatic degradation of p53 is inhibited and the transcriptional activity of p53 is restored, which may result in the restoration of p53 signaling and lead to the p53-mediated induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HDM2, a zinc finger protein and a negative regulator of the p53 pathway, is often overexpressed in cancer cells. It has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival.
  • P53-hdm2 protein-protein interaction inhibitor apg-115 - An orally available inhibitor of human homolog of double minute 2 (HDM2; mouse double minute 2 homolog; MDM2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, the p53-HDM2 protein-protein interaction inhibitor APG-115 binds to HDM2, preventing the binding of the HDM2 protein to the transcriptional activation domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. By preventing this HDM2-p53 interaction, the proteasome-mediated enzymatic degradation of p53 is inhibited and the transcriptional activity of p53 is restored. This may result in the restoration of p53 signaling and lead to the p53-mediated induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HDM2, a zinc finger protein and a negative regulator of the p53 pathway, is often overexpressed in cancer cells. It has been implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival.
  • P53-synthetic long peptides vaccine - A peptide vaccine consisting of 10 synthetic long peptides (SLPs), 25-30 amino acids in size and derived from the middle portion of p53 (amino acids 70-251), mixed with the adjuvant Montanide ISA-51 with potential immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. Upon administration, p53 synthetic long peptide (70-251) vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL) response against p53-expressing tumor cells. p53, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), may be overexpressed in variety of cancer cell types.
  • P70s6k inhibitor ly2584702 - An orally available inhibitor of p70S6K signaling, with potential antineoplastic activity. p70S6K inhibitor LY2584702 inhibits ribosomal protein S6 Kinase (p70S6K), and prevents phosphorylation of the S6 subunit of ribosomes, thereby inhibiting normal ribosomal function within tumor cells leading to a decrease in protein synthesis and in cellular proliferation. P70S6K, a serine/threonine kinase, acts downstream of PIP3 and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 in the PI3 kinase pathway, is often upregulated in a variety of cancer cells, and is involved in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, motility, and survival.
  • P70s6k/akt inhibitor msc2363318a - An orally available inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinases ribosomal protein S6 Kinase (p70S6K) and Akt (protein kinase B), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, p70S6K/Akt inhibitor MSC2363318A binds to and inhibits the activity of p70S6K and Akt. This prevents the activation of the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K signaling pathway and inhibits tumor cell proliferation in cancer cells that have an overactivated PI3K/Akt/p70S6K signaling pathway. Constitutive activation and dysregulated signaling of the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K pathway are frequently associated with tumorigenesis of many tumor types; targeting multiple kinases in this pathway is more efficacious than targeting a single kinase.
  • P97 inhibitor cb-5083 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of valosin-containing protein (VCP) p97, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, CB-5083 specifically binds to and inhibits the activity of p97. This prevents ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation and causes cellular accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins. The inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation activates the ER-dependent stress response pathway, and leads to both an induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation in susceptible tumor cells. p97, a type II AAA ATPase, plays a key role in cellular protein homeostasis. Its overexpression in many tumor cell types is associated with increased tumor cell proliferation and survival.
  • P97 inhibitor cb-5339 - An orally bioavailable, selective, second-generation inhibitor of valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, p97 inhibitor CB-5339 binds to and inhibits the activity of p97. This prevents ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation and causes cellular accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins. The inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation activates the ER-dependent stress response pathway, and leads to both an induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of cell proliferation in susceptible tumor cells. VCP/p97, a type II AAA+ ATPase, plays a key role in cellular protein homeostasis processes including ER-associated degradation (ERAD), chromatin associated degradation (CAD) and the DNA damage response (DDR). Its overexpression in many tumor cell types is associated with increased tumor cell proliferation and survival.
  • P97 inhibitor cb-5339 tosylate - The tosylate salt of CB-5339, an orally bioavailable, selective, second-generation inhibitor of valosin-containing protein (VCP)/p97, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, p97 inhibitor CB-5339 binds to and inhibits the activity of p97. This prevents ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation and causes cellular accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins. The inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation activates the ER-dependent stress response pathway, and leads to both an induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of cell proliferation in susceptible tumor cells. VCP/p97, a type II AAA+ ATPase, plays a key role in cellular protein homeostasis processes including endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD), chromatin associated degradation (CAD) and the DNA damage response (DDR). Its overexpression in many tumor cell types is associated with increased tumor cell proliferation and survival.
  • Pa-1-stk ovarian carcinoma vaccine - A cell-based cancer vaccine with potential antineoplastic activity. PA-1-STK ovarian carcinoma vaccine is produced by transducing the ovarian cancer cell line, PA-1, with the herpes simplex thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene, resulting in a cell line, PA-1-STK, that permanently expresses the HSV tk gene. Upon transfection into malignant cells, this vaccine is capable of sensitizing tumor cells in response to an antiviral drug such as ganciclovir, which is readily phosphorylated by the TK enzyme to its active form. Administration of ganciclovir following PA-1 STK transfection results in enhanced cytotoxicity of the transfected tumor cells. Additionally, adjacent non-transfected cells are also killed by the activated antiviral drug, a phenomenon referred to as the bystander effect that occurs with this type of suicide-gene transfer technique.
  • Paclitaxel - A compound extracted from the Pacific yew tree Taxus brevifolia with antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly of microtubules, thereby resulting in the inhibition of cell division. This agent also induces apoptosis by binding to and blocking the function of the apoptosis inhibitor protein Bcl-2 (B-cell Leukemia 2).
  • Paclitaxel ceribate - The ceribate ester form of paclitaxel, a compound extracted from the Pacific yew tree Taxus brevifolia with antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel binds to and stabilizes tubulin thereby inhibiting the disassembly of microtubules, resulting in the inhibition of cell division. This agent also induces apoptosis by binding to and blocking the function of the apoptosis inhibitor protein B-cell Leukemia 2 (BCL2).
  • Paclitaxel injection concentrate for nanodispersion - A nanoparticle-based injectable concentrate containing the water-insoluble taxane paclitaxel, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon reconstitution and administration, paclitaxel binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly of microtubules, thereby resulting in the inhibition of cell division. Compared to paclitaxel alone, the nanodispersion-based formulation uses less toxic solvents and allows for administration of higher doses resulting in higher concentrations of paclitaxel at the tumor site, and an increased safety profile.
  • Paclitaxel liposome - A liposome-encapsulated formulation of paclitaxel, a taxoid compound extracted from the Pacific yew tree Taxus brevifolia, with antineoplastic property. Paclitaxel binds to tubulin and interferes with the assembly/disassembly dynamics of microtubules, thereby resulting in the inhibition of cell division. This agent also induces apoptosis via inactivation of the apoptosis inhibitor, B-cell Leukemia 2 (Bcl-2) protein. Paclitaxel liposome formulation potentially enhances delivery of higher doses of paclitaxel to the target tissues and exhibits lower systemic toxicity.
  • Paclitaxel poliglumex - The agent paclitaxel linked to a biodegradable, water-soluble polyglutamate polymer with antineoplastic properties. The polyglutamate residue increases the water solubility of paclitaxel and allows delivery of higher doses than those achievable with paclitaxel alone. Paclitaxel promotes microtubule assembly and prevents microtubule depolymerization, thus interfering with normal mitosis.
  • Paclitaxel polymeric micelle formulation nant-008 - A nanoparticle-based formulation consisting of polymeric micelles encapsulating the taxane paclitaxel, with potential antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel is covalently bound to polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based block copolymers which forms a micellar structure with an outer hydrophilic PEG shell surrounding the hydrophobic paclitaxel. Upon administration of the paclitaxel polymeric micelle formulation NANT-008, the nanoparticles are stable in the bloodstream and specifically accumulate in the tumor tissue. Due to the acidic conditions in the tumor and the pH-responsive nature of the micelles, paclitaxel is released in the tumor environment. Paclitaxel binds to microtubules, promotes microtubule assembly, and prevents depolymerization, thus interfering with normal mitosis. Compared to the administration of paclitaxel alone, this formulation increases the solubility of paclitaxel, enhances its specific retention in cancer tissue, and increases its therapeutic effect, while decreasing its toxicity. In addition, the micellar formulation allows the delivery of higher doses of paclitaxel to target tissues while minimizing systemic toxicity.
  • Paclitaxel ppe microspheres - A paclitaxel formulation containing paclitaxel incorporated in biodegradable polyphosphoester (PPE) polymer form with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intraperitoneal delivery, paclitaxel PPE microspheres slowly and continuously dissolve and deliver paclitaxel to the tumor site, where it binds to tubulin and inhibits the dynamics of disassembly-assembly of microtubules. As a result, this formulation induces cell cycle arrest and leads to cell death.
  • Paclitaxel trevatide - A peptide-drug conjugate containing the taxane paclitaxel covalently linked to the proprietary 19 amino acid peptide angiopep-2, in a 3:1 ratio, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, paclitaxel trevatide, via angiopep-2 moiety, binds to LRP-1 (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1), which is highly expressed in blood brain barrier (BBB) and glioma cells. This binding allows the transcytosis of the agent across the BBB and the delivery of the cytotoxic agent paclitaxel. Compared to paclitaxel alone, GRN1005 is able to increase the concentration of paclitaxel in the brain and is also able to specifically deliver paclitaxel to LRP-1-overexpressing tumor cells, both in the brain and in the periphery.
  • Paclitaxel vitamin e-based emulsion - A cremophor-free, P-glycoprotein-inhibiting, vitamin E-based emulsion particle formulation of paclitaxel with antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly of microtubules, thereby resulting in the inhibition of cell division. This agent also induces apoptosis by binding to and blocking the function of the apoptosis inhibitor protein B-cell Leukemia 2 (Bcl-2). The vitamin-E based emulsion allows bolus infusion without steroid premedication and may diminish hypersensitivity reactions. The tumor tissue may be passively targeted due to preferential deposition of emulsion particles while an emulsion formulation component inhibits the P-glycoprotein drug efflux pump.
  • Paclitaxel-loaded polymeric micelle - A biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactide) copolymer micelle nanoparticle-entrapped formulation of paclitaxel with antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel promotes microtubule assembly and prevents depolymerization, thus interfering with normal mitosis. The copolymer residue increases the water-solubility of paclitaxel and allows delivery of higher doses than those achievable with paclitaxel alone.
  • Pacmilimab - A recombinant antibody prodrug composed of a monoclonal antibody directed against the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; B7-H1; CD274) that is linked to a proprietary masking peptide through a protease-cleavable linker on the amino terminus of the light chain domain of the antibody, with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of pacmilimab, the linkage system is stable in the circulation and, upon extravasation into the tumor microenvironment, the peptide mask is cleaved by tumor-associated proteases. These proteases are present in high concentrations and aberrantly activated in the tumor microenvironment, while expressed as inactive forms, at much lower concentrations, in normal, healthy tissue. Protease cleavage of the linker enables binding of the unmasked, fully active monoclonal antibody moiety of CX-072 to PD-L1, which is over expressed on certain cancer cells. This blocks the binding to and activation of its receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) on T-lymphocytes, thereby enhancing the T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immune response and reversing PD-L1/PD-1-mediated T-cell suppression. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on T-cells suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. Compared to the unmodified PD-L1 antibody, peptide masking of CX-072 minimizes binding to PD-L1 in normal tissues, thereby decreasing autoimmune-based side effects while retaining anti-tumor activity.
  • Pacritinib - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and the JAK2 mutant JAK2V617F with potential antineoplastic activity. Oral JAK2 inhibitor SB1518 competes with JAK2 for ATP binding, which may result in inhibition of JAK2 activation, inhibition of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, and so caspase-dependent apoptosis. JAK2 is the most common mutated gene in bcr-abl-negative myeloproliferative disorders; the JAK2V617F gain-of-function mutation involves a valine-to-phenylalanine modification at position 617. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway is a major mediator of cytokine activity.
  • Padeliporfin - A vascular-acting photosensitizer consisting of a water-soluble, palladium-substituted bacteriochlorophyll derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, paldeliporfin is activated locally when the tumor bed is exposed to low-power laser light; reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed upon activation and ROS-mediated necrosis may occur at the site of interaction between the photosensitizer, light and oxygen. Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (VTP) with padeliporfin may allow tumor-site specific cytotoxicity while sparing adjacent normal tissues.
  • Padoporfin - A novel palladium-substituted bacteriochlorophyll derivative and photosensitizer with potential antitumor activity. Upon administration, inactive padoporfin is activated locally when the tumor bed is exposed to photoirradiation; the activated form induces local cytotoxic processes, resulting in local tissue damage, disruption of tumor vasculature, and tumor hypoxia and necrosis.
  • Pak4 inhibitor pf-03758309 - An orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) with potential antineoplastic activity. PAK4 inhibitor PF-03758309 binds to PAK4, inhibiting PAK4 activity and cancer cell growth. PAK4, a serine/threonine kinase belonging to the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family, is often upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types and plays an important role in cancer cell motility, proliferation, and survival.
  • Pak4/nampt inhibitor kpt-9274 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of both the serine/threonine kinase P21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-synthesizing enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT; NAMPRTase), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, KPT-9274 allosterically binds to, destabilizes and causes degradation of PAK4. This inhibits PAK4-mediated signaling, induces cell death in, and inhibits the proliferation of PAK4-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, KPT-9274 binds to and inhibits the activity of NAMPT. This depletes cellular NAD and inhibits NAD-dependent enzymes, both of which are needed for rapid cell proliferation; this results in tumor cell death in NAMPT-overexpressing cancer cells. PAK4, a serine/threonine kinase and member of the PAK family of proteins upregulated in various cancer cell types, regulates cell motility, proliferation and survival. NAMPT, an enzyme that is responsible for maintaining the intracellular NAD pool, plays a key role in the regulation of cellular metabolism and has cytokine-like activities. NAMPT is often overexpressed in a variety of cancers and metabolic disorders and tumor cells rely on NAMPT activity for their NAD supply.
  • Palbociclib - An orally available cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Palbociclib selectively inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and 6 (CDK6), thereby inhibiting retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation early in the G1 phase leading to cell cycle arrest. This suppresses DNA replication and decreases tumor cell proliferation. CDK4 and 6 are serine/threonine kinases that are upregulated in many tumor cell types and play a key role in the regulation of cell cycle progression.
  • Palbociclib isethionate - The isethionate salt form of palbociclib, an orally available cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Palbociclib selectively inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and 6 (CDK6), thereby inhibiting retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation early in the G1 phase leading to cell cycle arrest. This suppresses DNA replication and decreases tumor cell proliferation. CDK4 and 6 are serine/threonine kinases that are upregulated in many tumor cell types and play a key role in the regulation of cell cycle progression.
  • Palifosfamide - A synthetic mustard compound with potential antineoplastic activity. An active metabolite of ifosfamide covalently linked to the amino acid lysine for stability, palifosfamide irreversibly alkylates and cross-links DNA through GC base pairs, resulting in irreparable 7-atom inter-strand cross-links; inhibition of DNA replication and cell death follow. Unlike ifosfamide, this agent is not metabolized to acrolein or chloroacetaldehyde, metabolites associated with bladder and CNS toxicities. In addition, because palifosfamide does not require activation by aldehyde dehydrogenase, it may overcome the tumor resistance seen with ifosfamide.
  • Palifosfamide tromethamine - A synthetic mustard compound of the tromethamine (tris) salt of palifosfamide (Isophosphamide mustard), with potential antineoplastic activity. As the stabilized active metabolite of ifosfamide, palifosfamide irreversibly alkylates and crosslinks DNA through GC base pairs, resulting in irreparable 7-atom interstrand crosslinks. This leads to an inhibition of DNA replication and ultimately cell death. Unlike ifosfamide, this agent is not metabolized to acrolein or chloroacetaldehyde, metabolites associated with bladder and CNS toxicities. In addition, because palifosfamide does not require activation by aldehyde dehydrogenase, it may overcome the tumor resistance seen with ifosfamide. Stabilization with tris instead of lysine further increases stability and may further decrease nephrotoxicity.
  • Palladium pd-103 - A radioisotope of the metal palladium used in brachytherapy implants or 'seed'. With a half-life of 17 days, palladium 103 administered with brachytherapy allows continuous, tumor-site specific low-energy irradiation to the tumor cell population while sparing normal adjacent tissues from radiotoxicity.
  • Pamidronate disodium - The disodium salt of the synthetic bisphosphonate pamidronate. Although its mechanism of action is not completely understood, pamidronate appears to adsorb to calcium phosphate crystals in bone, blocking their dissolution by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. This agent does not inhibit bone mineralization and formation.
  • Pamiparib - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, pamiparib selectively binds to PARP and prevents PARP-mediated repair of single-strand DNA breaks via the base-excision repair (BER) pathway. This enhances the accumulation of DNA strand breaks, promotes genomic instability, and eventually leads to apoptosis. PARP is activated by single-strand DNA breaks and, subsequently, catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins which then transduce signals to recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA. Pamiparib may both potentiate the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and reverse tumor cell chemo- and radioresistance.
  • Pamrevlumab - A human monoclonal antibody targeting connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) with potential anti-fibrotic and antineoplastic activities. Pamrevlumab binds to CTGF thereby preventing the binding of the ligand to the receptor and subsequent receptor activation. As CTGF enhances the production of collagen and fibronectin, FG-319 may prevent and reverse fibrosis. In addition, FG-3019 may prevent tumor cell proliferation in CTGF-expressing tumor cells. CTGF, a member of the CCN family (CTGF, CYR61/CEF and NOV), is expressed in a variety of tumor cell types and is involved in processes such as cell proliferation, cell migration, cell adhesion, differentiation and angiogenesis.
  • Pan fgfr inhibitor prn1371 - A highly specific covalent inhibitor of human fibroblast growth factor receptor types 1, 2, 3 and 4 (FGFR1-4) with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. FGFR1-4 tyrosine kinase inhibitor PRN1371 specifically binds to a conserved cysteine residue in the glycine-rich loop in FGFRs and inhibits their tyrosine kinase activity, which may result in the inhibition of both tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation, and the induction of tumor cell death. FGFRs are a family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which may be upregulated in various tumor cell types and may be involved in tumor cell differentiation, proliferation and survival, and in tumor angiogenesis. This agent potently inhibits FGFR1-4 but does not inhibit other tyrosine kinases, even those that share the conserved cysteine, which may improve therapeutic responses and decrease toxicity when compared with less selective inhibitors.
  • Pan her/vegfr2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor bms-690514 - A pyrrolotriazine-based compound and a pan inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Pan HER/VEGFR2 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor BMS-690514 binds to human epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) 1, 2 and 4 (HER1, HER2 and HER4) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, 2 and 3 (VEGFR-1, -2 and -3), all of which are frequently overexpressed by a variety of tumor types. Binding of this agent to these receptors may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation; the inhibition of endothelial cell migration and proliferation and angiogenesis; and tumor cell death.
  • Pan-akt inhibitor arq751 - An orally bioavailable pan inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT (protein kinase B) enzyme family with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, AKT inhibitor ARQ 751 selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of the AKT isoforms 1, 2 and 3, which may result in the inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway. This may lead to a reduction in tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. The AKT signaling pathway is often deregulated in cancer and is associated with tumor cell proliferation, survival and migration.
  • Pan-akt kinase inhibitor gsk690693 - An aminofurazan-derived inhibitor of Akt kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Pan-AKT kinase inhibitor GSK-690693 binds to and inhibits Akt kinases 1, 2, and 3, which may result in the inhibition of protein phosphorylation events downstream from Akt kinases in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and, subsequently, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. In addition, this agent may inhibit other protein kinases including protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA). As serine/threonine protein kinases which are involved in a number of biological processes, AKT kinases promote cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis and are required for glucose transport.
  • Pancratistatin - A isoquinoline alkaloid from amaryllis with antineoplastic activity.
  • Pan-fgfr inhibitor ly2874455 - An orally bioavailable pan-inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family proteins, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, FGFR inhibitor LY2874455 binds to and inhibits FGFR subtypes 1 (FGFR1), 2 (FGFR2), 3 (FGFR3) and 4 (FGFR4), which results in the inhibition of FGFR-mediated signal transduction pathways. This inhibits both tumor angiogenesis and proliferation of FGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. FGFR, a family of receptor tyrosine kinases upregulated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cellular proliferation, cell survival and angiogenesis.
  • Pan-flt3/pan-btk multi-kinase inhibitor cg-806 - An orally bioavailable reversible, pan-inhibitor of both FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3; CD135; STK1; FLK2) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK; Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, the pan-FLT3/pan-BTK multi-kinase inhibitor CG-806 targets, non-covalently binds to and inhibits the activity of both FLT3, including both wild-type (WT) FLT3 and FLT3-ITD (internal tandem duplications), tyrosine kinase domain (FLT3-TKD), and gatekeeper (FLT3-F691L) mutant forms, and BTK, including both the WT and its C481S mutant (BTK-C481S) form. This inhibits both uncontrolled FLT3-mediated and B-cell antigen receptor (BCR)-mediated signaling, respectively. This results in the inhibition of proliferation in tumor cells overexpressing FLT3 and BTK. In addition, CG-806 also inhibits, to a lesser degree, other oncogenic kinases, such as MET, RET, discoidin domain-containing receptor 2 (DDR2), Aurora kinase A, and interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK). FLT3, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is overexpressed or mutated in most B-lineage neoplasms and in acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs), and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation. BTK, a member of the Src-related BTK/Tec family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases essential to BCR signaling, is overexpressed or mutated in B-cell malignancies; it plays an important role in the development, activation, signaling, proliferation and survival of B-lymphocytes.
  • Pan-her kinase inhibitor ac480 - An orally bioavailable pan-HER tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. BMS-599626 inhibits human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER) HER1, HER2 and HER4, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of tumor cells that overexpress these receptors. (NCI05)
  • Panitumumab - A human monoclonal antibody produced in transgenic mice that attaches to the transmembrane epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor. Panitumumab may inhibit autocrine EGF stimulation of tumor cells that express the EGF receptor, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation.
  • Pan-kras inhibitor bi 1701963 - An orally available protein-protein interaction (PPI) inhibitor that targets the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Son of sevenless homolog 1 (SOS1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, pan-KRAS inhibitor BI 1701963 selectively targets and binds to SOS1, thereby preventing the interaction of SOS1 with Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) in the guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound 'off' state, which is the inactivated state of KRAS. This abrogates the exchange of RAS-bound GDP for guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and prevents the formation of GTP-loaded KRAS, which is the activated 'on' state of KRAS. This prevents activation of downstream RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway by GTP-loaded KRAS. This inhibits mutant KRAS-dependent signaling and may inhibit growth and survival of KRAS-expressing tumor cells. KRAS is a member of the RAS family of oncogenes that is mutated in many cancer cell types. Mutations of KRAS may induce constitutive signal transduction leading to tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. SOS1 regulates the KRAS GDP-GTP cycle and promotes nucleotide exchange and formation of 'active' KRAS-GTP.
  • Pan-mutant-idh1 inhibitor bay-1436032 - An orally available pan-inhibitor of mutant forms of the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase type 1 (IDH1; IDH-1; IDH1 [NADP+] soluble), including forms with mutations of arginine 132 (IDH1(R132)), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, pan-mutant-IDH-1 inhibitor BAY-1436032 specifically inhibits the activity of IDH1 mutant forms, which prevents the formation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) from alpha-ketoglutarate (a-KG). This prevents 2HG-mediated signaling and leads to both an induction of cellular differentiation and an inhibition of cellular proliferation in tumor cells expressing IDH1 mutant forms. IDH1 mutations, including IDH1(R132) mutations, are highly expressed in certain malignancies; they initiate and drive cancer growth by both blocking cell differentiation and catalyzing the formation of 2HG.
  • Pan-mutation-selective egfr inhibitor cln-081 - An orally available selective inhibitor of a broad spectrum of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, including EGFR exon 20 insertion mutations (EGFR Ex20ins; Ex20ins mutations), with potential antineoplastic activity. CLN-081 is also active against other EGFR mutations including exon 19 deletions (exon19del), L858R, and T790M, as well as the less common G719X, L861Q and S768I mutations. Upon administration, the pan-mutation-selective EGFR inhibitor CLN-081 specifically and covalently binds to and inhibits a variety of EGFR mutations, with particularly high selectivity against EGFR Ex20ins, which prevents EGFR mutant-mediated signaling and leads to cell death in EGFR mutant-expressing tumor cells. Compared to some other EGFR inhibitors, CLN-081 may have therapeutic benefits in tumors with EGFR Ex20ins, as most EGFR mutant-selective inhibitors are not active against EGFR Ex20ins. This agent shows minimal activity against wild-type EGFR (wt EGFR), and does not cause dose-limiting toxicities that occur during the use of non-selective EGFR inhibitors, which also inhibit wt EGFR. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization.
  • Panobinostat - A cinnamic hydroxamic acid analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Panobinostat selectively inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC), inducing hyperacetylation of core histone proteins, which may result in modulation of cell cycle protein expression, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and apoptosis. In addition, this agent appears to modulate the expression of angiogenesis-related genes, such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1a) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), thus impairing endothelial cell chemotaxis and invasion. HDAC is an enzyme that deacetylates chromatin histone proteins.
  • Panobinostat nanoparticle formulation mtx110 - A gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based formulation containing panobinostat, a pan histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intra-tumoral injection of MTX110, panobinostat is released from the formulation and selectively targets, binds to and inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC), which induces hyperacetylation of core histone proteins. The accumulation of highly acetylated histones leads to chromatin remodeling, an altered pattern of gene expression, inhibition of tumor oncogene transcription and the selective transcription of tumor suppressor genes. This results in the inhibition of tumor cell division and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HDAC, upregulated in many tumor cell types, is an enzyme family that deacetylates histone proteins. Panobinostat is water insoluble and does not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) when administered orally or intravenously. MTX110 solubilizes panobinostat and can be directly injected into the brain, which bypasses the BBB and delivers high concentrations of panobinostat to the tumor, while minimizing systemic toxicity.
  • Pan-pi3k inhibitor clr457 - An orally bioavailable pan inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, pan-PI3K inhibitor CLR457 inhibits all of the PI3K kinase isoforms, which may result in apoptosis and growth inhibition in tumor cells overexpressing PI3K. Activation of the PI3K pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Pan-pi3k/mtor inhibitor sf1126 - A water soluble, small-molecule prodrug containing the pan-PI3K/mTOR inhibitor LY294002/SF1101 conjugated to the RGD-containing tetra-peptide SF1174 with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. The targeting peptide SF1174 moiety of pan-PI3K/mTOR inhibitor SF1126 selectively binds to cell surface integrins and, upon cell entry, the agent is hydrolyzed to the active drug SF1101; SF1101 selectively inhibits all isoforms of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and other members of the PI3K superfamily, such as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and DNA-PK. By inhibiting the PI3K signaling pathway, this agent may inhibit tumor cell and tumor endothelial cell proliferation and survival.
  • Pan-pim kinase inhibitor azd1208 - An orally available, small molecule inhibitor of PIM kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Pan-PIM kinase inhibitor AZD1208 inhibits the activities of PIM1, PIM2 and PIM3 serine/threonine kinases, which may result in the interruption of the G1/S phase cell cycle transition, thereby causing cell cycle arrest and inducing apoptosis in cells that overexpress PIMs. The growth inhibition of several leukemia cell lines by this agent is correlated with the expression levels of PIM1, which is the substrate of STAT transcription factors. PIM kinases are downstream effectors of many cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways and are upregulated in various malignancies.
  • Pan-pim kinase inhibitor nvp-lgb-321 - An orally available, small molecule and selective ATP-competitive pan-inhibitor of proviral integration sites for Moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) kinases, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, pan-PIM kinase inhibitor NVP-LGB-321 binds to and prevents the activation of the three PIM family kinases, PIM1, PIM2 and PIM3. This prevents the activation of PIM-mediated signaling pathways and inhibits proliferation in cells that overexpress PIMs. PIMs, constitutively active proto-oncogenic serine/threonine kinases upregulated in various types of cancers, play key roles in tumor cell proliferation and survival.
  • Pan-raf inhibitor lxh254 - An orally available inhibitor of all members of the serine/threonine protein kinase Raf family, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, pan-RAF inhibitor LXH254 binds to Raf proteins and inhibits Raf-mediated signal transduction pathways. This inhibits proliferation of Raf-overexpressing tumor cells. Raf protein kinases are critical enzymes in the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and are upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types. They play key roles in tumor cell proliferation and survival.
  • Pan-raf inhibitor ly3009120 - An orally available inhibitor of all members of the serine/threonine protein kinase Raf family, including A-Raf, B-Raf and C-Raf protein kinases, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, pan-RAF kinase inhibitor LY3009120 inhibits Raf-mediated signal transduction pathways, which may inhibit tumor cell growth. Raf protein kinases play a key role in the RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, which is often dysregulated in human cancers and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival.
  • Pan-raf kinase inhibitor cct3833 - An orally available inhibitor of the serine/threonine protein kinase family Raf, including A-Raf, B-Raf and C-Raf, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, pan-RAF kinase inhibitor CCT3833 inhibits Raf-mediated signal transduction pathways, which may inhibit the proliferation of Raf-overexpressing tumor cells. Raf protein kinases play a key role in the RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, which is often dysregulated in human cancers and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival.
  • Pan-raf kinase inhibitor tak-580 - An orally available inhibitor of A-Raf, B-Raf and C-Raf protein kinases, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, pan-RAF kinase inhibitor TAK-580 inhibits Raf-mediated signal transduction pathways, which may lead to an inhibition of tumor cell growth. Raf protein kinases play a key role in the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway, which is often deregulated in human cancers and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival.
  • Pan-rar agonist/ap-1 inhibitor lgd 1550 - An orally-active synthetic aromatic retinoic acid agent with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. LGD 1550 selectively binds to all three retinoic acid receptors (RAR-alpha, RAR-beta, and RAR-gamma), resulting in alterations in the expression of genes responsible for cell differentiation and proliferation. This agent also acts as an inhibitor of activator protein 1 (AP-1), a protein that mediates trophic responses and malignant transformation.
  • Pan-trk inhibitor nov1601 - An orally bioavailable, selective pan-tropomyosin-related-kinase (tyrosine receptor kinase; TRK) inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, pan-TRK inhibitor NOV1601 specifically targets and binds to TRK, TRK mutations and fusion proteins containing sequences from neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) types 1 (NTRK1; TrkA), 2 (NTRK2; TrkB), and 3 (NTRK3; TrkC). This inhibits neurotrophin-TRK interaction and TRK activation, thereby preventing the activation of downstream signaling pathways and resulting in both the induction of cellular apoptosis and the inhibition of cell growth in tumors that overexpress TRK and/or express NTRK fusion proteins. TRK, a family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) activated by neurotrophins, is encoded by NTRK family genes. The expression of either mutated forms of, or fusion proteins involving, NTRK family members results in uncontrolled TRK signaling, which plays an important role in tumor cell growth, survival, invasion and treatment resistance.
  • Pan-trk inhibitor ono-7579 - An orally bioavailable, selective pan-tropomyosin-related-kinase (tyrosine receptor kinase; TRK) inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, ONO-7579 specifically targets and binds to TRK and fusion proteins containing sequences from neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) types 1 (NTRK1; TrkA), 2 (NTRK2; TrkB), and 3 (NTRK3; TrkC). This inhibits neurotrophin-TRK interaction and TRK activation, thereby preventing the activation of downstream signaling pathways and resulting in both the induction of cellular apoptosis and the inhibition of cell growth in tumors that overexpress TRK and/or express NTRK fusion proteins. TRK, a family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) activated by neurotrophins, is encoded by NTRK family genes.The expression of either mutated forms of, or fusion proteins involving, NTRK family members results in uncontrolled TRK signaling, which plays an important role in tumor cell growth, survival, invasion and treatment resistance.
  • Panulisib - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, panulisib inhibits the activity of all four kinases. This prevents PI3K/mTOR and ALK-1-mediated signaling pathways and may lead to the inhibition of cancer cell growth in PI3K/mTOR-overexpressing tumor cells and angiogenesis in ALK-1-overexpressing endothelial cells. Also, by inhibiting DNA-PK, this agent inhibits the ability of tumor cells to repair damaged DNA. The PI3K/mTOR pathway is upregulated in a variety of tumors and plays an important role in regulating cancer cell proliferation, growth, and survival. ALK-1, a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-b) type I receptor family, is overexpressed on endothelial cells in a variety of tumor types and increases endothelial cell proliferation and migration. DNA-PK is activated upon DNA damage and plays a key role in repairing double-stranded DNA breaks.
  • Pan-vegfr/tie2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor cep-11981 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinases with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Pan-VEGFR/Tie2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor CEP-11981 selectively binds to VEGFR and Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinases, which may result in the inhibition of endothelial cell migration, proliferation and survival and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. VEGFR and Tie2 are frequently overexpressed by a variety of tumor cell types and play crucial roles in the regulation of angiogenesis and the maintenance of tumor blood vessels. Tie2 (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains) is activated by angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1).
  • Paricalcitol - A synthetic noncalcemic, nonphosphatemic vitamin D analogue. Paricalcitol binds to the vitamin D receptor and has been shown to reduce parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. This agent also increases the expression of PTEN ('Phosphatase and Tensin homolog deleted on chromosome Ten'), a tumor-suppressor gene, in leukemic cells and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, resulting in tumor cell apoptosis and tumor cell differentiation into normal phenotypes.
  • Parp 1/2 inhibitor imp4297 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the nuclear enzymes poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 and 2, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, PARP 1/2 inhibitor IMP4297 selectively binds to PARP 1 and 2 and prevents PARP-mediated DNA repair of single-strand DNA breaks via the base-excision repair pathway. This enhances the accumulation of DNA strand breaks and promotes genomic instability and eventually leads to apoptosis. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins that signal and recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA and is activated by single-strand DNA breaks.
  • Parp 1/2 inhibitor nov1401 - An orally available small molecule inhibitor of the nuclear enzymes poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 and 2, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, NOV1401 selectively binds to PARP-1 and -2, thereby preventing PARP-1 and -2-mediated DNA repair. This promotes genetic instability and enhances the accumulation of single and double strand DNA breaks, ultimately leading to apoptosis. The PARP family of proteins catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins and is activated by single-strand DNA (ssDNA) breaks.
  • Parp inhibitor azd2461 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with potential antineoplastic activity. PARP inhibitor AZD2461 selectively binds to PARP and prevents PARP-mediated DNA repair of single strand DNA breaks via the base-excision repair pathway. This enhances the accumulation of DNA strand breaks and promotes genomic instability and eventually leads to apoptosis. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins that signal and recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA and is activated by single-strand DNA breaks.
  • Parp inhibitor cep-9722 - A small-molecule prodrug of CEP-8983, a novel 4-methoxy-carbazole inhibitor of the nuclear enzymes poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 and 2, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration and conversion from CEP-9722, CEP-8983 selectively binds to PARP 1 and 2, preventing repair of damaged DNA via base excision repair (BER). This agent enhances the accumulation of DNA strand breaks and promotes genomic instability and apoptosis. CEP-8983 may potentiate the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and reverse tumor cell chemo- and radioresistance. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins that signal and recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA and can be activated by single strand breaks in DNA.
  • Parp inhibitor e7016 - An inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with potential chemo- and/or radiosensitizing activity. PARP inhibitor E7016 selectively binds to PARP and prevents PARP mediated DNA repair of single strand DNA breaks via the base-excision repair pathway. This enhances the accumulation of DNA strand breaks and promotes genomic instability and eventually leads to apoptosis. In addition, this agent may enhance the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and reverse tumor cell resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins that signal and recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA and is activated by single-strand DNA breaks.
  • Parp inhibitor nms-03305293 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, PARP inhibitor NMS-03305293 selectively binds to PARP and prevents PARP-mediated DNA repair of single-strand DNA breaks via the base-excision repair pathway. This enhances the accumulation of DNA strand breaks and promotes genomic instability and eventually leads to apoptosis. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins that signal and recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA and is activated by single-strand DNA breaks.
  • Parp/tankyrase inhibitor 2x-121 - An orally available small molecule inhibitor of the nuclear enzymes poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 and 2, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, E7449 selectively binds to PARP 1 and 2, thereby preventing the repair of damaged DNA via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. This agent enhances the accumulation of single and double strand DNA breaks and promotes genomic instability eventually leading to apoptosis. PARP 1/2 inhibitor E7449 may enhance the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and of radiotherapy. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins that signal and recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA.
  • Parp-1/2 inhibitor abt-767 - An orally available inhibitor of the nuclear enzymes poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 1 and 2, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, ABT-767 selectively binds to PARP 1 and 2, thereby preventing repair of damaged DNA via the base excision repair (BER) pathway. This agent enhances the accumulation of DNA strand breaks and promotes genomic instability eventually leading to apoptosis. ABT-767 may enhance the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and reverse tumor cell chemo- and radioresistance. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins that signal and recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA and can be activated by single strand DNA (ssDNA) breaks.
  • Parp7 inhibitor rbn-2397 - An orally available small molecule inhibitor of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) 7, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, PARP7 inhibitor RBN-2397 selectively binds to PARP7 and restores interferon (type 1) signaling. This may lead to the induction of both innate and adaptive immune responses, and the inhibition of tumor growth and proliferation. PARP catalyzes post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins that signal and recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA.
  • Parsaclisib - An inhibitor of the delta isoform of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) with potential antineoplastic activity. Parsaclisib inhibits the delta isoform of PI3K and prevents the activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This both decreases proliferation and induces cell death in PI3K-delta-overexpressing tumor cells. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, PI3K-delta is expressed primarily in hematopoietic disease and cell lineages. The targeted inhibition of PI3K-delta is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells. PI3K, an enzyme often overexpressed in cancer cells, plays a crucial role in tumor cell regulation and survival.
  • Parsaclisib hydrochloride - The hydrochloride salt form of parsaclisib, an inhibitor of the delta isoform of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) with potential antineoplastic activity. Parsaclisib inhibits the delta isoform of PI3K and prevents the activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This both decreases proliferation and induces cell death in PI3K-delta-overexpressing tumor cells. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, PI3K-delta is expressed primarily in hematopoietic disease and cell lineages. The targeted inhibition of PI3K-delta is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells. PI3K, an enzyme often overexpressed in cancer cells, plays a crucial role in tumor cell regulation and survival.
  • Parsatuzumab - A humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor-like domain multiple 7 (EGFL7) with potential antineoplastic activity. Parsatuzumab binds to EGFL7, thereby preventing the activities of EGFL7 on endothelial cells and inhibiting the survival and migration of endothelial cells during angiogenesis. EGFL7, a vascular-restricted extracellular matrix protein which is upregulated during angiogenesis and which regulates vascular development, may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumor cell types.
  • Parvovirus h-1 - A replication-competent oncolytic parvovirus with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon infection of host cells, parvovirus H-1 preferentially replicates in tumor cells compared to healthy normal cells, thereby potentially resulting in tumor cell lysis and leading to an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. In addition, H1-infected tumor cells strongly induce the release of the inducible heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72i), which chaperone tumor associated antigens in the H1-mediated tumor lysates and may activate antigen presenting cells (APCs), thereby leading to antitumor immune responses. Parvovirus H-1 does not cause any pathogenic effect in normal, healthy cells and is able to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB).
  • Pasotuxizumab - A recombinant T-cell engaging bispecific monoclonal antibody (BiTE) directed against human prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and the CD3 epsilon subunit of the T cell receptor complex, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Pasotuxizumab possesses two antigen-recognition sites, one for PSMA, and one for the CD3 complex, a group of T cell surface glycoproteins that complex with the T cell receptor (TCR). This bispecific monoclonal antibody brings PSMA-expressing tumor cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) together, which may result in the CTL-mediated cell death of PSMA-expressing cells. PSMA, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed on the surface of metastatic and hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells.
  • Patidegib - An orally bioavailable, cyclopamine-derived inhibitor of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway with potential antineoplastic activity. Specifically, patidegib binds to and inhibits the cell membrane-spanning G-protein coupled receptor SMO, which may result in the suppression of Hh pathway signaling and a decrease in tumor cell proliferation and survival. SMO is activated upon binding of Hh ligand to the cell surface receptor Patched (PTCH); inappropriate activation of Hh signaling and uncontrolled cellular proliferation may be associated with SMO mutations. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in proliferation of neuronal precursor cells in the developing cerebellum and other tissues.
  • Patidegib topical gel - A topical gel containing patidegib, a cyclopamine-derived inhibitor of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon topical application of the patidegib gel, patidegib binds to and inhibits the activity of the G-protein coupled receptor smoothened (SMO), thereby inhibiting Hh pathway signaling. This decreases proliferation and survival in tumor cells in which the Hh pathway is overactivated. Upregulated Hh signaling is associated with uncontrolled tumor cell proliferation. Topical application of patidegib allows for local anti-tumor activity while avoiding systemic exposure and unwanted systemic effects.
  • Patient-derived wt1/prame/survivin-specific cytotoxic t-lymphocytes - A preparation of autologous cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) specifically reactive to the tumor associated antigens (TAAs) human Wilms tumor protein (WT1), preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME, melanoma antigen preferentially expressed in tumors; Opa-interacting protein 4), and survivin (baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 5), with potential antineoplastic activities. Upon collection, expansion, and stimulation with antigen presenting cells pulsed with an overlapping peptide library spanning the TAAs, the multi-antigen associated CTLs are re-introduced into the patient and may induce a CTL-mediated response against tumor cells expressing WT1, PRAME, or survivin, potentially leading to tumor cell lysis and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. WT1, PRAME, and survivin, are expressed on certain tumor cell types and play key role in tumor cell proliferation and survival.
  • Patritumab - A fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the membrane-bound receptor HER3 (ERBB3) with potential antineoplastic activity. Patritumab binds to and inhibits HER3 activation, which may result in inhibition of HER3-dependent PI3K/Akt signaling and so inhibition of cellular proliferation and differentiation. HER3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in solid tumors, including breast, lung, and colorectal tumors of epithelial origin; it has no active kinase domain itself but is activated through heterodimerization with other members of the EGFR receptor family that do.
  • Patritumab deruxtecan - An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of patritumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor HER3 (ErbB3),linked to the topoisomerase I inhibitor DX 8951, a semisynthetic, water-soluble derivative of camptothecin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of patritumab deruxtecan, the patritumab moiety targets and binds to HER3. After internalization, DX 8951 inhibits topoisomerase I activity by stabilizing the complex between topoisomerase I and DNA and inhibiting religation of DNA breaks, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and triggering apoptotic cell death. HER3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in tumors.
  • Patupilone - A compound isolated from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. Similar to paclitaxel, patupilone induces microtubule polymerization and stabilizes microtubules against depolymerization conditions. In addition to promoting tubulin polymerization and stabilization of microtubules, this agent is cytotoxic for cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein, a characteristic that distinguishes it from the taxanes. Patupilone may cause complete cell-cycle arrest.
  • Paxalisib - A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. paxalisib specifically inhibits PI3K in the PI3K/AKT kinase (or protein kinase B) signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway. This may result in the inhibition of both cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis. Dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents.
  • Pazopanib - A small molecule inhibitor of multiple protein tyrosine kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Pazopanib selectively inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR)-1, -2 and -3, c-kit and platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGF-R), which may result in inhibition of angiogenesis in tumors in which these receptors are upregulated.
  • Pazopanib hydrochloride - The hydrochloride salt of a small molecule inhibitor of multiple protein tyrosine kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Pazopanib selectively inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR)-1, -2 and -3, c-kit and platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGF-R), which may result in inhibition of angiogenesis in tumors in which these receptors are upregulated.
  • Pbcar3 phosphopeptide-tetanus peptide vaccine - A vaccine composed of a phosphorylated peptide from the tumor associated antigen breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance-3 (BCAR3) and a tetanus-derived peptide, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of pBCAR3 phosphopeptide-tetanus peptide vaccine, the pBCAR3 phosphopeptide may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against phosphopeptide-containing tumor cells. The tetanus peptide serves as an immunoadjuvant and induces a helper T-cell response, which may help stimulate an immune response against the pBCAR3-expressing melanoma tumor cells. BCAR3 is upregulated in a variety of cancer cells.
  • Pbcar3/pirs2-phosphopeptide-tetanus peptide vaccine - A vaccine composed of phosphorylated peptides from the tumor associated antigens breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance-3 (BCAR3) and insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2) and a tetanus-derived peptide, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of pBCAR3/pIRS2 phosphopeptide-tetanus peptide vaccine, the pBCAR3/pIRS2 phosphopeptide may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing either phosphopeptide. The tetanus peptide serves as an immunoadjuvant and induces a helper T-cell response which may help stimulate an immune response against pBCAR3 and pIRS2-expressing melanoma tumor cells. BCAR3 and IRS2 are upregulated in a variety of cancer cells.
  • Pbi-shrna stmn1 lipoplex - A proprietary RNA interference construct consisting of bifunctional short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) against human stathmin 1 (STMN1) encapsulated in the cationic bilamellar invaginated vesicle lipoplex (LP) with potential antineoplastic activity. pbi-shRNA STMN1 LP contains 2 stem-loop structures encoded by a plasmid vector. Upon intratumoral administration, one shRNA unit with a perfectly matched sequence renders the suppression of STMN1 mRNA translation (mRNA sequestration and cleavage-independent degradation) while the other unit with an imperfectly matched sequence renders STMN1 mRNA degradation via RNase H-like cleavage (cleavage-dependent mRNA silencing). The suppression of STMN1 expression in tumor cells result in a reduction of tumor cell proliferation. STMN1, a ubiquitous cytosolic phosphoprotein and tubulin modulator that plays a key role in mitosis, is overexpressed in a variety of tumors and correlates with poor prognosis.
  • Pbn derivative okn-007 - A disulfonyl derivative of phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN), with potential anti-glioma activity. Although the exact mechanism(s) of action of OKN007 are still largely unknown, this agent appears to inhibit cancer cell proliferation and migration. This agent appears to inhibit the activity of sulfatase 2 (SULF2), a highly specific endoglucosamine-6-sulfatase that is overexpressed in the extracellular matrix of cancer cells and catalyzes the removal of sulfate from the 6-O-sulfate esters of heparin. In addition, OKN007 may induce changes in tumor metabolism and scavenge free radicals.
  • Pbtl cd19car-28/cd137/zeta - Peripheral blood T-lymphocytes (PBTLs) transduced with a retroviral vector expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of an anti-CD19 scFv (single chain variable fragment) coupled to the costimulatory signaling domain CD28, the signaling domain of 4-1BB (CD137), and the zeta chain of the T-cell receptor (TCR), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon transfusion, PBTL CD19CAR-28/CD137zeta directs the T-lymphocytes to CD19-expressing tumor cells and induces selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD28, a T-cell surface-associated co-stimulatory molecule, is required for full T-cell activation, proliferation, and survival. The 4-1BB co-stimulatory molecule signaling domain enhances activation and signaling after recognition of CD19. Furthermore, inclusion of the 4-1BB signaling domain may increase the antitumor activity compared to the inclusion of the CD28 costimulatory domain and TCR zeta chain alone. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen, which is expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies.
  • P-cadherin antagonist pf-03732010 - An agent that inhibits P-cadherin (cdh3), with potential antineoplastic activity. PF-03732010 binds to and inhibits the activity of p-cadherin. Inhibition of the activity of p-cadherin may inhibit tumor cell invasion and proliferation in p-cadherin expressing tumor cells. P-cadherin, a cell-surface protein and member of the cadherin family, is overexpressed in a variety of solid tumors, and plays a role in cell adhesion, motility, invasion and proliferation.
  • P-cadherin inhibitor pca062 - An agent that inhibits p-cadherin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous infusion, PCA062 binds to and inhibits the activity of p-cadherin. Inhibition of the activity of p-cadherin may inhibit both invasion and proliferation of p-cadherin expressing tumor cells. P-cadherin, a cell-surface protein and member of the cadherin family, is overexpressed in a variety of tumors and plays a role in cell adhesion, motility, invasion, and proliferation.
  • P-cadherin-targeting agent pf-06671008 - An agent that targets p-cadherin (CDH3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, PF-06671008 binds to and inhibits the activity of p-cadherin; this may inhibit both invasion and proliferation of p-cadherin expressing tumor cells. P-cadherin, a cell-surface protein and member of the cadherin family, is overexpressed in a variety of tumors and plays a role in cell adhesion, motility, invasion, and proliferation.
  • Pcnu - A chloroethylnitrosourea compound and an alkylating agent with antineoplastic property. PCNU inhibits DNA synthesis by alkylating DNA and causing DNA cross links, thereby inducing apoptosis. In addition, this agent may be associated with pulmonary, hepatic, and hematologic toxicities. Unlike other nitrosoureas, PCNU has strong alkylating while weak carbamoylating activity.
  • Pd-1 directed probody cx-188 - A probody composed of a monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell surface receptor, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279), linked to a proprietary masking peptide that covers the active antigen binding site of the antibody through a protease-cleavable linker, with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of PD-1-directed probody CX-188, the masking peptide is cleaved by tumor-associated proteases within the tumor microenvironment (TME). Protease-mediated removal of the linker enables binding of the unmasked monoclonal antibody moiety to PD-1, thereby disrupting PD-1 signaling. This may restore immune function through the activation of T-cells and T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on T-cells, functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) or 2 (PD-L2); it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity. Tumor-associated proteases are present in high concentrations and aberrantly activated in the TME.
  • Pdcd-1 knockout autologous t-lymphocytes - A population of engineered autologous T-lymphocytes in which the gene encoding for the programmed cell death protein 1 (PDCD-1) is deleted, with potential immunomodulating activity. Following collection of peripheral blood lymphocytes and selection of T-cells, the PDCD-1 gene was knocked out and the T-cells were expanded. Upon reinfusion of the PDCD-1 knockout T-lymphocytes, these T-cells target and lyse cancer cells. The PDCD-1 protein, found on activated T-cells and often overexpressed on T-cells in cancer patients, negatively regulates T-cell activity; it plays a key role in immune evasion and prevents tumor cell lysis. PDCD-1 knockout enhances cytotoxicity and T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immune responses.
  • Pdk1 inhibitor ar-12 - An orally bioavailable, small-molecule, celecoxib-derived inhibitor of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) with potential antineoplastic activity. Devoid of any COX inhibiting activity, PDK1 inhibitor AR-12 binds to and inhibits the phosphorylation of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK-1).; subsequently, the phosphorylation and activation of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B or PKB) is inhibited, which may result in inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. In addition, this agent appears to induce the activity of protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), which plays a key role in the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Activation and dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents.
  • Pd-l1 inhibitor gs-4224 - An orally available, small molecule inhibitor of the immunosuppressive ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory, anti-viral and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, PD-L1 inhibitor GS-4224 specifically targets PD-L1 expressed on tumor cells preventing the binding and subsequent activation of its receptor, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279; programmed death-1). This reverses T-cell inactivation caused by PD-L1/PD-1 signaling, increases T-cell expansion and enhances the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. It may also enhance hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific CD8+ T-cell function, thereby killing HBV-infected cells. PD-L1, a transmembrane protein expressed on activated T-cells, is overexpressed in some cancer types and plays a significant role in immune evasion by tumor cells. It is also upregulated in HBV-positive patients and contributes to immune dysfunction against HBV infection.
  • Pd-l1 inhibitor incb086550 - An orally available, small molecule inhibitor of the immunosuppressive ligand, programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274) with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, PD-L1 inhibitor INCB086550 specifically targets PD-L1 expressed on tumor cells preventing the binding and subsequent activation of its receptor, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279; programmed death-1). This reverses T-cell inactivation caused by PD-L1/PD-1 signaling, increases T-cell expansion and enhances the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated anti-tumor immune response against PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. PD-L1, a transmembrane protein expressed on activated T-cells, is overexpressed in some cancer types and plays a significant role in immune evasion by tumor cells.
  • Pd-l1 peptide vaccine - A vaccine composed of a peptide derived from the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and immune checkpoint molecule programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) combined with the immunoadjuvant montanide ISA-51, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Vaccination with PD-L1 peptide vaccine may activate the immune system to induce an immune response against PD-L1-expressing cells. This may increase and restore the proliferation and activation of various immune cells, including cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), and may eradicate PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. PD-L1 is overexpressed on many human cancer cell types as well as on antigen presenting cells (APCs) and immunosuppressive cells in the tumor micro-environment (TME), such as regulatory T-cells (Tregs). PD-L1 binding to its cognate receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279) on T-cells suppresses the immune system and results in increased immune evasion and decreased CTL activation. Montanide ISA-51, also known as incomplete Freund's adjuvant or IFA, is a stabilized water-in-oil emulsion adjuvant containing mineral oil with mannide oleate added as a surfactant that non-specifically stimulates cell-mediated immune responses to antigens.
  • Pd-l1/4-1bb/hsa trispecific fusion protein nm21-1480 - A recombinant, trispecific monovalent antibody-based molecule targeting the human programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), 4-1BB (CD137; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9; TNFRSF9) and human serum albumin (HSA), with potential checkpoint inhibitory, immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. PD-L1/4-1BB/HSA trispecific fusion protein NM21-1480 consists of three monovalent antibody Fvs specific for PD-L1, HSA and 4-1BB fused in a single chain. Upon administration, PD-L1/4-1BB/HSA trispecific fusion protein NM21-1480 simultaneously targets and binds to a membrane-distal epitope of 4-1BB, which is expressed on a variety of leukocyte subsets including activated T-lymphocytes, and PD-L1 expressed on tumor cells. The simultaneous binding to PD-L1 enables clustering of 4-1BB and thereby allows for conditional stimulation of 4-1BB signaling in the tumor microenvironment (TME) only upon binding to PD-L1 on tumor cells. 4-1BB activation results in T-cell stimulation and enhances T-lymphocyte-mediated anti-tumor activity. At the same time, NM21-1480 prevents PD-L1 from binding to and activating its receptor, programmed cell death 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279; programmed death-1). This abrogates T-cell inhibition, activates antigen-specific T-lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which may lead to a reduction in tumor growth. PD-L1 binding to PD-1 on activated T-cells inhibits the expansion and survival of CD8-positive T-cells, suppresses the immune system and results in immune evasion. 4-1BB, a surface glycoprotein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is an inducible costimulatory receptor that plays a key role in T-cell proliferation, survival and cytolytic activity. HSA fusion prolongs the half-life of NM21-1480. The conditional activation of 4-1BB signaling prevents systemic T-cell activation and lowers toxicity.
  • Pd-l1/ido peptide vaccine - A peptide vaccine composed of IO103, a peptide vaccine derived from the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), IO102, the 21-mer peptide vaccine derived from the immunomodulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), and the immunoadjuvant montanide ISA-51, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Vaccination with the PD-L1/IDO peptide vaccine may activate the immune system to induce an immune response against PD-L1 and IDO-expressing cells. This may increase and restore the proliferation and activation of various immune cells, including cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), and may eradicate PD-L1 and IDO-expressing tumor cells through a CTL-mediated immune response. PD-L1 is overexpressed on many human cancer cell types. PD-L1 binding to its cognate receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279) on T-cells suppresses the immune system and results in increased immune evasion and decreased CTL activation. IDO, a cytosolic enzyme responsible for tryptophan catabolism and conversion of tryptophan into kynurenine, is overexpressed by a variety of tumor cell types and antigen presenting cells (APCs) and plays an important role in immunosuppression mainly through suppression of CTL activation; tryptophan depletion inhibits T-lymphocyte proliferation and activation, and suppresses the immune system. Montanide ISA-51, also known as incomplete Freund's adjuvant or IFA, is a stabilized water-in-oil emulsion adjuvant containing mineral oil with mannide oleate added as a surfactant that non-specifically stimulates cell-mediated immune responses to antigens.
  • Pd-l1/pd-l2 peptide-montanide vaccine - A vaccine composed of peptides derived from the immune checkpoint molecules, programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), combined with the immunoadjuvant montanide ISA-51, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Vaccination with PD-L1/PD-L2 peptide-montanide vaccine may stimulate an immune response against PD-L1 and PD-L2 expressing cells. This may enhance T-cell proliferation, cytokine production, and T-cell mediated cytolysis. Binding of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279) by its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, results in downregulation of T-cell responses and enhanced immune evasion. Montanide ISA-51, also known as incomplete Freund's adjuvant or IFA, is a stabilized water-in-oil emulsion adjuvant containing mineral oil with mannide oleate added as a surfactant that non-specifically stimulates cell-mediated immune responses to antigens.
  • Pd-l1/pd-l2/vista antagonist ca-170 - An orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of the immune checkpoint regulatory proteins programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1; B7-H1; CD274), PD-L2, and V-domain immunoglobulin (Ig) suppressor of T-cell activation (VISTA; programmed death 1 homolog; PD1H; PD-1H), with potential negative immune checkpoint regulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, PD-L1/PD-L2/VISTA antagonist CA-170 targets and binds to PD-L1, PD-L2 and VISTA. This inhibits PD-L1/PD-L2/VISTA-mediated signaling, abrogates the PD-L1-, PD-L2- and VISTA-induced suppression of T-lymphocyte immune responses, enhances cytotoxic T-cell proliferation and activation against tumor cells, increases cytokine production by T-cells, and inhibits tumor cell growth. PD-L1, PD-L2 and VISTA, negative checkpoint molecules of immune activation, play key roles in the suppression of T-cell functions.
  • Pd-l2 peptide-montanide vaccine - A vaccine composed of a peptide derived from the immune checkpoint molecule programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2) combined with the immunoadjuvant montanide ISA-51, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Vaccination with PD-L2 peptide-montanide vaccine may mount an immune response against PD-L2 expressing cells. This may enhance T-cell proliferation, cytokine production, and T-cell mediated cytolysis. PD-L2 binding to its cognate receptor, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279), downregulates T-cell responses and enhances immune evasion. Montanide ISA-51, also known as incomplete Freund's adjuvant or IFA, is a stabilized water-in-oil emulsion adjuvant containing mineral oil with mannide oleate added as a surfactant that non-specifically stimulates cell-mediated immune responses to antigens.
  • Pdna-encoding emm55 autologous cancer cell vaccine ifx-hu2.0 - A whole cell cancer vaccine composed of irradiated autologous whole tumor cells that are transfected, ex vivo, with a plasmid DNA encoding the highly immunogenic Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) bacterial antigen Emm55, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intralesional administration of IFx-Hu2.0, the tumor cells expressing the Emm55 bacterial antigen on their cell surface are taken up and processed by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), thereby presenting both the Emm55 and the patient-specific tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) to the immune system. This activates the immune system to elicit a tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against the tumor cells expressing the TAAs.
  • Pe/hpv16 e7/kdel fusion protein/gpi-0100 tvgv-1 - A fusion protein consisting of a peptide sequence of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 nuclear protein and fused to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (PE) and a endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal (KDEL), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of PE/HPV16 E7/KDEL fusion protein TVGV-1, the PE moiety binds to CD91 (LRP1) expressed on a variety of cells, including antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs), which facilitates the internalization, through endocytosis, of TVGV-1. Following endocytosis, this agent is proteolytically cleaved by the proteasome and the epitopes from the HPV E7 protein become bound to MHC-I molecules and are presented on the DC-cell surface. This facilitates a cytotoxic T-cell- mediated immune response against HPV16 E7 expressing-tumor cells. KDEL targets the fusion protein to the ER, which increases this agent's potential to be bound by MHC-I molecules; this increases the immune response against HPV16 E7-expressing cancer cells.
  • Pegargiminase - An agent consisting of the arginine-degrading enzyme arginine deiminase combined with polyethylene glycol (20,000 MW) (ADI-PEG 20) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, pegargiminase breaks down the amino acid arginine into citrulline. Although arginine is a nonessential amino acid for normal human cells, certain cancer cells are autotrophic for arginine and need arginine in order to survive. Depletion of arginine may lead to an inhibition of cellular proliferation in those cancer cells. ADI is coupled to PEG in order to enhance this agent's half-life.
  • Pegaspargase - A complex of polyethylene glycol conjugated with L-asparaginase. Asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, thereby depleting these cells of asparagine and blocking protein synthesis and tumor cell proliferation, especially in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The agent also induces apoptosis in tumor cells. Pegylation decreases the enzyme's antigenicity. Asparagine is critical to protein synthesis in leukemic cells, which cannot synthesize this amino acid due to the absence of the enzyme asparagine synthase.
  • Pegdinetanib - A pegylated form of a thermostable and protease resistant peptide targeting human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) with potential antiangiogenic activity. Derived from the 10th type III domain of human fibronectin and one of the natural ligands, pegdinetanib binds to VEGFR-2 and prevents activation of VEGFR-2 by other activating ligands. This may inhibit the growth of new tumor blood vessels.
  • Pegilodecakin - A covalent conjugate of recombinant human interleukin-10 (IL-10) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), with potential anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, pegilodecakin may activate cell-mediated immunity against cancer cells by stimulating the differentiation and expansion of tumor specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. This agent may also lower serum cholesterol levels and reduce atherosclerotic plaques by inhibiting the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as Interferon-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, TNF-alpha, and GM-CSF. The PEG moiety inhibits proteolytic breakdown and clearance of AM0010, which prolongs its half-life, extends the duration of its therapeutic effects and allows less frequent dosing.
  • Peginterferon alfa-2a - A covalent conjugate of recombinant interferon alfa, subtype 2a, and polyethylene glycol (PEG), used as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. The biological activity of this agent is derived from its interferon alpha-2a protein moiety. Interferons alfa bind to specific cell-surface receptors, leading to the transcription and translation of genes whose protein products mediate antiviral, antiproliferative, anticancer and immune-modulating effects. The PEG moiety lowers the clearance of interferon alpha-2a, thereby extending the duration of its therapeutic effects, but may also reduce interferon-mediated stimulation of an immune response.
  • Peginterferon alfa-2b - A covalent conjugate of recombinant interferon alpha, subtype 2b, and polyethylene glycol (PEG), used as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. The biological activity of this agent is derived from its interferon alpha-2b protein moiety. Interferons alfa bind to specific cell-surface receptors, leading to the transcription and translation of genes whose protein products mediate antiviral, antiproliferative, anticancer, and immune-modulating effects. The PEG moiety lowers the clearance of interferon alpha-2b, thereby extending the duration of its therapeutic effects, but may also reduce the interferon-mediated stimulation of an immune response.
  • Peg-interleukin-2 - A complex of polyethylene glycol conjugated with human recombinant cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) with antineoplastic activity. PEG-interleukin-2 induces natural killer (NK) cell activity and the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and enhances T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Pegylation of IL-2 protects the cytokine from degradation.
  • Peg-pei-cholesterol lipopolymer-encased il-12 dna plasmid vector gen-1 - A nanoparticle-based formulation composed of a non-viral plasmid DNA vector encoding the human pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12) encapsulated in a biodegradable, biocompatible lipoplex composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyethylenimine (PEI), and cholesterol, with potential immunoactivating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intraperitoneal (IP) delivery of the PEG-PEI-cholesterol lipopolymer-encased IL-12 DNA plasmid vector GEN-1, the lipoplex is endocytosed by nearby cells, and the plasmid DNA is transported into the nucleus, which leads to local expresssion of IL-12. In turn, the increased IL-12 production at the tumor site activates the immune system by promoting the activation of natural killer cells (NKs), inducing secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-g) and promoting cytotoxic T-cell responses against tumor cells.
  • Pegvisomant - A pegylated, recombinant, human growth hormone (GH) structural analog with GH receptor antagonist activity. As a GH analog, the structure of pegvisomant is similar to that of native GH with the exception of 9 amino acid substitutions. Pegvisomant selectively binds to GH receptors on cell surfaces, interfering with endogenous GH receptor binding and so GH signal transduction. Inhibition of GH signal transduction results in decreased serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and other GH-responsive serum proteins, including IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and the acid-labile subunit (ALS), and may inhibit the growth of cancers in which IGF-1 is upregulated.
  • Pegvorhyaluronidase alfa - A pegylated formulation of a recombinant form of human hyaluronidase with potential antitumor activity. Upon intravenous administration, pegvorhyaluronidase alfa degrades hyaluronic acid (HA) coating tumor cells, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell growth. In addition, the degradation of HA may result in a lowering of the interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), allowing better penetration of chemotherapeutic agents into the tumor bed. HA is a glycosaminoglycan found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) that is frequently overproduced by various tumor cell types. The presence of HA in tumors correlates with increased tumor cell growth, metastatic potential, tumor progression, increased resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, and an elevation in tumor IFP.
  • Pegylated deoxycytidine analogue dfp-14927 - A pegylated formulation containing DFP-10917, an analogue of the nucleoside deoxycytidine, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the pegylated deoxycytidine analogue DFP-14927 is incorporated into the DNA of rapidly proliferating cells, such as tumor cells, and directly inhibits the activity of DNA polymerase, which results in the inhibition of DNA replication and cell cycle arrest, DNA fragmentation, and tumor cell apoptosis.
  • Pegylated interferon alfa - A covalent conjugate of recombinant interferon alpha and polyethylene glycol (PEG), used as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. The biological activity of this agent is derived from its interferon alpha protein moiety. Interferons alfa bind to specific cell-surface receptors, leading to the transcription and translation of genes whose protein products mediate antiviral, antiproliferative, anticancer, and immune-modulating effects. The PEG moiety lowers the clearance of interferon alpha, thereby extending the duration of its therapeutic effects, but may also reduce interferon-mediated stimulation of an immune response.
  • Pegylated liposomal belotecan - A sterically stabilized, pegylated liposomal formulation containing belotecan, a semi-synthetic analogue of campthotecin with potential antitumor activity. Belotecan inhibits the action of topoisomerase I, an enzyme that produces reversible single-strand breaks in DNA during DNA replication. This agent stabilizes the topoisomerase I and DNA complex, resulting in the inhibition of religation of DNA breaks, inhibition of DNA replication, and apoptotic cell death. The polyethylene glycol coating allows for greater plasma circulation time, thus enhancing the concentration of belotecan at the tumor site. Encapsulation of belotecan preserves the active lactone form, resulting in an increased cytotoxic effect of belotecan.
  • Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride - A liposome-encapsulated preparation of the hydrochloride salt of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. Doxorubicin intercalates between DNA base pairs, thereby hinders the movement of replication machinery along DNA strands, as well as blocks the activity of topoisomerase II during replication. As a result, this agent causes DNA adducts formation, renders single- and double-stranded DNA breakages that induce DNA repair and or apoptotic processes. Doxorubicin also generates reactive oxygen species that leads to cytotoxicity secondary to lipid peroxidation of cell membrane lipids. Liposomal delivery of doxorubicin HCl improves drug penetration into tumors and decreases drug clearance, thereby increasing the duration of therapeutic drug effects. A liposomal formulation of doxorubicin also modulates toxicity, specifically the cardiac effects commonly seen with anthracycline antitumor drugs.
  • Pegylated liposomal irinotecan - A formulation of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified liposomes encapsulating the semisynthetic derivative of camptothecin irinotecan, with antineoplastic activity. As a prodrug, irinotecan is converted to the biologically active metabolite 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38) by a carboxylesterase-converting enzyme. In turn, SN-38 inhibits topoisomerase I activity by stabilizing the cleavable complex of topoisomerase I and DNA, resulting in DNA breaks. This results in an inhibition of DNA replication and an induction of apoptosis. Pegylated liposomal delivery of irinotecan improves drug penetration into tumors and decreases drug clearance, thereby increasing the duration of exposure while lowering systemic toxicity.
  • Pegylated liposomal mitomycin c lipid-based prodrug - A pegylated liposomal formulation comprised of a lipophilic prodrug of the antineoplastic antibiotic mitomycin C containing a cleavable disulfide bond (PL-MLP), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of the pegylated liposomal mitomycin C lipid-based prodrug, the MLP moiety becomes activated upon thiolysis at the tumor site, thereby releasing mitomycin C. Bioreduced mitomycin C generates oxygen radicals, alkylates DNA, and produces interstrand DNA cross-links, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis. The thiolytic environment and upregulated expression of thioredoxins at the tumor site allow for the activation and release of mitomycin C. This prodrug formulation allows for greater circulation time, less systemic toxicity and increased accumulation of mitomycin C at the tumor site.
  • Pegylated liposomal mitoxantrone hydrochloride - A pegylated liposomal mitoxantrone formulation composed of the hydrochloride salt form of the anthracenedione antibiotic mitoxantrone encapsulated within pegylated small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, mitoxantrone intercalates into and forms crosslinks with DNA, thereby disrupting DNA and RNA replication. This agent also binds to topoisomerase II, which both results in DNA strand breaks and prevents DNA synthesis. This leads to the induction of apoptosis in rapidly dividing cancer cells. The pegylated liposomal formulation improves drug penetration into tumors and decreases drug clearance, thereby increasing drug circulation and therapeutic efficacy while lowering toxic effects.
  • Pegylated liposomal nanoparticle-based docetaxel prodrug mnk-010 - A formulation containing pegylated liposomal nanoparticles encapsulating a prodrug of the poorly water-soluble, second-generation taxane analog docetaxel, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of the liposomal docetaxel prodrug MNK-010, docetaxel is slowly released into the systemic circulation and accumulates at the tumor site due to the unique characteristics of the tumor's vasculature. In turn, docetaxel is taken up by tumor cells, and subsequently binds to and stabilizes the beta-subunit of tubulin, thereby stabilizing microtubules and inhibiting microtubule disassembly. This results in cell cycle arrest and induces cell death. Compared to the administration of docetaxel alone, this formulation is able to increase the delivery of docetaxel into tumors, thereby increasing docetaxel's efficacy while minimizing its toxicity. In addition, this formulation solubilizes docetaxel without the use of toxic solvents, thereby permitting the administration of larger doses of docetaxel while avoiding solvent-associated toxicity.
  • Pegylated paclitaxel - A formulation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated paclitaxel, a compound extracted from the Pacific yew tree Taxus brevifolia, with antineoplastic activity. Paclitaxel binds to and stabilizes tubulin molecules, thereby interfering with the dynamics of microtubule assembly/disassembly and resulting in the inhibition of cell division. This agent also induces apoptosis by binding to and blocking the function of the apoptosis inhibitor protein B-cell Leukemia 2 (Bcl-2). Compared to paclitaxel alone, pegylated paclitaxel has an enhanced water solubility leading to an increase in bioavailability, and decreases its toxicity profile. Therefore, the pegylated formulation potentially supports delivery of higher doses of paclitaxel to the specific site.
  • Pegylated recombinant human arginase i bct-100 - A recombinant human arginase I (liver arginase) covalently attached, via a succinamide propionic acid (SPA) linker, to a polyethylene glycol (PEG) of molecular weight 5,000 [rhArg-peg(5,000mw)] with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of pegylated recombinant human arginase I BCT-100, arginase metabolizes the amino acid arginine to ornithine and urea, depleting intracellular arginine, which may inhibit proliferation of cells that are auxotrophic for arginine such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. This agent may also work synergistically with various cytotoxic agents.
  • Pegylated recombinant interleukin-2 thor-707 - A pegylated recombinant, engineered variant of cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2; IL2) where novel amino acid is encoded in the IL-2 gene that is leveraged for use in site-specific pegylation, with potential immunostimulating activity. Upon administration of pegylated recombinant IL-2 THOR-707, the IL-2 variant moiety binds to dimers containing the IL-2 receptor beta and gamma chains (IL2Rbg; IL2Rbetagamma) on immune cells, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells, thereby activating these cells and inducing their expansion. It also induces the expression of certain cytotoxic cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFNg) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFb). The specific induction of T-cell-mediated cytotoxic immune responses against tumor cells causes tumor cell destruction. The addition of the novel amino acid and the concurrent pegylation prevents the binding of the IL-2 moiety to the IL-2 receptor alpha chain (IL2Ra), thereby blocking the IL2Ra-mediated activation of CD4-positive regulatory and immunosuppressive T-cells (Tregs). Since it cannot bind to IL2Ra expressed on innate lymphoid cells in the vascular endothelium, THOR-707 prevents IL-2-mediated recruitment and activation of eosinophils, and inhibits the induction of eosinophil-mediated vascular leak syndrome (VLS). Pegylation also extends the half-life of THOR-707. Compared to recombinant IL-2, THOR-707 allows for increased IL-2Rbg binding and proliferation of CTLs without stimulating the toxicity caused by binding to IL-2Ra.
  • Pegylated recombinant l-asparaginase erwinia chrysanthemi - A pegylated, recombinant form of L-asparaginase derived from the bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi (mPEG-R-Crisantaspase), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of pegylated recombinant L-asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi, asparaginase hydrolyzes L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid and ammonia, thereby depleting cancer cells of asparagine thus blocking protein synthesis and tumor cell proliferation. Asparagine is critical to protein synthesis in cancer cells, which cannot synthesize this amino acid due to the absence of the enzyme asparagine synthase. Compared to other available Erwinia chrysanthemi derived L-asparaginase agents, the pegylated form is longer acting and less immunogenic.
  • Pegylated sn-38 conjugate plx038 - A pegylated conjugate of SN-38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin), a biologically active metabolite of the prodrug irinotecan, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the proprietary linker slowly releases SN-38 from the pegylated SN-38 conjugate PLX038. SN-38 binds to and inhibits topoisomerase I by stabilizing the cleavable complex between topoisomerase I and DNA, resulting in DNA breaks, inhibition of DNA replication, and apoptosis. Compared with irinotecan, this formulation allows higher accumulation in solid tumors due to its nanoparticle size and long half-life.
  • Pegzilarginase - A recombinant modified form of the human enzyme arginase 1 (ARG1), in which cobalt is substituted for manganese as a cofactor, covalently attached to polyethylene glycol (PEG), with potential arginine degrading and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration of pegzilarginase, ARG1 metabolizes the amino acid arginine to ornithine and urea, thereby lowering blood arginine levels. This normalizes blood arginine levels in patients with ARG1 deficiency and prevents hyperargininemia. This also inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells that are dependent on extracellular arginine uptake for their proliferation. In normal, healthy cells, arginine is synthesized intracellularly by the enzymes ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthase (ASS), and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL); thus they are not dependent on extracellular arginine for survival. In cancer cells these enzymes are disabled; therefore, this agent may inhibit proliferation and survival of these cells by depleting extracellular arginine. Pegylation improves blood circulation times and cobalt substitution increases the catalytic activity of ARG1.
  • Pelabresib - A small molecule inhibitor of the Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal (BET) family of proteins, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, pelabresib binds to the acetylated lysine recognition motifs on the bromodomain of BET proteins, thereby preventing the interaction between the BET proteins and acetylated histone peptides. This disrupts chromatin remodeling and gene expression. Prevention of the expression of certain growth-promoting genes may lead to an inhibition of tumor cell growth. Characterized by a tandem repeat of two bromodomains at the N-terminus, the BET proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT) are transcriptional regulators that play an important role during development and cellular growth.
  • Pelareorep - An isolate of the oncolytic, human wild-type serotype 3 Dearing (T3D) strain of the double-stranded RNA virus reovirus (Respiratory Enteric Orphan virus), with potential oncolytic activity. Upon administration, pelareorep is able to replicate specifically in cancer cells bearing an activated Ras pathway. This induces apoptosis in Ras-activated tumor cells and subsequently frees progeny viral particles to infect, replicate in and induce cell death of surrounding cancer cells. In addition, viral replication causes the activation of innate and adaptive immune responses, causing a natural killer (NK)-cell-mediated and a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL)-mediated killing of tumor cells, respectively. Ras-activated tumor cells are deficient in their ability to trigger the antiviral response mediated by the host cellular protein, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR).
  • Peldesine - A pyrimidine analogue and purine nucleoside phosphorylase inhibitor with immunosuppressive and antineoplastic properties. Peldesine inhibits purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) that plays a pivotal role in T-cell proliferation and is responsible for the catalysis of the reversible phosphorolytic cleavage of purine ribonucleosides and 2'-deoxyribonucleosides. Inhibition of PNP results in accumulation of dGTP and the subsequent failure of DNA synthesis. This agent maybe used in T-cell related autoimmune diseases including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn s disease and T-cell cancers
  • Pelitinib - A 3-cyanoquinoline pan-ErbB tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Pelitinib irreversibly binds covalently to epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) ErbB-1, -2 and -4, thereby inhibiting receptor phosphorylation and signal transduction and resulting in apoptosis and suppression of proliferation in tumor cells that overexpress these receptors.
  • Pelitrexol - A water soluble antifolate with anti-proliferative activity. Pelitrexol inhibits activity of glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT), the first folate-dependent enzyme of the de novo purine synthesis pathway essential for cell proliferation. Enzyme inhibition reduces the purine nucleotides pool required for DNA replication and RNA transcription. As a result, this agent causes cell cycle arrest in S-phase, and ultimately inhibits tumor cell proliferation
  • Pembrolizumab - A humanized monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 antibody directed against human cell surface receptor PD-1 (programmed death-1 or programmed cell death-1) with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, pembrolizumab binds to PD-1, an inhibitory signaling receptor expressed on the surface of activated T cells, and blocks the binding to and activation of PD-1 by its ligands, which results in the activation of T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. The ligands for PD-1 include programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), overexpressed on certain cancer cells, and programmed cell death ligand 2 (PD-L2), which is primarily expressed on APCs. Activated PD-1 negatively regulates T-cell activation and plays a key role in in tumor evasion from host immunity.
  • Pemetrexed - A synthetic pyrimidine-based antifolate. Pemetrexed binds to and inhibits the enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS), which catalyses the methylation of 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (dUMP) to 2'-deoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate (dTMP), an essential precursor in DNA synthesis.
  • Pemetrexed disodium - The disodium salt of a synthetic pyrimidine-based antifolate. Pemetrexed binds to and inhibits the enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS) which catalyses the methylation of 2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (dUMP) to 2'-deoxythymidine-5'-monophosphate (dTMP), an essential precursor in DNA synthesis.
  • Pemigatinib - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) types 1, 2, and 3 (FGFR1/2/3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Pemigatinib binds to and inhibits FGFR1/2/3, which may result in the inhibition of FGFR1/2/3-related signal transduction pathways. This inhibits proliferation in FGFR1/2/3-overexpressing tumor cells. FGFR, a family of receptor tyrosine kinases upregulated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cellular proliferation, migration, and survival.
  • Pemlimogene merolisbac - A proprietary, live-attenuated, double-deleted (LADD) strain of the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) encoding the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) epidermal growth factor receptor mutant form EGFRvIII and human mesothelin, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, the live-attenuated Listeria monocytogenes encoding EGFRvIII-mesothelin vaccine Pemlimogene merolisbac is taken up by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including dendritic cells (DCs). EGFRvIII and mesothelin are subsequently expressed by the APCs and then processed and presented to the immune system by both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules. This activates the immune system and leads to the recruitment and activation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) against EGFRvIII- and mesothelin-expressing tumor cells, eventually resulting in tumor cell lysis. EGFRvIII and mesothelin are overexpressed in many types of cancer. Two genes contributing to the virulence of Lm have been removed to minimize the risk of infection.
  • Penberol - A derivative of bromoacrylic acid with cytostatic activity. Although the mechanism of action is unclear, penberol might inhibit tumor growth mediated through inhibition of the cell energetic metabolism.
  • Penclomedine - A synthetic derivative of pyrimidine with antineoplastic activity. Penclomedine alkylates and crosslinks DNA, resulting in DNA strand breaks and inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis. This agent is more active against tumor cells that are defective in p53 function.
  • Penicillamine - A beta dimethyl analog of the amino acid cysteine. As a degradation product of penicillin antibiotics, penicillamine chelates with heavy metals and increases their urinary excretion. Possessing antineoplastic properties, penicillamine induces apoptosis by a p53-mediated mechanism and inhibits angiogenesis by chelating with copper, a cofactor for angiogenesis.
  • Pentamethylmelamine - A principal metabolite of hexamethylmelamine with antineoplastic activity. Pentamethylmelamine alkylates DNA and other macromolecules and forms DNA intrastrand and DNA-protein crosslinks, thereby preventing DNA replication.
  • Pentamustine - A (2-chloroethy1)nitrosourea compound with antineoplastic activity. Petamustine was never marketed.
  • Pentavalent klh conjugate vaccine - A pentavalent vaccine comprised of the epitope antigens of the ganglioside lactones GD2L and GD3L, Globo H hexasaccharide 1 (Globo H), fucosyl GM1 and N-propionylated polysialic acid conjugated with the immunostimulant keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with the pentavalent KLH conjugate vaccine may induce production of IgG and IgM antibodies as well as an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumors expressing any of these antigens. The antigens included in the pentavalent KLH conjugate vaccine are upregulated in a variety of cancer cells. KLH, a natural protein isolated from the marine mollusk keyhole limpet, is an immunostimulant carrier protein.
  • Pentostatin - A purine nucleotide analogue antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces antibioticus. Also known as 2'-deoxycoformycin, pentostatin binds to and inhibits adenine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme essential to purine metabolism; ADA activity is greatest in cells of the lymphoid system with T-cells having higher activity than B-cells and T-cell malignancies higher ADA activity than B-cell malignancies. Pentostatin inhibition of ADA appears to result in elevated intracellular levels of dATP which may block DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase. This agent may also inhibit RNA synthesis and may selectively deplete CD26+ lymphocytes.
  • Pentoxifylline - A methylxanthine derivative with hemorrheologic and immunomodulating properties. Pentoxifylline inhibits phosphodiesterase, resulting in increased levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in erythrocytes, endothelium, and the surrounding tissues. This leads to vasodilation, improves erythrocyte flexibility, and enhances blood flow. In addition, the increased level of cAMP in platelets inhibits platelet aggregation, which may contribute to a reduction in blood viscosity. This agent also inhibits production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma, while it induces Th2-like (T-helper 2) cytokine production, thereby inhibiting Th1-mediated (T-helper 1) inflammatory and autoimmune responses.
  • Peox-based polymer encapsulated paclitaxel fid-007 - A nanoparticle-based formulation composed of the poorly water-soluble paclitaxel encapsulated within branched polymers composed of polyethyloxazoline (PEOX), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon injection of the PEOX-based polymer encapsulated paclitaxel FID-007, the nanoparticles accumulate at the tumor site, due to the unique characteristics of the tumor vasculature, while avoiding normal, healthy tissue. Once the paclitaxel is released, it binds to tubulin inside tumor cells and inhibits the disassembly-assembly dynamics of microtubules, resulting in cell cycle arrest and cell death. Compared to the administration of paclitaxel alone, this formulation increases paclitaxel's solubility and enhances its tumor tissue penetration and efficacy, while avoiding systemic exposure, which minimizes its toxicity.
  • Pep-3-klh conjugate vaccine - A cancer vaccine consisting of PEP-3, a synthetic peptide encompassing a tumor-specific mutated segment of the epidermal growth factor receptor type vIII (EGFRvIII), conjugated to the naturally-occurring immunoadjuvant keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, PEP-3-KLH conjugate vaccine may induce a cytotoxic immune response against tumor cells that overexpress EGFRvIII; this antitumoral immune response may involve antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC).
  • Pep-cmv vaccine - A peptide vaccine derived from cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigens with potential immunostimulating activity. Intradermal administration of the PEP-CMV vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount a specific helper and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CMV-infected tumor cells. Infection with the herpesvirus CMV may play a significant role in tumor cell initiation and progression as well as chemoresistance.
  • Pepinemab - A humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody against the semaphorin 4D (SEMA4D; CD100) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, pepinemab binds to and neutralizes SEMA4D, thereby preventing binding of SEMA4D to its receptor plexin-B1 (PLXNB1). By blocking the interaction of SEMA4D and PLXNB1, pepinemab may cause an inhibition of endothelial cell activation and migration, eventually leading to an inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation. Semaphorin 4D, a large cell surface antigen found on the resting T-cell and overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types, plays an important role in vascular growth, tumor progression, invasion and immune cell regulation.
  • Peplomycin - A semisynthetic analog of Bleomycin, a mixture of several basic glycopeptide antineoplastic antibiotics isolated from Streptomyces verticillus. Peplomycin forms complexes with iron that reduce molecular oxygen to superoxide and hydroxyl radicals that cause single- and double-stranded breaks in DNA. This agent appears to show greater antitumor activity than bleomycin; its use is limited due to pulmonary toxicity.
  • Peplomycin sulfate - The sulfate salt of the bleomycin analogue peplomycin. Peplomycin forms complexes with iron that reduce molecular oxygen to superoxide and hydroxyl radicals that cause single- and double-stranded breaks in DNA. This agent appears to show greater antitumor activity than bleomycin; its use is limited due to pulmonary toxicity.
  • Peposertib - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) with potential antineoplastic activity, and potential sensitizing and enhancing activities for both chemo- and radiotherapies. Upon administration, peposertib binds to and inhibits the activity of DNA-PK, thereby interfering with the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) process and preventing repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) caused by ionizing radiation or chemotherapeutic treatment. This increases chemo- and radiotherapy cytotoxicity and leads to enhanced tumor cell death. The enhanced ability of tumor cells to repair DSBs plays a major role in the resistance of tumor cells to chemo- and radiotherapy; DNA-PK plays a key role in the NHEJ pathway and DSB repair.
  • Peptichemio - A mixture of six synthetic oligopeptides in which the peptides are conjugated to metamelphalan, with alkylating and potential antineoplastic activity. Peptichemio causes crosslinking of DNA, thereby preventing DNA replication and eventually cellular proliferation.
  • Peptide 946 melanoma vaccine - A melanoma peptide vaccine with potential antineoplastic activity. Peptide 946 melanoma vaccine contains one of the peptide sequences for a melanoma-specific epitope that is recognized by melanoma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). This vaccine contains a peptide sequence homologous to the native epitope and is often formulated with an adjuvant such as QS-21 or Montanide ISA-51 to boost its immune stimulation. Vaccination with peptide 946 vaccine may produce antibodies as well as elicit a cytotoxic T- lymphocyte (CTL) response against cells expressing this antigen, resulting in decreased tumor cell growth.
  • Peptide 946-tetanus peptide conjugate melanoma vaccine - A melanoma peptide vaccine complexed with tetanus toxoid with potential antineoplastic activity. Peptide 946 contains a melanoma-specific epitope recognized by melanoma-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). In addition to the peptide 946 sequence, this vaccine contains tetanus toxin, a protein known to stimulate the induction of CD4+ T lymphocytes; it thereby enhances antigen processing and presentation. Vaccination with the peptide 946-tetanus conjugate melanoma vaccine may produce antibodies as well as elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in tumor cells expressing the 946 epitope, thereby decreasing tumor cell growth.
  • Peretinoin - An orally available, acyclic retinoid with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. Peretinoin binds to and activates nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR), which in turn recruit coactivator proteins and promote, with other transcriptional complexes, the transcription of target genes. As a result, this agent may modulate the expression of genes involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis of both normal and tumor cells.
  • Perflenapent emulsion - An oil-in-water nano-emulsion composed of the perfluorocarbon perflenapent, that has oxygen-carrying capacity, can be used as a contrast agent and has potential antihypoxic and radiosensitizing activities. Upon intravenous administration of the perflenapent emulsion, this agent increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, enhances the transport of oxygen to hypoxic and ischemic tissues and increases the oxygen concentration in these tissues. Hypoxic tumors are correlated with increased resistance to radiation treatment; therefore, since perflenapent may increase tumor oxygenation, it may improve the tumor's sensitivity to radiation therapy.
  • Perfosfamide - The active metabolite of the nitrogen mustard cyclophosphamide with potent antineoplastic and immunosuppressive properties. Perfosfamide alkylates DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and RNA and protein synthesis.
  • Perifosine - An orally active alkyl-phosphocholine compound with potential antineoplastic activity. Targeting cellular membranes, perifosine modulates membrane permeability, membrane lipid composition, phospholipid metabolism, and mitogenic signal transduction, resulting in cell differentiation and inhibition of cell growth. This agent also inhibits the anti-apoptotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and modulates the balance between the MAPK and pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) pathways, thereby inducing apoptosis. Perifosine has a lower gastrointestinal toxicity profile than the related agent miltefosine.
  • Perillyl alcohol - A naturally occurring monoterpene related to limonene with antineoplastic activity. Perillyl alcohol inhibits farnesyl transferase and geranylgeranyl transferase, thereby preventing post-translational protein farnesylation and isoprenylation and activation of oncoproteins such as p21-ras, and arresting tumor cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle.
  • Personalized all-specific multi-hla-binding peptide vaccine - An individualized peptide-based cancer vaccine comprised of three to five human leukocyte antigen (HLA) binding tumor-specific peptides obtained from the autologous mutated proteins from the tumor cells of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activity. Upon intradermal administration of the personalized multi-HLA-binding peptide vaccine, the peptides may induce a tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the peptides that are expressed by the tumor cells.
  • Personalized and adjusted neoantigen peptide vaccine panda-vac - A peptide-based, personalized cancer therapeutic vaccine consisting of up to 8 patient-specific tumor peptides, which are immunogenic and unique to the patient's tumor and identified through DNA and RNA sequencing of a patient's tumor cells, combined with the immunostimulant polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid stabilized with polylysine and carboxymethylcellulose (poly-ICLC), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, personalized and adjusted neoantigen peptide vaccine PANDA-VAC stimulates the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the neoantigens, leading to tumor cell lysis. The adjuvant poly-ICLC is a ligand for toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3) and induces the release of cytokines which may help to boost the immune response against the selected neoantigens. The vaccine may be adjusted after initial therapy according to sequencing data.
  • Personalized cancer vaccine ro7198457 - An mRNA-based individualized, therapeutic cancer vaccine targeting an unspecified amount of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) that are specifically expressed in the patient's cancer, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the personalized cancer vaccine RO7198457 is taken up and translated by antigen presenting cells (APCs) and the expressed protein is presented via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of the APCs. This leads to an induction of both cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)- and memory T-cell-dependent immune responses against cancer cells expressing the TAA(s).
  • Personalized live-attenuated double-deleted listeria monocytogenes - A proprietary, personalized live, attenuated, double-deleted (pLADD) strain of the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes encoding multiple, patient-specific neoantigens, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intravenous administration, the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) expressed in pLADD are taken up by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including dendritic cells (DCs), and are processed and presented to the immune system by both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules. This activates the immune system and leads to both an innate immune response and the recruitment and activation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) against the TAAs specifically expressed by the patient's tumor cells, which eventually results in tumor cell lysis.
  • Personalized neoantigen dna vaccine gnos-pv01 - A personalized cancer vaccine consisting of patient-specific neoantigen-coding DNA plasmids, which are immunogenic and unique to the patient's tumor, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of GNOS-PV01, the patient-specific neoantigens are translated in cells and elicit a specific and potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing these neoantigens, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Each patient specific formulation may contain multiple DNA plasmids, and each plasmid may contain multiple neoantigen DNA sequences, allowing the delivery of multiple neoantigen DNA sequences simultaneously.
  • Personalized neoantigen dna vaccine gnos-pvo2 - A personalized cancer vaccine consisting of patient-specific neoantigen-coding DNA plasmids, which are immunogenic and unique to the patient's tumor, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal delivery by electroporation of GNOS-PVO2, the patient-specific neoantigens are translated in cells and elicit a specific and potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing these neoantigens, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Each patient specific formulation may contain multiple DNA plasmids, and each plasmid may contain multiple neoantigen DNA sequences, allowing the delivery of multiple neoantigen DNA sequences simultaneously.
  • Personalized neoantigen peptide vaccine ineo-vac-p01 - A peptide-based, personalized cancer vaccine consisting of patient-specific mutated long peptides, which are immunogenic and unique to the patient's tumor, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon vaccination with the personalized neoantigen peptide vaccine iNeo-Vac-P01, the peptides stimulate the host immune system to mount a specific and potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the neoantigens, which results in tumor cell lysis.
  • Personalized neoepitope yeast vaccine ye-neo-001 - A cancer vaccine composed of a heat-killed yeast that has been genetically modified to express patient-specific neoantigen epitopes. Upon vaccination, neoepitope yeast vaccine YE-NEO-001 may elicit a targeted CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte-mediated immune response against tumor cells expressing these specific epitopes.
  • Personalized peptide cancer vaccine neo-pv-01 - A synthetic peptide-based, personalized cancer vaccine consisting of patient-specific mutated peptide epitopes, which are immunogenic and unique to the patient's tumor, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Vaccination with the neoantigen-based anti-cancer vaccine NEO-PV-01 stimulates the host immune system to mount a specific and potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the neoantigens, which results in tumor cell lysis.
  • Personalized polyepitope plasmid dna breast cancer vaccine - A polyepitope DNA vaccine composed of a DNA plasmid encoding multiple, highly immunogenic tumor associated antigens (TAAs) that are specifically selected after genome profiling of the patient's breast cancer cells, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intramuscular administration and electroporation of the personalized polyepitope plasmid DNA breast cancer vaccine, the expressed TAAs induce cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune responses against tumor cells expressing the TAAs.
  • Personalized synthetic long peptide breast cancer vaccine - A cancer vaccine consisting of one or more long, synthetic peptides derived from patient-specific breast cancer tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intramuscular administration of the personalized synthetic long peptide breast cancer vaccine, the peptides stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing the TAAs, which results in tumor cell lysis.
  • Personalized synthetic long peptide vaccine - A personalized peptide vaccine consisting of synthetic long peptides (SLPs), ranging from 20-35 amino acids in size, that are derived from two or more of the patient's tumor-specific mutant antigens (TSMAs), with potential immunostimulatory and antitumor activities. A patient's tumor is isolated, TSMAs are identified, assessed and prioritized, and two or more TSMAs are selected to be further processed into SLPs. Upon administration, personalized SLP vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against the TSMAs expressed by the tumor cells.
  • Pertuzumab - A humanized recombinant monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular dimerization domain of the HER-2 tyrosine kinase receptor. Binding of the antibody to the dimerization domain of the HER-2 tyrosine kinase receptor protein directly inhibits the ability of the HER-2 tyrosine kinase receptor protein (the most common pairing partner) to dimerize with other HER tyrosine kinase receptor proteins; inhibiting receptor protein dimerization prevents the activation of HER signaling pathways, resulting in tumor cell apoptosis.
  • Pevonedistat - A small molecule inhibitor of Nedd8 activating enzyme (NAE) with potential antineoplastic activity. Pevonedistat binds to and inhibits NAE, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and survival. NAE activates Nedd8 (Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8), an ubiquitin-like (UBL) protein that modifies cellular targets in a pathway that is parallel to but distinct from the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway (UPP). Functioning in diverse regulatory activities, proteins conjugated to UBLs like Nedd8 typically are not targeted for proteasomal degradation.
  • Pexastimogene devacirepvec - An oncolytic thymidine kinase (TK)-deleted vaccinia poxvirus expressing human GM-CSF (hGM-CSF) with antineoplastic activity. Upon intratumoral or intravenous administration, pexastimogene devacirepvec selectively infects and lyses tumor cells. While vaccinia displays a natural tumor cell tropism, deletion of the TK gene increases the tumor selectivity of vaccinia by limiting viral replication to cells expressing high levels of TK, such as certain cancer cells. hGM-CSF expression by this agent helps recruit antigen presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, to virally infected tumor cells, thereby initiating an antitumoral immune response.
  • Pexidartinib - A small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor of proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT), colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), with antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, pexidartinib targets, binds to and inhibits phosphorylation of KIT, CSF1R and FLT3 harboring an internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutation. This results in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. FLT3, CSF1R and FLT3 are overexpressed or mutated in many cancer cell types and play major roles in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis.
  • Pexmetinib - An orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of p38 and Tie2 kinases with potential antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic activities. Pexmetinib binds to and inhibits the activities of p38 and Tie2 kinases, which may inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines and may decrease tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell growth and survival. p38 is a MAP kinase that is often upregulated in cancer cells, playing a crucial part in the production of a variety of cytokines involved in inflammation and cellular proliferation such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-1 and -6. Tie2 is an endothelial cell specific receptor that is activated by angiopoietins, growth factors required for angiogenesis. This agent has also been reported to inhibit other kinases including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR2) and Src tyrosine kinases.
  • Pgg beta-glucan - An injectable formulation of the polysaccharide beta 1,3/1,6 glucan derived from the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. PGG beta-glucan binds to an alternate site on the neutrophil complement receptor 3 (CR3), priming the neurophil to become cytotoxic when binding to complement on tumor cells via CR3. This agent has been reported to selectively activate immune cells without inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines, potentially reducing potential side effects observed with the induction of broad innate immune repsonses. In addition, PGG beta-glucan may induce hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) mobilization.
  • Pgla/peg copolymer-based paclitaxel - A controlled-release, intratumoral paclitaxel formulation in which paclitaxel is incorporated into a thermosensitive, biodegradable triblock copolymer consisting of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Upon intratumoral injection, paclitaxel is released slowly and continuously into tumor tissues from the gelled thermosensitive triblock copolymer over a period of 4 to 6 weeks; in tumor cells, paclitaxel binds to tubulin and inhibits the disassembly-assembly dynamics of microtubules, resulting in cell cycle arrest and cell death. The thermosensitive triblock copolymer component of this formulation transforms from a water-soluble polymer at room temperature to a water-insoluble, biodegradable gel depot at body temperature; intratumoral controlled-release of paclitaxel from the gel minimizes systemic exposure to paclitaxel and the paclitaxel toxicity profile.
  • Ph20 hyaluronidase-expressing adenovirus vcn-01 - An oncolytic, replication-competent adenovirus encoding the human glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored enzyme PH20 hyaluronidase with potential antitumor activity. After intratumoral administration, PH20 hyaluronidase-expressing adenovirus VCN-01 selectively replicates in tumor cells, which may both cause oncolytic virus-induced cell death and induce the infection of adjacent tumor cells. In addition, the virus expresses hyaluronidase, which hydrolyzes and degrades the hyaluronic acid (HA) that coats tumor cells. The degradation of HA may result in a decrease for both the viscosity of the interstitial space and the tumor's interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). This increases viral spread and may result in the inhibition of tumor cell growth. In addition, HA degradation facilitates the penetration of chemotherapeutic agents into the tumor. HA is a glycosaminoglycan found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and is frequently overproduced by various tumor cell types. The presence of HA in tumors correlates with increases in tumor cell growth, metastatic potential, tumor progression and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents.
  • Phaleria macrocarpa extract dlbs-1425 - An extract of the flesh from the fruit of Phaleria macrocarpa, an Indonesian herbal medicine, with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the active ingredients and exact components are unclear, gallic acid and its derivatives in DLBS-1425 appear to inhibit the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway by reducing PI3K transcription followed by a reduction in AKT phosphorylation. This extract also appears to induce apoptosis through induction of pro-apoptotic genes such as BAX, BAD and PUMA and inhibition of the apoptosis suppressor Bcl-2.
  • Pharmacological ascorbate - A high dose (HD) of ascorbic acid, a pro-oxidant agent, with potential antineoplastic and radio-chemo-sensitizing activities. Upon intravenous (IV) administration, pharmacological ascorbate is able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) by donating an electron to oxygen (O2) and forming hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thereby causing oxidative stress and overwhelming the cell's anti-oxidant defense mechanisms. This induces DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) and cell death. Tumor cells are highly susceptible to ascorbate-mediated oxidative stress and cytotoxicity while normal, healthy cells are mostly unaffected. This induces the cell death of susceptible tumor cells and decreases tumor cell growth. Higher plasma ascorbate concentrations are achieved upon higher intravenous doses of ascorbate; oral administration of ascorbate is limited and uptake does not increase after a certain amount is administered. Only IV ascorbate produces plasma concentrations high enough to induce ascorbate-mediated cytotoxicity to susceptible tumor cells. In addition, HD parenteral ascorbate enhances radio- and chemo-sensitivity of susceptible cancer cells.
  • Phellodendron amurense bark extract - A proprietary formulation consisting of a Phellodendron amurense (Amur cork tree) bark extract, often used in traditional Chinese medicine, with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and potential chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities. Phellodendron amurense bark extract contains certain isoquinoline alkaloids, flavone glycosides and phenolic compounds. Upon administration of Phellodendron amurense bark extract, the various phytochemicals in this formulation modulate multiple signal transduction pathways. This agent appears to block the activation of the transcription factor cAMP response binding protein (CREB) and inhibits Akt signaling, thereby inhibiting tumor cell growth and inducing apoptosis in Akt- and CREB-overexpressing cancer cells. In addition, this agent inhibits cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa b (NF-kB) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a)-mediated signaling; COX-2, NF-kB and TNF-a are upregulated in certain types of cancer and during inflammation.
  • Phenesterin - A steroidal nitrogen mustard with antineoplastic and mutagenic activities. After attachment to cell-surface steroid receptors and uptake, phenesterin enters the nucleus where it alkylates macromolecules, resulting in decreased cell proliferation.
  • Phenethyl isothiocyanate - An isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables with chemopreventive and potential antitumor activities. Although the mechanism of action is unclear, phenethyl Isothiocyanate (PEITC) was shown to induce apoptosis in tumor cells, possibly mediated through its metabolic intermediates, reactive oxygen species (ROS). PEITC also is able to activate ERK and JNK signal transduction, which in turn induces expression of stress-responsive genes. Specifically, this agent has been shown to reactivate gene expression of a detoxification enzyme, glutathione S-transferase that is silenced in prostate carcinoma.
  • Phenethyl isothiocyanate-containing watercress juice - A juice extracted from watercress containing high amounts of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), with potential chemopreventive and antitumor activities. Although the mechanism(s) of action through which PEITC exerts its effect(s) has yet to be fully elucidated, PEITC is able to induce apoptosis in tumor cells through the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, PEITC is able to modulate extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathways, activating the expression of stress-responsive genes and eventually inducing apoptosis. PEITC also inhibits the expression of genes involved in tumor progression such as HIF, STAT-3, HER2, BCL-XL, and XIAP and induces the expression of genes involved in tumor suppression such as p53, ATF-2, and p57. Furthermore, this agent has been shown to reactivate the gene expression of certain detoxification enzymes.
  • Phenyl acetate - An aromatic fatty acid metabolite of phenylalanine with potential antineoplastic activity. Naturally occurring in mammals, phenylacetate induces differentiation, growth inhibition, and apoptosis in tumor cells. Implicated mechanisms of action include decreased protein prenylation, activation of the peroxisome proliferation-activated receptors, inhibition of DNA methylation, and depletion of glutamine.
  • Phosphatidylcholine-bound silybin - An oral preparation of the flavonoid silybin with potential antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. Silybin, also known as silibinin, is a mixture of two stereoisomers, denoted silybin A and silybin B, and is the major active constituent of silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from blessed milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Silybin modulates P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated cellular efflux; has oxygen radical-scavenging effects; inhibits the arachidonic acid pathway; and inhibits various cytochrome P450 enzymes. This agent may also exhibit anti-angiogenic activity, possibly by inducing endothelial cell apoptosis via modulation of the transcription factor NF-kB, the Bcl-2 family of proteins, and caspases. Complexing silybin with phosphatidylcholine increases its bioavailability.
  • Phospholipid ether-drug conjugate clr 131 - A radiopharmaceutical composed of a mixture of proprietary phospholipid ethers (CLR 1404) that are covalently linked to the cytotoxic radioisotope iodine I 131 (iodine-131), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of CLR 131, the phospholipid ether (PLE) moiety is selectively taken up by lipid raft microdomains expressed on tumor cells and accumulates in the cytoplasm of tumor cells;. CLR 131 is not taken up by normal, healthy cells. This delivers cytotoxic iodine I 131 directly to and induces cell death in tumor cells. PLEs allows for targeted delivery of the radioisotope.
  • Phosphoramide mustard - One of a number of chemically-related alkylating agents with antineoplastic properties. The prototype of this group of agents is cyclophosphamide. Most phosphoramide mustards are administered as prodrugs that undergo reductive activation in hypoxic environments to yield cytotoxic metabolites. These agents alkylate and crosslink DNA, resulting in inhibition of DNA replication. Phosphoramide mustards are also immunosuppressants, mutagens and teratogens.
  • Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer avi-4126 - A c-Myc antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) with potential antineoplastic activity. Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer AVI-4126 binds to c-Myc mRNA and blocks its translation, which may result in the death of tumor cells overexpressing c-Myc. Differing from traditional antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), neutrally charged PMOs are composed of subunits of nucleic acid bases linked to a synthetic backbone and, so, are less prone to enzymatic degradation. c-Myc, a proto-oncogene overexpressed in a variety of cancers, is involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.
  • Phosphorus p-32 - A radioactive isotope of phosphorus with beta particle-emitting radiocytotoxic activity. Emitted by phosphorus P32, beta particles directly damage cellular DNA and, by ionizing intracellular water to produce several types of cytotoxic free radicals and superoxides, indirectly damage intracellular biological macromolecules, resulting in tumor cell death.
  • Photodynamic compound tld-1433 - A non-toxic ruthenium-based coordination-complex and photosensitizer, with potential antineoplastic activity upon photodynamic therapy (PDT). Upon intravesical administration, light-activated photodynamic compound (PDC) TLD-1433 targets and binds to transferrin (Tf) and is subsequently taken up by Tf receptors which are located on tumor cells. Upon exposure to green light (525nm), TLD-1433 becomes activated locally and induces the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and singlet oxygen. The release of free radicals may induce apoptosis and destroy the tumor cells. Cancer cells have many more Tf receptors than normal cells,
  • Phytochlorin sodium-polyvinylpyrrolidone complex - A photosensitizer composed of the sodium salt form of chlorin e6 and its derivatives complexed with a low-molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer component, with diagnostic and antineoplastic activities upon photodynamic therapy (PDT). Upon intravenous administration, the photosensitizer phytochlorin-PVP sodium complex preferentially accumulates in hyperproliferative tissues, such as tumors. Local application of light with a certain wavelength to the tumor site results in the absorption of light by this agent leading to its photoactivation. This results in a photodynamic reaction between phytochlorin and oxygen, which causes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including singlet oxygen molecules, the superoxide ion, and other cytotoxic free radicals. The formation of ROS induces free radical-mediated oxidative DNA damage followed by apoptosis of tumor cells. Chlorin e6-PVP is able to penetrate deeply into tissues and is therefore able to treat hard-to-reach tumors.
  • Pi3k alpha/beta inhibitor bay1082439 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) alpha and beta isoforms with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K alpha/beta inhibitor BAY1082439 selectively inhibits both PI3K alpha, including mutated forms of PIK3CA, and PI3K beta in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in PI3K-expressing and/or PTEN-driven tumor cells. By specifically targeting class I PI3K alpha and beta, this agent may be more efficacious and less toxic than pan PI3K inhibitors. Dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is frequently found in solid tumors and results in increased tumor cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. PIK3CA, one of the most highly mutated oncogenes, encodes the p110-alpha catalytic subunit of the class I PI3K. PTEN, a tumor suppressor protein and negative regulator of PI3K activity, is often mutated in a variety of cancer cells.
  • Pi3k alpha/mtor inhibitor pwt33597 mesylate - The mesylate salt form of PWT33597, an orally bioavailable dual inhibitor of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) alpha and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K alpha/mTOR dual inhibitor PWT33597 selectively inhibits both PI3K alpha kinase and mTOR kinase, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in PI3K/mTOR-overexpressing tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, may also be activated independent of PI3K.
  • Pi3k inhibitor acp-319 - An orally available inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor ACP-319 inhibits PI3K, which prevents the activation of the PI3K/AKT (protein kinase B)-mediated signaling pathway. This results in the inhibition of growth and survival of PI3K-overexpressing tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis.
  • Pi3k inhibitor bgt226 - A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor BGT226 specifically inhibits PI3K in the PI3K/AKT kinase (or protein kinase B) signaling pathway, which may trigger the translocation of cytosolic Bax to the mitochondrial outer membrane, increasing mitochondrial membrane permeability; apoptotic cell death may ensue. Bax is a member of the proapoptotic Bcl2 family of proteins.
  • Pi3k inhibitor gdc0077 - An orally available inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor GDC0077 binds to and inhibits various members of the PI3K family, including activating mutations in the catalytic alpha isoform PIK3CA. PI3K inhibition prevents the activation of the PI3K-mediated signaling pathway and results in the inhibition of growth and survival of PI3K-overexpressing tumor cells. Dysregulation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents and radiotherapy. PIK3CA, which encodes the p110-alpha catalytic subunit of the class I PI3K, is frequently mutated in a variety of cancer cell types and plays a key role in cancer cell growth and invasion.
  • Pi3k inhibitor gsk1059615 - A phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor GSK1059615 inhibits PI3K in the PI3K/AKT kinase signaling pathway, which may trigger the translocation of cytosolic Bax to the mitochondrial outer membrane and an increase in mitochondrial membrane permeability, followed by apoptosis. Bax is a member of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins. PI3K, an enzyme often overexpressed in cancer cells, plays a crucial role in tumor cell regulation and survival.
  • Pi3k inhibitor wx-037 - A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor WX-037 specifically inhibits PI3K, which prevents the activation of the PI3K/protein kinase B-mediated signaling pathway. This may result in the inhibition of both tumor cell growth and survival in PI3K-overexpressing tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis. Dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents.
  • Pi3k inhibitor zstk474 - An orally available, s-triazine derivative, ATP-competitive phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K inhibitor ZSTK474 inhibits all four PI3K isoforms. Inhibiting the activation of the PI3K/AKT kinase (or protein kinase B) signaling pathway results in inhibition of tumor cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. This agent does not induce apoptosis but rather induces strong G(0)/G(1) arrest, which might contribute to its favorable efficacy in tumor cells.
  • Pi3k p110beta/delta inhibitor ka2237 - A dual selective inhibitor of the beta and delta isoforms of the 110 kDa catalytic subunit of class I phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K-beta/delta), with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K-beta/delta inhibitor KA2237 selectively inhibits the PI3K-beta and -delta isoforms and prevents their activation, which inhibits PI3K-beta/delta-mediated signal transduction pathways. This decreases proliferation and induces cell death in susceptible tumor cells. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, PI3K-beta and -delta are overexpressed primarily in solid and hematological tumor cells and play crucial roles in tumor cell survival, and immunoregulation. The targeted inhibition of these PI3Ks allows this agent to potentially be more efficacious and less toxic than pan PI3K inhibitors, which also affect normal, healthy cells.
  • Pi3k/bet inhibitor ly294002 - A morpholine-based inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family of proteins, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the PI3K/BET inhibitor LY294002 specifically targets and binds to both PI3K and the acetylated lysine recognition motifs in the bromodomains of BET proteins. Inhibition of PI3K activity inhibits the PI3K/AKT kinase signaling pathway. This may result in inhibition of growth and survival for tumor cells in which the PI3K-mediated signaling pathway is overactivated. Inhibition of BET proteins prevents their interaction with acetylated histones, disrupts chromatin remodeling and inhibits the expression of oncogenic drivers that are important for cell proliferation and survival, which together may lead to an inhibition of proliferation in BET-overexpressing tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis. BET proteins, comprised of BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT, are transcriptional regulators and play an important role during development and cellular growth. In tumor cells, BET proteins play a key role in the regulation of oncogene transcription and tumor cell proliferation.
  • Pi3k/mtor kinase inhibitor ds-7423 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase in the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K/mTOR kinase inhibitor DS-7423 inhibits both PI3K kinase and mTOR kinase, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in susceptible tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, may also be activated independent of PI3K. Consequently, this agent may potentially be more potent than an agent that inhibits either PI3K kinase or mTOR kinase.
  • Pi3k/mtor kinase inhibitor pf-04691502 - An agent targeting the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K/mTOR kinase inhibitor PF-04691502 inhibits both PI3K and mTOR kinases, which may result in apoptosis and growth inhibition of cancer cells overexpressing PI3K/mTOR. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, may also be activated independent of PI3K.
  • Pi3k/mtor kinase inhibitor vs-5584 - A potent and selective inhibitor of both phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase in the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K/mTOR kinase inhibitor VS-5584 inhibits mTOR kinase and all class I PI3K isoforms. Consequently, this disrupts phosphorylation of substrates downstream of PI3K and mTOR and may result in apoptosis and growth inhibition in susceptible tumor cells. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, which also has PI3K-independent activity. Consequently, this agent may potentially be more potent than an agent that inhibits either PI3K kinase or mTOR kinase.
  • Pi3k/mtor kinase inhibitor wxfl10030390 - An orally bioavailable, small molecule inhibitor of certain phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) isoforms and mammalian target of rapamycin kinase (mTOR) in the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, PI3K/mTOR inhibitor WXFL10030390 (WX390) inhibits mTOR kinase and certain PI3K isoforms. Consequently, this disrupts phosphorylation of substrates downstream of PI3K and mTOR and may result in apoptosis and growth inhibition in susceptible tumor cells. The PI3K/mTOR pathway is upregulated in a variety of tumor cells and plays a key role in promoting cancer cell proliferation, and survival, motility and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, may also be activated in a PI3K-independent fashion; therefore, this agent may be more potent than an agent that inhibits either PI3K or mTOR alone.
  • Pi3k/mtorc1/mtorc2 inhibitor dcbci0901 - An inhibitor of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), raptor-mTOR (mTOR complex 1 or mTORC1) and rictor-mTOR (mTOR complex 2 or mTORC2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous infusion, PI3K/mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitor DCBCI0901 binds to and inhibits PI3K as well as both mTORC1 and mTORC2, which may result in both apoptosis and a decrease in cell proliferation in tumor cells overexpressing PI3K, mTORC1, and mTORC2. Activation of the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway promotes cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; mTOR, a serine/threonine kinase downstream of PI3K, may also be activated independent of PI3K.
  • Pi3ka/mtor inhibitor pki-179 - A second generation, small-molecule mimetic of ATP that targets the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) with potential antineoplastic activity. PKI-179 selectively inhibits mTOR and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) alpha. By inhibiting the PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway, this agent may inhibit tumor cell proliferation and survival.
  • Pi3kalpha inhibitor azd8835 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the class I phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K alpha inhibitor AZD8835 selectively binds to and inhibits PIK3CA and its mutated forms, in the PI3K/Akt (protein kinase B) /mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. This results in both apoptosis and growth inhibition in PIK3CA-expressing tumor cells. By specifically targeting PIK3CA, this agent may be more efficacious and less toxic than pan-PI3K inhibitors. Dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is often found in solid tumors and results in the promotion of tumor cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemo- and radio-therapy. PIK3CA, one of the most frequently mutated oncogenes, encodes the p110-alpha catalytic subunit of the class I PI3K.
  • Pi3k-alpha inhibitor men1611 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the class I phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K alpha inhibitor MEN1611 selectively binds to and inhibits PIK3CA and its mutated forms in the PI3K/Akt (protein kinase B)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. This results in both apoptosis and growth inhibition in PIK3CA-expressing tumor cells. By specifically targeting PIK3CA, this agent may be more efficacious and less toxic than pan-PI3K inhibitors. In addition, MEN1611 also targets mutated forms of PI3K gamma (PI3Kg). MEN1611 may stimulate the immune system to restore CD8+ T-cell activation and cytotoxicity. Dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is often found in solid tumors and results in the promotion of tumor cell growth, survival, and resistance to chemo- and radio-therapy. PIK3CA, one of the most frequently mutated oncogenes, encodes the p110-alpha catalytic subunit of the class I PI3K. In most solid tumors, the activation of the PI3K pathway is induced by mutations of PIK3CA.
  • Pi3kbeta inhibitor azd8186 - An inhibitor of the beta isoform of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, PI3Kbeta inhibitor AZD8186 selectively inhibits the activity of PI3Kbeta in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, which may result in a decrease of tumor cell proliferation and induces cell death in PI3K-expressing cancer cells. By specifically targeting class I PI3K beta, this agent may be more efficacious and less toxic than pan PI3K inhibitors. PI3K-mediated signaling is often dysregulated in cancer cells and contributes to increased tumor cell growth, survival, and tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents.
  • Pi3k-beta inhibitor gsk2636771 - An orally bioavailable, substituted benzimidazole inhibitor of the class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) beta isoform with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K beta inhibitor GSK2636771 selectively inhibits PI3K beta kinase activity in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which may result in tumor cell apoptosis and growth inhibition in PI3K beta-expressing and/or PTEN-driven tumor cells. Dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is frequently found in solid tumors and results in the promotion of tumor cell growth, survival, and resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. PI3K beta is the p110-beta catalytic subunit of the class I PI3K. PTEN, a tumor suppressor protein and negative regulator of PI3K activity, is often mutated in a variety of cancer cells.
  • Pi3k-beta inhibitor sar260301 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the class I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) beta isoform with potential antineoplastic activity. PI3K beta inhibitor SAR260301 selectively inhibits PI3K beta kinase activity in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, which may result in apoptosis and growth inhibition in PI3K beta-expressing and/or phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deficient tumor cells. Dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is frequently found in solid tumors and contributes to increased tumor cell growth, tumor cell survival, and resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. PI3K beta is the p110-beta catalytic subunit of the class I PI3K. PTEN, a tumor suppressor protein and negative regulator of PI3K activity, is often mutated in a variety of cancer cells. By specifically targeting class I PI3K beta, this agent may be more efficacious and less toxic than pan-PI3K inhibitors.
  • Pi3k-delta inhibitor amg 319 - A highly selective, potent, and orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of the delta isoform of the 110 kDa catalytic subunit of class IA phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3K) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. PI3K-delta inhibitor AMG 319 prevents the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway through inhibition of the production of the second messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), thus decreasing proliferation and inducing cell death. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, PI3K-delta is expressed primarily in hematopoietic lineages. The targeted inhibition of PI3K-delta is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells.
  • Pi3kdelta inhibitor gs-9901 - An orally bioavailable, small molecule inhibitor of the delta isoform of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3Kdelta) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, PI3Kdelta inhibitor GS-9901 selectively binds to the delta isoform of PI3K and inhibits its activity. This inhibits the activation of the PI3Kdelta-mediated signaling pathway and prevents proliferation of PI3Kdelta-overexpressing tumor cells. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, PI3Kdelta is expressed primarily in certain tumor cell types and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, motility and survival. The targeted inhibition of PI3Kdelta is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells and thus reduces toxicity to normal, healthy cells.
  • Pi3k-delta inhibitor hmpl 689 - An orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of the delta isoform of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (phosphoinositide 3'-kinase delta; PI3Kd; PI3K-d), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, PI3K-delta inhibitor HMPL 689 selectively binds to and inhibits PI3Kd, and prevents the activation of the PI3Kd/AKT signaling pathway, and B-cell activation. This both decreases proliferation and induces cell death in PI3Kd-overexpressing tumor cells. PI3Kd plays a key role in the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway and the proliferation of hematologic cancer cells. The targeted inhibition of PI3Kd is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells and thereby to minimize serious side effects. PI3Kd, an enzyme often overexpressed in cancer cells, plays a crucial role in tumor cell regulation and survival.
  • Pi3k-delta inhibitor shc014748m - An orally available selective inhibitor of the delta isoform of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase subunit delta; PI3K-delta; PI3Kdelta), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, PI3K delta inhibitor SHC014748M selectively binds to and inhibits PI3K delta and prevents the activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This decreases proliferation of and induces cell death in PI3K delta over-expressing tumor cells. PI3K delta also plays a key role in the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway and the proliferation of certain hematologic cancer cells. The targeted inhibition of PI3K delta is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells, thereby minimizing serious side effects.
  • Pi3k-gamma inhibitor ipi-549 - An orally bioavailable, highly selective small molecule inhibitor of the gamma isoform of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K-gamma) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, IPI-549 prevents the activation of the PI3K-gamma-mediated signaling pathways, which may lead to a reduction in cellular proliferation in PI3K-gamma-expressing tumor cells. In addition, this agent is able to modulate anti-tumor immune responses and inhibit tumor-mediated immunosuppression. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, the gamma isoform is overexpressed in certain tumor cell types and immune cells; its expression increases tumor cell proliferation and survival. By selectively targeting the gamma isoform, PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells is minimally or not affected, which results in a reduced side effect profile.
  • Pibenzimol - A fluorescent dye of benzimidazole derivative. Pibenzimol binds to AT-specific sites in the minor groove of duplex DNA and inhibits topoisomerase I, and DNA polymerase, thereby preventing DNA replication. This agent prolongs the G2 phase of the cell cycle and initiates apoptosis in tumor cells.
  • Pibrozelesin - A semisynthetic water-soluble derivative of the antineoplastic antibiotic duocarmycin B2. Activated by carboxyl esterase, pibrozelesin alkylates DNA by binding to adenine-thymine (A-T)-rich sequences in the minor groove of DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and inducing apoptosis.
  • Pibrozelesin hydrobromide - The hydrobromide salt form of pibrozelesin, a semisynthetic water-soluble derivative of the antineoplastic antibiotic duocarmycin B2, with antineoplastic activity. Activated by carboxyl esterase, pibrozelesin alkylates DNA by binding to adenine-thymine (A-T)-rich sequences in the minor groove of DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and inducing apoptosis.
  • Picibanil - A lyophilized formulation containing cultures of a low-virulent strain of Streptococcus pyogenes, treated and killed with penicillin G, with potential sclerosing, immunostimulating and antineoplastic activity. Besides from picibanil's direct damaging effect as a sclerosing agent, it seems to have multiple effects on the immune system as a non-specific immunostimulant. Picibanil activates the host immune system by stimulating the activity of natural killer cells, macrophages and lymphocytes, and by enhancing the production of several key immune mediators, including interleukins and tumor necrosis factor.
  • Picoplatin - A new generation organic platinum analog with an extended spectrum of antineoplastic activity. Designed to overcome platinum drug resistance, picoplatin alkylates DNA, forming both inter- and intra-strand cross-linkages, resulting in inhibition of DNA replication and transcription, and the induction of apoptosis.
  • Picrasinoside h - A quassinoid glycoside phytochemical isolated from the plant Picrasma ailanthoides with potential antineoplastic activity.
  • Picropodophyllin - A cyclolignan alkaloid found in the mayapple plant family (Podophyllum peltatum), and a small molecule inhibitor of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) with potential antineoplastic activity. Picropodophyllin specifically inhibits the activity and downregulates the cellular expression of IGF1R without interfering with activities of other growth factor receptors, such as receptors for insulin, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factor and mast/stem cell growth factor (KIT). This agent shows potent activity in the suppression o f tumor cell proliferation and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. IGF1R, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in a variety of human cancers, plays a critical role in the growth and survival of many types of cancer cells.
  • Pictilisib - A small molecule inhibitor of class I phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, pictilisib selectively binds to PI3K in an ATP-competitive manner, inhibiting the production of the secondary messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This may result in inhibition of tumor cell growth, motility and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis; dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents.
  • Pictilisib bismesylate - The orally bioavailable bismesylate salt of pictilisib, a small molecule inhibitor of class I phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, pictilisib selectively binds to PI3K in an ATP-competitive manner, inhibiting the production of the secondary messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This may result in inhibition of tumor cell growth, motility and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis; dysregulated PI3K/Akt signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents.
  • Pidilizumab - A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against human PD-1 (programmed cell death 1; PDCD1), with immunomodulating and antitumor activities. Pidilizumab blocks interaction between the receptor PD-1 with its ligands, PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-1L1) and PD-1 ligand 2 (PD-1L2), resulting in the attenuation of apoptotic processes in lymphocytes, primarily effector/memory T cells, and the augmentation of the anti-tumor activities of NK cells. PD-1 is an inhibitory receptor belonging to the B7-receptor family that is expressed on lymphocytes and myeloid cells; its ligands, PD-1L1 and PD-1L2, are expressed not only by hematopoietic cells but also by cells in non-lymphoid tissues.
  • Pilaralisib - An orally bioavailable small molecule, targeting the class I phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) family of lipid kinases, with potential antineoplastic activity. Pilaralisib reversibly binds to class 1 PI3Ks in an ATP-competitive manner, inhibiting the production of the secondary messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) and activation of the PI3K signaling pathway; this may result in inhibition of tumor cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis. Dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents including genotoxic agents and receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
  • Pim kinase inhibitor lgh447 - An orally available pan-PIM protein kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. PIM kinase inhibitor LGH447 binds to and inhibits the activities of PIM-1, -2 and -3 serine/threonine kinases, which may result in the interruption of the G1/S phase cell cycle transition, the expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 protein and tumor cell apoptosis in cells that overexpress PIMs. PIM kinases, downstream effectors of many cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways, play key roles in cell cycle progression and apoptosis inhibition and may be overexpressed in various malignancies.
  • Pim kinase inhibitor sgi-1776 - A small-molecule pan-PIM protein kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. PIM kinase inhibitor SGI-1776 binds to and inhibits the activities of PIM-1, -2 and -3 serine/threonine kinases, which may result in the interruption of the G1/S phase cell cycle transition, the expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl2 proteins and tumor cell apoptosis. PIM kinases play key roles in cell cycle progression and apoptosis inhibition and may be overexpressed in various malignancies.
  • Pim kinase inhibitor tp-3654 - An orally available, second-generation and selective ATP-competitive inhibitor of proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus (PIM) kinases, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, PIM kinase inhibitor TP-3654 selectively binds to and prevents the activation of the PIM kinases. This prevents the activation of PIM-mediated signaling pathways and inhibits proliferation in cells that overexpress PIM. PIMs, constitutively active proto-oncogenic serine/threonine kinases, are upregulated in various types of cancers and play key roles in tumor cell proliferation and survival.
  • Pim/flt3 kinase inhibitor sel24 - An orally available inhibitor of PIM family serine/threonine protein kinases and mutant forms of FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3; STK1) with potential antineoplastic activity. PIM/FLT3 kinase inhibitor SEL24 binds to and inhibits the kinase activities of PIM-1, -2 and -3, and mutant forms of FLT3, which may result in the interruption of the G1/S phase cell cycle transition, an inhibition of cell proliferation, and an induction of apoptosis in tumor cells that overexpress PIMs or express mutant forms of FLT3. FLT3, a tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed or mutated in various cancers, plays a role in signaling pathways that regulate hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation, and in leukemic cell proliferation and survival. PIM kinases, downstream effectors of many cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways, including the FLT3 signaling pathway, play key roles in cell cycle progression and apoptosis inhibition and may be overexpressed in various malignancies.
  • Pimasertib - An orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2 (MEK1/2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Pimasertib selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of MEK1/2, preventing the activation of MEK1/2-dependent effector proteins and transcription factors, which may result in the inhibition of growth factor-mediated cell signaling and tumor cell proliferation. MEK1/2 (MAP2K1/K2) are dual-specificity threonine/tyrosine kinases that play key roles in the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway and are often upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types.
  • Pimitespib - A specific inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) subtypes alpha and beta, with potential antineoplastic and chemo/radiosensitizing activities. Upon oral administration, pimitespib specifically binds to and inhibits the activity of Hsp90 alpha and beta; this results in the proteasomal degradation of oncogenic client proteins, which inhibits client protein dependent-signaling, induces apoptosis, and inhibits the proliferation of cells overexpressing HSP90alpha/beta. Hsp90, a family of molecular chaperone proteins that are upregulated in a variety of tumor cells, plays a key role in the conformational maturation, stability, and function of "client" proteins within the cell,; many of which are involved in signal transduction, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, including kinases, cell-cycle regulators, transcription factors and hormone receptors. As TAS-116 selectively inhibits cytosolic HSP90alpha and beta only and does not inhibit HSP90 paralogs, such as endoplasmic reticulum GRP94 or mitochondrial TRAP1, this agent may have less off-target toxicity as compared to non-selective HSP90 inhibitors.
  • Pimurutamab - A glycoengineered humanized version of the monoclonal antibody of cetuximab, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, pimurutamab selectively targets and binds to the extracellular domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), thereby preventing the activation and subsequent dimerization of the receptor. This may prevent EGFR-mediated signaling and inhibit EGFR-dependent tumor cell proliferation. In addition, the glyco-optimization promotes antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). EGFR, a member of the epidermal growth factor family of extracellular protein ligands, may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of certain tumor types.
  • Pinatuzumab vedotin - An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of MCDT2219A, a humanized IgG1 anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody covalently linked, via a protease-cleavable peptide linker, to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), an auristatin derivative and a potent microtubule disrupting agent, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of pinatuzumab vedotin binds to B cell-specific CD22 receptors and is rapidly internalized, thereby delivering MMAE intracellularly. Upon proteolytic cleavage, MMAE binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, resulting in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. CD22, a cell surface glycoprotein, is expressed on mature B-cells and on most malignant B-cells.
  • Pingyangmycin - The naturally-occurring bleomycin antineoplastic antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces pingyangensisn. Pingyangmycin induces tumor cell apoptosis, possibly via a mechanism mediated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.
  • Pinometostat - A small molecule inhibitor of histone methyltransferase with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, pinometostat specifically blocks the activity of the histone lysine-methyltransferase DOT1L, thereby inhibiting the methylation of nucleosomal histone H3 on lysine 79 (H3K79) that is bound to the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion protein which targets genes and blocks the expression of leukemogenic genes. This eventually leads to an induction of apoptosis in the leukemic cells bearing the MLL gene translocations. DOT1L, a non-SET domain-containing histone methyltransferase, specifically methylates H3K79 and plays a key role in normal cell differentiation and in the development of leukemia with MLL gene rearrangement on chromosome 11 and promotes the expression of leukemia-causing genes.
  • Pioglitazone - An orally-active thiazolidinedione with antidiabetic properties and potential antineoplastic activity. Pioglitazone activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma), a ligand-activated transcription factor, thereby inducing cell differentiation and inhibiting cell growth and angiogenesis. This agent also modulates the transcription of insulin-responsive genes, inhibits macrophage and monocyte activation, and stimulates adipocyte differentiation.
  • Pioglitazone hydrochloride - The hydrochloride salt of an orally-active thiazolidinedione with antidiabetic properties and potential antineoplastic activity. Pioglitazone activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma), a ligand-activated transcription factor, thereby inducing cell differentiation and inhibiting cell growth and angiogenesis. This agent also modulates the transcription of insulin-responsive genes, inhibits macrophage and monocyte activation, and stimulates adipocyte differentiation. (NCI05)
  • Pipendoxifene - A nonsteroidal 2-phenyl indole and a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) with potential antineoplastic activity. Pipendoxifene antagonizes binding of estradiol to estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), thereby inhibiting ER alpha-mediated gene expression, interfering with estrogen activity and inhibiting estrogen-stimulated growth in estrogen-dependent breast cancer. In addition, this agent also exerts intrinsic estrogenic activity depending on the tissue types.
  • Piperazinedione - A crystalline antibiotic fermentation product isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces griseoluteus with antineoplastic activity. Piperazinedione alkylates DNA at the N-7 position of guanine, inhibiting DNA replication and inducing cell cycle arrest.
  • Piperine extract (standardized) - A standardized extract containing the active alkaloid piperine, derived from the fruit of the plant Piper nigrum (black pepper) and/or the plant Piper longum L. (long pepper), with thermogenic properties. Co-ingestion of piperidine enhances the bioavailability of various nutrients, including beta-carotene, curcumin, selenium, pyridoxine and coenzyme Q10. In addition, this agent may exert anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities and may enhance the production of serotonin.
  • Pipobroman - A piperazine derivative with potential antineoplastic alkyating activity. Although the exact mechanism of action of pipobroman has yet to be fully elucidated, this agent appears to act by alkylating DNA, leading to disruption of DNA replication and eventually cell death.
  • Piposulfan - An alkyl sulfonate with potential antineoplastic activity. Piposulfan alkylates DNA, thereby producing DNA interstrand crosslinks and DNA strand breaks and inhibiting DNA replication. This agent has been shown to exhibit antitumor activity in an animal model of prostate cancer.
  • Pirarubicin - An analogue of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. Pirarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. This agent is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin and exhibits activity against some doxorubicin-resistant cell lines.
  • Pirarubicin hydrochloride - The hydrochloride salt form of pirarubicin, an analogue of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin with antineoplastic activity. Pirarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair as well as RNA and protein synthesis. This agent is less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin and exhibits activity against some doxorubicin-resistant cell lines.
  • Pirfenidone - An orally active synthetic antifibrotic agent structurally similar to pyridine 2,4-dicarboxylate. Pirfenidone inhibits fibroblast, epidermal, platelet-derived, and transforming beta-1 growth factors, thereby slowing tumor cell proliferation. This agent also inhibits DNA synthesis and the production of mRNA for collagen types I and III, resulting in a reduction in radiation-induced fibrosis.
  • Piritrexim - A synthetic antifolate agent with antiparasitic, antipsoriatic and antitumor properties. Piritrexim inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, thereby disrupting folate metabolism and DNA synthesis and cell division.
  • Piritrexim isethionate - The isethionate salt of piritrexim, a synthetic antifolate agent with antiparasitic, antipsoriatic and antitumor properties. Piritrexim inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, thereby disrupting folate metabolism and DNA synthesis and cell division.
  • Pirotinib - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB; EGFR) family, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, pirotinib selectively and irreversibly binds to and inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptors 1 (ErbB1; EGFR), 2 (ErbB2; HER2), and 4 (ErbB4; HER4). This may result in the inhibition of cell growth and angiogenesis in tumors overexpressing these RTKs. EGFRs play major roles in both tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization, and are overexpressed in many cancer cell types.
  • Piroxantrone - An anthrapyrazole antineoplastic antibiotic. Piroxantrone intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Although less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin, this agent exhibits a narrow spectrum of antineoplastic activity.
  • Piroxantrone hydrochloride - The hydrochloride salt form of piroxantrone, an anthrapyrazole antineoplastic antibiotic. Piroxantrone intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair as well as RNA and protein synthesis. Although less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin, this agent exhibits a narrow spectrum of antineoplastic activity.
  • Pirs2 phosphopeptide-tetanus peptide vaccine - A vaccine composed of a phosphorylated peptide from the tumor associated antigen insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2) and a tetanus-derived peptide, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of pIRS2 phosphopeptide-tetanus peptide vaccine, the pIRS2 phosphopeptide may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against phosphopeptide-containing tumor cells. The tetanus peptide serves as an immunoadjuvant and induces a helper T-cell response which may help stimulate an immune response against the pIRS2-expressing melanoma tumor cells. IRS2 is upregulated in a variety of cancer cells.
  • Pixantrone - A synthetic, noncardiotoxic aza-anthracenedione analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Pixantrone intercalates into DNA and induces topoisomerase II-mediated DNA strand crosslinks, resulting in inhibition of DNA replication and tumor cell cytotoxicity.
  • Pixantrone dimaleate - The dimaleate salt of a synthetic, noncardiotoxic aza-anthracenedione analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Pixantrone intercalates into DNA and induces topoisomerase II-mediated DNA strand crosslinks, resulting in inhibition of DNA replication and tumor cell cytotoxicity.
  • Pixatimod - A synthetic heparan sulfate mimetic with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activity. Pixatimod inhibits the cleavage of heparan sulfate from cell surface proteoglycan by heparanase and thus inhibits the neovascularization induced by interaction between heparan sulfate and other extracellular matrix proteins. In this manner, this agent may have the potential to slow the progression of growth of solid tumors.
  • Pkc-beta inhibitor ms-553 - An orally available inhibitor of the beta-isoform of protein kinase C (PKC), with potential immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, PKC-beta inhibitor MS-553 selectively binds to and inhibits PKC-beta, which prevents the activation of PKC-beta-mediated signaling pathways. This may lead to the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in susceptible tumor cells. PKC-beta, a serine/threonine protein kinase overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, is involved in tumor cell differentiation, proliferation, invasion and survival.
  • Pladienolide derivative e7107 - A synthetic urethane derivative of pladienolide D with potential antineoplastic activity. Pladienolide derivative E7107 is generated from the 12-membered macrolide pladienolide D, one of several macrolides derived from the bacterium Streptomyces platensis Mer-11107. This agent appears to bind to the 130-kDa subunit 3 (spliceosome-associated protein 130; SAP130) of the splicing factor 3b (SF3b), resulting in inhibition of pre-messenger RNA splicing and the arrest of cell-cycle progression. The splicing factor SF3b is a multiprotein complex integral to the accurate excision of introns from pre-messenger RNA; the subunit SAP130 associates with U2 snRNP and is recruited to prespliceosomal complexes.
  • Plamotamab - A bispecific, Fc domain-containing, monoclonal antibody with potential antineoplastic activity. Plamotamab contains two antigen-recognition sites: one for human CD3, a T cell surface antigen, and one for human CD20, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) that is exclusively expressed on B-cells during most stages of B-cell development and is often overexpressed in B-cell malignancies. Upon administration, plamotamab binds to both T-cells and CD20-expressing B-lineage tumor cells. The resulting cross-linkage may trigger a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against the CD20-expressing tumor B-cells. Inclusion of an Fc domain on the antibody prolongs the half-life of the bispecific antibody and enhances T-cell-mediated tumor cell killing because the agent is able to bind to Fc receptors.
  • Plasmacytoid dendritic cell vaccine - A whole cell vaccine derived from a distinct subset of dendritic cells (DCs) with a plasma cell-like morphology that exhibits immunomodulating activity. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) express a characteristic set of surface markers, such as CD123 (interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain), BDCA-2 (blood dendritic cell antigen 2; CD303) and BDCA-4 (CD304), as well as intracellular toll-like receptors 7 and 9. Upon stimulation, the activated pDCs produce substantial amounts of interferon (IFN) alpha, and to a lesser degree IFN-beta, as well as other cytokines and chemokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukins 1, 6 and 8. In addition, these pDCs, directly or indirectly stimulate T-cells, B-cells and natural killer cells. This may potentially lead to increased immunity against tumor cells.
  • Plasmid dna vaccine ping-hher3fl - A plasmid DNA cancer vaccine encoding the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) human epidermal growth factor receptor type-3 (HER-3; HER3), with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities. Upon intramuscular administration of the plasmid DNA vaccine pING-hHER3FL and after cellular uptake by muscle cells, the plasmid DNA expresses HER-3 which, may elicit both antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and humoral immune responses against tumor cells expressing HER-3. HER-3 plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation and its overexpression is associated with poor prognosis. HER-3 is associated with tumor cell resistance to anti-HER-2 therapeutics.
  • Plasmid encoding antiangiogenic metargidin peptide - A plasmid encoding the protein antiangiogenic metargidin plasmid (AMEP), the disintegrin domain of ADAM-15 (metargidin), with potential antiangiogenic and antimetastatic activities. Upon intratumoral electrotransfer of plasmid encoding AMEP, AMEP binds to cellular integrin receptors alpha-v-beta-3 (avb3) and alpha-5-beta-1 (a5b1), which are upregulated on activated endothelial cells and a variety of tumor cells. Binding to the integrin receptors may inhibit angiogenesis and may inhibit tumor cell proliferation.
  • Platinum acetylacetonate-titanium dioxide nanoparticles - A preparation of platinum acetylacetonate supported by sol-gel technology functionalized titania, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, the platinum moiety forms complexes with nucleophilic groups such as GC-rich sites in DNA, inducing intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-links, as well as DNA-protein cross-links, resulting in apoptosis and cell growth inhibition. Compared to platinum alone, the nanoparticle formulation allows increased delivery of platinum to the tumor site, thereby increasing efficacy while reducing systemic toxicity.
  • Plevitrexed - An orally bioavailable, small molecule, non-polyglutamatable, antifolate quinazoline derivative thymidine synthetase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Plevitrexed is transported into the cell via the physiological reduced folate carrier (RFC) system. Intracellularly, this agent selectively binds to the folate binding site of thymidylate synthase and inhibits thymidine synthesis, which may result in DNA synthesis inhibition and apoptosis.
  • Plicamycin - An antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces plicatus with antineoplastic activity. Plicamycin, also known as mithramycin, binds to the minor groove of DNA at GC-rich sites, resulting in inhibition of RNA synthesis; this agent also inhibits mRNA expression, resulting in a reduction in protein synthesis. In addition, plicamycin may inhibit bone resorption by down regulating transcription of c-src, an oncogene involved in bone metabolism and resorption.
  • Plinabulin - An orally active diketopiperazine derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Plinabulin selectively targets and binds to the colchicine-binding site of tubulin, thereby interrupting equilibrium of microtubule dynamics. This disrupts mitotic spindle assembly leading to cell cycle arrest at M phase and blockage of cell division. In addition, plinabulin may also inhibit growth of proliferating vascular endothelial cells, thereby disrupting the function of tumor vasculature that further contributes to a decrease in tumor cell proliferation.
  • Plitidepsin - A cyclic depsipeptide isolated from the marine tunicate Aplidium albicans. Plitidepsin displays a broad spectrum of antitumor activities, inducing apoptosis by triggering mitochondrial cytochrome c release, initiating the Fas/DC95, JNK pathway and activating caspase 3 activation. This agent also inhibits elongation factor 1-a, thereby interfering with protein synthesis, and induces G1 arrest and G2 blockade, thereby inhibiting tumor cell growth.
  • Plk1 inhibitor bi 2536 - A small molecule compound with potential antineoplastic activities. BI 2536 binds to and inhibits Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), resulting in mitotic arrest, disruption of cytokinesis, and apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations. Plk1, a serine/threonine-protein kinase, is a key regulator of multiple processes fundamental to mitosis and cell division.
  • Plk1 inhibitor cyc140 - A competitive inhibitor for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding to polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1; PLK-1; STPK13), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, PLK1 inhibitor CYC140 selectively targets, binds to and inhibits PLK1, which disrupts mitosis and induces selective G2/M cell-cycle arrest followed by apoptosis in PLK1-overexpressing tumor cells. PLK1, named after the polo gene of Drosophila melanogaster, is a serine/threonine kinase that is crucial for the regulation of mitosis, and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, transformation and invasion. PLK1 expression is upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types and high expression is associated with increased aggressiveness and poor prognosis.
  • Plk1 inhibitor tak-960 - An orally available, Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor TAK-960 selectively inhibits PLK1, inducing selective G2/M cell-cycle arrest followed by apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells while causing reversible cell-cycle arrest at the G1 and G2 stages without apoptosis in normal cells. PLK1 inhibition may result in the inhibition of proliferation in PLK1-overexpressed tumor cells. PLK1, named after the polo gene of Drosophila melanogaster, is a serine/threonine kinase crucial in the regulation of mitosis.
  • Plocabulin - A marine-derived, synthetically produced compound with potential antineoplastic activity. Plocabulin covalently binds to residues lying in the minor groove of DNA, which may result in delayed progression through S phase, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell death.
  • Plozalizumab - A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the human chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), with potential antiangiogenic, immunomodulating, antimetastatic, and antineoplastic activities. Plozalizumab binds to CCR2 and prevents binding of the endothelium-derived CLL2 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 or MCP1) to its receptor CCR2, which may result in inhibition of CCR2 activation and so inhibition of angiogenesis, tumor cell migration, and tumor cell proliferation. In addition, this agent may reduce levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). The G-protein coupled receptor CCR2 is expressed on the surface of monocytes and macrophages, stimulates the migration and infiltration of these cell types, and plays an important role in inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumor cell migration and proliferation.
  • Pngvl3-hicd vaccine - A plasmid DNA cancer vaccine encoding the intracellular domain (ICD) of the HER-2/neu proto-oncogene. Upon administration and after cellular uptake by skin or muscle cells, the pNGVL3-hICD vaccine plasmid expresses the HER-2/neu protein, which, after intracellular processing, may elicit both antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and humoral immune responses against tumor cells expressing HER-2. The HER-2/neu ICD protein is highly immunogenic and, as a subdominant epitope, may be associated with decreased immune tolerance.
  • Pngvl4a-crt/e7(detox) dna vaccine - A cancer vaccine consisting of the DNA plasmid pNGVL4a-A encoding calreticulin (CRT) linked to a detox form of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 antigen, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, this vaccine may generate a potent cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against E7-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell death. For E7(detox), the amino acids in E7 at positions 24 (cysteine to glycine) and 26 (glutamic acid to glycine) were substituted. CRT, a 46 kDa protein located in the lumen of the cell's endoplasmic reticulum (ER), may potentiate MHC class I presentation of HPV-16 E7 to E7-specific CD8-positive T cells. In addition, pNGVL4a-A contains two short immunostimulatory DNA sequences (ISS) in the noncoding region, which may elicit the production of IFN- and IL-12 in transfected keratinocytes and dermal antigen presenting cells (APCs), resulting in a potent T helper cell type 1 response.
  • Pngvl4a-crt-e6e7l2 dna vaccine - A therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding human calreticulin (CRT) linked to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E6, E7, and L2 proteins, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration via intramuscular injection with electroporation, the pNGVL4a-CRT-E6E7L2 DNA vaccine expresses HPV16 E6, E7 and L2 proteins, which may elicit a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response and humoral immune responses against tumor cells expressing these proteins, resulting in tumor cell lysis and tumor cell death. In addition, HPV16 L2-specific neutralizing antibody may prevent a broad spectrum of HPV infections and HPV-associated cancers. The heat shock protein CRT may potentiate MHC class I presentation to antigen-specific CD8-positive T-cells, enhancing the induction of cellular immunity and the potency of the vaccine.
  • Pngvl4a-sig/e7(detox)/hsp70 dna and hpv16 l2/e6/e7 fusion protein ta-cin vaccine pvx-2 - A cancer vaccine consisting of a combination of two vaccines, a prime pNGVL4a-Sig/E7(detox)/HSP70 DNA vaccine and a boost HPV16 L2/E6/E7 fusion protein TA-CIN vaccine, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. pNGVL4a-Sig/E7(detox)/HSP70 DNA vaccine is an antigen-specific DNA cancer vaccine consisting of the coding sequences of a signal peptide (pNGVL4a-Sig), a detox form of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) antigen E7, and the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Upon administration, this prime vaccine may generate potent cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell responses against E7-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell death. HPV16 L2/E6/E7 fusion protein TA-CIN vaccine is a recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV), genetically engineered fusion protein vaccine in which the three HPV16 viral proteins L2, E6 and E7 are fused together in a single tandem fusion protein (TA-CIN; HPV16 L2\E6\E7). Upon administration, this boost vaccine may stimulate the immune system to generate HPV16 E6\E7-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses as well as the induction of L2-specific antibodies. In addition, this vaccine may prevent infection and the development of other HPV16-associated diseases. L2, a minor viral capsid protein, is able to induce a strong antibody response against certain HPV types.
  • Pngvl4a-sig/e7(detox)/hsp70 dna vaccine - An antigen-specific DNA cancer vaccine consisting of the coding sequences of a signal peptide (pNGVL4a-Sig), a detox form of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) antigen E7, and the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Upon administration, this vaccine may generate potent cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell responses against E7-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell death.
  • Pol i inhibitor cx5461 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of RNA polymerase I (Pol I), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, CX-5461 selectively binds to and inhibits Pol I, prevents Pol I-mediated ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, induces apoptosis, and inhibits tumor cell growth. Pol I, the multiprotein complex that synthesizes rRNA, is upregulated in cancer cells and plays a key role in cell proliferation and survival. Hyperactivated rRNA transcription is associated with uncontrolled cancer cell proliferation.
  • Polatuzumab vedotin - An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) composed of a monoclonal antibody directed against B-cell antigen receptor complex-associated protein beta chain (CD79B) conjugated, via a protease-cleavable peptide linker, to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), an auristatin derivative and a potent microtubule inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of polatuzumab vedotin selectively binds to CD79B, a protein which is abundantly expressed on the surface of B-cells. Upon internalization and proteolytic cleavage, MMAE binds to tubulin and inhibits its polymerization, resulting in G2/M phase arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. CD79B, a component of the B-cell receptor (BCR), plays a key role in B-cell receptor signaling and is expressed on the surface of almost all types of malignant B-cells.
  • Polidocanol - An alkyl polyglycol ether of lauryl alcohol with sclerosing and potential antineoplastic activities. Upon intralesional administration, polidocanol induces endothelial cell injury by disrupting calcium signaling and nitric oxide pathways. Following endothelial damage, platelets aggregate at the site of injury and attach to the venous wall, resulting in a dense network of platelets, cellular debris, and fibrin that occludes the vessel. Inducing endothelial cell damage within melanoma metastases may incite an antitumor response in untreated bystander lesions and inhibit the growth of in transit metastases and other cutaneous lesions.
  • Poliglusam - A naturally occurring polysaccharide composed of beta-1,4-linked glucosamine residues with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, poliglusam may, through a not yet fully elucidated mechanism, reduce advanced glycation end product (AGE) levels. This may reduce the interaction between AGEs and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, AGER), which is overexpressed in some tumor types and is associated with poor patient outcomes. AGE-RAGE interaction may induce the phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb), a key cell cycle inhibitor and tumor suppressor, through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB, Akt) signaling pathway. Hyperphosphorylation of Rb leads to the dissociation of the Rb-E2F complex, which triggers the activation of genes required for G1/S transition and tumorigenesis. Reducing AGE levels may limit AGE-RAGE interaction and normalize the G1 to S-phase transition, potentially reducing the development and progression of certain cancers. AGEs are non-enzymatic protein modifications produced during the normal aging process that have been shown to play a role in the development and progression of some cancers.
  • Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor gsk461364 - A small molecule Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor GSK461364 selectively inhibits Plk1, inducing selective G2/M arrest followed by apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells while causing reversible cell arrest at the G1 and G2 stage without apoptosis in normal cells. Plk1, named after the polo gene of Drosophila melanogaster, is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in regulating mitotic spindle function in a non-ATP competitive manner.
  • Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor mk1496 - An orally bioavailable Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor MK1496 selectively inhibits Plk1, inducing selective G2/M arrest followed by apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells while causing reversible cell arrest at the G1 and G2 stage without apoptosis in normal cells. Plk1, named after the polo gene of Drosophila melanogaster, is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in regulating mitotic spindle function in a non-ATP competitive manner.
  • Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor nms-1286937 - An orally bioavailable, small-molecule Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Polo-like kinase 1 inhibitor NMS-1286937 selectively inhibits PLK1, inducing selective G2/M cell-cycle arrest followed by apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells while causing reversible cell-cycle arrest at the G1 and G2 stages without apoptosis in normal cells. PLK1 inhibition may result in the inhibition of proliferation in PLK1-overexpressing tumor cells. PLK1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase crucial in the regulation of mitosis.
  • Polo-like kinase 4 inhibitor cfi-400945 fumarate - An orally available fumarate salt form of CFI-400945, a polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, polo-like kinase 4 inhibitor CFI-400945 selectively inhibits PLK4, which results in the disruption of mitosis and the induction of apoptosis. PLK4 inhibition also prevents cell division and inhibits proliferation of PLK4-overexpressing tumor cells. PLK4, a member of the polo family of serine/threonine kinases overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types, plays a crucial role in the regulation of centriole duplication during the cell cycle.
  • Poly au - A synthetic polyadenylic-polyuridylic acid double-stranded RNA. Poly AU may stimulate the release of cytotoxic cytokines and, by inducing the production of interferon, may increase the number and tumoricidal activities of various immunohematopoietic cells.
  • Poly ic - A synthetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid double-stranded RNA. Poly IC may stimulate the release of cytotoxic cytokines and, by inducing interferon-gamma production, may increase the number and tumoricidal activities of various immunohematopoietic cells.
  • Poly iclc - A synthetic complex of carboxymethylcellulose, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, and poly-L-lysine double-stranded RNA. Poly ICLC may stimulate the release of cytotoxic cytokines and, by inducing interferon-gamma production, may increase the tumoricidal activities of various immunohematopoietic cells.
  • Poly-alendronate dextran-guanidine conjugate - A polybisphosphonate dextran-guanidine conjugate with potential anti-resorptive and antineoplastic activities. Alendronic acid and aminoguanidine were conjugated sequentially to oxidized dextran resulting in an average of 8 alendronate and 50 guanidine groups coupled to the dextran backbone. Upon administration, the poly-alendronate dextran-guanidine conjugate inhibits the mevalonate pathway by inhibiting farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS) which leads to a reduction in protein prenylation and to the loss of downstream metabolites essential for osteoclast function. This eventually leads to the induction of apoptosis in osteoclasts. Also, by preventing osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, this agent decreases bone turnover and stabilizes the bone matrix. The guanidine moiety increases the nitrogen content and possibly the activity of the bisphosphonate and its ability to inhibit FDPS. In addition, the guanidine moiety facilitates cell internalization and may contribute to this agent's cytotoxicity.
  • Polyamine analog sl11093 - A synthetic compound of the polyamine class of chemicals with potential antineoplastic activity. Natural endogenous polyamines bind to DNA and are involved in a number of cellular processes such as cell division, differentiation, and membrane function. SL11093 displaces these polyamines from their DNA binding sites, resulting in cessation of cell growth and cell death.
  • Polyamine analogue pg11047 - A second generation polyamine analogue, synthesized through the restriction of molecular conformations of parent polyamine compounds, with potential antineoplastic activity. Polyamine analogue PG11047 may displace endogenous polyamines from DNA binding sites, thereby interfering with cell cycle processes dependent upon polyamine binding and function, and resulting in cell-cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, depletion of polyamines, and interference with gene and ligand-receptor activities involved with cell growth. This agent may exhibit decreased toxicity and enhanced cytotoxicity profiles compared to first-generation polyamine compounds. In tumor cells, there is an increase dependence on polyamines as well as a dysregulated polyamine metabolic pathway resulting in abnormal or sustained tumor growth.
  • Polyamine analogue sbp-101 - An analogue of naturally occurring polyamine (PA), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon subcutaneous administration, SBP-101 displaces endogenous PAs from PA-binding sites on the cell surface, which prevents internalization of PA. This inhibits PA-dependent cell cycle processes and results in cell cycle arrest, the induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. PA uptake is upregulated in various tumor types and increased levels of PA leads to enhanced tumor cell growth.
  • Polyamine transport inhibitor amxt-1501 dicaprate - The dicaprate salt form of AMXT-1501, an orally bioavailable polyamine transport inhibitor, with immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, AMXT-1501 targets, binds to and blocks polyamine transport from the bloodstream into the tumor microenvironment (TME), thereby preventing cancer cell uptake. This decreases polyamine concentrations inside the TME and tumor cell, inhibits tumor cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. In addition, AMXT-1501 may abrogate polyamine-mediated immune suppression in the TME. Polyamines, naturally found in normal, heathy cells, are required for normal cell growth and division. In cancer cells, polyamines play key roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor-induced suppression of the patient's immune system.
  • Polyandrol - A quassinoid phytochemical isolated from Castela polyandra and other plant species with potential antineoplastic activity.
  • Polyethylene glycol recombinant endostatin - A formulation containing recombinant endostatin attached to polyethylene glycol (PEG), with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Endostatin, a 20 kDa C-terminal proteolytic fragment of collagen XVIII, induces microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis and inhibits endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis, which may result in a reduction of tumor cell growth. Modification with PEG extends the circulation half-life of endostatin, improves stability and increases solubility in organic solvents.
  • Polyethyleneglycol-7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin dfp-13318 - A long-acting formulation composed of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38), a camptothecin derivative and active metabolite of irinotecan conjugated to polyethylene glycol (PEG), via a proprietary, cleavable linker, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the proprietary linkage system allows for very slow release of SN38 from the formulation. Upon release, SN38 selectively stabilizes covalent topoisomerase I-DNA complexes, and results in single-stranded and double-stranded DNA breaks, the inhibition of DNA replication, and the induction of apoptosis. This agent is designed to deliver the active metabolite to tumor cells without the need for conversion as is the case with irinotecan. Compared to other PEG-SN38-based formulations, the linker system in DFP-13318 increases its half-life and the exposure time for tumor cells, while decreasing both blood plasma concentrations and exposure to off-target organs; this results in increased efficacy.
  • Poly-gamma glutamic acid - A water-soluble and biodegradable polymer naturally synthesized by various strains of Bacillus and composed of D- and L-glutamic acid polymerized via gamma-amide linkages, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, poly-gamma glutamic acid may augment the immune response by increasing the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and inducing the activation of macrophage and natural killer (NK) cells. IFN-gamma is a major mediator of innate and adaptive immunity against viral and intracellular bacterial infections as well as for tumor control. TNF-alpha is a cytokine involved in systemic inflammation, which is capable of inducing apoptotic cell death and exhibits anti-tumoral effects.
  • Polymer-conjugated il-15 receptor agonist nktr-255 - A long-acting formulation composed of the human cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) that is conjugated by polymers, with potential immunomodulating and anti-tumor activities. Upon administration of polymer-conjugated IL-15 receptor agonist NKTR-255, the IL-15 moiety targets and binds to the alpha subunit of the IL-15 receptor on natural killer (NK) and T-cells, thereby activating the IL-15-mediated pathway. This leads to the expansion and activation of natural killer (NK) cells and memory CD8+ T-cells, thereby enhancing the anti-tumor activity of NKs and long-term memory T-lymphocyte immune responses. This may increase tumor cell killing and decrease tumor cell proliferation. In addition, NKTR-255 may, when combined with a tumor-directed antibody, enhance the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) mechanism. IL-15 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a key role in the regulation of T- and NK cell activation, proliferation and promotion of their anti-tumor effects. Compared to IL-15 alone, the polymer formulation allows for increased retention at the tumor site and reduced clearance, thereby increasing the effect of IL-15.
  • Polymer-encapsulated luteolin nanoparticle - A nanoparticle formulation containing the poorly water-soluble naturally-occurring flavonoid luteolin encapsulated within a water-soluble polymer, with potential anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, apoptosis-inducing and chemopreventive activities. Upon administration of the polymer-encapsulated luteolin nanoparticle, luteolin scavenges free radicals, protects cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced damage and induces direct tumor cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells. This inhibits tumor cell proliferation and suppresses metastasis. Compared to luteolin alone, encapsulation increases the delivery of luteolin to the tumor cells by protecting the drug against clearance and degradation, increases blood circulation time and enhances delivery into the tumor through the leaky vasculature.
  • Polymeric camptothecin prodrug xmt-1001 - A polymeric prodrug of camptothecin (CPT) with potential antineoplastic activity. Polymeric camptothecin prodrug XMT-1001 consists of CPT conjugated to the 60-70 kDa, inert, bio-degradable, hydrophilic copolymer poly[1-hydroxymethylene hydroxymethyl formal] (PHF). Through a dual-phase, non-enzymatic release mechanism, CPT is first released in plasma from XMT-1001 as the lipophilic prodrugs CPT-SI (a succinimidoglycinate derivative) and CPT-SA (a succinamidoyl glycinate derivative), which are then hydrolyzed within tissues to release the lactone form of CPT. CPT inhibits the catalytic activity of DNA topoisomerase I, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and inducing apoptosis. This agent may exhibit a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile than other agents in the same class.
  • Polypodium leucotomos extract - A nutritional supplement composed of an aqueous extract derived from the leaves of the tropical fern belonging to the Polypodiaceae family, Polypodium leucotomos (PL; Phlebodium aureum), with potential photoprotective, skin protective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and antioxidant activities. This extract contains many phenolic compounds, such as ferulic, caffeic, coumaric and vanillic acid, which are mainly responsible for this extract's effects. Upon administration, Polypodium leucotomos extract (PLE) exerts antioxidant activity by scavenging free radicals and inhibiting the generation and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby preventing ultraviolet (UV)-induced as well as ROS-induced DNA damage. In addition, the chemicals in this extract protect antioxidant enzymes and modulate expression of cancer and inflammation-related genes, including the induction of the expression of tumor suppressor genes and the inhibition of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory enzymes, thereby inhibiting the activation of signal transduction pathways involved in carcinogenesis and inflammation, respectively. PLE also stimulates tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
  • Polysaccharide-k - A protein-bound polysaccharide derived from the mushroom Trametes versicolor (Turkey Tail) with immunoadjuvant and potential antitumor activities. Although its mechanism of action has yet to be fully elucidated, in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that polysaccharide-K induces peripheral blood monocyte secretion of IL-8 and TNF-alpha, induces T cell proliferation, and prevents cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. This agent has also been reported to stimulate macrophages to produce reactive nitrogen intermediates and superoxide anions and to promote apoptosis in the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60.
  • Polysialic acid - A highly negative-charged carbohydrate composed of a linear polymer of alpha 2,8-linked sialic acid residue with potential immunotherapeutic activity. Polysialic acid (PSA) is mainly attached to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), a membrane-bound glycoprotein overexpressed in certain types of cancers. In embryonic tissue PSA-NCAM is abundantly expressed and PSA plays an important role in formation and remodeling of the neural system through modulation of the adhesive properties of NCAM, thereby reducing cell-cell interactions and promoting cellular mobility. In adult tissue however, the expression of PSA-NCAM is associated with a variety of malignant tumors, signifying its potential role in tumor metastasis. When administered in a vaccine formulation, PSA may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell response against tumors expressing PSA, thereby resulting in a reduction in tumor size.
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acid - A fatty acid containing more than one double bond (C=C). The essential fatty acids omega-3 and omega-6 are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that contain 2 or more cis double bonds. Dietary intake of some PUFAs may have beneficial effects on blood pressure, serum lipds, and inflammation. Some PUFAs, such as omega-3 PUFAs, may have antineoplastic or chemopreventive activities.
  • Polyvalent antigen-klh conjugate vaccine - A multivalent cancer vaccine comprised of the five tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) globo H, GM2 ganglioside, Tn-MUC1, TF, and sTn conjugated with the immunoadjuvant keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, polyvalent antigen-KLH conjugate vaccine may induce production of IgG and IgM antibodies and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells expressing these TAAs, resulting in tumor cell death and tumor growth inhibition. Globo H (globo H hexasaccharide 1); GM2 ganglioside; Tn-MUC1 (human tumor-associated epithelial mucin 1 carrying the tumor-specific glycan Tn); TF (Thompson-Friedreich); and sTn (sialyl-Tn) are overexpressed in a variety of cancer cells. KLH is a hapten carrier and serves as an immunostimulant to improve immune recognition of antigens.
  • Polyvalent melanoma vaccine - A cancer vaccine consisting of whole irradiated heterologous melanoma cells which express multiple melanoma-related antigens. Polyvalent melanoma vaccine may stimulate an antitumoral cytotoxic T-cell immune response in the host, resulting in inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death.
  • Pomalidomide - An orally bioavailable derivative of thalidomide with potential immunomodulating, antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Although its exact mechanism of action has yet to be fully elucidated, pomalidomide appears to inhibit TNF-alpha production, enhance the activity of T cells and natural killer (NK) cells and enhance antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In addition, pomalidomide may inhibit tumor angiogenesis, promote cell cycle arrest in susceptible tumor cell populations, and stimulate erythropoeisis.
  • Pomegranate juice - A natural juice isolated from the fruit of the plant Punica granatum with antioxidant, potential antineoplastic, and chemopreventive activities. Pomegranate juice contains flavonoids which promote differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells by down-regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stimulating migration inhibitory factor (MIF), thereby inhibiting angiogenesis. The flavonoids in pomegranate juice also scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, in some cell types, may prevent ROS-mediated cell injury and death.
  • Pomegranate liquid extract - A liquid extract preparation derived from pomegranate (Punica granatum) seeds with antioxidant, and potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. Pomegranate liquid extract contains flavonoids which may promote differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells by down-regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stimulating migration inhibitory factor (MIF), thus inhibiting angiogenesis. Pomegranate liquid extract flavanoids also scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and, in some cell types, may prevent ROS-mediated cell injury and death.
  • Ponatinib - An orally bioavailable multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Ponatinib inhibits unmutated and all mutated forms of Bcr-Abl, including T315I, the highly drug therapy-resistant missense mutation of Bcr-Abl. This agent also inhibits other tyrosine kinases including those associated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs); in addition, it inhibits the tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2 and FMS-related tyrosine kinase receptor-3 (Flt3). RTK inhibition by ponatinib may result in the inhibition of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis and may induce cell death. Bcr-Abl is a fusion tyrosine kinase encoded by the Philadelphia chromosome.
  • Ponatinib hydrochloride - The hydrochloride salt form of an orally bioavailable multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Ponatinib inhibits unmutated and all mutated forms of Bcr-Abl, including T315I, the highly drug therapy-resistant missense mutation of Bcr-Abl. This agent also inhibits other tyrosine kinases including those associated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs) and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs); in addition, it inhibits the tyrosine kinase receptor TIE2 and FMS-related tyrosine kinase receptor-3 (Flt3). RTK inhibition by ponatinib may result in the inhibition of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis and may induce cell death. Bcr-Abl is a fusion tyrosine kinase encoded by the Philadelphia chromosome.
  • Pooled mutant kras-targeted long peptide vaccine - A peptide vaccine containing a mixture of long peptides that are derived from tumor-specific mutant forms of the KRAS (K-ras) antigen, with potential immunostimulatory and antitumor activities Upon administration of the pooled mutant KRAS-targeted long peptide vaccine, the KRAS peptides may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against KRAS-expressing tumor cells. KRAS, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) that plays a key role in the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, is overexpressed on a variety of tumor cell types.
  • Porcupine inhibitor cgx1321 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) porcupine (PORCN), with potential antineoplastic, protective and regenerative activities. Upon oral administration, PORCN inhibitor CGX1321 specifically targets and binds to PORCN in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), thereby inhibiting the post-translational palmitoylation and secretion of Wnt ligands, thus preventing the activation of Wnt-mediated signaling, and inhibiting cell growth in Wnt-driven tumors. In addition, by inhibiting the secretion of Wnt ligands and preventing Wnt-mediated signaling, CGX1321 may also limit fibrosis and promote regeneration of certain tissues upon cell injury. PORCN catalyzes the palmitoylation of Wnt ligands, and plays a key role in Wnt ligand secretion. Wnt signaling is dysregulated in a variety of cancers and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation. It also plays a key role in tissue regeneration.
  • Porcupine inhibitor etc-1922159 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) porcupine (PORCN), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, ETC-1922159 binds to and inhibits PORCN in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which blocks post-translational palmitoylation of Wnt ligands and inhibits their secretion. This prevents the activation of Wnt ligands, interferes with Wnt-mediated signaling, and inhibits cell growth in Wnt-driven tumors. Porcupine catalyzes the palmitoylation of Wnt ligands, and plays a key role in Wnt ligand secretion. Wnt signaling is dysregulated in a variety of cancers.
  • Porcupine inhibitor rxc004 - An orally available inhibitor of porcupine (PORCN), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, RXC004 binds to and inhibits PORCN in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which blocks post-translational acylation of Wnt ligands and inhibits their secretion. This prevents the activation of Wnt ligands, interferes with Wnt-mediated signaling, and inhibits cell growth in Wnt-driven tumors. Porcupine, a membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT), is required for the palmitoylation of Wnt ligands, and plays a key role in Wnt ligand secretion and activity. Wnt signaling is dysregulated in a variety of cancers.
  • Porcupine inhibitor wnt974 - An orally available inhibitor of porcupine (PORCN), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, WNT974 binds to and inhibits PORCN in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which blocks post-translational acylation of Wnt ligands and inhibits their secretion. This prevents the activation of Wnt ligands, interferes with Wnt-mediated signaling, and inhibits cell growth in Wnt-driven tumors. Porcupine, a membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT), is required for the palmitoylation of Wnt ligands, and plays a key role in Wnt ligand secretion and activity. Wnt signaling is dysregulated in a variety of cancers.
  • Porcupine inhibitor xnw7201 - An orally available inhibitor of porcupine (PORCN), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, PORCN inhibitor XNW7201 targets, binds to and inhibits PORCN in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which blocks post-translational acylation of Wnt ligands and inhibits their secretion. This prevents the activation of Wnt ligands, interferes with Wnt-mediated signaling, and inhibits cell growth in Wnt-driven tumors. PORCN, a membrane-bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT), is required for the palmitoylation of Wnt ligands, and plays a key role in Wnt ligand secretion and activity. Wnt signaling is dysregulated in a variety of cancers and plays a key role in cancer cell survival.
  • Porfimer sodium - The sodium salt of a mixture of oligomers formed by ether and ester linkages of up to eight porphyrin units with photodynamic activity. Absorbed selectively by tumor cells, porfimer produces oxygen radicals after activation by 630 nm wavelength laser light, resulting in tumor cell cytotoxicity. In addition, tumor cell death may occur due to ischemic necrosis secondary to vascular occlusion that appears to be partly mediated by the release of thromboxane A2.
  • Porfiromycin - An N-methyl derivative of the antineoplastic antibiotic mitomycin C isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces ardus and other Streptomyces bacterial species. Bioreduced porfiromycin generates oxygen radicals and alkylates DNA, producing interstrand cross-links and single-strand breaks, thereby inhibiting DNA synthesis. Porfiromycin is preferentially toxic to hypoxic cells.
  • Powdered mixed berry extract supplement - A dietary powder supplement consisting of a mixture of various, as of yet not fully elucidated, berries, with potential antineoplastic and anti-angiogenic activities. As berries are rich in phytonutrients, such as anthocyanins, flavonols, ellagitannins, galltannins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids, the antineoplastic effects of the powdered mixed berry extract supplement on cancer cells may be attributable to the phytonutrients' antioxidant and pro-apoptotic activities. Upon administration of the powdered mixed berry extract supplement, the phytochemicals in the berries may work together to reduce angiogenesis, tumor growth and tumor development. Specifically, various phytochemicals may inhibit the multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP-1), which results in the accumulation of cellular oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Elevated intracellular levels of GSSG causes an increase in oxidative stress. This triggers the induction of oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis and may inhibit tumor and endothelial cell proliferation. MRP-1, overexpressed in many different types of cancer, plays a key role in the efflux of GSSG and thus the maintenance of oxidative homeostasis and survival in tumor cells.
  • Poziotinib - An orally bioavailable, quinazoline-based, mall-molecular and irreversible pan-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or HER) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Poziotinib inhibits EGFR (HER1 or ErbB1), HER2, HER4 and EGFR mutants, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of tumor cells that overexpress these receptors. EGFRs, cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases, are often upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types and play key roles in cellular proliferation and survival.
  • P-p68 inhibitor rx-5902 - An orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor of phosphorylated-p68 RNA helicase (P-p68), with potential anti-proliferative and antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, P-p68 inhibitor RX-5902 may both inhibit the activity of the anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein and facilitate the induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21). This may prevent G2/M cell cycle progression and lead to growth inhibition in tumor cells. P-p68 is overexpressed in various types of solid tumors but absent in normal tissues, and plays a role in tumor progression and metastasis. p21 is a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor which regulates cell cycle progression and mediates both growth arrest and cellular senescence.
  • Ppar alpha antagonist tpst-1120 - An orally bioavailable, small molecule, selective and competitive antagonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARa), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, TPST-1120 targets, binds to and blocks the activity of PPARa, thereby blocking transcription of PPARa target genes leading to an intracellular metabolism shift from fatty acid oxidation (FAO) to glycolysis in FAO-dependent tumors and reducing the production of fatty acids in the tumor microenvironment (TME). As fatty acids are essential for tumor cell growth in FAO-dependent tumor cells and are needed for the metabolism of suppressive immune cells in the TME, including regulatory T-cells (Tregs), reducing the amount of fatty acids leads to a direct killing of FAO-dependent tumor cells. It also skews macrophages from the immune suppressive M2 phenotype to an effector M1 phenotype and facilitates the cytotoxicity of immune effector cells, thereby stimulating an anti-tumor immune response and further killing tumor cells. TPST-1120 also restores the natural inhibitor of angiogenesis thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING) in the TME. PPARa, a ligand-activated nuclear transcription factor and metabolic checkpoint, regulates the expression of FAO genes and lipid metabolism. It plays a key role in immunosuppression in the TME. FAO is a metabolic pathway essential to tumor growth, survival and immunosuppression.
  • Pr1 leukemia peptide vaccine - A cancer vaccine containing PR1, a 9 amino-acid human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 restricted peptide derived from proteinase 3, with potential immunotherapeutic activity. Vaccination with PR1 leukemia peptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing proteinase 3, resulting in tumor cell lysis. Often overexpressed in leukemic cells, proteinase 3 is a serine proteinase that activates progelatinase A and is involved in angiogenesis and metastasis.
  • Pracinostat - An orally available, small-molecule histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Pracinostat inhibits HDACs, which may result in the accumulation of highly acetylated histones, followed by the induction of chromatin remodeling; the selective transcription of tumor suppressor genes; the tumor suppressor protein-mediated inhibition of tumor cell division; and, finally, the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. This agent may possess improved metabolic, pharmacokinetic and pharmacological properties compared to other HDAC inhibitors.
  • Pralatrexate - A folate analogue inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) exhibiting high affinity for reduced folate carrier-1 (RFC-1) with antineoplastic and immunosuppressive activities. Pralatrexate selectively enters cells expressing RFC-1; intracellularly, this agent is highly polyglutamylated and competes for the folate binding site of DHFR, blocking tetrahydrofolate synthesis, which may result in depletion of nucleotide precursors; inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis; and apoptotic tumor cell death. Efficient intracellular polyglutamylation of pralatrexate results in higher intracellular concentrations compared to non-polyglutamylated pralatrexate, which is more readily effuxed by the MRP (multidrug resistance protein) drug efflux pump. RFC-1, an oncofetal protein expressed at highest levels during embryonic development, may be over-expressed on the cell surfaces of various cancer cell types.
  • Pralsetinib - An orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of mutant forms of and fusion products involving the proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase RET, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, pralsetinib binds to and targets various RET mutants and RET-containing fusion product. RET gene mutations and translocations result in the upregulation and/or activation of RET tyrosine kinase activity in various cancer cell types; dysregulation of RET activity plays a key role in the development and regression of these cancers.
  • Praluzatamab ravtansine - A probody drug conjugate (PDC) composed of a recombinant antibody targeting the tumor-associated antigen (TAA) CD166, which is masked by a cleavable masking peptide, and conjugated to the cytotoxic agent maytansinoid DM4, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of praluzatamab ravtansine and migration to the tumor microenvironment (TME), the cleavable masking peptide, which prevent anti-CD166 antibody binding to the CD166 expressed on both normal cells and tumor cells, is proteolytically cleaved by tumor-associated proteases that are specifically present in the TME. This enables the anti-CD166 antibody moiety of CX-2009 to selectively bind to, be internalized by, and deliver DM4 into CD166-expressing tumor cells. Following internalization, DM4 is released, binds to tubulin and disrupts microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics, resulting in inhibition of cell division and cell growth of CD166-expressing tumor cells. The masking peptide prevents binding of the anti-CD166 antibody to CD166 in normal tissues, thereby minimizing toxicities.
  • Prame-targeting t-cell receptor/inducible caspase 9 bpx-701 - Human allogeneic T-lymphocytes transduced with a retroviral vector encoding a high-affinity T-cell receptor (TCR) specific for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-01-restricted, preferentially-expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) and containing the chemical induction of dimerization (CID) suicide/safety switch, composed of a drug binding domain coupled to the signaling domain of the suicide enzyme caspase-9, with potential antineoplastic activity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are isolated from a patient, transduced with an anti-PRAME-HLA-A2 restricted TCR, expanded ex vivo, and reintroduced into the HLA-A2-positive patient. Upon reintroduction, PRAME-targeting T-cell receptor-based therapy BPX-701 binds to tumor cells expressing PRAME, which may induce cell death in and halt the growth of PRAME-expressing cancer cells. The tumor-associated antigen PRAME is overexpressed by a variety of cancer cell types. If potential T-cell toxicity due to graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) occurs, the chemical dimerizer rimiducid (AP1903) can be adminstered. Rimiducid binds to the drug binding domain expressed by the BPX-701 T-cells, and triggers activation of the caspase-9 domain, which leads to caspase 9-mediated signaling, the induction of apoptosis and to selective and complete elimination of BPX-701 cells.
  • Pravastatin sodium - The sodium salt of pravastatin with cholesterol-lowering and potential antineoplastic activities. Pravastatin competitively inhibits hepatic hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a key step in cholesterol synthesis. This agent lowers plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels, and modulates immune responses by suppressing MHC II (major histocompatibility complex II) on interferon gamma-stimulated, antigen-presenting cells such as human vascular endothelial cells. In addition, pravastatin, like other statins, exhibits pro-apoptotic, growth inhibitory, and pro-differentiation activities in a variety of tumor cells; these antineoplastic activities may be due, in part, to inhibition of the isoprenylation of Ras and Rho GTPases and related signaling cascades.
  • Prednimustine - The prednisolone ester of chlorambucil and nitrogen mustard alkylating agent with antineoplastic activity. Prednimustine itself is not cytotoxic, however, it becomes cytotoxic upon hydrolysis by serum esterases to chlorambucil. Therefore, the increased potency of prednimustine is linked to the prolonged availability of free chlorambucil.
  • Prednisolone - A synthetic glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties. After cell surface receptor attachment and cell entry, prednisolone enters the nucleus where it binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors, resulting in an altered gene expression and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production. This agent also decreases the number of circulating lymphocytes, induces cell differentiation, and stimulates apoptosis in sensitive tumor cells populations.
  • Prednisone - A synthetic glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties. After cell surface receptor attachment and cell entry, prednisone enters the nucleus where it binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors, resulting in an altered gene expression and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production. This agent also decreases the number of circulating lymphocytes, induces cell differentiation, and stimulates apoptosis in sensitive tumor cell populations.
  • Prexasertib - An inhibitor of checkpoint kinase 1 (chk1) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, prexasertib selectively binds to chk1, thereby preventing activity of chk1 and abrogating the repair of damaged DNA. This may lead to an accumulation of damaged DNA and may promote genomic instability and apoptosis. Prexasertib may potentiate the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and reverse tumor cell resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Chk1, a serine/threonine kinase, mediates cell cycle checkpoint control and is essential for DNA repair and plays a key role in resistance to chemotherapeutic agents.
  • Prexigebersen - A liposomal formulation containing the antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, liposome-incorporated Grb2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide binds directly to and blocks Grb2 mRNA, thereby preventing Grb2 protein synthesis, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation of cancer cells overexpressing Grb2. Grb2, an adaptor protein involved in growth signaling pathways, is upregulated in certain tumor cells.
  • Prima-1 analog apr-246 - A methylated derivative and structural analog of PRIMA-1 (p53 re-activation and induction of massive apoptosis), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, PRIMA-1 analog APR-246 covalently modifies the core domain of mutated forms of cellular tumor antigen p53 (p53) through the alkylation of thiol groups. These modifications restore both the wild-type conformation and function to mutant p53, which reconstitutes endogenous p53 activity, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cells. This agent may work synergistically with other antineoplastic agents. p53, a tumor suppressor and transcription factor normally activated upon DNA damage, is frequently mutated and overexpressed in cancer cells; it plays a key role in both DNA repair and the induction of apoptosis.
  • Primary prostate cancer tissue/htert/survivin mrna-loaded autologous dendritic cell vaccine - An autologous dendritic cells (DCs) vaccine targeting prostate cancer with immunostimulating activity. The autologous DC vaccine is prepared via transfecting DCs with mRNAs extracted from primary prostate cancer tissue, and mRNAs of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and survivin. Upon administration, this DC vaccine may elicit a potent cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against prostate cancer cells, resulting in tumor cell death. Both hTERT and survivin are essential in neoplastic growth, and are considered to be universal tumor antigens.
  • Prime cancer vaccine mva-bn-cv301 - A cancer priming vaccine consisting of a proprietary version of the recombinant vaccinia viral vector, modified vaccinia Ankara-Bavarian Nordic (MVA-BN), encoding both the two human tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and mucin-1 (MUC-1), and TRICOM, which is comprised of the three human immune-enhancing co-stimulatory molecules B7-1, ICAM-1 and LFA-3, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration of MVA-BN-CV301, followed by multiple boosting doses of the fowlpox virus (FPV) vaccine CV301, a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CEA- and MUC-1-expressing tumor cells is activated. In addition, the CV301-dependent anti-tumor CTL response upregulates the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1); therefore, when CV301 is combined with a programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor, the antitumor effect may be increased. CEA and MUC-1 are overexpressed in a variety of cancers.
  • Prinomastat - A synthetic hydroxamic acid derivative with potential antineoplastic activity. Prinomastat inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) (specifically, MMP-2, 9, 13, and 14), thereby inducing extracellular matrix degradation, and inhibiting angiogenesis, tumor growth and invasion, and metastasis. As a lipophilic agent, prinomastat crosses the blood-brain barrier.
  • Prmt1 inhibitor - Any agent that inhibits protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1; histone-arginine N-methyltransferase PRMT1; interferon receptor 1-bound protein 4).
  • Prmt1 inhibitor gsk3368715 - An orally available inhibitor of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1; Histone-arginine N-methyltransferase PRMT1; Interferon receptor 1-bound protein 4) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, GSK3368715 inhibits monomethylation and asymmetric dimethylation of arginine-bearing substrates, including histones, estrogen receptors, RNA-binding proteins, and numerous non-histone substrates catalyzed by PRMT1. This may inhibit tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion that is potentially driven by PRMT1 overexpression or dysregulation. PRMT1-mediated methylation plays a key role in the modulation of protein function, gene expression and cellular signaling. Dysregulation and overexpression of PRMT1 has been associated with a number of solid and hematopoietic cancers.
  • Prmt5 inhibitor jnj-64619178 - An orally available small molecule inhibitor of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), with potential antiproliferative and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, PRMT5 inhibitor JNJ-64619178 selectively targets and irreversibly binds to the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)- and substrate-binding pockets of the PRMT5/methylosome protein 50 (MEP50) complex, and inhibits its function. By inhibiting its methyltransferase activity, levels of both monomethylated and dimethylated arginine residues in histones H2A, H3 and H4 are decreased. This modulates the expression of genes involved in several cellular processes, including cellular proliferation. This may increase the expression of antiproliferative genes and/or decrease the expression of genes that promote cell proliferation, which may lead to decreased growth of rapidly proliferating cells, including cancer cells. PRMT5, a type II methyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of both omega-N monomethylarginine (MMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (sDMA) on histones and a variety of other protein substrates involved in signal transduction and cellular transcription, is overexpressed in several neoplasms. Elevated levels are associated with decreased patient survival.
  • Prmt5 inhibitor prt811 - An orally available small molecule inhibitor of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), with potential antiproliferative and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, PRMT5 inhibitor PRT811 selectively binds to PRMT5 and inhibits its function. By inhibiting its methyltransferase activity, levels of both monomethylated and dimethylated arginine residues in histones H2A, H3 and H4 are decreased. This modulates the expression of genes involved in several cellular processes, including cellular proliferation. This may increase the expression of antiproliferative genes and/or decrease the expression of genes that promote cell proliferation, which may lead to decreased growth of rapidly proliferating cells, including cancer cells. PRMT5, a type II methyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of both omega-N monomethylarginine (MMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (sDMA) on histones and a variety of other protein substrates involved in signal transduction and cellular transcription, is overexpressed in several neoplasms. Elevated levels are associated with decreased patient survival.
  • Proapoptotic sulindac analog cp-461 - An orally bioavailable second-generation selective apoptotic antineoplastic drug (SAAND) and analog of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) sulindac, with potential pro-apoptotic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, CP-461 specifically binds to and blocks the activity of cyclic guanosine monophosphate-phosphodiesterase (cGMP-PDE), an enzyme that inhibits the normal apoptosis signal pathway. Inhibition of cGMP-PDE permits the apoptotic signal pathway to proceed unopposed, resulting in apoptotic cell death. cGMP-PDE is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cell types; therefore, CP-461 selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells, with minimal or no effect in healthy cells.
  • Procarbazine - A methylhydrazine derivative with antineoplastic and mutagenic activities. Although the exact mode of cytotoxicity has not been elucidated, procarbazine, after metabolic activation, appears to inhibit the trans-methylation of methionine into transfer RNA (t-RNA), thereby preventing protein synthesis and consequently DNA and RNA synthesis. This agent may also undergo auto-oxidation, resulting in the formation of cytotoxic free radicals which damage DNA through an alkylation reaction.
  • Procarbazine hydrochloride - The hydrochloride salt of a methylhydrazine derivative with antineoplastic and mutagenic activities. Although the exact mode of cytotoxicity has not been elucidated, procarbazine, after metabolic activation, appears to inhibit the trans-methylation of methionine into transfer RNA (t-RNA), thereby preventing protein synthesis and consequently DNA and RNA synthesis. This agent may also undergo auto-oxidation, resulting in the formation of cytotoxic free radicals which damage DNA through an alkylation reaction.
  • Procaspase activating compound-1 vo-100 - An orally bioavailable procaspase activating compound-1 (PAC-1), with potential proapoptotic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, VO-100 binds to and forms a chelating complex with zinc (Zn) ions inside cells, which prevents the binding of Zn ions to procaspase-3 (PC3) and abrogates the Zn-mediated inhibition of PC3. This allows for the proteolytic autoactivation of PC3 into the active form caspase-3. This results in the selective caspase-3-mediated induction of apoptosis and cell death in cancer cells. In addition, VO-100 is able to cross the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). PC3, a Zn-inhibited proenzyme, is upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types, while its expression is minimal in normal healthy cells.
  • Prohibitin-targeting peptide 1 - A chimeric, 25-mer peptide that targets prohibitin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Prohibitin-targeting peptide 1 (prohibitin-TP01) consists of a fat-targeting motif (CKGGRAKDC), two repeats of a proapoptotic peptide motif (KLAKLAK) and a GG linker. This peptide binds specifically to prohibitin in the white adipose vasculature; upon receptor-mediated cell internalization, the ligand/receptor complex triggers apoptosis and results in ablation of white fat. Destruction of white fat may potentially have positive consequences for men with prostate cancer since a high level of white fat has been implicated as a critical contributing factor in poor prostate cancer outcome. Prohibitin, a multifunctional membrane-associated protein that is thought to regulate cell survival and growth, has been shown by immunohistochemical analysis to be expressed in the membrane of endothelial cells in white adipose tissue.
  • Prolgolimab - A monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell receptor programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1; PDCD1; CD279), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, prolgolimab binds to and inhibits PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of T-cells and cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) expressed on T-cells, functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) or 2 (PD-L2); it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity.
  • Prostaglandin e2 ep4 receptor inhibitor an0025 - An orally bioavailable antagonist of the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor type 4 (EP4; EP-4), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, AN0025 selectively targets, binds to and blocks the activity of immunosuppressive tumor-associated myeloid cells (TAMCs) in the microenvironment. This abolishes TAMC-dependent immunosuppression and reduces tumor cell proliferation. The presence of immunosuppressive myeloid cells in certain tumors is associated with a poor prognosis.
  • Prostate cancer vaccine ony-p1 - A cell-based vaccine derived from prostate cancer with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. Prostate cancer vaccine ONY-P1 is derived from three irradiated allogeneic prostate cancer cell lines that represent different stages of prostate cancer and express a broad range of prostate and prostate cancer antigens. Upon administration, this vaccine may stimulate a host immune response against prostate cancer cells; in the vaccination schedule, the first two vaccinations are co-administered with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) as an adjuvant.
  • Prostate health cocktail dietary supplement - A dietary supplement consisting of a blend of 8 natural ingredients with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. This dietary supplement contains vitamin D3 (as cholecalciferol), vitamin E (as d-alpha tocopherol), selenium (as L-selenomethionine), epigallocatechin (green tea extract), saw palmetto (berry extract), lycopene, and the isoflavonoids daidzein and genistein. This combination preparation may decrease prostate cell growth and inhibit prostate carcinogenesis.
  • Prostatic acid phosphatase-sargramostim fusion protein pa2024 - A genetically-engineered protein formed by the fusion of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and sargramostim (GM-CSF). Vaccination with antigen-presenting cells (APC) loaded with prostatic acid phosphatase-sargramostim fusion protein may elicit a cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells that express PAP. (NCI05)
  • Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 inhibitor gsk3326595 - An orally available, selective small molecule inhibitor of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), with potential antiproliferative and antineoplastic activities. Although the mechanism of action has not been completely determined, PRMT5 inhibitor GSK3326595 binds to the substrate recognition site of PRMT5 following oral administration and inhibits its methyltransferase activity, which decreases the levels of both monomethylated and dimethylated arginine residues in histones H2A, H3 and H4 and modulates the expression of genes involved in several cellular processes, including cell proliferation. Therefore, this agent may increase the expression of antiproliferative genes and/or decrease the expression of genes that promote cell proliferation and may lead to decreased growth of rapidly proliferating cells, including cancer cells. PRTM5, an arginine methyltransferase that can catalyze the formation of both omega-N monomethylarginine (MMA) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (sDMA) on histones and a variety of other protein substrates, is overexpressed in several neoplasms.
  • Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 inhibitor pf-06939999 - An orally available inhibitor of protein arginine N-methyltransferase 5 (histone-arginine N-methyltransferase PRMT5; PRMT5) with potential antiproliferative and antineoplastic activities. Although the mechanism of action has not yet been fully elucidated, orally administered PRMT5 inhibitor PF-06939999 inhibits the methyltransferase activity of PRMT5, thereby decreasing the levels of monomethylated and dimethylated arginine residues in histones H2A, H3, and H4, and modulating the expression of genes involved in several cellular processes including cell proliferation. This may increase the expression of antiproliferative genes and/or decrease the expression of genes that promote cell proliferation, and may decrease the growth of rapidly proliferating cells, including cancer cells. PRTM5, an arginine methyltransferase that can catalyze the formation of both omega-N monomethylarginine (MMA) and symmetrical dimethylarginine (sDMA) on histones and a variety of other protein substrates, is overexpressed in several neoplasms.
  • Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 inhibitor prt543 - An orally available small molecule inhibitor of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), with potential antiproliferative and antineoplastic activities. Although the exact mechanism of action has not been completely determined, upon oral administration, PRMT5 inhibitor PRT543 selectively binds to the substrate recognition site of PRMT5 and inhibits its methyltransferase activity. This decreases the levels of both monomethylated and dimethylated arginine residues in histones H2A, H3 and H4 and modulates the expression of genes involved in several cellular processes, including cellular proliferation. As a result, PRT543 may increase the expression of antiproliferative genes and/or decrease the expression of genes that promote cell proliferation, which may lead to decreased growth of rapidly proliferating cells, including cancer cells. PRTM5, an arginine methyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of both omega-N monomethylarginine (MMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (sDMA) on histones and a variety of other protein substrates, is overexpressed in several neoplasms.
  • Protein kinase c inhibitor ide196 - An orally available protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor with potential immunosuppressive and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, protein kinase C inhibitor IDE196 binds to and inhibits PKC, which prevents the activation of PKC-mediated signaling pathways. This may lead to the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in susceptible tumor cells. PKC, a serine/threonine protein kinase overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, is involved in tumor cell differentiation, proliferation, invasion and survival.
  • Protein phosphatase 2a inhibitor lb-100 - A water soluble inhibitor of the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), with potential chemo- and radiotherapy enhancing activity. Upon injection, PP2A inhibitor LB-100 inhibits the removal of phosphate groups from proteins essential for cell cycle progression. When used with radio- or chemotherapy treatment, this agent prevents the activation of PP2A-mediated repair mechanisms and allows for malignant cells to progress through the cell cycle without having their damaged DNA repaired. This enhances the cytotoxic effect of the chemotherapeutic or radiotherapeutic agent and results in tumor cell apoptosis. PP2A, a serine/threonine phosphatase that plays a key role in the control of cell growth and DNA damage repair.
  • Protein stabilized liposomal docetaxel nanoparticles - A formulation containing protein-stabilized liposome nanoparticles encapsulating the poorly water-soluble, second-generation taxane analog docetaxel with antineoplastic activity. Docetaxel binds to and stabilizes the beta-tubulin subunit, thereby inhibiting microtubule disassembly which results in cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and cell death. This agent also inhibits pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and displays immunomodulatory and pro-inflammatory properties by inducing various mediators of the inflammatory response. Compared to the use of toxic carriers to increase solubilization of docetaxel, protein-stabilized liposomal docetaxel improves drug solubility while avoiding carrier-associated toxicity.
  • Protein tyrosine kinase 2 inhibitor in10018 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the non-receptor, cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase protein tyrosine kinase 2 (focal adhesion kinase 1; FAK1; FAK: PTK2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, IN10018 targets and inhibits, in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-competitive manner, PTK2. This prevents PTK2-mediated downstream signaling and inhibits migration, proliferation, invasion, and survival in PTK2-overexpressing tumor cells. The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase PTK2, a signal transducer for integrins overexpressed in various tumor cell types, is involved in tumor cell invasion, migration and proliferation.
  • Protopine/nuciferine supplement - A nutritional supplement composed of the two alkaloids protopine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid occurring in opium poppies and other plants of the Papaveraceae family, and nuciferine, an alkaloid component of Nelumbo nucifera and Nymphaea caerulea, and in certain plants of the Papaveraceae family, with antihistamine, anticholinergic, analgesic, smooth muscle relaxing, central nervous system (CNS) suppressing and antipsychotic-like activities. Upon administration, protopine inhibits histamine H1 receptors and exerts opioid analgesic and sedative effects. As an antispasmodic, nuciferine relaxes smooth muscle cells and prevents smooth muscle contractions. It also has a calming effect. Together, protopine and nuciferine may relax the bladder and reduce urinary urgency and frequency, thereby providing relief for urge incontinence. It may also ease bladder pain and irritation.
  • Proxalutamide - An orally bioavailable androgen receptor (AR) antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, proxalutamide binds to AR in target tissues, inhibits androgen-induced receptor activation, and facilitates the formation of inactive complexes that cannot translocate to the nucleus. This prevents binding to and transcription of AR-responsive genes that regulate prostate cancer cell proliferation. In addition, proxalutamide induces AR downregulation, thereby further preventing AR-mediated signaling. This ultimately leads to an inhibition of growth in AR-expressing prostate cancer cells. AR is overexpressed in prostate cancer and plays a key role in prostate cancer cell proliferation.
  • Psa prostate cancer vaccine - A peptide vaccine containing the prostate specific antigen (PSA) with potential antineoplastic activity. PSA, a glycoprotein secreted by prostatic epithelial and ductal cells, is overexpressed in prostate cancer cells and is used as a tumor marker for both diagnosis and treatment evaluation. Vaccination with PSA peptide vaccine may produce anti-PSA antibodies as well as elicit a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against prostate cancer cells expressing this antigen, thereby decreasing tumor cell growth.
  • Psa rna-pulsed dendritic cell vaccine - An autologous dendritic cell vaccine with potential immunostimulatory activity. Dendritic cells harvested from a prostate cancer patient are transfected with the mRNA encoding for prostate specific antigen (PSA), a tumor marker secreted by prostatic epithelial and ductal cells. When reintroduced back to the patient, these PSA RNA pulsed autologous dendritic cells may elicit a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against PSA-positive prostate cancer cells.
  • Psa/il-2/gm-csf vaccine - A prostate cancer vaccine containing prostate specific antigen (PSA) combined with the cytokines, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intradermal vaccination, PSA/IL-2/GM-CSF vaccine may activate the immune system to induce a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against prostate cancer cells expressing this antigen, thereby decreasing tumor cell growth. PSA, a glycoprotein secreted by prostatic epithelial and ductal cells, is overexpressed by prostate cancer cells. IL-2 stimulates natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T-cells against the PSA-expressing tumor cells. GM-CSF promotes antigen presentation to dendritic cells and further stimulates a tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response.
  • Psa/psma dna plasmid ino-5150 - A plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), with potential immunoactivating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intramuscular delivery and electroporation of the PSA/PSMA DNA plasmid INO-5150, both PSA and PSMA are translated in cells which then activate the immune system. This induces cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses against tumor cells expressing PSA and PSMA. This may result in both immune-mediated tumor cell death and the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. PSA and PSMA are overexpressed on a variety of cancer cell types. The DNA encoding the TAAs in INO-5150 is based on both human and other primate antigen gene sequences. As the plasmid genes differ from the human gene sequences encoding these antigens, INO-5150 may overcome immune tolerance to human TAAs.
  • Psa:154-163(155l) peptide vaccine - A cancer vaccine comprised of a synthetic peptide with an amino acid sequence corresponding to positions 154-163 of the amino acid sequence for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) with a leucine substitution at position 155. Upon administration, PSA:154-163 (155L) peptide vaccine may elicit a cytotoxic T-cell response against tumor cells that express PSA. (NCI05)
  • Psa-op peptide vaccine - A 30-residue prostate specific antigen (PSA) oligoepitope peptide (OP) vaccine with potential antineoplastic activity. PSA-OP peptide vaccine contains the PSA-1 and PSA-3 HLA-A2 epitopes and the PSA-9 HLA-class I-A3 epitope joined by peptide linker sequences. In an animal model, vaccination with this agent has been shown to elicit a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response.
  • Psa-pap/klh-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine - A cell-based cancer vaccine composed of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with the prostate-specific tumor associated antigens (TAAs) prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostate acid phosphatase (PAP), and conjugated to the immunostimulant Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, prostate cancer antigen/KLH-pulsed autologous dendritic cell vaccine may stimulate the immune system to mount anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses against prostate cancer cells expressing PSA and PAP, which may result in prostate cancer cell lysis. KLH is an immunogenic carrier and serves as an immunostimulant to improve antigenic immune recognition and T-cell responses and can be used to evaluate vaccine efficacy.
  • Pseudoisocytidine - A synthetic, pyrimidine C-5 nucleoside with antineoplastic activity. Pseudoisocytidine, after conversion into pseudoisocytidine triphosphate, is incorporated into DNA and RNA eventually halting tumor cell proliferation. Compared to 5-azacytidine and cytarabine, this agent shows enhanced stability and resistance to enzymatic deamination.
  • Psma/cd3 tri-specific t-cell activating construct hpn424 - A recombinant antibody derivative composed of tri-specific T-cell activating construct (TriTAC) directed against the human tumor-associated antigen (TAA) prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA; FOLH1) and the CD3 antigen found on T-lymphocytes and an albumin-binding domain, with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, PSMA/CD3 tri-specific T-cell antibody construct HPN424 targets and binds PSMA on tumor cells and CD3 on cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), thereby bringing PSMA-expressing tumor cells and CTLs together, which results in the CTL-mediated cell death of PSMA-expressing tumor cells. The albumin-binding domain targets and binds to serum albumin, thereby extending the serum half-life of HPN424. PSMA is overexpressed on the surface of metastatic and hormone-refractory prostate tumor cells.
  • Psma/tarp peptide vaccine - A peptide-based cancer vaccine containing epitopes of T cell receptor gamma-chain alternate reading frame protein (TARP) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in combination with a Poly IC-LC immunoadjuvant, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, PSMA/TARP peptide vaccine may stimulate a host cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against TARP- and PSMA-expressing tumor cells, resulting in tumor cell cytotoxicity. The nuclear protein TARP and PSMA are commonly expressed in prostate cancer cells.
  • Psma-targeted docetaxel nanoparticles bind-014 - A proprietary preparation of polymeric nanoparticles containing the second-generation taxane docetaxel, targeted to prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), with antineoplastic activity. PSMA-targeted docetaxel nanoparticles BIND-014 carry docetaxel within a matrix of polylactic acid covered with a coating of polyethylene glycol; embedded on the surface of the polyethylene glycol coating are ligands targeted to PSMA. BIND-014 allows gradual release of docetaxel upon degradation of the polylactic acid, and the PEG encapsulation escapes the host immune response while PSMA ligands on the surface restrict the cytotoxic effect to PSMA-expressing cells. Docetaxel binds to and stabilizes the beta-tubulin subunit, thereby inhibiting microtubule disassembly which results in cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and cell death. PSMA is a cell-surface antigen that is abundantly present on the surface of cancer cells and on the neovasculature that feeds a wide variety of tumor types.
  • Psma-targeted tubulysin b-containing conjugate ec1169 - An injectable, water soluble, small molecule drug conjugate (SMDC) containing a ligand specific for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), conjugated via a stable, enzyme-cleavable linker to the cytotoxic agent tubulysin B hydrazide (TubBH), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of PSMA-targeted tubulysin B-containing conjugate EC1169, the PSMA ligand specifically targets and binds to PSMA, a protein which is abundantly expressed on the surface of metastatic and hormone-refractory prostate cancer cells as well as on the neovasculature of many solid tumors. This allows for the specific delivery of TubBH to PSMA-expressing cancer cells. Upon internalization and cleavage, tubulysin B binds to tubulin and inhibits microtubule polymerization, which blocks cell division and results in G2/M phase arrest, tumor cell apoptosis and a decrease in PSMA-expressing tumor cells.
  • Ptef-b/cdk9 inhibitor bay1251152 - An inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), the catalytic subunit of the RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) elongation factor positive transcription elongation factor b (PTEF- b; PTEFb), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, BAY1251152 binds to and blocks the phosphorylation and kinase activity of CDK9, thereby preventing PTEFb-mediated activation of RNA Pol II and leading to the inhibition of gene transcription of various anti-apoptotic proteins. This may cause cell cycle arrest and induce apoptosis, which may lead to a reduction in tumor cell proliferation. The protein complex PTEF-b, a heterodimer consisting of CDK9 and a regulatory cyclin subunit of the T family, is over-activated in various tumor cell types; it plays a key role in the regulation of Pol II-mediated transcription of anti-apoptotic proteins. Tumor cells are dependent on anti-apoptotic proteins for their survival.
  • Ptvg-hp plasmid dna vaccine - A cancer vaccine containing plasmid DNA encoding human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) (pTVG-HP) with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, pTVG-HP plasmid DNA vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to generate a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against PAP-expressing prostate cancer cells. PAP or prostatic specific acid phosphatase (PSAP) is a tumor associated antigen (TAA) that may be overexpressed in prostate cancer.
  • Pumitepa - A thiotepa derivative with potential antineoplastic alkylating activity. Although the exact mechanism of action of pumitepa has yet to be fully elucidated, this agent appears to work through alkylation, thereby causing DNA damage and cell cycle arrest.
  • Pumvc3-higfbp-2 multi-epitope plasmid dna vaccine - A recombinant plasmid DNA vaccine containing mammalian expression vector, pUMVC3, encoding epitopes of human Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 2 (hIGFBP-2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon vaccination, pUMVC3-hIGFBP-2 multi-epitope plasmid DNA vaccine may produce IGFBP-2 that binds to cell surface, likely via integrin complexes. This results in the dephosphorylation of the focal adhesion-kinase (FAK) and of the p42/44 MAP-kinases, thereby inactivating them; both kinases are involved in cell growth regulation. Furthermore, IGFBP-2 promotes de-adhesion of the cells in a dose-dependent manner, hence impeding cell proliferation. The primary effect of IGFBPs appears to be modulation of IGF activity and control of IGF-mediated cell growth and metabolism.
  • Pumvc3-igfbp2-her2-igf1r plasmid dna vaccine - A polyepitope plasmid DNA vaccine containing the mammalian expression vector pUMVC3 encoding epitopes derived from three tumor-associated antigens (TAAs): human insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; ERBB2) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal vaccination, pUMVC3-IGFBP2-HER2-IGF1R plasmid DNA vaccine transfects local keratinocytes, which process the plasmid, express the epitopes and present them to antigen-presenting cells (APCs). This activates the immune system to mount a combined response from specific T helper type 1 (Th1) cells, memory T-cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) against IGFBP2-, HER2-, and IGF1R-expressing tumor cells. IGFBP2, HER2, and IGF1R are tumor-associated proteins overexpressed in certain tumor cell types, and play key roles in cellular proliferation and survival.
  • Puquitinib - An orally available selective inhibitor of the delta form of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase subunit delta; PI3K-delta; PI3Kdelta), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, puquitinib selectively binds to the ATP-binding pocket of PI3K-delta and prevents the activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This decreases proliferation of and induces cell death in PI3K-delta over-expressing tumor cells. PI3K-delta also plays a key role in the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway and the proliferation of certain hematologic cancer cells. The targeted inhibition of PI3K-delta is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells, thereby minimizing serious side effects.
  • Puquitinib mesylate - The mesylate salt of puquitinib, an orally available selective inhibitor of the delta form of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase subunit delta; PI3K-delta; PI3Kdelta), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, puquitinib selectively binds to the ATP-binding pocket of PI3K-delta and prevents the activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. This decreases proliferation of and induces cell death in PI3K-delta over-expressing tumor cells. PI3K-delta also plays a key role in the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway and the proliferation of certain hematologic cancer cells. The targeted inhibition of PI3K-delta is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells, thereby minimizing serious side effects.
  • Puromycin - An aminoglycoside antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces alboniger. Acting as an analog of the 3' terminal end of aminoacyl-tRNA, puromycin incorporates itself into a growing polypeptide chain and causes its premature termination, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. This agent has antimicrobial, antitrypanosomal, and antineoplastic properties; it is used as an antibiotic in cell culture.
  • Puromycin hydrochloride - The hydrochloride salt form of puromycin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces alboniger. Acting as an analog of the 3' terminal end of aminoacyl-tRNA, puromycin incorporates itself into a growing polypeptide chain and causes its premature termination, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. This agent has antimicrobial, antitrypanosomal, and antineoplastic properties; it is used as an antibiotic in cell culture.
  • Pva microporous hydrospheres/doxorubicin hydrochloride - An embolic material composed of microspheres of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymers loaded with doxorubicin hydrochloride with antineoplastic activity. Doxorubicin hydrochloride-loaded microspheres may be used as a drug delivery vehicle during embolization of tumor vasculature. Doxorubicin intercalates DNA, interferes with catalytic activity of topoisomerase II, and causes DNA adducts and other DNA damage, resulting in tumor cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. When used in tumor vasculature embolization, this preparation may provide more tumor-specific treatment with doxorubicin compared to the systemic administration of doxorubicin, thereby reducing the systemic toxicity of doxorubicin.
  • Pvaxrcpsav53l dna vaccine - A cancer vaccine containing xenogenic DNA from rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) that encodes prostate specific antigen (PSA) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon repeated intradermal administration via electroporation, pVAXrcPSAv53l vaccine may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against PSA-expressing prostate cancer cells. Rhesus PSA is 89% homologous to human PSA.
  • Pyrazoloacridine - A 9-methoxy acridine compound containing a reducible 5-nitro substituent. Pyrazoloacridine appears to intercalate into DNA and inhibit RNA synthesis, DNA synthesis, and the activities of topoisomerases I and II, thereby causing cytotoxicity.
  • Pyrotinib - An orally bioavailable, dual kinase inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or HER-1) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2 or HER-2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, pyrotinib binds to and inhibits both EGFR and HER2, which may result in the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis, and tumor regression in EGFR/HER2-expressing tumor cells. EGFR and HER2 are receptor tyrosine kinases that are upregulated in various tumor cell types and play major roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization.
  • Pyrotinib dimaleate - The dimaleate ester of pyrotinib, an orally bioavailable, dual kinase inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, ErbB1 or HER-1) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2 or HER-2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, pyrotinib binds to and inhibits both EGFR and HER2, which may result in the inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis, and tumor regression in EGFR/HER2-expressing tumor cells. EGFR and HER2 are receptor tyrosine kinases that are upregulated in various tumor cell types and play major roles in tumor cell proliferation and tumor vascularization.
  • Pyroxamide - A synthetic derivative of hydroxamic acid with antineoplastic properties, Pyroxamide inhibits histone deacetylases involved in transcription; induces hyperacetylation of core histones, modulating chromatin structure and affecting transcription of some genes that inhibit tumor growth; and induces growth arrest and apoptosis. Pyroxamide is used in clinical studies for cancer chemotherapy.
  • Pyruvate kinase inhibitor tln-232 - A synthetic cyclic heptapeptide with potential antineoplastic activity. Pyruvate kinase (PK) inhibitor TLN-232 targets pyruvate kinase M2 (M2PK), which may disrupt tumor cell anaerobic glycolysis. M2PK is a dimeric isoform of PK and the predominant PK isoform found in tumor cells
  • Pyruvate kinase m2 isoform activator tp-1454 - An orally bioavailable activator of pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, PKM2 activator TP-1454 locks PKM2 into the active tetrameric form. This may prevent the production of glycolytic intermediates by the less active dimer form of PKM2, depleting the supply of glycolytic intermediates which are needed for tumor cell growth. This may also inhibit immune suppression mediated by the dimer form of PKM2. Altogether, this may slow tumor cell growth and enhance anti-tumor immune responses, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation. PKM2, the predominant PK isoform found in tumor cells, is responsible for catalyzing the last step of glycolysis. PKM2 plays a critical role in the metabolic changes observed in cancer and immune cells and establishes a metabolic advantage for tumor cells over the tumor immune microenvironment.
  • Qilisheng immunoregulatory oral solution - An oral solution containing Spondias axillaris, Panax ginseng, schisandra berry, hawthorn, soybean and an as of yet not elucidated bacterium, with potential immunomodulating activity. Upon oral administration of the qilisheng immunoregulatory oral solution, the ingredients in qilisheng may modulate the immune system.
  • Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine - A non-infectious recombinant, quadrivalent vaccine prepared from the highly purified virus-like particles (VLPs) of the major capsid (L1) protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 with immunoprophylactic activity. L1 proteins are produced by separate fermentations in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, self-assembled into VLPs, and adsorbed onto amorphous aluminium hydroxyphosphate sulfate adjuvant following purification. The immunoprophylactic efficacy of L1 VLP vaccines, such as quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6,11,16,18) recombinant vaccine, appear to be mediated by the development of humoral immune responses. HPV Types 16 and 18 account for approximately 70% of cervical cancers and HPV Types 6 and 11 account for approximately 90% of genital warts.
  • Quarfloxin - A fluoroquinolone derivative with antineoplastic activity. Quarfloxin disrupts the interaction between the nucleolin protein and a G-quadruplex DNA structure in the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) template, a critical interaction for rRNA biogenesis that is overexpressed in cancer cells; disruption of this G-quadruplex DNA:protein interaction in aberrant rRNA biogenesis may result in the inhibition of ribosome synthesis and tumor cell apoptosis.
  • Quinacrine hydrochloride - The dihydrochloride salt of the 9-aminoacridine derivative quinacrine with potential antineoplastic and antiparasitic activities. Quinacrine may inhibit the transcription and activity of both basal and inducible nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which may result in the induction of tumor suppressor p53 transcription, the restoration of p53-dependent apoptotic pathways, and tumor cell apoptosis. Continuous NF-kappaB signaling, present in many tumors and in chronic inflammatory processes, promotes the expression of antiapoptotic proteins and cytokines while downregulating the expression of proapoptotic proteins, such as p53.
  • Quinine - A quinidine alkaloid isolated from the bark of the cinchona tree. Quinine has many mechanisms of action, including reduction of oxygen intake and carbohydrate metabolism; disruption of DNA replication and transcription via DNA intercalation; and reduction of the excitability of muscle fibers via alteration of calcium distribution. This agent also inhibits the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein which is overexpressed in multi-drug resistant tumors and may improve the efficacy of some antineoplastic agents.
  • Quisinostat - An orally bioavailable, second-generation, hydroxamic acid-based inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) with potential antineoplastic activity. HDAC inhibitor JNJ-26481585 inhibits HDAC leading to an accumulation of highly acetylated histones, which may result in an induction of chromatin remodeling; inhibition of the transcription of tumor suppressor genes; inhibition of tumor cell division; and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. HDAC, an enzyme upregulated in many tumor types, deacetylates chromatin histone proteins. Compared to some first generation HDAC inhibitors, JNJ-26481585 may induce superior HSP70 upregulation and bcl-2 downregulation.
  • Quizartinib - An orally available small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. Quizartinib selectively inhibits class III receptor tyrosine kinases, including FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3/STK1), colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R/FMS), stem cell factor receptor (SCFR/KIT), and platelet derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs), resulting in inhibition of ligand-independent leukemic cell proliferation and apoptosis. Mutations in FLT3, resulting in constitutive activation, are the most frequent genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and occur in approximately one-third of AML cases.

Alphabetic list of antineoplastic agents - 0-9 - A1 - A2 - A3 - A4 - A5 -A6 - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - JK - L - M - NO - PQ - R - S - T - UVW - XYZ

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