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Bacteria

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Bacteria, why do they make me sick
Bacteria, why do they make me sick

Bacteria are a type of biological cell and a microorganism. Bacteria are single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants.

Glossary of terms

  • abortus -  a human fetus whose weight is less than 0.5 kilogram when removed or expelled from the mother's body
  • Abstinence -  act or practice of refraining from indulging an appetite; the trait of abstaining (especially from alcohol)
  • Actinomycetaceae -  filamentous anaerobic bacteria
  • Actinomycosis -  disease of cattle that can be transmitted to humans; results from infection with actinomycetes; characterized by hard swellings that exude pus through long sinuses
  • Acute -  having or experiencing a rapid onset and short but severe course; of critical importance and consequence; extremely sharp or intense; having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions; of an angle; less than 90 degrees; ending in a sharp point;  a mark (') placed above a vowel to indicate pronunciation
  • Aerobic -  depending on free oxygen or air; based on or using the principles of aerobics; enhancing respiratory and circulatory efficiency
  • amoxicillin -  an antibiotic; a semisynthetic oral penicillin (trade names Amoxil and Larotid and Polymox and Trimox and Augmentin) used to treat bacterial infections
  • Ampicillin -  semisynthetic penicillin (trade names Principen and Polycillin and SK-Ampicillin)
  • amputation -  a surgical removal of all or part of a limb; a condition of disability resulting from the loss of one or more limbs
  • Anaerobic -  living or active in the absence of free oxygen; not aerobic
  • anal sex -  intercourse via the anus, committed by a man with a man or woman
  • Anaplasmosis -  a disease of cattle that is transmitted by cattle ticks; similar to Texas fever
  • anterior -  earlier in time; of or near the head end or toward the front plane of the body;  a tooth situated at the front of the mouth
  • Anthrax -  a disease of humans that is not communicable; caused by infection with Bacillus anthracis followed by septicemia; a highly infectious animal disease (especially cattle and sheep); it can be transmitted to people
  • Antitoxin -  an antibody that can neutralize a specific toxin
  • Atypical pneumonia -  an acute respiratory disease marked by high fever and coughing; caused by mycoplasma; primarily affecting children and young adults
  • bacillary dysentery -  an acute infection of the intestine by shigella bacteria; characterized by diarrhea and fever and abdominal pains
  • Bacillus -  aerobic rod-shaped spore-producing bacterium; often occurring in chainlike formations; found primarily in soil
  • Bacillus anthracis -  a species of bacillus that causes anthrax in humans and in animals (cattle and swine and sheep and rabbits and mice and guinea pigs); can be used a bioweapon
  • bacitracin -  a polypeptide antibiotic of known chemical structure effective against several types of Gram-positive organisms; usually applied locally
  • bacteria -  (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants
  • Bacterial -  relating to or caused by bacteria
  • Bacteriology -  the branch of medical science that studies bacteria in relation to disease
  • body louse -  a parasitic louse that infests the body of human beings
  • Borrelia -  cause of e.g. European and African relapsing fever
  • Borrelia burgdorferi -  cause of Lyme disease; transmitted primarily by ticks of genus Ixodes
  • botulinum -  anaerobic bacterium producing botulin the toxin that causes botulism
  • Botulism -  food poisoning from ingesting botulin; not infectious; affects the CNS; can be fatal if not treated promptly
  • Boutonneuse fever -  a disease (common in India and around the Mediterranean area) caused by a rickettsia that is transmitted to humans by a reddish brown tick (ixodid) that lives on dogs and other mammals
  • brain -  that part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers; enclosed within the skull; continuous with the spinal cord; mental ability; the brain of certain animals used as meat; that which is responsible for one's thoughts and feelings; the seat of the faculty of reason; someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality;  kill by smashing someone's skull; hit on the head
  • Brill -  European food fish
  • bronchitis -  inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes
  • Brucella -  an aerobic Gram-negative coccobacillus that causes brucellosis; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Brucellosis -  infectious bacterial disease of human beings transmitted by contact with infected animals or infected meat or milk products; characterized by fever and headache; an infectious disease of domestic animals often resulting in spontaneous abortion; transmittable to human beings
  • Bubonic plague -  the most common form of the plague in humans; characterized by chills, prostration, delirium and the formation of buboes in the armpits and groin; does not spread from person to person
  • canis -  type genus of the Canidae: domestic and wild dogs; wolves; jackals
  • canned -  sealed in a can or jar; recorded for broadcast
  • Cat scratch disease -  a disease thought to be transmitted to humans by a scratch from a cat
  • cefotaxime -  a parenteral cephalosporin (trade name Claforan) used for severe infections of the lungs or throat or ears or urinary tract
  • ceftriaxone -  a parenteral cephalosporin (trade name Rocephin) used for severe infection of the lungs or throat or ears or urinary tract
  • cellulitis -  an inflammation of body tissue (especially that below the skin) characterized by fever and swelling and redness and pain
  • Cephalosporin -  one of several broad spectrum antibiotic substances obtained from fungi and related to penicillin (trade names Mefoxin); addition of side chains has produced semisynthetic antibiotics with greater antibacterial activity
  • chancre -  a small hard painless nodule at the site of entry of a pathogen (as syphilis)
  • Chancroid -  infectious venereal ulcer
  • childbirth -  the parturition process in human beings; having a baby; the process of giving birth to a child
  • Chlamydia -  coccoid rickettsia infesting birds and mammals; cause infections of eyes and lungs and genitourinary tract; a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria of the genus Chlamydia
  • Chlamydia psittaci -  bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted disease chlamydia
  • Chlamydia trachomatis -  bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted diseases chlamydia and lymphogranuloma venereum
  • Chlamydiaceae -  Gram-negative parasites in warm-blooded vertebrates
  • Chloramphenicol -  an oral antibiotic (trade name Chloromycetin) used to treat serious infections (especially typhoid fever)
  • Cholera -  an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
  • chronic -  being long-lasting and recurrent or characterized by long suffering
  • Chronic gastritis -  persistent gastritis can be a symptom of a gastric ulcer or pernicious anemia or stomach cancer or other disorders
  • Ciprofloxacin -  an oral antibiotic (trade name Cipro) used against serious bacterial infections of the skin or respiratory tract or urinary tract or bones or joints
  • Clostridia -  spindle-shaped bacterial cell especially one swollen at the center by an endospore
  • Clostridium -  spindle-shaped bacterial cell especially one swollen at the center by an endospore
  • Clostridium botulinum -  anaerobic bacterium producing botulin the toxin that causes botulism
  • Clostridium perfringens -  anaerobic Gram-positive rod bacterium that produces epsilon toxin; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Cocci -  any spherical or nearly spherical bacteria
  • coccobacillus -  a bacterial cell intermediate in morphology between a coccus and a bacillus; a very short bacillus
  • combination -  the act of combining things to form a new whole; the act of arranging elements into specified groups without regard to order; a collection of things that have been combined; an assemblage of separate parts or qualities; an alliance of people or corporations or countries for a special purpose (formerly to achieve some antisocial end but now for general political or economic purposes); a group of people (often temporary) having a common purpose; a sequence of numbers or letters that opens a combination lock; a coordinated sequence of chess moves
  • Corynebacteriaceae -  a large family of mostly Gram-positive and aerobic and nonmotile rod-shaped bacteria of the order Eubacteriales
  • Corynebacterium -  any species of the genus Corynebacterium
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae -  a species of bacterium that causes diphtheria
  • cough -  the act of exhaling air suddenly with a noise; sudden expulsion of air from the lungs that clears the air passages; a common symptom of upper respiratory infection or bronchitis or pneumonia or tuberculosis;  exhale abruptly, as when one has a chest cold or congestion
  • cutaneous -  relating to or existing on or affecting the skin
  • Cystitis -  inflammation of the urinary bladder and ureters
  • Dapsone -  antibacterial drug used to treat leprosy and some kinds of skin diseases
  • darkly -  without light; in a dark glowering menacing manner
  • Debridement -  surgical removal of foreign material and dead tissue from a wound in order to prevent infection and promote healing
  • Diarrhea -  frequent and watery bowel movements; can be a symptom of infection or food poisoning or colitis or a gastrointestinal tumor
  • difficult -  not easy; requiring great physical or mental effort to accomplish or comprehend or endure; requiring much effort and trouble; difficult to manage or control
  • Diphtheria -  acute contagious infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae; marked by the formation of a false membrane in the throat and other air passages causing difficulty in breathing
  • Doxycycline -  an antibiotic derived from tetracycline that is effective against many infections
  • DPT vaccine -  abbreviation for combination vaccine against diphtheria and pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus toxoids; usually given in a series of injections in early childhood
  • drainage -  emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it
  • due to -  (usually followed by `to') able to be assigned or credited to
  • Either -  after a negative statement used as an intensive meaning something like `likewise' or `also'
  • endocarditis -  inflammation of the endocardium and heart valves
  • Endometritis -  inflammation of the lining of the uterus (of the endometrium)
  • Enteritis -  inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine); usually characterized by diarrhea
  • Entomology -  the branch of zoology that studies insects
  • Epididymitis -  painful inflammation of the epididymis
  • erysipelas -  an acute streptococcal infection characterized by deep-red inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes
  • erythromycin -  an antibiotic (trade name Erythrocin or E-Mycin or Ethril or Ilosone or Pediamycin) obtained from the actinomycete Streptomyces erythreus; effective against many Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negative
  • Escherichia -  a genus of enteric bacteria
  • Escherichia coli -  a species of bacterium normally present in intestinal tract of humans and other animals; sometimes pathogenic; can be a threat to food safety
  • Extracellular -  located or occurring outside a cell or cells
  • fatigue -  (always used with a modifier) boredom resulting from overexposure to something; temporary loss of strength and energy resulting from hard physical or mental work; used of materials (especially metals) in a weakened state caused by long stress; labor of a nonmilitary kind done by soldiers (cleaning or digging or draining or so on);  exhaust or get tired through overuse or great strain or stress; get tired of something or somebody
  • fever -  intense nervous anticipation; a rise in the temperature of the body; frequently a symptom of infection
  • flagellum -  a lash-like appendage used for locomotion (e.g., in sperm cells and some bacteria and protozoa); a whip used to inflict punishment (often used for pedantic humor)
  • Fluid -  subject to change; variable; affording change (especially in social status); in cash or easily convertible to cash; characteristic of a fluid; capable of flowing and easily changing shape; smooth and unconstrained in movement;  a continuous amorphous substance that tends to flow and to conform to the outline of its container: a liquid or a gas; a substance that is fluid at room temperature and pressure
  • fomite -  any inanimate object (as a towel or money or clothing or dishes or books or toys etc.) that can transmit infectious agents from one person to another
  • food poisoning -  illness caused by poisonous or contaminated food
  • Francisella -  a genus of Gram-negative aerobic bacteria that occur as pathogens and parasite in many animals (including humans)
  • Francisella tularensis -  the type species of the genus Francisella and the causal agent of tularemia in humans; can be used as a bioweapon
  • fungi -  (pun) the one who buys the drinks; the taxonomic kingdom of lower plants
  • Further -  more distant in especially degree;  to or at a greater extent or degree or a more advanced stage (`further' is used more often than `farther' in this abstract sense); in addition or furthermore; to or at a greater distance in time or space (`farther' is used more frequently than `further' in this physical sense);  promote the growth of; contribute to the progress or growth of
  • Gas gangrene -  (pathology) a deadly form of gangrene usually caused by clostridium bacteria that produce toxins that cause tissue death; can be used as a bioweapon
  • gastroenteritis -  inflammation of the stomach and intestines; can be caused by Salmonella enteritidis
  • gastrointestinal -  of or relating to the stomach and intestines
  • gastrointestinal tract -  tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination
  • generally -  without distinction of one from others; usually; as a rule; without regard to specific details or exceptions
  • gentamicin -  an antibiotic (trade name Garamycin) that is derived from an actinomycete; used in treating infections of the urinary tract
  • Genus -  a general kind of something; (biology) taxonomic group containing one or more species
  • Glanders -  a destructive and contagious bacterial disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans
  • Gonococcus -  the pus-producing bacterium that causes gonorrhea
  • Gonorrhea -  a common venereal disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae; symptoms are painful urination and pain around the urethra
  • gram-negative -  (of bacteria) being of or relating to a bacterium that does not retain the violet stain used in Gram's method
  • Granuloma inguinale -  a venereal disease caused by a bacterium of the genus Calymmatobacterium; characterized by a pimply rash of the skin in the genital and groin region
  • group -  any number of entities (members) considered as a unit; a set that is closed, associative, has an identity element and every element has an inverse; (chemistry) two or more atoms bound together as a single unit and forming part of a molecule;  arrange into a group or groups; form a group or group together
  • HACEK -  a diacritical mark (an inverted circumflex) placed above certain letters (such as the letter c) to indicate pronunciation
  • Hansen's disease -  chronic granulomatous communicable disease occurring in tropical and subtropical regions; characterized by inflamed nodules beneath the skin and wasting of body parts; caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae
  • headache -  pain in the head caused by dilation of cerebral arteries or muscle contractions or a reaction to drugs; something or someone that causes anxiety; a source of unhappiness
  • hemoptysis -  coughing up blood from the respiratory tract; usually indicates a severe infection of the bronchi or lungs
  • honey -  of something having the color of honey;  a sweet yellow liquid produced by bees; a beloved person; used as terms of endearment;  sweeten with honey
  • immunodeficiency -  immunological disorder in which some part of the body's immune system is inadequate and resistance to infectious diseases is reduced
  • impetigo -  a very contagious infection of the skin; common in children; localized redness develops into small blisters that gradually crust and erode
  • indistinct -  not clearly defined or easy to perceive or understand
  • infection -  (international law) illegality that taints or contaminates a ship or cargo rendering it liable to seizure; moral corruption or contamination; an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted; (medicine) the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease; (phonetics) the alteration of a speech sound under the influence of a neighboring sound; the pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms; the communication of an attitude or emotional state among a number of people
  • Infectious disease -  a disease transmitted only by a specific kind of contact
  • Insect repellent -  a chemical substance that repels insects
  • Intracellular -  located or occurring within a cell or cells
  • Intravenous -  within or by means of a vein
  • Isoniazid -  antibacterial drug (trade name Nydrazid) used to treat tuberculosis
  • Ixodes -  type genus of the family Ixodidae
  • jaundice -  yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood; can be a symptom of gallstones or liver infection or anemia; a rough and bitter manner;  affect with, or as if with, jaundice; distort adversely
  • keratitis -  inflammation of the cornea causing watery painful eyes and blurred vision
  • kidney failure -  inability of the kidneys to excrete wastes and to help maintain the electrolyte balance
  • Klebsiella -  a genus of nonmotile rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria; some cause respiratory and other infections
  • Large -  having broad power and range and scope; above average in size or number or quantity or magnitude or extent; fairly large or important in effect; influential; in an advanced stage of pregnancy; conspicuous in position or importance; generous and understanding and tolerant; ostentatiously lofty in style;  with the wind abaft the beam; at a distance, wide of something (as of a mark); in a boastful manner;  a garment size for a large person
  • Later -  coming at a subsequent time or stage; at or toward an end or late period or stage of development;  comparative of the ad `late'; happening at a time subsequent to a reference time; at some eventual time in the future
  • Legionella -  the motile aerobic rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium that thrives in central heating and air conditioning systems and can cause Legionnaires' disease
  • Legionnaires' disease -  acute (sometimes fatal) lobar pneumonia caused by bacteria of a kind first recognized after an outbreak of the disease at an American Legion convention in Philadelphia in 1976; characterized by fever and muscle and chest pain and headache and chills and a dry cough
  • Lepromatous leprosy -  a very serious form of leprosy characterized by lesions that spread over much of the body and affecting many systems of the body
  • Leprosy -  chronic granulomatous communicable disease occurring in tropical and subtropical regions; characterized by inflamed nodules beneath the skin and wasting of body parts; caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae
  • Leptospira -  important pathogens causing Weil's disease or canicola fever
  • Leptospirosis -  an infectious disease cause by leptospira and transmitted to humans from domestic animals; characterized by jaundice and fever
  • Listeria -  any species of the genus Listeria
  • Listeria monocytogenes -  the type species of the genus Listeria; can cause meningitis, encephalitis, septicemia, endocarditis, abortion, abscesses, listeriosis
  • Listeriosis -  an infectious disease of animals and humans (especially newborn or immunosuppressed persons) caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes; in sheep and cattle the infection frequently involves the central nervous system and causes various neurological symptoms
  • Lupus vulgaris -  tuberculosis of the skin; appears first on the face and heals slowly leaving deep scars
  • Lyme arthritis -  an acute inflammatory disease characterized by a rash with joint swelling and fever; caused by bacteria carried by the bite of a deer tick
  • Lyme disease -  an acute inflammatory disease characterized by a rash with joint swelling and fever; caused by bacteria carried by the bite of a deer tick
  • lymphadenopathy -  chronic abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes (usually associated with disease)
  • Lymphogranuloma venereum -  infectious disease caused by a species of chlamydia bacterium; transmitted by sexual contact; characterized by genital lesions and swelling of lymph nodes in the groin
  • mainly -  for the most part
  • Meningitis -  infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection; symptoms include headache and stiff neck and fever and nausea
  • methicillin -  antibiotic drug of the penicillin family used in the treatment of certain staphylococcal infections
  • metronidazole -  antiprotozoal medication (trade name Flagyl) used to treat trichomoniasis and giardiasis
  • microbiology -  the branch of biology that studies microorganisms and their effects on humans
  • motile -  (of spores or microorganisms) capable of movement;  one whose prevailing mental imagery takes the form of inner feelings of action
  • mouth -  the opening of a jar or bottle; the externally visible part of the oral cavity on the face and the system of organs surrounding the opening; the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge; the point where a stream issues into a larger body of water; an opening that resembles a mouth (as of a cave or a gorge); a person conceived as a consumer of food; an impudent or insolent rejoinder; a spokesperson (as a lawyer);  articulate silently; form words with the lips only; touch with the mouth; express in speech
  • Murine typhus -  acute infection caused by rickettsia and transmitted by the bite of an infected flea; characterized by fever and chills and muscle aches and a rash
  • Mycobacteriaceae -  a family of bacteria
  • Mycobacterium -  rod-shaped bacteria some saprophytic or causing diseases
  • Mycobacterium leprae -  cause of leprosy
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis -  cause of tuberculosis
  • Mycology -  the branch of botany that studies fungi and fungus-caused diseases
  • Mycoplasma -  any of a group of small parasitic bacteria that lack a cell walls and can survive without oxygen; can cause pneumonia and urinary tract infection
  • Mycoplasmataceae -  pleomorphic Gram-negative nonmotile microorganism similar to both viruses and bacteria; parasitic in mammals
  • Nafcillin -  a penicillinase-resistant form of penicillin (trade name Nafcil) used (usually in the form of its sodium salt) to treat infections caused by penicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci
  • Negative -  expressing or consisting of a negation or refusal or denial; having the quality of something harmful or unpleasant; characterized by or displaying negation or denial or opposition or resistance; having no positive features; less than zero; reckoned in a direction opposite to that regarded as positive; not indicating the presence of microorganisms or disease or a specific condition; having a negative electric charge; involving disadvantage or harm; designed or tending to discredit, especially without positive or helpful suggestions;  a piece of photographic film showing an image with black and white tones reversed; a reply of denial;  vote against; refuse to endorse; refuse to assent
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae -  the pus-producing bacterium that causes gonorrhea
  • Neonatal -  relating to or affecting the infant during the first month after birth
  • nerves -  control of your emotions; an uneasy psychological state
  • neurological -  of or relating to or used in or practicing neurology
  • Nongonococcal urethritis -  sexually transmitted urethritis (usually caused by chlamydia)
  • nonmotile -  (of spores or microorganisms) not capable of movement
  • note -  a characteristic emotional quality; a brief written record; a short personal letter; a comment or instruction (usually added); a notation representing the pitch and duration of a musical sound; a tone of voice that shows what the speaker is feeling; a promise to pay a specified amount on demand or at a certain time; a piece of paper money (especially one issued by a central bank); high status importance owing to marked superiority;  make mention of; make a written note of; observe with care or pay close attention to; notice or perceive
  • novobiocin -  an antibiotic obtained from an actinomycete and used to treat infections by Gram-positive bacteria
  • Ophthalmia neonatorum -  ophthalmia in newborns; contracted while passing through the birth canal; usually prevented with silver nitrate drops
  • opportunistic -  taking immediate advantage, often unethically, of any circumstance of possible benefit
  • oral sex -  oral stimulation of the genitals
  • Osteomyelitis -  an inflammation of bone and bone marrow (usually caused by bacterial infection)
  • Other -  very unusual; different in character or quality from the normal or expected; recently past; not the same one or ones already mentioned or implied; belonging to the distant past
  • Otitis media -  inflammation of the middle ear; common in children
  • ovoid -  rounded like an egg;  an egg-shaped object
  • oxacillin -  a form of penicillin resistant to penicillinase and effective against penicillin-resistant staphylococci
  • painful -  causing physical or psychological pain; causing physical discomfort; exceptionally bad or displeasing; causing misery or pain or distress
  • painless -  requiring little hard work or exertion; not causing physical or psychological pain
  • pallidum -  the inner pale yellow part of the lenticular nucleus
  • paralysis -  loss of the ability to move a body part
  • Paratyphoid fever -  any of a variety of infectious intestinal diseases resembling typhoid fever
  • Pasteurellosis -  an acute infectious disease characterized by pneumonia and blood infection
  • pelvic cavity -  the space bounded by the bones of the pelvis and containing the pelvic viscera
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease -  inflammation of the female pelvic organs (especially the Fallopian tubes) caused by infection by any of several microorganisms (chiefly gonococci and chlamydia); symptoms are abdominal pain and fever and foul-smelling vaginal discharge
  • Penicillin -  any of various antibiotics obtained from Penicillium molds (or produced synthetically) and used in the treatment of various infections and diseases
  • penicillin G -  the penicillin that constitutes the principal component of many commercial antibiotics
  • Peptic ulcer -  an ulcer of the mucous membrane lining of the alimentary tract
  • Pertussis -  a disease of the respiratory mucous membrane
  • Plague -  an annoyance; any large scale calamity (especially when thought to be sent by God); any epidemic disease with a high death rate; a serious (sometimes fatal) infection of rodents caused by Yersinia pestis and accidentally transmitted to humans by the bite of a flea that has bitten an infected animal; a swarm of insects that attack plants;  annoy continually or chronically; cause to suffer a blight
  • pneumonia -  respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants
  • Pneumonic plague -  a rapidly progressive and frequently fatal form of the plague that can spread through the air from person to person; characterized by lung involvement with chill, bloody expectoration and high fever
  • Positive -  formally laid down or imposed; characterized by or displaying affirmation or acceptance or certainty etc.; greater than zero; reckoned, situated or tending in the direction which naturally or arbitrarily is taken to indicate increase or progress or onward motion; indicating existence or presence of a suspected condition or pathogen; having a positive electric charge; involving advantage or good; persuaded of; very sure; marked by excessive confidence; impossible to deny or disprove; of or relating to positivism;  a film showing a photographic image whose tones correspond to those of the original subject
  • Positive -  formally laid down or imposed; characterized by or displaying affirmation or acceptance or certainty etc.; greater than zero; reckoned, situated or tending in the direction which naturally or arbitrarily is taken to indicate increase or progress or onward motion; indicating existence or presence of a suspected condition or pathogen; having a positive electric charge; involving advantage or good; persuaded of; very sure; marked by excessive confidence; impossible to deny or disprove; of or relating to positivism;  a film showing a photographic image whose tones correspond to those of the original subject
  • possible -  capable of happening or existing; existing in possibility; capable of being imagined;  something that can be done; an applicant who might be suitable
  • postpartum -  occurring immediately after birth
  • poultry -  flesh of chickens or turkeys or ducks or geese raised for food; a domesticated gallinaceous bird thought to be descended from the red jungle fowl
  • Prevention -  the act of preventing
  • primarily -  of primary import; for the most part
  • Prolonged -  (of illness) developing slowly or of long duration; drawn out or made longer spatially; relatively long in duration; tediously protracted
  • Proper -  appropriate for a condition or purpose or occasion or a person's character, needs; marked by suitability or rightness or appropriateness; having all the qualities typical of the thing specified
  • Prostatitis -  inflammation of the prostate gland characterized by perineal pain and irregular urination and (if severe) chills and fever
  • protozoa -  in some classifications considered a superphylum or a subkingdom; comprises flagellates; ciliates; sporozoans; amoebas; foraminifers
  • Pseudomonadales -  one of two usually recognized orders of true bacteria; Gram-negative spiral or spherical or rod-shaped bacteria usually motile by polar flagella; some contain photosynthetic pigments
  • Pseudomonas -  type genus of the family Pseudomonodaceae
  • Psittacosis -  an atypical pneumonia caused by a rickettsia microorganism and transmitted to humans from infected birds; infectious disease of birds
  • Puerperal fever -  serious form of septicemia contracted by a woman during childbirth or abortion (usually attributable to unsanitary conditions); formerly widespread but now uncommon
  • pulmonary -  relating to or affecting the lungs
  • Q fever -  an acute disease resembling influenza
  • rectum -  the terminal section of the alimentary canal; from the sigmoid flexure to the anus
  • Relapsing fever -  marked by recurring high fever and transmitted by the bite of infected lice or ticks; characterized by episodes of high fever and chills and headache and muscle pain and nausea that recur every week or ten days for several months
  • respiratory tract -  the passages through which air enters and leaves the body
  • Rheumatic fever -  a severe disease chiefly of children and characterized by painful inflammation of the joints and frequently damage to the heart valves
  • Rickettsia -  any of a group of very small rod-shaped bacteria that live in biting arthropods (as ticks and mites) and cause disease in vertebrate hosts; they cause typhus and other febrile diseases in human beings
  • Rickettsiaceae -  microorganism resembling bacteria inhabiting arthropod tissues but capable of causing disease in vertebrates
  • Rickettsiales -  pleomorphic Gram-negative microorganisms
  • Rickettsialpox -  mild infectious rickettsial disease caused by a bacterium of the genus Rickettsia transmitted to humans by the bite a mite that lives on rodents; characterized by chills and fever and headache and skin lesions that resemble chickenpox
  • rifampin -  an antibacterial drug (trade names Rifadin and Rimactane) used to treat tuberculosis
  • Rocky mountain spotted fever -  caused by rickettsial bacteria and transmitted by wood ticks
  • round -  (mathematics) expressed to the nearest integer, ten, hundred, or thousand; having a circular shape; (of sounds) full and rich;  from beginning to end; throughout;  the usual activities in your day; (often plural) a series of professional calls (usually in a set order); a charge of ammunition for a single shot; an outburst of applause; a partsong in which voices follow each other; one voice starts and others join in one after another until all are singing different parts of the song at the same time; a cut of beef between the rump and the lower leg; a serving to each of a group (usually alcoholic); the course along which communications spread; the activity of playing 18 holes of golf; any circular or rotating mechanism; a crosspiece between the legs of a chair; a regular route for a sentry or policeman; (sports) a period of play during which one team is on the offensive; an interval during which a recurring sequence of events occurs;  become round, plump, or shapely; make round; proce with rounded lips; wind around; move along a circular course; express as a round number; bring to a highly developed, finished, or refined state; attack in speech or writing; be around
  • Safe sex -  sexual activity (especially sexual intercourse) with the use of measures (such as latex condoms) to avoid the transmission of disease (especially AIDS)
  • Salmonella -  rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria; cause typhoid fever and food poisoning; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Salmonella typhi -  a form of salmonella that causes typhoid fever
  • Salmonella typhimurium -  a form of salmonella that causes food poisoning in humans
  • salmonellosis -  a kind of food poisoning caused by eating foods contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium
  • sanitation -  making something sanitary (free of germs) as by sterilizing; the state of being clean and conducive to health
  • Scarlet fever -  an acute communicable disease (usually in children) characterized by fever and a red rash
  • Scrub typhus -  transmitted by larval mites and widespread in Asia
  • Secondary -  belonging to a lower class or rank; not of major importance; being of second rank or importance or value; not direct or immediate; depending on or incidental to what is original or primary; inferior in rank or status;  the defensive football players who line up behind the linemen; coil such that current is induced in it by passing a current through the primary coil
  • sepsis -  the presence of pus-forming bacteria or their toxins in the blood or tissues
  • Serratia -  a genus of motile peritrichous bacteria that contain small Gram-negative rod
  • Serratia marcescens -  the type species of the genus Serratia; a species found in water and soil and milk and foods and insects; can cause infections of the endocardium and blood and wounds and urinary tract and respiratory tract; has been tested as a bioweapon
  • Severe -  very bad in degree or extent; unsparing and uncompromising in discipline or judgment; intensely or extremely bad or unpleasant in degree or quality; causing fear or anxiety by threatening great harm; severely simple; very strong or vigorous
  • Sexual -  having or involving sex; of or relating to or characterized by sexuality; involved in a sexual relationship
  • Sexually -  by sexual means; with respect to sexuality
  • Shape -  the spatial arrangement of something as distinct from its substance; any spatial attributes (especially as defined by outline); a concrete representation of an otherwise nebulous concept; the visual appearance of something or someone; alternative names for the body of a human being; a perceptual structure; the supreme headquarters that advises NATO on military matters and oversees all aspects of the Allied Command Europe; the state of (good) health (especially in the phrases `in condition' or `in shape' or `out of condition' or `out of shape');  give shape or form to; make something, usually for a specific function; shape or influence; give direction to
  • sheep -  woolly usually horned ruminant mammal related to the goat; a docile and vulnerable person who would rather follow than make an independent decision; a timid defenseless simpleton who is readily preyed upon
  • Shigella -  rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria; some are pathogenic for warm-blooded animals; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Shigellosis -  an acute infection of the intestine by shigella bacteria; characterized by diarrhea and fever and abdominal pains
  • shock -  the violent interaction of individuals or groups entering into combat; an unpleasant or disappointing surprise; an instance of agitation of the earth's crust; a bushy thick mass (especially hair); a pile of sheaves of grain set on end in a field to dry; stalks of Indian corn set up in a field; (pathology) bodily collapse or near collapse caused by inadequate oxygen delivery to the cells; characterized by reduced cardiac output and rapid heartbeat and circulatory insufficiency and pallor; a reflex response to the passage of electric current through the body; a mechanical damper; absorbs energy of sudden impulses; the feeling of distress and disbelief that you have when something bad happens accidentally;  subject to electrical shocks; collect or gather into shocks; collide violently; strike with horror or terror; surprise greatly; knock someone's socks off; strike with disgust or revulsion; inflict a trauma upon
  • short -  tending to crumble or break into flakes due to a large amount of shortening; (primarily spatial sense) having little length or lacking in length; primarily temporal sense; indicating or being or seeming to be limited in duration; of speech sounds or syllables of relatively short duration; not holding securities or commodities that one sells in expectation of a fall in prices; lacking foresight or scope; low in stature; not tall; marked by rude or peremptory shortness; (of memory) deficient in retentiveness or range; not sufficient to meet a need; less than the correct or legal or full amount often deliberately so;  at a disadvantage; so as to interrupt; at some point or distance before a goal is reached; clean across; without possessing something at the time it is contractually sold; quickly and without warning; in a curt, abrupt and discourteous manner;  the location on a baseball field where the shortstop is stationed; the fielding position of the player on a baseball team who is stationed between second and third base; accidental contact between two points in an electric circuit that have a potential difference;  create a short circuit in; cheat someone by not returning him enough money
  • silver nitrate -  a nitrate used in making photographic emulsions; also used in medicine as a cautery and as a topical antibacterial agent
  • sinusitis -  inflammation of one of the paranasal sinuses
  • Slender -  being of delicate or slender build; small in quantity; having little width in proportion to the length or height; very narrow; moving and bending with ease
  • Small -  limited or below average in number or quantity or magnitude or extent; slight or limited; especially in degree or intensity or scope; have fine or very small constituent particles; made to seem smaller or less (especially in worth); limited in size or scope; (of a voice) faint; lowercase; not large but sufficient in size or amount; (of children and animals) young, immature; low or inferior in station or quality;  on a small scale;  a garment size for a small person; the slender part of the back
  • Species -  a specific kind of something; (biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
  • Spectinomycin -  an antibiotic used to treat gonorrhea
  • Spiral -  in the shape of a coil;  flying downward in a helical path with a large radius; ornament consisting of a curve on a plane that winds around a center with an increasing distance from the center; a plane curve traced by a point circling about the center but at increasing distances from the center; a structure consisting of something wound in a continuous series of loops; a curve that lies on the surface of a cylinder or cone and cuts the element at a constant angle;  form a spiral; to wind or move in a spiral course; move in a spiral or zigzag course
  • Spirochaetaceae -  large coarsely spiral bacteria; free-living in fresh or salt water or commensal in bodies of oysters
  • Spirochaete -  parasitic or free-living bacteria; many pathogenic to humans and other animals
  • spirochete -  parasitic or free-living bacteria; many pathogenic to humans and other animals
  • Spotted -  especially of reputation; having spots or patches (small areas of contrasting color or texture)
  • sputum -  expectorated matter; saliva mixed with discharges from the respiratory passages; in ancient and medieval physiology it was believed to cause sluggishness
  • Standard -  commonly used or supplied; regularly and widely used or sold; established or widely recognized as a model of authority or excellence; conforming to or constituting a standard of measurement or value; or of the usual or regularized or accepted kind; conforming to the established language usage of educated native speakers;  any distinctive flag; an upright pole or beam (especially one used as a support); a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated; the value behind the money in a monetary system; a board measure = 1980 board feet; the ideal in terms of which something can be judged
  • Staphylococcus -  spherical Gram-positive parasitic bacteria that tend to form irregular colonies; some cause boils or septicemia or infections
  • Streptococcus -  spherical Gram-positive bacteria occurring in pairs or chains; cause e.g. scarlet fever and tonsillitis
  • streptomycin -  an antibiotic produced by the actinomycete Streptomyces griseus and used to treat tuberculosis
  • subspecies -  (biology) a taxonomic group that is a division of a species; usually arises as a consequence of geographical isolation within a species
  • susceptible -  (often followed by `of' or `to') yielding readily to or capable of; easily impressed emotionally
  • syndrome -  a complex of concurrent things; a pattern of symptoms indicative of some disease
  • Syphilis -  a common venereal disease caused by the treponema pallidum spirochete; symptoms change through progressive stages; can be congenital (transmitted through the placenta)
  • Tetanus -  a sustained muscular contraction resulting from a rapid series of nerve impulses; an acute and serious infection of the central nervous system caused by bacterial infection of open wounds; spasms of the jaw and laryngeal muscles may occur during the late stages
  • Tetanus immune globulin -  sterile solution of globulins derived from the blood plasma of a person who has been immunized for tetanus; provides short-term immunization against tetanus in cases of possible exposure to the tetanus bacillus
  • tetracycline -  an antibiotic (trade name Achromycin) derived from microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces and used broadly to treat infections
  • Topical -  of interest at the present time; pertaining to the surface of a body part; of or relating to or arranged by topics
  • Toxic shock syndrome -  syndrome resulting from a serious acute (sometimes fatal) infection associated with the presence of staphylococcus; characterized by fever and diarrhea and nausea and diffuse erythema and shock; occurs especially in menstruating women using highly absorbent tampons
  • trachoma -  a chronic contagious viral disease marked by inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye and the formation of scar tissue
  • Transmission -  the act of sending a message; causing a message to be transmitted; the gears that transmit power from an automobile engine via the driveshaft to the live axle; communication by means of transmitted signals; an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted; the fraction of radiant energy that passes through a substance
  • Treatment -  care by procedures or applications that are intended to relieve illness or injury; the management of someone or something; a manner of dealing with something artistically; an extended communication (often interactive) dealing with some particular topic
  • Trench fever -  marked by pain in muscles and joints and transmitted by lice
  • Treponema -  spirochete that causes disease in humans (e.g. syphilis and yaws)
  • Tuberculoid leprosy -  leprosy characterized by tumors in the skin and cutaneous nerves
  • tuberculosis -  infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
  • tuberculosis -  infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
  • Tularemia -  a highly infectious disease of rodents (especially rabbits and squirrels) and sometimes transmitted to humans by ticks or flies or by handling infected animals
  • Typhoid fever -  serious infection marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration; caused by Salmonella typhosa ingested with food or water
  • Typhus -  rickettsial disease transmitted by body lice and characterized by skin rash and high fever
  • unevenly -  in an uneven and irregular way; in an unequal or partial manner; in a ragged uneven manner
  • upper respiratory tract -  the nose and throat and trachea
  • urethral -  of or relating to the urethra
  • Urethritis -  inflammation of the urethra; results in painful urination
  • urinary tract -  the organs and tubes involved in the production and excretion of urine
  • urinary tract infection -  any infection of any of the organs of the urinary tract
  • vaccine -  immunogen consisting of a suspension of weakened or dead pathogenic cells injected in order to stimulate the production of antibodies
  • vagina -  the lower part of the female reproductive tract; a moist canal in female mammals extending from the labia minora to the uterus
  • Vancomycin -  an antibiotic (trade name Vancocin) effective against some bacterial infections
  • Vertical -  of or relating to different levels in a hierarchy (as levels of social class or income group); at right angles to the plane of the horizon or a base line; relating to or involving all stages of a business from production to distribution; upright in position or posture;  something that is oriented vertically; a vertical structural member as a post or stake
  • Vertical -  of or relating to different levels in a hierarchy (as levels of social class or income group); at right angles to the plane of the horizon or a base line; relating to or involving all stages of a business from production to distribution; upright in position or posture;  something that is oriented vertically; a vertical structural member as a post or stake
  • Vertically -  in a vertical direction
  • Vibrio -  curved rodlike motile bacterium
  • Virology -  the branch of medical science that studies viruses and viral diseases
  • Whooping cough -  a disease of the respiratory mucous membrane
  • Yaws -  an infectious tropical disease resembling syphilis in its early stages; marked by red skin eruptions and ulcerating lesions
  • Yersinia pestis -  a bacillus bacterium that causes the plague; aerosolized bacteria can be used as a bioweapon

More terms

  • Acidophile -  an organism that thrives in a relatively acid environment
  • Actinomyces -  soil-inhabiting saprophytes and disease-producing plant and animal parasites
  • Asgard -  (Norse mythology) the heavenly dwelling of the Norse gods (the Aesir) and slain war heroes
  • Axenic - adj. used of cultures of microorganisms; not contaminated by or completely free of the presence of other organisms; (of experimental animals) raised under sterile conditions
  • Bacillus -  aerobic rod-shaped spore-producing bacterium; often occurring in chainlike formations; found primarily in soil
  • Bacillus -  aerobic rod-shaped spore-producing bacterium; often occurring in chainlike formations; found primarily in soil
  • Bacillus subtilis -  a species of bacillus found in soil and decomposing organic matter; some strains produce antibiotics
  • Bacteria -  (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants
  • Bacteroidaceae -  family of bacteria living usually in the alimentary canal or on mucous surfaces of warm-blooded animals; sometimes associated with acute infective processes
  • Bacteroides -  type genus of Bacteroidaceae; genus of Gram-negative rodlike anaerobic bacteria producing no endospores and no pigment and living in the gut of man and animals
  • biology -  the science that studies living organisms; characteristic life processes and phenomena of living organisms; all the plant and animal life of a particular region
  • BM -  a euphemism for defecation; solid excretory product evacuated from the bowels
  • Borrelia -  cause of e.g. European and African relapsing fever
  • Ca -  a state in the western United States on the Pacific; the 3rd largest state; known for earthquakes; a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light; the fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust; an important component of most plants and animals
  • cam -  a rotating disk shaped to convert circular into linear motion; a river in east central England that flows past Cambridge to join the Ouse River
  • CC -  a metric unit of volume equal to one thousandth of a liter
  • Chlamydia -  coccoid rickettsia infesting birds and mammals; cause infections of eyes and lungs and genitourinary tract; a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria of the genus Chlamydia
  • Chlamydia -  coccoid rickettsia infesting birds and mammals; cause infections of eyes and lungs and genitourinary tract; a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria of the genus Chlamydia
  • Chlamydia psittaci -  bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted disease chlamydia
  • Chlamydia trachomatis -  bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted diseases chlamydia and lymphogranuloma venereum
  • Chlamydiaceae -  Gram-negative parasites in warm-blooded vertebrates
  • Chrysemys picta -  freshwater turtles having bright yellow and red markings; common in the eastern United States
  • class -  elegance in dress or behavior; people having the same social or economic status; a collection of things sharing a common attribute; (biology) a taxonomic group containing one or more orders; a body of students who are taught together; a body of students who graduate together; a league ranked by quality; education imparted in a series of lessons or meetings; verb arrange or order by classes or categories
  • Class -  elegance in dress or behavior; people having the same social or economic status; a collection of things sharing a common attribute; (biology) a taxonomic group containing one or more orders; a body of students who are taught together; a body of students who graduate together; a league ranked by quality; education imparted in a series of lessons or meetings; verb arrange or order by classes or categories
  • Clostridia -  spindle-shaped bacterial cell especially one swollen at the center by an endospore
  • Clostridium -  spindle-shaped bacterial cell especially one swollen at the center by an endospore
  • Clostridium perfringens -  anaerobic Gram-positive rod bacterium that produces epsilon toxin; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Coccobacillus -  a bacterial cell intermediate in morphology between a coccus and a bacillus; a very short bacillus
  • Coccus -  any spherical or nearly spherical bacteria
  • ColE -  coarse curly-leafed cabbage; a hardy cabbage with coarse curly leaves that do not form a head
  • Cyanobacteria -  predominantly photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms containing a blue pigment in addition to chlorophyll; occur singly or in colonies in diverse habitats; important as phytoplankton
  • Cyanophyceae -  photosynthetic bacteria found in fresh and salt water, having chlorophyll a and phycobilins; once thought to be algae: blue-green algae
  • Decolonization -  the action of changing from colonial to independent status
  • Diplococcus -  Gram-positive bacteria usually occurring in pairs
  • Enterobacteriaceae -  a large family of Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria of the order Eubacteriales
  • Escherichia coli -  a species of bacterium normally present in intestinal tract of humans and other animals; sometimes pathogenic; can be a threat to food safety
  • Flagellum -  a lash-like appendage used for locomotion (e.g., in sperm cells and some bacteria and protozoa); a whip used to inflict punishment (often used for pedantic humor)
  • Gal -  alliterative term for girl (or woman); a unit of gravitational acceleration equal to one centimeter per second per second (named after Galileo); United States liquid unit equal to 4 quarts or 3.785 liters
  • Genus -  a general kind of something; (biology) taxonomic group containing one or more species
  • Gut -  a narrow channel or strait; a strong cord made from the intestines of sheep and used in surgery; the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus; verb remove the guts of; empty completely; destroy the inside of
  • Halobacterium -  halophiles in saline environments such as the Dead Sea or salt flats
  • Halophile -  archaebacteria requiring a salt-rich environment for growth and survival
  • Lactobacillus -  Gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria that produce lactic acid especially in milk
  • Legionella -  the motile aerobic rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium that thrives in central heating and air conditioning systems and can cause Legionnaires' disease
  • Leptospira -  important pathogens causing Weil's disease or canicola fever
  • Leptospirosis -  an infectious disease cause by leptospira and transmitted to humans from domestic animals; characterized by jaundice and fever
  • Lichen -  any thallophytic plant of the division Lichenes; occur as crusty patches or bushy growths on tree trunks or rocks or bare ground etc.; any of several eruptive skin diseases characterized by hard thick lesions grouped together and resembling lichens growing on rocks
  • Micrococcaceae -  spherical or elliptical usually aerobic eubacteria that produce yellow or orange or red pigment; includes toxin-producing forms as well as harmless commensals and saprophytes
  • monas -  a singular metaphysical entity from which material properties are said to derive
  • Mycobacterium -  rod-shaped bacteria some saprophytic or causing diseases
  • NC -  a state in southeastern United States; one of the original 13 colonies
  • Nematode -  unsegmented worms with elongated rounded body pointed at both ends; mostly free-living but some are parasitic
  • Painted turtle -  freshwater turtles having bright yellow and red markings; common in the eastern United States
  • phylum -  (biology) the major taxonomic group of animals and plants; contains classes; (linguistics) a large group of languages that are historically related
  • Pilus -  hairlike structure especially on the surface of a cell or microorganism; any of the cylindrical filaments characteristically growing from the epidermis of a mammal
  • plasmid -  a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication
  • Pseudomonas -  type genus of the family Pseudomonodaceae
  • Purple bacteria -  free-living Gram-negative pink to purplish-brown bacteria containing bacteriochlorophyll
  • Salmonella -  rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria; cause typhoid fever and food poisoning; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Serratia marcescens -  the type species of the genus Serratia; a species found in water and soil and milk and foods and insects; can cause infections of the endocardium and blood and wounds and urinary tract and respiratory tract; has been tested as a bioweapon
  • Shigella -  rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria; some are pathogenic for warm-blooded animals; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Species -  a specific kind of something; (biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
  • Spirochaeta -  the type genus of the family Spirochaetaceae; a bacterium that is flexible, undulating, and chiefly aquatic
  • Spirochaetaceae -  large coarsely spiral bacteria; free-living in fresh or salt water or commensal in bodies of oysters
  • Spirochaete -  parasitic or free-living bacteria; many pathogenic to humans and other animals
  • Spring peeper -  a small brown tree toad having a shrill call heard near wetlands of eastern United States and Canada in early spring
  • Staphylococcus -  spherical Gram-positive parasitic bacteria that tend to form irregular colonies; some cause boils or septicemia or infections
  • Strain -  an intense or violent exertion; (physics) deformation of a physical body under the action of applied forces; injury to a muscle (often caused by overuse); results in swelling and pain; (psychology) nervousness resulting from mental stress; the act of singing; an effortful attempt to attain a goal; a lineage or race of people; the general meaning or substance of an utterance; a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence; a special variety of domesticated animals within a species; (biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups; difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension; verb use to the utmost; exert vigorously or to full capacity; become stretched or tense or taught; cause to be tense and uneasy or nervous or anxious; alter the shape of (something) by stress; to exert much effort or energy; rub through a strainer or process in an electric blender; remove by passing through a filter; separate by passing through a sieve or other straining device to separate out coarser elements; test the limits of
  • Streptococcus -  spherical Gram-positive bacteria occurring in pairs or chains; cause e.g. scarlet fever and tonsillitis
  • Subgenus -  (biology) taxonomic group between a genus and a species
  • Syphilis -  a common venereal disease caused by the treponema pallidum spirochete; symptoms change through progressive stages; can be congenital (transmitted through the placenta)
  • Tardigrade -  an arthropod of the division Tardigrada
  • taxonomy -  practice of classifying plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships; (biology) study of the general principles of scientific classification; a classification of organisms into groups based on similarities of structure or origin etc
  • Thermoacidophile -  archaebacteria that thrive in strongly acidic environments at high temperatures
  • Xerophile -  plant adapted for life with a limited supply of water; compare hydrophyte and mesophyte
  • Xerophyte -  plant adapted for life with a limited supply of water; compare hydrophyte and mesophyte

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