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foods of animal origin an intelligent discussion of this lesson leads us directly into a subject commonly known as "Vegetarianism." the question whether man should eat the flesh of animals is especially fascinating for those who give attention to the food they eat. There are many standpoints, however, from which the subject of vegetarianism may be discussed.

in the first place, nearly all religious teachings that have wielded such a powerful influence over the civilization and destiny of men, have laid some restrictions upon the flesh-eating habit. Some religions require man to refrain from all animal products, while others interdict only the flesh of certain animals. Coupled with man's world-wide search for food, these religious teachings have played a conspicuous part in the question of human nutrition.

the second phase of the question that merits attention is the moral side, or vegetarianism from the animal's standpoint; in other words, the cruelty involved in the slaughter of our dumb friends and helpers, for whose presence here we are largely responsible. That the practises and customs which train humanity in cruelty toward animal life, are to be discouraged, cannot well be disputed, but this phase of vegetarianism is one which is somewhat without the realm of applied food chemistry, hence is mentioned only as a factor in the general discussion. I will now consider vegetarianism from the standpoint of true food science, or the welfare of the physical man. It will be observed that in the lesson entitled "Evolution of man," one of the first considerations taken up is the scientific vegetarianism from standpoint of scientific livingdiscussion of man's natural adaptation to the use of flesh foods. By natural adaptation I mean nature's evolutionary plan of fitting the physiological organism to the food man is able to procure. The organism of man will, to a certain extent, adapt itself to a given diet within the brief period of one generation, just as, in the long ages of evolution, the digestive organs of any species of animal become adapted to such diet as may be procured. Thus it is of especial importance for us to know the diet of primitive man at a time before his intellectual resourcefulness made it possible for him to gather his bill of fare from the four corners of the earth. The diet of our related anthropoid apes, of every primitive savage tribe, and of our ancestors, indications of which have been found in fossils and caves—all three throw light upon the subject. The consensus of these various studies indicates primitive diet of manthat the original or natural diet of man was one drawn chiefly from the vegetable kingdom, but not entirely so. Fruits, nuts, green vegetables, edible foliage, tubers or roots were all included in man's primitive diet. The foods of animal origin were varied, and consisted of such articles as birds, eggs, shell-fish, many insects, and other forms of lower animal life, of which our modern habit of eating frogs' legs, eels, escargots , etc., is merely an inheritance.

since the digestive, the assimilative, and the excretory organs of man have been constructed from, and adapted to, the use of vegetables, it is obvious that the flesh of animals is unnecessary, especially in view of the fact that there is nothing in flesh that cannot be secured from the vegetable world in its best and purest form. Man's primitive diet does not prove that he is by nature a vegetarian, as is the cow, and therefore entirely unsuited to digest any material of animal origin. The anatomy of man's teeth and of his digestive organs, however, indicates that he is by nature a vegetarian, and that his digestive organs are prepared to dissolve and to assimilate a diet that is somewhat more bulky than that of carnivorous animals, but, on the other hand, less bulky than the diet of animals which subsist wholly upon succulent plants, as do the purely herbivorous species.

man is by nature a tropical animal, and so long as his habitat was confined to that section, he could live from the prodigality of nature, but when he began his early migration northward, his food was the greatest problem he had to solve. He was often forced to choose between eating the flesh of animals and death from starvation. It was this fierce struggle for food, not the character of his food, which exercised both the physical and the mental powers, and caused the aryan or northern races to think, and therefore to develop into people so much superior to their tropical brothers.

the defenders of flesh food often point to the fact that flesh-eating people have achieved the highest civilization. Man's superior achievement in northern countries can no more be credited to flesh-eating than to the wearing of fur caps or leather boots. To meet the exigencies of his environment, he was forced to think and to work, and thinking and working developed the brain and laid the foundation for his present stage of civilization. Another reason for the early habit of flesh-eating is found in the fact that in order to sustain the required amount of body-heat in cold climates, a liberal consumption of fat was necessary. Vegetable fats not being available, his only source of supply was from the body-fat of animals.

aside from fat, protein is the only nutritive element meat contains. With the variety of vegetable and butter-fats, and vegetable proteins available in this age, supplemented by our knowledge of chemistry as a guide in their use, the consumption of flesh as an article of human food is entirely unscientific and wholly without reason.

a diet composed exclusively of flesh contains fat and nitrogenous compounds only. These two classes of foods can, of course, maintain life, as was explained in our sixth lesson, as proteid is capable of forming blood, sugar, and body-fat. The fact, however, that the proteid or the fat of meat can be made to fill, in the physiological economy, the place naturally supplied by the carbohydrate materials of vegetable food, does not prove that such a diet is without its harmful effects. The living body has many wonderful provisions whereby life is maintained under unfavorable influences. Just as a blind person develops a sense of touch which in a way acts as a substitute for sight, so the ability of the body to convert either proteins or fats into sugar, may be utilized in cases of emergency, but the using of this emergency or substitute function of the body cannot develop and energize the human machine as well or as perfectly as can a naturally balanced diet. The fact that some people exist largely upon a meat diet does not prove that this is without its handicapping and evil influences, any more than the use of alcohol and tobacco proves that man is benefited by indulging in intoxicants and sedative poisons. That flesh-eating is largely responsible for the universal desire among civilized people for some form of stimulant has ceased to be questioned by those who have been placed in a position to make experiments—the source from flesh-eating produces appetite for stimulantswhich all real knowledge is obtained. These conclusions were first forced upon the writer by noticing the gradual decline of appetite for coffee and tobacco in his own case, when he began to subsist upon natural foods. With this hint no opportunity was lost, among the thousands of patients he treated, to observe the effects and get at the truth. If only one or two people had completely lost their appetite for all forms of stimulation, after following a natural food regimen, it might have revealed only an idiosyncrasy. When a dozen undergo the same treatment, with the same results, it leaves but little doubt that the theory may be true, but when many hundreds give the same testimony, through a period of a dozen years' practise, it reveals a truth that cannot be consistently doubted. Such experience proves beyond doubt that flesh-eating supports and perpetuates the habit of taking distilled and ardent liquors, tobacco, tea, and coffee, and the numerous drugs which, altogether, have done the human race more harm; dethroned more intelligence; sapped from the human economy more vitality; ruined more homes; made more widows and orphans; changed more natural virtue into vice, and caused more sorrow and tears, more failure and fears, than all other agencies of destruction combined. Since fats and proteins are the only nutrients supplied by flesh foods, we may well ask, "Is meat the best source from which these elements may be secured?

the proteid substance of meat includes all the edible portion of a carcass except the fat. The proteid of meat is more easily and more rapidly digested than the proteid of vegetables. Notwithstanding this fact, there are serious objections to the use of meat as a source of nitrogen. All flesh food contains the unexcreted waste matter of the slaughtered animal. When the process of metabolism that is continually going on during life is suddenly arrested by death, the effete and decomposing cells, and the partly oxidized waste-products which are still held in the muscle-tissues, are left in the flesh of the dead animal, hence these poisons must be consumed by the flesh-eater in order to secure the meat proteins and fats.

it is now a matter of common knowledge among scientists, and among the more advanced school of pathologists, that the usual conditions under which animals are slain change the chemical constituents of the blood-serum, charging it with a form of poison that to the chemist is as yet unknown, but the presence and the potency of which is attested by its effect.

the method of slaughtering animals in the great abattoirs is especially conducive to the generation of these poisons. The condemned herd is driven to the place of slaughter and killed, one at a time, in plain view of their fellows. These animals are very intelligent and possess remarkable senses of danger. They are as conscious of approaching death as the creature who takes their lives, hence the amount of poisons generated in their bodies is measured by the time they are kept in waiting. Most animals when killed labor under these conditions, and that these mental states render their flesh entirely unfit for human nutrition can no longer be questioned.

we find fragments of evidence supporting this theory in the fact that nature's perfect food—the milk of a nursing animal, or of a nursing mother—can be changed in an instant into a poison by sudden fright, anger, or fear.

thus we see that in eating meat, we are eating animal waste-material similar to that thrown off through our own body-cells. The waste material in meat being soluble, passes through the walls of our digestive organs, and enters the circulation, where it is added to similar poisons which are constantly being produced within our own bodies. It is the universal law of animal cell-growth that the waste matter of the cell acts as its own poison. When bacteria, growing in a solution of sugar, have excreted alcohol until it forms a certain percentage of the total contents, their activity ceases—they die from poisons thrown off from their own bodies. This is the reason that liquids containing a high percentage of alcohol must be distilled, and cannot be brewed. It is obvious, therefore, that in the consumption of flesh, we are adding to our bodies the poisons that are residual in the body of other animals, and are, therefore, approaching the conditions under which bacteria kill themselves by autointoxication or self-poisoning. Plants utilize the carbon dioxid excreted by the animal, and the excrement of animals is in turn used to fertilize our fields. Although one form of life may utilize what is excreted by another form of life, the living thing that cannot get away from the excreted matter of its own activity is poisoned thereby.

the flesh of animals whose physiological processes are almost identical with our own, containing as it does waste-products that have not yet been excreted, must, when taken into the human body, add extra burdens to our excretory organs which are usually burdened with all they can do. Carnivorous animals are especially provided with an excretory system capable of taking care of such matter, but it is unreasonable to expect the excretory organs of man, which are not adapted to such a purpose, to throw off, in addition to the regular body-poisons, similar decomposing products of other animals.

it is true that flesh will support, and has supported what is commonly regarded as a high form of anthropoid life , but not having the natural standard from which to measure, we do not know how much better the opposite course would have been, or just how much longer one would live under a perfectly natural regimen. The effects of flesh-eating have not been definitely known until recent years, but is now acknowledged by the most advanced authorities to be one of the greatest errors of civilized people, and will, within a few years, disappear from the catalog of human habits, when the great masses of people are made familiar with the chemistry of food, and how to secure vegetable instead of animal proteins and fats.

meat, in the sense the word is here used, includes beef, mutton, pork, and an occasional allowance of wild game. Chemically considered, meat may be divided into two classes, namely flesh or lean meat, and animal fats. The former will be first considered.

lean meat is composed of the muscles of the animal. Approximately it is 70 per cent water, 20 per cent protein, and 10 per cent fat. The protein is composed of connective tissue, which is a tough, fibrous substance that forms tendons, and holds the muscle-cells in place. Chemically, connective tissue is formed of albuminoids, which were discussed in lesson iv. These substances are somewhat difficult to digest, and are not of very great importance in the human body, as they cannot take the place of true proteid in tissue-formation. The percentage of connective tissue in flesh depends upon the cut of the meat. As every housewife knows, the cheapest cuts of meat contain a larger amount of this material. The gelatin of commerce is a manufactured product derived from the connective tissue of animals. Other forms of protein are globulin and myosin, which form the actual muscle-substance. These elements form perhaps three-fourths of the entire proteid of the animal, and are the most valuable substances of flesh food. A very small portion of meat proteins is formed by the free albumins of the blood, which are mechanically retained in the muscle-cells, the purpose of which is the nourishment of the animal, and therefore are not unwholesome as food.

another class of nitrogenous substances found in flesh foods is called meat extractives. Though they exist only in quantities of from one to two per cent of the weight of the flesh, they are the most interesting from the standpoint of chemistry, because they are found only in flesh foods, and are products only of cell life, hence not wholesome as food. They are composed of urea, uric acid, creatin, etc., and are similar or identical to the waste-products of human cell metabolism. The amount of these substances contained in flesh depends upon the condition of the animal at the time of slaughter, being much greater in animals slain after the chase, or laboring under fear or abuse. The chemical composition of the different cuts of meat does not vary greatly, except in a greater or less per cent of fat, and no chemical calculation can compute this accurately, as the fat in every cut of meat varies widely.

beef and mutton are comparatively the same in both nutritive value and popularity, but the use of pork has been generally condemned the world over. The reason for this is probably explained by prejudices of tradition and religion, rather than by scientific or hygienic knowledge. The prejudice against swine because of the filthy habits of the animal is more a matter of sentiment than of science. It is sometimes the custom among farmers to confine hogs in a pen, and to feed them upon swill and garbage. This makes of the animal a filthy creature. However, when left in the open fields or woods, they are as cleanly in their habits as any of their brother animals. Corn and alfalfa-fed pork is equally as wholesome as beef or mutton, when prepared in a similar manner, and eaten in temperate quantities, while the hog fattened upon acorns and herbs, in his native habitat , is much more healthy, and his flesh really superior to most of his brother animals.

the use of animal fats as food is a very ancient custom, especially among the northern tribes. This custom was once justified owing to the necessity for the consumption of a liberal amount of fats in cold countries, but in this country where our marvelous system of international transportation places at the door of every northern home the delicious fats from the olive orchards of italy, france, and spain, the refined oil from the cottonseed, and more than a dozen varieties of nuts, including the humble peanut, there is but little necessity for the use of animal fats except in the form of butter and cream.

perhaps the most injurious way in which animal fats are used is in the process of frying, which is much practised in southern countries in the preparation of other food. The chemical change which takes place in fats, when treated in this manner, renders them exceedingly indigestible, and almost wholly unfit for food. That per cent of animal fats contained in the ordinary meat diet is quite as wholesome as any other element of nutrition secured from animal sources. However, with the splendid supply of vegetable fats civilized people have to draw upon, the use of animal fats cannot be recommended in any form except that of cream and butter, and when we consider the expense of these by comparison with many pure vegetable fats, our sense of ordinary economy would bid us discard them.

the chief distinction between animal and vegetable fats is in the proportion of olein compared with stearin and palmitin. The proportion of the two latter fats is much greater in fats of domestic animals than it is in the human body; this is especially so of tallow. For this reason vegetable fats, which are of a more liquid nature, are more desirable than those of animal origin, especially where we wish to add fatty tissue to the body.

a very small amount of the meat produced in this country at the present time is consumed near its place of slaughter. Cold storage plants and refrigerator cars have been constructed for the purpose of preserving meats until they can reach their destination, and to hold them awaiting market advances for the benefit of packers and tradesmen.

meat in cold storage is slowly undergoing a form of decomposition which is evidenced by the fact that cold storage meat decays much more rapidly upon its removal from storage than do the same cuts of fresh meat. The process of ripening meat in rooms of varying temperatures depends upon this form of decomposition. The natural enzyms of the meat, and the bacteria contained therein, digest a portion of the proteins, forming nitrogenous decomposition products, similar to the above-mentioned meat extractives. Ripened or storage meats contain a much larger per cent of this group of compounds than does fresh meat.

the high flavor and "Peculiar rich taste" of ripened meats is produced by these decomposition products, while the decay of the gelatinoid or connective tissue is the primary reason for its tenderness. There are certain species of bacteria that produce more poisonous waste-products than others, and this occasionally causes the development of ptomains in storage meat.

the use of flesh as an article of food is fraught with many serious and scientific objections, but the use of cold storage or ripened animal products is to be condemned from every standpoint of hygiene. Nevertheless, if people insist upon using flesh foods, and economical conditions make it profitable to produce them far from their place of consumption, cold storage methods seem inevitable. The choice between storage meats and home-killed is, in its last analysis, a matter of selecting the lesser of two evils.

much has been written as to how, from dis-eased animals, human beings have contracted contagious dis-eases, especially tuberculosis. The risk of such contagion has in all probability been much exaggerated. Flesh foods are seldom taken in an uncooked form, and dis-ease germs are usually destroyed by the sterilizing process involved in cooking. The cooking process, however, must be very thorough in order to destroy dis-ease germs; that is, the heat must be sufficient to coagulate the proteins. The interior of a rare beefsteak, such as popularly demanded by the flesh-eater, has not reached this temperature, hence this form of meat should be condemned on this ground if for no other.

perhaps the worst form of dis-ease contamination from fresh flesh food is that of trichinosis. Trichinae are worm-like creatures which have the first stage of their growth in the flesh of swine, and then become encased in a cyst or egg-like structure, which, when taken into the human digestive organs are revived, and the trichinae then bore their way through the walls of the digestive organs, completing their growth in the human muscle-tissue. Trichinosis is one of the most fatal of diseases, but fortunately is not common. Tapeworms owe their origin to a similar source. There are several species of tapeworms; some have their origin in pork, and some in beef.

under this heading I will consider fish and other sea-creatures.

the flesh of most fish is quite free from fat, and consists almost entirely of water and proteins. It is less concentrated than the flesh of warm-blooded animals, averaging about 18 to 20 per cent proteins, and 60 to 70 per cent water. The percentage of ash in fish is also somewhat greater than in any other flesh food. The popular idea that fish is good food for the brain originated in the fact that analysis of some fish shows a considerable percentage of phosphorus, which substance fish as brain foodis also found in the brain. There is no reason to believe, however, that the liberal use of fish would develop or produce an excess of brain-tissue. Any well-balanced diet contains ample phosphorus to nourish the brain. The true science of human nutrition lies in the knowledge of selecting, combining, and proportioning food according to age, climate, and work. When this is done, the tendency of the body is to eliminate dis-ease and to assume normal action; this accomplished, every part of the anatomy shares in the general improvement.

my theory advanced against the use of meat because of nitrogenous decomposition products, holds true with fish, though in a somewhat limited degree. The decomposition products of cold-blooded animals are not identical with those of mammals, hence their consumption as food does not add to the percentage of human waste-products so directly as do other meats.

oysters and clams, which are generally eaten uncooked, are recommended by many authorities as valuable sources of proteid. The serious objection to their use, and especially uncooked, is the fact that they are grown in the sea-water around harbor entrances which are flooded with sewage, and hence they are likely to be contaminated with typhoid, or similar germs. The actual food value in shell-fish is quite small. They contain only about ten per cent of proteins, and are scarcely worth considering as a source of nutrition.

the objections that I have made against the use of the flesh of fish and mammals as an article of food may also be assessed against the use of domestic and wild fowls. There are a few special points, however, in favor of poultry as food that are worth special consideration. The production of chickens and other domestic poultry is one of the most prolific industries in america, and is of great importance to the general public because it is capable of being carried on in communities too thickly settled for the economic production of beef and other meats.

another point to be observed in the use of poultry as food is that, because of the ease with which every farmer and villager can keep a flock of chickens, it is possible for him to have fresh meat produced under the most sanitary and hygienic conditions, while if he uses meat as food, he will be compelled to depend upon the various meat products of unknown age and origin, secured from the general market.

another reason why the use of poultry, from a hygienic standpoint, is less objectionable than the use of pork and beef is that the quantity consumed is usually much smaller than the amount eaten of these heavy-blooded meats. For example: when five pounds of beefsteak is purchased in the market, the amount consumed would be almost the full weight of the purchase. If the money were invested in a five-pound chicken, a goodly portion of this weight would be lost in preparing the fowl for the table, while a still further loss would occur in the bones and in the inedible portions, so that the actual amount of flesh consumed would not be more than perhaps two pounds. According to the old idea of economy and diet, this would be a serious argument against the use of poultry products, but as has been clearly proved in this course of lessons, the most serious criticism that can be urged against the modern bill of fare is quantity, and especially the use of meat in large quantities, so common among the american people.

the chief reason for which meat is kept upon the bill of fare of most civilized people is that of conformity to custom, surely not to that of hygiene. That form of meat, therefore, which is pleasing to the taste, and which has a tendency to reduce the quantity of flesh consumed, is a step in the right direction of true food reform.

the methods of fattening poultry by shutting them in small coops or compartments, and feeding them upon soft mushy foods, is condemned by some writers on the ground that it is unnatural and harmful to the health of the fowls, and therefore the meat cannot be wholesome. In truth, this process, if not carried too far, will produce a quality of meat less harmful than that of the barnyard and ill-fed poultry. One of the greatest objections to the use of animal food, as already explained, is the presence of the unexcreted waste-products of animal metabolism. The flesh of fowls, fed and fattened in coops, contains the smallest possible quantity of waste or decomposition products, because of the limited amount of motion or exercise they are permitted to undergo. For this reason, when poultry is to be eaten, the whiter the meat the less objectionable it is as an article of food.

the marketing of poultry in an undrawn condition , has been much condemned by the public, and the legislatures of some states have passed laws against this practise. This, however, is to some extent a misapplication of good intentions. When poultry is to be killed for the market by those who thoroughly understand the business, the fowls are left without food for a period of twenty-four hours. Since the digestive processes of these small animals are very rapid, this results in emptying the intestines of most of the fecal matter, which removes the principal objection to the practise. On the other hand, if the fowls are drawn at the time of killing, and several days elapse before their consumption, bacteria gain access to the interior of the carcass and cause very rapid decomposition.

it is the practise in some oriental and european countries to "Hang" poultry for a few days before they are eaten. This process, as in the case of ripened meats, is simply one of partial decay. The enzymotic action taking place in the meat is arrested only by the process of cold storage. Decomposition proceeds slowly until it reaches that point when it is pronounced high-flavored and "Ripened." this is very largely practised in this country at the present time. It is a custom that is instinctively condemned by everyone from the standpoint of both hygiene and aestheticism. The people should demand and force congress to pass a law labeling all cold storage meats with the date of slaughter, and all canned meats with the date of packing.

what is true of domestic poultry is also true of all wild game. The amount of actual food contributed to the world by the slaughter of game is exceedingly small. A similar quantity of domestic food could be produced at one-tenth the cost of time and labor, without slaughtering the wild creatures of our forests. The popularity of hunting as a sport, and the idea that the flesh of all wild animals is a rare and dainty article of diet, is merely an illustration of anthropoid inheritance. It is a step backward toward savagery instead of forward toward a higher civilization.

eggs and milk occupy a unique place in the catalog of foods. The purpose for which they were produced in nature throws much light upon their value as food.

as will be learned from the lesson, "Evolution of man," no living creature exists for the sole benefit of other creatures, but because once created, the inherent struggle of all living matter to survive and to reproduce itself has evolved wonderful and various adaptations. Every organic substance is primarily produced in nature for a specific purpose in the life of its species. The lumber in our houses owes its existence to the plant's struggle for sunlight, which made it necessary for the tree to possess a strong storm-withstanding stem to hold aloft its leaves above the shade of other foliage. The leaves and the stems of grass are primarily an essential part of the life of the plant, and not food for animals. The greater part of the human food of plant origin represents in nature the nutrient material supplied by the parent plant for the early life of the seedling. All grains, nuts, fruits and roots, and tubers are merely modified forms of food material adapted to the rapid nourishment of the young plant. The starch and the oil of seeds, the sugar of fruit, and the lesser quantities of nitrogen contained in all seeds, are in a more available form for cell-nourishment than would be the original mature portions of plant life. Milk and eggs in the animal world occupy a position identical to that of seeds and fruit in the plant world; that is, they are created for the first nourishment of the offspring. In the process of evolution, a fundamental distinction between birds and mammals is in the manner in which the young are nourished. The egg of the bird supplies sufficient nourishment to develop the young bird to a point where it can exist upon the ordinary food of the adult bird. The hen's egg must contain all food material necessary to form all portions of the body of the chick, and to supply it for a time with heat and energy.

an average egg weighs two ounces; of this weight about 10 per cent is shell, 30 per cent yolk, and the remainder white. The white of the egg is composed of albumin and water. The yolk consists of globulin, egg-fat, and lecithin; this latter substance contains a considerable proportion of phosphorus, and is one of the essential contingents of brain and nerves. The egg-shell contains 13 per cent protein, 10 per cent fat, and one per cent ash. The younger the animal, the more rapid is the growth of the animal body compared with the amount of energy expended. Milk and eggs not a balanced adult dietfor this reason the percentage of nitrogen in milk and in eggs is much too great to form a balanced adult diet, and should be supplemented by articles containing larger proportions of heat-producing materials, preferably carbohydrates.

the proteid material of eggs is in a form especially adapted to the construction of new cells. For this reason it is one of the best known foods for use in cases of emaciation, where new tissue is to be added rapidly to the body. An egg contains about fourteen decigrams of nitrogen. Ten eggs, therefore, would supply an ample amount of nitrogen for the daily needs of the average body, were no nitrogen taken from other sources. In feeding patients who are convalescing from fevers or other wasting dis-eases, it is sometimes necessary to prescribe a diet of from ten to twelve eggs daily for a limited time.

the consumption of five eggs a day, when we rely wholly upon this article for animal proteins, is quite sufficient for one performing ordinary labor, when supplemented by one succulent and one tuber vegetable.

milk and the various products made therefrom constitute one of the most important groups of food in the modern bill of fare. Milk and eggs are interdicted by some vegetarians, but aside from the sentimental feeling against the taking of any food of animal origin, there are no scientific reasons for such exclusion. Dairy products are free from many of the objections assessed against the use of flesh, and they supply a number of readily soluble, digestible, and assimilable nutrients that, in many respects , excel anything that can be secured from the vegetable kingdom.

the composition of cow's milk varies widely. Dairy cows, by long domestication, breeding and feeding, have been brought to a high state of specialization. Some breeds have been so trained, fed, and bred as to produce large quantities of milk. Some holsteins have been known to produce one hundred pounds of milk per day each, which of course is many times the quantity required for the nourishment of their young. Some jersey stock have been so bred, raised, and fed as to produce large quantities of butter; in some cases the butter-fat of especially fed jerseys has been known to run as high as 8 or 10 per cent, whereas the normal fat content of milk is not more than 3.5 or 4 per cent. The average composition of mixed milk from many cows runs about as follows: water, 87 per cent; lactose or milk-sugar, 4.5 per cent; butter-fat, 3.5 per cent; ash, .7 per cent; proteins, 3.3 per cent, of which about 2.5 per cent are casein, and .8 per cent albumin.

the commercial value of milk is measured almost entirely by its content of butter-fat. This is because the public knows practically nothing about the food value, or the chemistry of milk, therefore its value is estimated upon that which can be seen, and upon that which tastes best. The chief value of milk as a food lies in the nitrogenous element it contains. Fat can be secured from many other sources. The nutritive elements of milk from various animals vary according to the natural requirements of the young of various species. Cow's milk contains too large a proportion of casein, and not enough milk-sugar to meet the natural requirements of the human infant. This subject, however, will be discussed at length in lesson xvi on "Infant feeding," vol. V, p. 1154.

the casein in cow's milk is coagulated by the hydrochloric acid of the stomach, which forms into lumps or curds, rather difficult to digest. This can be overcome or counteracted in several ways. First, if milk is allowed to sour or clabber, the casein is coagulated by nature, which is really the first process of digestion. In this form it neither burdens the digestion nor causes the supersecretion of hydrochloric acid, which is likely to occur when sweet milk is too liberally used. Second, the sipping and thorough insalivation of milk, by taking it into the mouth with something that requires thorough mastication, insures better digestion and assimilation, and less liability to produce intestinal gas. Milk will harmonize chemically with all non-acid fruits, cereals and nuts. Milk is in chemical harmony with meat and eggs, but all of these articles being highly nitrogenous, when taken at the same meal, the portions should be limited to the minimum. Milk should not be combined with acid fruits, especially those of a highly acidulous character, such as lemons, limes, grapefruit, pineapples, etc. Neither should it be taken at the same meals with succulent plants, such as lettuce, watercress, romaine, parsley, etc.

when the stomach has long been over-burdened with food, and made the receptacle in which acid fermentation has taken place until the mucous membrane has become irritated or probably ulcerated, there is no food so acceptable as milk. For the common disorder of hyperchlorhydria, which is a term used to describe a condition of chronic sour stomach or supersecretion of hydrochloric acid, milk is one of nature's best counteractive food nutrients. In cases of severe constipation or alimentary congestion, milk should be given as follows:

omit breakfast. Begin about 9:30 taking an ordinary glassful of fresh, cool milk every twenty or thirty minutes, until about one and one-half quarts have been consumed. After two or three hours, repeat the same process until about two quarts more have been taken. With each quart of milk, from three to four heaping dessert-spoonfuls of clean, wheat bran should be taken, in thin cream or rich milk. At noon and at evening a few tablespoonfuls of coarse cereal , might be eaten. They should be masticated thoroughly, and eaten with nuts and a limited quantity of cream. Under this regimen I have known the most severe cases of constipation to yield readily, and the patient to make a gain in weight of half a pound daily for a period of from twenty to thirty days. If the appetite should rebel against taking milk in this quantity, the amount should be reduced, and a cupful of soaked evaporated apricots taken at night just before retiring, and in the morning, just after rising. When milk is taken for the purpose of counteracting a congested condition of the bowels, or an irritated condition of the mucous membrane of the stomach, it should be combined with the fewest possible things—one coarse cereal only will give the best results. A large quantity of milk, three and one-half to four quarts taken daily, as above directed, will act as a laxative, while a small quantity will have a tendency toward constipation.

the old method of adulterating milk with water has very largely gone out of practise, owing to the surveillance of city authorities, and the passing of laws that fix legal standards, which require milk to contain a certain percentage of fats and total solids.

the chief form of criminal tampering with milk has been the use of preservatives to prevent souring. Formaldehyde has been used very extensively for this purpose. Formaldehyde is a poison, destructive to all cell life, and has probably been the cause of more actual deaths than any other form of food adulteration.

pasteurization, which takes its name from pasteur, the french bacteriologist, is merely a process of heating milk to about 170 degrees fahrenheit for the purpose of destroying possible dis-ease germs, and the bacteria that produce fermentation. In this process the milk is not allowed to come to a boil for the reason that boiled milk is rather "Dead" or distasteful, and would readily be detected by the public. It is quite evident that any method of pasteurization, which would kill bacteria, would also cause coagulation of the protoplasm and the albumin of the milk, and render it much less nutritious, and much more difficult to digest.

if milk producers and dairymen understood the superior food and remedial value of naturally soured milk, and would exert some effort to educate the public in its use, they would soon establish a new and profitable industry, and would give the dairy business of the whole country a new commercial impetus. The souring of milk can be prevented by cleanliness, which renders pasteurizing unnecessary. At the time of the paris exposition, a dairy farm in illinois sent pure unpasteurized milk to paris, which arrived in an unsoured condition. This was achieved by absolute cleanliness, with the cows, dairy utensils, etc.

cheese consists of the coagulated casein of milk, together with the fat globules that may be mechanically retained. Cheese is made by coagulating the milk with rennet, which has been extracted from the stomach of a calf, the sugar of the milk being passed off in the whey, and lost. Schmier käse or cottage cheese is formed by allowing the milk to sour, and to coagulate by gradual warming. This cheese is usually made from skimmed milk, hence contains practically no fat.

the cheese of commerce is ripened in various ways. The process of ripening is due to the action of enzyms present in the milk, or to those formed by bacterial growth. Ripened cheese is considered to be more easily digested than the unripened product. The best that can be said of this process is that the ripening of cheese is perhaps the least objectionable of all processes of decomposition taking place in food proteins. The only benefit that can be claimed is one of flavor, and, in matters of flavor, the appetite for limburger, and similar cheeses, is at least a cultivated taste that furnishes evidence neither of merit nor of nutrition. In the manufacture of cheese, the milk, sugar, and a part of the albumin and fat are wasted, and as there are no advantages in taking the milk in this changed form, there exists no scientific reason for the use of cheese when fresh milk can be obtained.

butter constitutes one of the most wholesome and palatable of all animal fats, and is probably one of the most extensively used articles of food of animal origin.

when the pure butter-fat has been separated from the casein of milk it can be kept sweet and wholesome for a length of time sufficient to transport it, and to pass it through the various links in the chain of commerce, so that it can reach the family table a long distance from its source of production. This, in addition to man's instinctive relish for dairy products, makes butter the most popular fat in the diet of civilized man.

in prescribing butter-fat, however, it is advisable to nominate fresh, unsalted, or what is commonly termed "Sweet" butter. It is also advisable for the practitioner to suggest that this can be made daily, merely by whipping either sweet or soured cream with an ordinary rotary egg beater until the fat globules have separated from the whey. Pure butter contains about 3,600 heat-calories to the pound, and therefore constitutes one of the most important and readily convertible of all winter foods. If no other fat is used, about two ounces of butter each twenty-four hours is sufficient to give the ordinary body, under a temperature ranging from forty to sixty degrees above zero, the required amount of heat.

grains

grains constitute the most important article of human food, not so much on account of their superior nutritive, curative or remedial value, but chiefly because of their prolific growth and abundant production in all civilized countries throughout the world. the variety of grain produced in the various countries depends largely upon the climate and the habits of the people. The predominant use of rice by the asiatics, wheat by the europeans, and maize by the aboriginal american, shows how people adapt themselves to the foods of prodigal growth. It also shows the effect different foods have upon the physical development of the various tribes that inhabit these remote countries.

wheat is said by some writers to be a complete food. This is not strictly true. Wheat contains a very small percentage of fat, and while fat can be made in the body from carbohydrates, it is more natural, and entails less work upon the digestive organs and the liver if the diet is balanced so as to contain the required amount of fat, and all other nutritive elements in the right or natural proportions.

a diet composed of wheat alone would contain 70 per cent of carbohydrates, chiefly in the form of starch. While this would be perfectly wholesome, it would give the body an excess of starch which would ultimately result in intestinal congestion, gout, rheumatism, hardening of the arteries, and premature old age. Wheat contains a larger quantity, and a greater variety of proteins than any other grain, but wheat proteins are more difficult to digest than the proteins of milk, eggs, or nuts.

wheat varies greatly in composition, according to the soil and the climate in which it is produced. This fact is not recognized or considered by the average writer on dietetics, who eulogizes wheat as the wonderful "Staff of life," because certain food tables show that wheat contains 13 per cent, while corn contains only 10 per cent of proteins. It is neither the proteid nor the carbohydrate content that determines the value of any grain as food, but rather the proportions of the different elements of nutrition it contains, that being the best which is more nearly balanced to meet the requirements of the human organism.

rye may be considered in the same class as wheat. Chemically, the contents are very similar, and the effects upon the body are very much the same. It contains a larger per cent of cellulose, and less gluten than wheat, therefore as a remedial food it is superior to all other grains for exciting intestinal peristalsis, thereby removing the causes of constipation.

the nutritive elements of barley are similar to those of wheat and rye. It contains less cellulose fiber, and therefore a larger per cent of digestible nutrients than any one of the cereal group except rice. It has never become popular as a bread-making grain because— 1 the nitrogenous or gluten substances are not tenacious enough to make the conventional "Raised" bread 2 the flour is dark in color 3 the grain is so hard and "Flinty" that it is very difficult to mill it down to the required fineness

for these reasons barley has been greatly neglected as a food commodity. From a chemical standpoint it deserves a much higher place in our dietaries than it has hitherto been given.

the composition of oats varies somewhat from that of wheat, rye and barley. They contain a larger proportion of both fat and proteins, and form a desirable food if correctly prepared. The objection to oats as an article of diet is the hasty manner in which they are usually prepared, which converts them into a gummy mass of gelatinized starch, entangled with the peculiar gummy proteid of the oat grain. Thus prepared the oat is a most prolific source of disturbed digestion.

corn is the cheapest material capable of nourishing the human body that is produced in the temperate zone. It is less digestible, and more deficient in the salts than the group of grains thus far mentioned. It is very wholesome, however, but in no way superior to other grains. In the future corn will probably play an increasing part in the problem of feeding the world, as a cheap source of carbohydrates, and for the purpose of manufacturing glucose.

in all tropical and semi-tropical countries rice occupies the same position that corn does in the temperate zone. It is more deficient in proteins and in fat than any other food grain, while the starch of rice is more easily digested than any other form of cereal starch. This grain, however, is almost entirely devoid of mineral constituents, and for this reason it is productive of serious nutritive derangements when indulged in too freely. This deficiency can be overcome by taking a liberal quantity of green salads, or fresh vegetables, whenever rice is eaten.

buckwheat is a grain whose consumption is very limited, owing to the fact that it is dark in color. It compares favorably with wheat and corn as to nutritive elements, and is now much used as a winter food by the northern people.

uses of grainsthe use of grains as an article of food may be considered under three headings: 1 as a source of energy 2 as a source of nitrogen 3 grain as a remedial food; that is, as a source of cellulose or roughness, for the regulation of intestinal action

grain as a source of energy - too much grain consumed  all grains are composed largely of starch, therefore the question of energy to be derived from this source is one of assimilation and use. The use of grains in the diet deserves the most careful consideration, and the study should not be confined to any particular grain, but to the entire group, and especially to the method of preparation, and the quantity that should be consumed under the varying conditions of age, temperature of environment, and work or activity. The conventional american diet contains such an abnormal quantity of grain-starch, and the methods of preparation are so unnatural, that the food scientist, in practise, will find many people whose digestive organs have become so deranged that he may deem it necessary to prohibit grain-starch almost entirely. The grown person, pursuing the ordinary sedative occupation, should not eat more than three or four ounces of cereal food a day, while the manual laborer should not consume more than five or six ounces each twenty-four hours. This quantity contemplates cool, or winter weather. In summer this quantity should be reduced according to work or activity.

grain as a source of nitrogengrain as a source of proteid has received undue consideration in hygienic works. Upon an allowance of one-fourth of a pound of grain per day, which would make four vienos, with a nitrogen factor of six, we see that 24 decigrams of nitrogen would be supplied from the grain. The variations between the proteins contained in two varieties of breakfast food is seldom more than two or three per cent. This would amount to a variation in the daily intake of nitrogen of about five decigrams, an amount too little to be worth consideration.

grain proteins are not so easily digested as are the proteins of eggs, milk and nuts. The following list of grains and grain products is given in the order of the digestible nitrogen they contain: 1 gluten or dietetic foods2 barley3 macaroni4 white flour5 whole wheat—graham flour6 rye7 oatmeal8 corn products9 buckwheat10 rice11 pure starches

grain as a remedial food - remedial value of the whole grain  * wheat bran a natural remedy for constipation  grain is constipating or laxative in effect according to the way it is prepared and eaten. Whole grain, especially wheat and rye, will normalize intestinal action, and in some cases act as a laxative, while the same grains made into flour, and milled in the usual way, are constipating. Ordinary wheat bran is one of the most effective remedies known for intestinal congestion, and it can be administered or regulated with much accuracy, according to the severity of the case. An intelligent understanding of the use of bran in treating constipation is quite necessary. The object should be to employ bran as a remedy in chronic cases, and to vary the quantity, the quality, and the cellulose content of the meals. In rare cases, bran may produce irritation; in such cases it should be cooked three or hours, and eaten only with hot water. In other cases the mechanical stimulation of the peristaltic action is not effective. The practitioner can usually determine these questions on the third or the fourth day. Bran should be administered about as follows: in cases of severe constipation, one rounding tablespoonful in water, just after rising; one-half teacupful, cooked, taken at each meal, and a heaping tablespoonful in water just before retiring. The following table gives, in the order of their laxative effects, a few of the principal grains: 1 flaked or whole rye2 flaked or whole wheat3 flaked or whole barley4 flaked or whole oats

nuts - nuts as heat producers  the true nut is the seed of trees and shrubs which stores the greater proportion of food material for nourishing the seedling in the form of vegetable oil. The nut is very largely a fuel food or heat producer, therefore among the primitive races, along the warmer belts of the earth's surface, the nut was not of so much importance, but in the northern or colder countries, where the body-heat meets with such powerful resistance from climatic environment, the nut is of equal, if not of more importance than fruits. There are a few miscellaneous articles of food that are classed as nuts, which do not belong primarily to this group. In the following discussion I will take up the several varieties of nuts in the order of their general value as articles of human nutrition:

there are several species of pine seeds from many varieties of trees, and from many different countries. The italian pine seed or nut, called in italy "Pignon," and in this country "Pignolia," is the refined or cleansed nut, called by the writer "Protoid" nut. This is a coined word given to it because it contains the highest percentage of protein of any other food that has yet been analyzed. The "Protoid" nut contains 34 per cent protein, 47 per cent oil, 9 per cent carbohydrates, 4 per cent ash, and 6 per cent water. The relative proportion of nitrogen to energy is not so great as in some other food products, such as eggs, or skimmed milk. These contain a large per cent of water, so that the protoid nut, while containing pound for pound more nitrogen than any other known food, has a lower nitrogen factor than foods which do not contain so large a percentage of fat. This same rule will apply to all nuts. They are rich in protein, but because of the large amount of fat which supplies energy in its most condensed form, the nitrogen factor, which is the relation between nitrogen and energy, is often lower in many nuts than in grain. The chief advantage of protoid nuts over other varieties is in their softness, consequently they are more digestible, and more assimilable than any other specimen of the nut family. The pine nuts which grow prodigally in the western part of the united states are not so rich in protein as the protoid nuts, but in other respects are very excellent food. The annual crop of these is about one million pounds, but is variable, a full crop being produced only about every third year. They are harvested in a very crude way, chiefly by indians, from the remote districts of new mexico, utah and california.

the almond is a most desirable food. It contains 17 per cent nitrogen, and 54 per cent fat. The flavor is very agreeable, and the nuts, in digestibility, rank next to protoid nuts. They may be substituted for each other in many dietaries.

the pecan, which is a species of hickory-nut, contains 13 per cent protein, and 70 per cent fat. It is a very delicious article of food, though somewhat inferior to pine nuts and almonds, in digestibility, and as a source of nitrogen.

brazil-nuts contain 18 per cent protein and 66 per cent fat, and rank high as an article of body-heat and energy.

soft-shelled or white walnuts are commonly known as "English walnuts," though they are chiefly grown in france and in california. These nuts contain 24 per cent protein, 63 per cent fat, and form one of the staple nut foods of both europe and america.

filberts or hazelnuts contain 15 per cent protein, and 65 per cent fat. They differ widely from the varieties hitherto named, and are less digestible. They should be masticated exceedingly fine, and should not be taken by one whose digestion is particularly weak.

butternuts are a species of walnut. They contain 27 per cent protein, 61 per cent fat, and rank in the dietary along with english walnuts and brazil-nuts.

beechnuts contain 22 per cent protein and 57 per cent fat. Owing to the difficulty of gathering or harvesting, these nuts have never become popular as an article of human food. They are in the grain class, therefore rank high as an energy-producing material.

the cocoanut is a product of the palm tree, and, while quite distinct from our nuts of the temperate climate, is a very valuable and abundant food, deserving more extended use. Cocoanut is about one-half fat, contains 6 per cent protein and 28 per cent carbohydrates. The milk of the cocoanut is an excellent article of food, and used by the natives in the tropics in many remedial and medicinal ways.

peanuts - value of pea-nuts and soy-beans  peanuts, which are so widely used as food, are on the boundary line between nuts and legumes. They were classed as peas by some of the early botanists, and as nuts by others. The name indicates the compromise that was made between the two theories. Another legume, which is largely used in japan and china is the soy-bean. Both the peanut and the soy-bean are better balanced, and more nutritious than common beans and peas. They are similar in composition, and contain about equal quantities of protein and fat, some peanuts yielding as much as 48 or 50 per cent oil. Neither are palatable in their natural state, but both are very delicious when their starch content is converted into dextrin by roasting. The japanese have a method of preparing the soy-bean by a process of fermenting, which renders the proteid material very digestible. Soy-beans have not yet been introduced into this country, hence there will be little opportunity to use them, and they will, therefore, not be discussed here at length.

legumeslegumes are the seeds of a certain group of plants grown in pods. The term comes from a very ancient word, "Legere," meaning to gather. Beans and peas are the most familiar types of this group.

legumes are rich in nitrogen, and some varieties are also very rich in oil. They are not equal to nuts in fuel or food value, however, because in the natural state they are hard, somewhat indigestible, and unpalatable. These qualities are due to the fact that the nitrogenous material of legumes are radically different from the nitrogen found in nuts, and belong to a class not so desirable as food. Meat may be omitted from the diet and legumes adopted as the chief source of nitrogen, but this change requires some knowledge and careful feeding in the beginning. Meat is digested wholly in the stomach and does not require mastication , while dried or mature legumes require much mastication, owing to the carbohydrates they contain. The best form in which legumes can be taken is in their green or immature state, owing to the fact that the immature starch they contain is readily soluble, while mature legume starch is rather difficult to digest.

fruitsthe term "Fruit" in a strictly botanical sense includes a very wide range of vegetable articles—the reproductive product of trees, or other plants, such as grains, legumes, nuts, berries, apples, peaches, plums, etc. In this lesson, however, I will apply the popular meaning to the term.

the common succulent or juicy fruits, including both tree fruits and berries, have many properties in common. The chemical composition of these typical fruits consists of from 80 to 85 per cent water, 5 to 15 per cent sugar, 1 to 5 per cent organic or fruit-acids, and small quantities of protein, cellulose, and the numerous salts, a portion of which may be combined with the fruit-acids. Some unripe fruits contain starch and various other carbohydrate substances, many of which are distasteful and unwholesome. On the other hand, when fruits become over-ripe, and decay sets in, the sugar is changed into carbon dioxid, alcohol, and acetic acid, and the fruit rapidly deteriorates in nutritive value and unwholesomeness. These changes, together with the loss of water, account for the sponginess and the tastelessness of cold storage and other long-kept fruits. All varieties of fruit are best when they have been allowed to ripen naturally on the trees, but modern commercial conditions demand that fruits for shipping purposes be picked slightly immature, and allowed to ripen in transit to the markets.

the fruit-acids are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and are burned in the body the same as sugar, or fats. The actual energy-producing content of fruit is not large, and depends almost entirely upon the sugar content. The nutrient elements of fruit consist of fruit-sugar, combinations of salts, organic acids, and various flavoring or aromatic substances. These same salts, acids, etc., purchased at the drug store, and administered separately, would be of no particular value, and might produce harmful results, but in the various combinations of fruits they have very important places in the diet.

one of the most important functions that fruit performs in the body is that of an artificial solvent, or an aid to digestion. To make food serve this purpose well would require some knowledge in regard to chemical harmonies, quantity, etc. To illustrate: if the stomach does not secrete a sufficient quantity of hydrochloric acid, fruit-acid should be absolutely omitted, as any acid, except hydrochloric acid itself, tends to inhibit the formation of the normal stomach acid. And this in turn tends to fermentation of the sugars and starches—causing acid fermentation and all the symptoms that accompany this condition.

so it is very important to prevent all the causes and sources of fermentation if we would prevent the development of all the various diseases that arise from acid conditions of the stomach, and autointoxication. This explains why people of rheumatic tendency cannot take acid fruit. Citrus fruits, however, and limes, lemons, oranges, grape-fruit, etc., are beneficial in rheumatism and conditions of lowered blood alkalinity, because they are changed to alkalis in the system, and reinforce the blood alkalinity. People of rheumatic tendency, therefore, should confine the diet as nearly as possible to starchless foods, omitting all but the citrus fruits.

in the lesson on "Vieno system of food measurement" I give the energy value of various fruits, and also the nitrogen factor. These tables consider fruits in the same light with other foods; that is, as sources of energy and nitrogen. In the table which follows, the more important fruits are grouped according to their total acidity. The figures represent the volume of acidity, not strength:

acid fruits subacid fruits sweet and  non-acid fruitslimes 95 raspberries 16 grapes 8lemons 78 plums 14 prunes 7grapefruit 39 cherries 13 raisins 6cranberries 37 peaches 12 bananas 6pineapples 22 blackberries 12 persimmons 4oranges 20 apples 11 figs 4apricots 18 pears 3strawberries 18 dates 3the fruits in the above table are all reasonably wholesome, and the particular fruits to be used depend as much upon convenience as upon the nature of the food substances. The above groups, however, will be given much attention in dietetic prescriptions, and the food scientist should become thoroughly familiar with this classification. of the acid fruits, oranges are the best and most desirable, and cranberries perhaps the least. Acid fruits are responsible for much stomach and intestinal trouble. Food was prior to life. Animal life on this globe has been fitted into, and is the net result of food; therefore, in the wonderful adaptations of nature, it is evident that life will develop higher and better by subsisting upon the food that grows in its respective country. Acid fruits, such as lemons, limes, grapefruit, pineapples, and oranges, are grown in the tropical and semi-tropical countries, where the climate is warm, and where people subsist largely upon native vegetables. These fruits supply the acids and the fruit-sugars which the system requires in a warm climate. In the tropics the people live out of doors, the pores of the skin are kept open, and the effete matter produced by acids can be cast out of the body.

  • evils of acid fruit in northern countries in northern countries people live largely indoors, and are heavily clad except during a very short term in midsummer, therefore they do not eliminate freely. They subsist largely upon the heavier foods, such as flesh and grains, both of which require a large amount of hydrochloric acid for digestion, hence when the acid of fruits is added to the hydrochloric acid, of which most people have a deficiency, serious acid fermentation may result.

acid fermentation is the beginning of nearly all stomach trouble, and is the primary cause of many other ills.

  • value of subacid fruits practically all the fruits of the subacid group are excellent; however, on account of the mechanical irritation of the seeds, berries should not be used in cases in which the stomach and the intestines are irritated or catarrhal. In such cases the juice should be pressed from the fruit and the seeds discarded.
  • value of non-acid fruits of the non-acid fruits, raisins, figs, and dates are excellent foods from the standpoint of furnishing a large amount of sugar in its very best form. Very ripe bananas and ripe persimmons, especially the large japanese variety, are fruits which have a distinct nature, and are suited to a particular purpose in dietetics. These pulpy fruits are especially desirable in all cases of digestive irritations and disorders, because of the amount of nourishment contained in them, which is greater than that contained in the juicy fruits. In my practice I seldom, if ever, find a stomach so weak that it cannot digest ripe persimmons and very ripe bananas. I attribute much of my success in treating such cases to the skillful use of these products. The persimmon and the banana as remedial and nutritive articles, are the most valuable fruits grown.
  • canned and evaporated fruits raisins, prunes, figs, dates, apricots and peaches are common types of fruit preserved by the process of evaporation, and when soaked in clear water may be restored to almost their original condition. Evaporated fruit should not be cooked. This is perhaps the most palatable and wholesome method of preserving fruit. Next in purity and importance are the methods of canning, as practised by the housewife. The ordinary commercial preparations of canned fruits, together with the many jams, marmalades and jellies, are generally of doubtful, if not inferior quality. The pure food law has accomplished much to establish honesty in the preserving and the labeling of food, but these products are still far from ideal, and are not to be considered where fresh or evaporated fruits are obtainable.
  • vegetables in this group we may conveniently class all food products not elsewhere discussed.
  • composition of lettuce beans, peas, and corn, when taken in the immature state, are classed as vegetables. The importance of this group of food products is not their great food value per pound ; it is the great variety of nutritive substances which they contain. Lettuce contains cellulose, proteins, active chlorophyl, pentoses, sugars and starches, representing carbohydrates in various processes of transformation; small quantities of fat, and a relatively large per cent of mineral salts, besides numerous flavoring materials. All other edible plants contain many of the same elements in different proportions.

edible vegetables may be conveniently grouped according to that portion of the plant which we consume. These groups are: a above groundb roots and tubersc leafy or succulentd cucurbita family

melons, cantaloups, and tomatoes are on the border line between vegetables and fruits. The following groups of vegetables are made up according to these classifications: vegetables above ground beans—driedgreenbeetsbrussels sproutscauliflowercorneggplantlentils okrapeasdriedgreen roots and tubers artichokesasparaguscarrotsonionspotatoes—sweetwhiteparsnipsradishesturnips leafy or succulent vegetables beet-topscabbagecelerydandelionkalelettuceparsleyromaineradish-topsspinachturnip-topswatercress

miscellaneous vegetables  cantaloupmuskmelonpumpkinsquashwatermelon

  • value of succulent vegetables succulent vegetables are very essential in a well-rounded bill of fare, and the neglect of their use is one of the errors in dietetics. The most important function of succulent or leafy vegetables is in the supply of pure water and mineral salts. They give to the body that which cannot be obtained elsewhere.
  • vegetable juices aid the digestion of all food the diet of the average person is composed of too many solids, especially of the carbohydrate class. Cereal products compose a very large proportion of the civilized diet, especially in america, yet the starch of cereals is the most difficult of all starches to digest and to assimilate. The water and solvent juices in fresh vegetables and succulent plants are important factors in the digestion and the assimilation of cereal starches. The relative importance of salads and succulent plants in the diet may be graded according to the following table:

1 spinach2 turnip-tops3 dandelion4 lettuce5 romaine6 endive7 celery8 cabbage9 kale10 watercress11 parsley12 beet-tops

  • the white potato the irish or white potato is the only true tuber that is used very extensively as an article of food. It is formed chiefly of starch and water. The starch of this tuber is very coarse and much softer, more soluble, and hence much more digestible than the starch of cereals or legumes. Baking is the best method of preparing the white potato. The skins or peeling should be eaten in order to balance the diet as to cellulose, which is a most important article in the excitation of peristalsis of both the stomach and the intestines.
  • the sweet potato the sweet potato is a root, and differs chiefly from the irish potato in that it contains more sugar and less starch. The sweet potato is more wholesome than the irish variety. Measured by its chemical contents, it is one of the best foods of all the tuber group.
  • root vegetables the root vegetables given in the order of my preference are: carrots, parsnips, turnips and beets. Carrots are exceedingly nutritious and palatable in an uncooked state, eaten with nuts.

tomatoes may be considered upon the border line between vegetables and fruits. They are exceedingly useful in cases of intestinal congestion and torpidity of the liver.

  • the melon the watermelon is very wholesome. The water is rich in sugar, while the pulp is composed of a soft fiber, which is a mild stimulant to the digestive and the excretory organs. Muskmelons and cantaloups are rich in natural sugar. They are non-acid, hence in harmony with nearly every known article of food. Considering their chemical neutrality and food value, they are about the best articles of diet in the watery or juicy class.

the pumpkin and the squash, which are closely related to the melon, are of the genus cucurbita, and are divided into three species: 1 pepo or pumpkin2 maxima or winter squash3 moschata, the pear-shaped squash with a slight variation of the water content, all of these varieties contain much the same elements of nutrition. However, the pumpkin is most important to the student of dietetics— because of its food value, and because of its prolific and universal growth.

  • sugars and sirups it will aid the student greatly in comprehending this subject if he will review the chemical composition of sugars as given in lesson iv under "Carbohydrates," vol. I, p. 107.)-->

sugar in its various forms is a very prolific food product. It is the principal substance contained in nearly all fruits, but we shall confine our discussion here to the various sugars and sirups as they appear in commerce, freed from the other materials with which they are associated in nature.

  • beet-sugar - origin of beet-sugar contrary to common belief, the greatest proportion of the world's supply of sugar comes from the sugar-beet. Sugar, which was once manufactured solely from the maple-sap and the sugar-cane, was discovered about one hundred years ago, to be present in beets. A very interesting historical fact is that the sugar-beet industry owes its origin to the efforts of napoleon to supply france with home-produced sugar, because of the tariff or embargo laid upon foreign commerce. As a result of this effort all of central europe is now a heavy sugar-producing region.

the method of production and the quantity of sugar contained in the sugar-beet have been so greatly improved that the present industry is quite able to compete with the production of sugar from cane in the tropical regions. Crude sugar from sugar-beets is very unpalatable, but the refined or crystallized form of beet sugar is chemically identical with cane-sugar.

  • cane-sugar sugar-cane, though not so important as formerly, is still grown very extensively in several of the southern states—cuba, porto rico, and many semi-tropical countries. The chief distinction between cane-sugar and beet-sugar is that the crude cane-sugar, before it is refined, is a very wholesome and palatable product. The brown sugar of commerce is uncrystallized, or unrefined cane-sugar, and is fully as wholesome, and to most tastes more palatable than the granulated product. It is to be regretted that fashion has decreed we should use white sugar.
  • refined sugar refined sugar, whether produced from beets or cane, is sometimes slightly contaminated with sulfurous acid and indigo, which are used for bleaching purposes, and if present in any quantity are very objectionable.
  • maple-sugar maple-sugar, which is made by boiling or evaporating the sap of the sugar-maple, is a product decidedly superior in natural flavor to either beet or cane-sugar. Maple-sugar contains a small proportion of glucose and levulose, but its chief distinction from other sugars is a matter of flavor. The hickory tree contains flavors somewhat similar to the maple. A cheap substitute for maple-sugar has been manufactured by flavoring common sugar with the extract of hickory bark.

the other forms of dry sugar obtainable in the market are milk-sugar and crystallized glucose. The chief use of milk-sugar as an article of diet is in humanizing cow's milk for infant feeding. The dry glucose, or, as it is sometimes called, grape-sugar, is not commonly seen in the market for the reason that it is difficult to crystallize, hence it is much cheaper to market glucose in the form of sirups.

  • the manufacture, composition and uses of glucose commercial glucose, as was explained in lesson iv, is made by treating starch with dilute acids, and its wholesomeness depends entirely upon the care with which this is done. Theoretically, glucose is a very good food. In practise it is somewhat risky because cheap chemicals used in its manufacture may leave harmful and poisonous substances in the finished product. The manufacture of glucose is an excellent illustration of the objections to man-made foods as compared with natural foods. When we eat grapes we know that we are taking one of the most important substances required in the life-processes in a perfectly pure, unadulterated and wholesome form. Science has taught man to manufacture the identical substance that is found in the grape from corn, which is a much cheaper product, but the temptation to economize for the sake of dividends, and to allow the commercial spirit to control in the manufacture of food products is always present. For this reason the manufactured article comes under suspicion, while the natural form we know to be "Exactly as represented." the principal uses of glucose are for table sirups and confectionery. Pure glucose as an article of food lacks flavor; for this reason the usual method of manufacturing sirups is to mix glucose and some other form of sirup or molasses.
  • sirups and molasses the original sources of sirups, besides commercial glucose, are cane-sirup, made directly by evaporating the juice of the sugar-cane; maple-sirup, made from the pure maple-sap; sorghum-sirup, or molasses, from the juice of the sorghum-cane, which is grown extensively in the south and central west; and last, yet perhaps most common, "New orleans" molasses, which is the residue from the manufacture of cane-sugar. This may be very wholesome if taken from the first drippings of the crystallized sugar, but if taken from sugar refineries it contains chemicals that have been used in the refining and the bleaching processes, and is a very doubtful product. An excellent quality of sirup can be made in the home by adding to the brown sugar a certain quantity of water, and boiling down to the desired consistency.
  • honey - honey, man's only food from the insect world honey occupies a very unique place, as it is practically the only food substance which man utilizes from the insect world. Honey cannot be strictly compared with milk and eggs as a food product, as the latter are complete foods for the nourishment of young and growing animals, hence must contain all food material necessary to construct the animal body. Honey, which is a carbohydrate, is gathered and used as a food for the adult bee. Pollen, or bee-bread, a nitrogenous substance, is the food of the larvae or young bees. This illustrates a very interesting fact in physiological chemistry. The insect differs radically from higher animals in that its life is divided into three complete stages. When the adult insect, with its wings, emerges from the cocoon or pupa, its growth is complete. Some insects never take any food in the adult stage; but the adult bee takes food, which is practically pure carbohydrates, and which would not maintain the life of a young animal.

honey is composed chiefly of glucose and levulose, with perhaps 10 per cent of cane-sugar, depending upon the flowers from which it is gathered. Honey is extensively adulterated with glucose, and sometimes with cane-sugar; thus the natural flavors are impaired and the product cheapened.

  • confections - evil effect of confections under the general term of confections are included all products manufactured for the purpose of appealing chiefly to the sense of taste rather than to serve any special purpose as food. The chief products that enter into confections are the various forms of sugars, chiefly glucose, because of its cheapness; fruits, nut-kernels, flavoring extracts, and coloring materials. Many of the substances used are very wholesome, yet the habit of eating confections as a general rule should be discouraged, if not condemned, the reasons being—

1 that the material from which they are made is usually unknown to the public, and the temptation of manufacturers to use cheap or adulterated material too often controls, therefore quality is sacrificed to profits.

2 confections are usually eaten without regard to appetite, or the physical need of food. 3 the combination of things from which confections are made shows that they are put together not for their food value, or nutritive virtue, but wholly for the purpose of appealing to an artificial sense of taste, rather than natural appetite. This destroys the appetite for similar products in simpler forms. The following are the best forms in which sugar can be found, given in the order of their importance: 1 sweet fruits2 honey3 sorghum4 maple-sugar or sirup5 unrefined cane-sugar6 refined cane-sugar

even glucose sirups are perfectly wholesome when free from adulterants. The mixing, fixing, refining and manufacturing all go to make our sugar supply more expensive and less wholesome than the plain fruit-sugars, honey and sorghum.

  • application of the term "Sweets" as herein used in order to avoid repetition, all articles containing sugar are referred to throughout this work as sweets. By "Sweets" I mean sugar, sirups, honey, and all foods containing sugars, such as desserts, soda-fountain drinks, and the limitless number of confections. While carbohydrates rank second in importance in the human diet, yet nature has made no provision for sugar being taken in its concentrated form. In this form it is the most severe article of human diet, and to its use can be traced the origin of a vast number of stomach, intestinal, and other disorders. Superacidity, fermentation, intestinal gas, and the large number of sympathetic disorders that follow these conditions are caused largely by the overconsumption of sugars. It would be equally as important for the federal government, or the states, to regulate the manufacture and the sale of confections as to regulate the manufacture and the sale of intoxicating liquors.
  • vegetable oils value of vegetable oils vegetable oils form too small a portion of the modern bill of fare. Oils of vegetable origin, whether taken in their natural form or pressed out, and used with other foods, are the most valuable nutrients known for the production of heat and energy. By this statement I mean to convey the idea that a given quantity of fat will produce more heat and energy than any other article of human nutrition, and that vegetable fats are more valuable than animal fats, because they are more adapted to the fat metabolism of the human body, and less likely to contain harmful substances. Vegetable oils contain a larger per cent of olein, which is considered the most palatable and the most valuable fat known.
  • olives and olive-oil the olive is a unique plant, standing along the border line between fruits and nuts. Ripe olives contain from 40 to 60 per cent oil, the best quality of which is extracted by cold pressure, the cheaper grades being pressed out at higher temperature. The superiority of olive-oil is due to the fact that it is composed almost wholly of olein; that it contains very little fatty acids and other impurities, and has a mild, sweet, and agreeable flavor.

the adulteration of olive-oil has been extensively practised, but the agitation of pure food, and the demand for same are improving the quality of this excellent article of food.

  • cottonseed-oil cottonseed-oil is the largest vegetable oil industry in america. It is also the cheapest of vegetable oils. The cottonseed-kernel from which the oil is taken is not an edible product. Though used as cattle feed, it contains alkaloid substances which sometimes have a poisonous effect when fed too generously.

the methods of cottonseed-oil manufacture are more complex than those of olive-oil. The oil must be heated and bleached with certain chemical agents, and if designed for salad-oils, frequently a portion of the stearin is removed to make the oil more liquid. When the cottonseed-oil is carefully manufactured, it is considered to be entirely free from harmful substances. However, as the original material contains poisonous combinations, and as chemical agents are used in refining and bleaching, cottonseed-oil products are open to the same criticism as glucose and refined sirups; that is, they are wholesome when properly made, but cheap and careless production renders the product undesirable as food. Manufactured under careful government supervision, cottonseed-oil will, no doubt, be one of the great foods of the future. I recommend the purer brands of cottonseed-oils, when pure olive-oil cannot be obtained or afforded.

  • peanut-oil peanut-oil is an excellent food substance which is almost entirely neglected in this country. It contains the best portion of the peanut. Other vegetable oils, valuable as foods, and the use of which is to be recommended, are sesame-oil and sunflower-oil. These products are not produced extensively in this country.
  • cocoa-butter the cocoa-butter is pressed from the beans from which cocoa and chocolate are made. The butter has a flavor similar to these articles. Cocoa-butter should not be confused with cocoanut-butter. These products are very different in origin.
  • cocoanut-butter cocoanut-butter is not extensively used in america as a food product, owing to the fact that the exposed fat globules oxidize very rapidly. It is extensively used in germany, however, and with the introduction of better methods of preservation, we expect to see cocoanut-butter more generally used in this country, as the source from which it is derived is almost unlimited.
  • palm-oil palm-oil comes from a different species of the palm plant than that which produces the cocoanut. It is a very inexpensive product and one which is chiefly used in the production of soap and candles, although it is perfectly wholesome as a food. Such products have not been utilized in this country as food, because our boundless prairies and corn-fields have made the production of cattle and swine cheap, and our fat supply has swung toward points of least resistance.

not all vegetable oils are edible or wholesome. Some contain, in addition to olein, stearin and palmitin, and other fats quite as undesirable. Castor-oil, for example, contains ricinolein, which is a poison, and to which its purgative action is due. Croton-oil is the most powerful laxative known to medicine, owing to the fact that nature abhors a poison.

  • linseed-oil linseed-oil contains large quantities of linolein, which is the substance that oxidizes, forming the stiff, rubbery coat on the surface of linseed-oil when exposed to the air. This makes linseed-oil valuable matter to the painter, but objectionable as a food.

 

  • lesson ix - drugs, stimulants, and narcotics with the origin and the use of drugs in the treatment of dis-ease, most people are familiar. The purpose of this lesson, however, is to give brief but accurate information concerning the various chemical elements and compounds termed drugs or medicines.

many of the medicines in common use are neutral, having no particular effect upon the body, and the effects attributed to them are largely imaginary. Out of the many thousands of chemical materials found in nature, there are, however, certain substances, groups, and compounds which have most marked and violent effect upon all forms of living protoplasm.

  • ancient belief concerning medicine the general theory upon which the practise of medicine rests is that certain chemical substances which are not found in the animal body, and which have no natural place therein, have mysterious and beneficial effects; that they possess certain powers, among which are the rebuilding of dis-eased cells, and the purifying of dis-eased blood. This belief arose in a very remote age, when the mind was primitive; when man was ignorant, and controlled almost wholly by superstition—when every natural phenomenon was believed to be the work or whim of some god, and every dis-ease was thought to be the work of some devil.
  • life the result of chemical harmony modern science has proved all this to be untrue. We know by the selective processes through millions of years of evolution that those chemical substances which work in harmony have become associated so as to form life. We know that life is merely an assemblement of organic matter, very complex and little understood; that it is eternally undergoing chemical changes governed by the natural laws of development and decay. We know that conformity to certain natural laws will produce physical ease, and that violation of these laws will produce dis-ease. We know that ease is what we most desire, therefore the trend of thought, throughout the world, is to realize this desire by turning toward the natural.
  • the material upon which life depends true food furnishes the foundation or constructive material upon which all life depends. Nearly all other substances which affect the human body are merely disturbing elements that interfere with the natural chemical processes of life.

to illustrate more fully these general principles, we will take, for example, the chemical changes that may take place in the hemoglobin of the blood. Hemoglobin is a proteid containing iron. It is a complex chemical compound and reacts with other substances very readily. In the lungs it combines with oxygen. In the muscles, this oxyhemoglobin is again received into the original body-substances. This life-giving process is only one of the many thousands selected by evolution from the millions of chemical changes possible in nature.

  • effect of carbon monoxid upon the hemoglobin of the blood when carbon monoxid, which is present in illuminating gas, is breathed into the lungs, it combines with hemoglobin, producing a compound which prevents the formation of oxyhemoglobin, thus stopping the process of oxidation in the body, and death is the result.
  • drug theory declining in proportion as science has shown the origin of life, and the methods by which it has been sustained and developed, the use of drugs as a remedial agent has declined. This line of reasoning followed to its logical end, points with unerring certainty to the total abandonment of the drug theory of treating dis-ease except, perhaps, as anesthetics and disinfectants.
  • treatment of dis-ease by disinfection the means of combating dis-ease by disinfection is sometimes confused with the general system of drugging. The modern methods of preventing and of combating contagious dis-eases by disinfection are in harmony with the best known sanitary laws. These results depend, not upon the ignorant and the harmful theories on which general drug medication was founded, but upon the latest and the most scientific knowledge.
  • patent medicines and the doctor's prescription in the recent magazine exposures of patent medicines, the chief trend of argument was that these stock remedies were evil because the user took opium, cocain, or whisky without a doctor's prescription. This standpoint is more amusing than instructive. Just why a poison taken without a doctor's prescription should be dangerous, and its sale a crime, while the sale and the use of the same drug over a doctor's prescription should be highly recommended, is rather difficult to comprehend, and this the enterprising journals have not explained. The exposé that is most needed is not of a few poisonous patent preparations, but of the fundamental folly of interfering with nature's work by any form of poisoning. Poison is poison whether advertised in a newspaper as a "New discovery," or prescribed by a reputable representative of the "Ancient order of medicine men."

in a lesson of this kind it is impractical to classify all drugs accurately according to their chemical nature. For convenience of the student, however, the drugs commonly used in medicine will be divided into three groups, which have common representatives, and whose general effect upon the human body are well understood. These three groups are: a alkaloids and narcoticsb alcohols and related compoundsc poisonous mineral salts and acids

  • a alkaloids and narcotics - effect of alkaloids upon the body all alkaloids are of vegetable origin. They all contain nitrogen, and in some respects resemble ammonia. Many of the alkaloid compounds are used in medicine. They affect primarily the nervous system, and may cause freedom from pain, or that abnormal state of exhilaration of which the cocain addict is a typical representative. Substances of this alkaloid group doubtless have useful functions in the plant in which they grew, but in the animal body they are disturbing factors. Among the most important alkaloids may be mentioned opium, cocain, nux vomica, and quinin.
  • opium - composition of opium opium is the evaporated sap that flows from incisions made in the unripe capsules of certain asiatic species of poppy. It contains a large number of chemical compounds which belong to the alkaloid group. The chief alkaloids in opium are codein, narcotin, heroin, and morphin, the most active being heroin. Other alkaloids are of similar composition. The general effects and the uses of the crude opium and the refined morphin may be considered together. The latter, being more concentrated, is used in much smaller quantities.
  • effect of opium the effect upon the body of either opium or of morphin is that of benumbing the nerves and producing sleep. Opium illustrates in a typical manner the progressive stages by which both the body and the mind may become enslaved to the influence of a narcotic. The last stages of the opium or of the morphin slave is probably the lowest state of depravity into which the human being can sink.
  • origin of the morphin habit opium is eaten or smoked by the chinese and by other asiatic races to a very great extent. This habit is considered the worst form of slavery to drugs that is known except cocain. In this country the morphin habit is the more common form. Morphin is either taken internally or is injected beneath the skin by a hypodermic syringe. It is estimated that the great majority of the morphin slaves in this country begin the use of this drug under "Their" doctor's prescription.
  • the several uses of morphin the use of opium as prescribed by medical men is chiefly for the relief of either pain or of insomnia. Its employment in cases of great agony is probably justifiable, but the repeated taking of this drug until the habit is formed becomes a criminal blunder for which the doctor who prescribed it should be held responsible. Unfortunately this is only one of the uses to which opium is put by the medical profession. Prescriptions containing either opium or morphin are frequently given to relieve pain, or to produce sleep, when the primary trouble is chronic, and should be treated by removing the causes, and not alleviated by stupifying the nerves. In the majority of such cases, if the diet is balanced according to age, activity, and climate, and vigorous intestinal peristalsis created, sleep will follow, and other disorders will gradually disappear.
  • opium in patent medicines the dangers that lurk in the use of opium are so well known, and the habit has become so unpopular, that tricks are resorted to by manufacturers of this drug to deceive the people into believing that they are using some "Harmless" substance, while it is the influence of the opium that gives the medicine its apparent good effect. Patent medicines which claim to kill pain, soothe nerves, and produce sleep, usually contain opium. The popular "Soothing sirups" for children are nearly all opium products, and have been given to millions of babies in this country by deluded mothers, in the belief that because it soothed, their innocent child was being benefited. These are the crimes of greed passed on to innocent childhood through ignorance.
  • cocain cocain is an alkaloid, the use and the influence of which are almost as noteworthy as that of morphin. Cocain is derived from the leaves of the cocoa plant which grows in the andes of peru. Just as the chinese use opium, so the peruvian indians use cocain.
  • uses and effects of cocain owing to its hydrochloric-acid salt, the effects of cocain differ somewhat from those of opium. It produces relative freedom from pain, and is used more particularly to produce insensibility in local parts of the body, as in the case of extracting teeth. The cocain slaves, which are increasing alarmingly in this country, usually take it by snuffing, or in an atomizer. The habit is usually acquired, as in the case of morphin, by the prescription of a physician. The patient, learning from experience the freedom from pain and the sense of exhilaration that can be produced by the drug, and not being warned by "His" physician of its baneful effects, continues the habit after the doctor's treatment has ceased, and awakes to find a monster owning his body and his mind. The cocain fiend, like the opium slave, develops an insatiable desire for the drug, and suffers extreme mental and physical pain when deprived of the usual allowance. The development of untruthfulness and trickery in a person desiring his allowance of a forbidden drug, is one of the marked traits of the narcotic slave.
  • cocain in patent medicines there are a number of different medicines which depend for their action wholly upon the cocain they contain. A large number of catarrhal powders in the market are diluted forms of cocain, and are used extensively both by those who do not realize the nature of the drug they are using, and by those who know that they are cocain slaves, but prefer to disguise the fact in this manner.
  • nux vomica and strychnin - effect of strychnin nux vomica is derived from the seeds of a plant that grows in india. Strychnin is the alkaloid which exists therein. Strychnin is quite different in its effects from the above-mentioned alkaloids, for instead of benumbing the nerves, causing sleep or a pleasing sensation, the effect is a nerve stimulus which causes muscular convulsions.

the medical use of strychnin is more of a stimulant than of a narcotic. It is one of the most widely used of all the drugs prescribed by the old school physicians, and is extremely dangerous in over-doses. Indeed, thousands of people have been killed by strychnin poisoning.

  • quinin quinin is derived from peruvian or cinchona-bark. This bark, like the juice of the poppy plant, contains a number of alkaloids. These alkaloids, in turn, may react with acids, forming salts.
  • the uses of quinin sulfate of quinin is the most common form of this drug. Its principal use is for the destruction of the malarial germ, and it is, therefore, the standard drug in all malarious countries. The germs of malaria, however, are not bacteria , but minute forms of animal life. Aside from this particular use, the effect of quinin is to disturb the nervous system, produce insomnia, ringing of the ears—and even deafness, in a great many cases. It does not, however, produce an addiction, as do morphin, cocain, heroin, and other drugs.
  • acetanilid - composition and effects of acetanilid acetanilid is one of the coal-tar poisons and is chemically related to anilin. This drug has come into use only within the past few years, and of all the coal tar group is one of the most remarkable in its physiological effects. Its influence is to produce at first a deadening effect upon the nervous system, which puts it in the "Pain-killer" class. Its continued use destroys the hemoglobin of the blood and produces marked cell-destroying effects throughout the body. Its medical use is for rheumatism, headache, severe coughs, and the like.

a patent medicine now being widely exploited advertises, "We print our formula." so they do, and acetanilid is one of the ingredients. The general public does not know what acetanilid is. The habitué of this "Healthful drug" experiences a craving similar to that of other narcotic drug fiends. A person who has long used a medicine containing acetanilid shows a bluish-white complexion caused by the destruction of red blood-corpuscles. I merely mention this as an example to show that a knowledge of the composition of patent medicines does not protect the public unless the public is made familiar with the ingredients that compose these medicines. Acetanilid is the active principle in many popular headache powders, the formulas of which are not made public. The use of acetanilid by those claiming to cure suffering, or to relieve it, is one of the most glaring malpractises of the day.

  • evil effects of coal-tar products other coal-tar products chemically related to acetanilid are antipyrin, phenacetin, and various derivatives of benzol and phenol. The general uses of this class of drugs are to reduce fevers and to allay pain. They accomplish this by stupifying the nerves and the nerve fibers, which serve as telegraph wires to inform the brain that something is wrong. This is equivalent to killing the messenger that warns us of our sins.

the following are a few of the toxic remedies used by old school physicians in the treatment of nearly all forms of dis-ease: laudanum—which is merely another name for opium paregoric—a standard baby medicine which is a tincture of opium with camphor and other drugs codein—an alkaloid manufactured from morphin lyoscine—the alkaloid of henbane atropin—an alkaloid extensively used by oculists.  hellebore—a powerful alkaloid, is one of the old standard drugs used in the treatment of rheumatic gout

  • tobacco tobacco belongs strictly to the narcotic class of drugs. With the possible exception of opium, tobacco is by far the most detrimental narcotic used by man.
  • effect of nicotin the active principle of tobacco is nicotin, which resides in the leaves in combination with malic acid. Nicotin is an alkaloid, and one of the most deadly poisons known. In distilled form, nicotin, even in minute quantities, produces death almost instantaneously. The nicotin contained in a pound of tobacco is sufficient to kill several hundred men if administered in the form of pure nicotin, but in smoking and chewing tobacco only a small amount of this poison is absorbed into the body at one time, and, owing to the gradual growth of the tobacco habit, the system has time to partly adjust itself to the use of this powerful drug, enough at least to prevent acute narcotic poisoning.

the violent sickness caused by the first use of tobacco evidences the poisonous effects of the nicotin upon a body not accustomed to its use. Tobacco as a narcotic is not as drastic in its effect as opium, morphin, and cocain; for this reason its use is not so generally condemned. Popular opinion, however, is now rapidly recognizing that all of these substances belong in the same general class and are deteriorating factors in human development. The rapid spread of the cigarette habit among young boys has done much to arouse popular agitation against the tobacco evil.

  • general effect of tobacco from the standpoint of health, nothing can be said in favor of the use of tobacco in any form, as it gradually deadens the sensitiveness and control of the nervous system. It preys with great violence upon the optic nerves, and more than any other drug known dethrones sexual vitality. The tobacco heart, which is readily recognized by medical practitioners, shows the effect of this narcotic upon the nervous system. The craving for tobacco is closely related to the craving for intoxicating liquors and for highly seasoned food—three of the most potent factors in perverting the true sense of taste and arousing abnormal cravings which destroy natural hunger.

neither tobacco nor nicotin are now used by medical practitioners. Tobacco was formerly used as a purgative, and also as a poultice to relieve swellings and inflammation.

  • coffee - composition of coffee coffee is one of the most extensively used articles in the narcotic group. The alkaloid which gives coffee its characteristic properties is caffein. Coffee also contains from three to four per cent of tannic acid. Other substances in coffee, to which the pleasant odors and taste are due, are various forms of fats and carbohydrates, but these exist in such small quantities as to be negligible food elements. The effect of the caffein is that of a nervous stimulant, increasing the general nervous and mental activity. Coffee is frequently used to keep people awake. It is given as an antidote for opium poisoning because it stimulates the nervous system and prevents sleep.
  • effects of coffee-drinking coffee, when used habitually, produces various forms of dyspepsia, especially hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid, tannic acid being the provoking factor. The effect of coffee upon the nervous system is that of continued stimulation or excitation. Its continued use overworks and wears out the nervous system, thus causing a deterioration of both body and mind. If caffein were taken in a highly concentrated form, it would result in a narcotic habit quite as enslaving as the use of opium or cocain.
  • tea - composition of tea tea, in its chemical composition, is similar to coffee, containing even a greater percentage of the alkaloid caffein, and also a larger percentage of tannic acid. Tannic acid is present in larger quantities in green tea than in the black variety. In addition to the evil effects caused by the caffein which it contains, tea is more destructive to the normal activities of the stomach because of the tannic acid. The student may get some idea of what the stomach of the tea-user has to contend with, when it is stated that tannic acid gets its name from the essential action that this substance has in the process of tanning leather.
  • cocoa and chocolate the cocoa bean, which was mentioned as the source of chocolate and cocoa-butter, is also the source of the beverage known as breakfast cocoa. The cocoa bean contains caffein, though the per cent is considerably less than in coffee or tea. Cocoa is practically free from tannic acid. For these reasons, and because of its food value, it is decidedly the least harmful of the stimulant beverages. Cocoa, though being in reality more tasteful and nutritious than either coffee or tea, is less used because it lacks the stimulating effect.

the various alkaloid poisons thus far discussed form but an infinitesimal part of the great group of articles used by old school physicians in the treatment of dis-ease, and by civilized people as stimulating and sedative beverages.

the object of cooking is to tear down the cell-structure of foods, and to make them more digestible. After the cell-structure is demolished, every degree of heat to which foods are subjected injures the foods instead of improving them.

grains should be cooked whole. They should be cleansed, well covered with water, and boiled until the grains burst open as in making old-fashioned corn hominy. This will often take from three to four hours' constant boiling. Cereals prepared in this way are more delicious, more nourishing, and far more healthful than any of the prepared or patented "Breakfast foods," while the cost is perhaps about one-eighth or one-tenth of that of the popular patented products.

the old or popular method of cooking vegetables is to cover them generously with water and to boil them much longer than is necessary, then to drain off the water, season, and serve. By this process the mineral salts, in many cases the most valuable part of the food, are dissolved, passed into the water, and lost. In this way many excellent articles of food are greatly impoverished and reduced perhaps 50 per cent in nutritive value.

the time vegetables are cooked should be measured by their solidity. As an example, spinach can be thoroughly cooked in about fifteen minutes. In this way some of its elements are volatilized, giving it a delicious flavor and taste, while if cooked in an abundance of water, from half to three-quarters of an hour, which is the customary way, its best nutritive elements are lost by draining away the water, and it is rendered almost tasteless.

all succulent and watery vegetables such as cabbage and spinach, beans, carrots, onions, parsnips, peas, squash, turnips, etc., should be cooked in a casserole dish. Prepare vegetables in the usual manner as for boiling. A few tablespoonfuls of water may be added to such articles as green beans and peas, beets, carrots, cauliflower, onions, parsnips, etc. Cover, and place in an ordinary baking oven until the vegetable is thoroughly cooked or softened. In this way vegetables in reality are cooked in their own juices, rendered much softer, more digestible, more delicious, and all their mineral salts and other nutritive elements are preserved, making them also more nutritious.

rice, macaroni, and spaghetti are exceptions to the above rules. They should be cooked in an abundance of water and thoroughly drained. In this way the excess of starch which they contain is disposed of, and their nutritive elements are better balanced. They are also rendered much more palatable and digestible.

if fruits can be obtained thoroughly ripe, they should never be cooked.

dried or evaporated fruits can be prepared for the table by soaking them thoroughly in plain water for a few hours, or over night. In this way the green and inferior pieces are exposed and can be discarded. The excess of water can be boiled down to a sirup and poured over the fruit. In this way the fruit-sugar is developed, and sweetening with cane-sugar becomes unnecessary. Soaking as above described is merely a process of putting back into the fruit the water that was taken out of it by evaporation or dehydration. It is evident that that part of the fruit which will not soften sufficiently by soaking, to become palatable, was not ripe enough for food.

the average table, especially hotels and restaurants, are supplied largely from canned foods. A process of perfect preservation of foods has never been invented and probably never will be. No matter how well foods may taste, they undergo constant chemical changes from the time they leave the ground or parent stalk until they are thoroughly decomposed. All vegetables, therefore, should be used fresh, if possible.

an excellent quality of buttermilk may be made as follows: allow sweet milk to stand in a warm room until it thickens or coagulates; whip with an ordinary rotary egg beater without removing the cream.

sweet butter may be made in a few minutes from ordinary cream by placing it in a deep bowl and whipping with a rotary egg beater.

the banana is a vegetable. It is one of our most valuable foods, as well as the most prolific. It will produce more food per acre, with less care and labor, than any other plant that grows. While the banana grows only in the tropical countries, it is equally as good and useful to people of the northern zones. Bananas that are transported to the north are cut green, and often immature; that is, before they have attained their full growth. This latter variety should never be used. In their green and unripened state, they are wholly unfit for food, and for these reasons there has arisen a broadcast prejudice against this most excellent article of diet.

care should be exercised to select the largest variety—only those that have attained their full growth on the parent tree. If bananas cannot be procured "Dead ripe" from the dealer, they should be purchased, if possible, by the bunch, or a few of the lower "Hands" can be purchased and left on the stalk. They should be kept in the open air , in an even, warm temperature, and the end of the stalk covered with a clean white cloth, or immersed in water, kept fresh by changing daily. In this way the banana will mature, ripen slowly, and be almost as delicious as if obtained ripe from its native tree. Bananas should not be eaten until they are "Dead ripe"—black spotted. In this state, the carbohydrates which they contain are as readily digestible as fresh milk.

peel large ripe bananas; bake in an open pan in a very hot oven from ten to fifteen minutes, or until slightly brown. Baked bananas make a delicious dessert served with either of the following: a cream b nut butter c dairy butter d both dairy butter and a sauce made bygradually diluting nut butter with alittle water, until a smooth paste isformed bananas need much mastication, not for the purpose of reduction, but for the purpose of insalivation.

place an egg in a pint cup; cover with boiling water and allow to stand, covered, five or six minutes.

break the number desired into a narrow bowl; add a teaspoonful of sugar to each egg, and a pinch of salt; whip very briskly with a rotary egg beater from five to eight minutes. To each egg a teaspoonful of lemon juice and half a glass of milk may then be slowly whipped into the mixture, if desired.

whip two eggs very thoroughly for about five minutes; add a dash of salt, a dessert-spoonful each of corn-starch and of heavy cream. Bake very lightly in a small pan.

if we must eat the flesh of animals the young should be selected. It contains more digestible protein, especially albumin, than the old or matured animal, and has had less time in which to become contaminated by unhygienic habits. Both fish and fowl should be baked, boiled, or broiled; never fried.

after thoroughly cleansing the desired amount of fresh tender peas, unshelled, put them into a covered pot or casserole dish; add a few spoonfuls of water, a little butter and salt, and cook slowly until thoroughly softened; serve in the pod. The peas may be eaten by placing the pod between the teeth, and then giving it a gentle pull. This strips off the outer coating or pulp, leaving only the thin film of cellulose. Note: the pea pulp, or substance upon the pod, is rich in mineral salts, highly nutritious, slightly laxative, and an excellent aid in the digestion of other foods. It is a better balanced and a more valuable food than the pea.

pumpkin may be made very delicious by stewing or boiling in just enough water to prevent burning. Mash well and put through a colander. Season and serve same as squash, or, prepare as directed, and bake until slightly brown.

chop fine and boil carrots, peas, asparagus, or any other fresh vegetable from eight to ten minutes in sufficient water to make the amount of juice required; strain and serve. The tender parts of the fresh vegetable may be thoroughly cooked, put through a colander, and served as a purée.

crush the bark of the red sassafras root, allowing a piece as large as a silver dime to each cup. Add the quantity of water desired; simmer from five to ten minutes. Drink with cream and sugar.

wheat bran is the outer coating of the wheat grain. Chemically, it is pure cellulose, which is insoluble and indigestible in the ordinary digestive solvents of the body. Wheat bran serves a valuable medicinal purpose in the stomach and in the alimentary tract. When introduced into the stomach, its cell structure fills with water, and it increases from four to eight times its size in its dry state. It excites both stomach and intestinal peristalsis, thereby preventing stomach indigestion, and by carrying the water along down the intestinal tract, it prevents intestinal congestion, or what is commonly called constipation. Wheat bran may be properly called an intestinal broom or cleansing agent. Man, in the process of preparing his food, has invented expensive and complicated machinery for removing all cellulose and roughness from his diet. He has suffered both stomach and intestinal congestion just to the extent that this refining process has been carried on. Bran puts back into the diet not only what modern milling methods have taken out of it, but that which civilized habits of refining have eliminated from our food. It therefore naturalizes the diet, promotes digestion, cleanses the mucous surfaces of both the stomach and the intestines, and prevents congestion in the ascending colon, which is the primary cause of appendicitis, so called.

bran meal is the product of the entire wheat, ground coarsely, and mixed with a certain per cent of wheat bran. It makes an excellent bread. Bread made from bran meal acts on the digestive and the alimentary organs, the same as the pure bran, only in a milder capacity. It also aids the stomach in the digestion of other foods. It is more nourishing than wheat flour, for the reason that it is better balanced, containing all the carbohydrate and the proteid elements of the grain. Bread made from bran meal is better in the form of gems baked in small gem rings. This meal requires neither baking powder nor soda, and should not be sifted.

  • choice of menus wherever two menus are given, choice may be exercised, but whichever menu is chosen, it should be taken in its entirety. In other words, do not select articles from one menu and combine them with articles mentioned in another menu. Neither should any article of food be eaten with a particular menu, other than that which is mentioned therein. By observing these suggestions, the proper combinations of food are observed, which is equally as important as the selections.

note: in this volume there are some menus which contain combinations of food classed as no. 3 in lesson xii, "Tables of digestive harmonies and disharmonies," pp. 609 to 617 inclusive. This is explained by the fact that said "Tables" are laid out for the normal person, while the menus were prescribed for the treatment of some special disorder, or for the purpose of removing some offending causes.

while a majority of the menus composing this volume were prescribed for the purpose of removing the causes of some specific disorder, a vast number of those treated remained under the care of the author long after they had become normal or cured, as the transition from dis-ease to health is usually termed. Another large number of comparatively healthy persons, recognizing the relation between diet and health, came under the care of the writer for the purpose of having their diet selected, proportioned, and balanced according to age, occupation, and the season of the year.

the excellent results that were obtained, in nearly all such cases, emphasized the importance of giving a set of normal menus for normal people. All the following menus have been tested, under the direction of the author, and have been chosen because they gave the desired results.

from 2 to 5 years of age breakfast  a few soaked prunes, with creama small portion of coarse cereal, thoroughly cookedfrom one to two glasses of milklunch  a baked potatoonions or carrots, well cookedmilkdinner  home-made vegetable soup or cream soupgreen peas or asparagus tipsa baked potatomilk

from 2 to 5 years of age breakfast  one very ripe peacha small portion of coarse cereala baked sweet potatomilklunch  cream of rice, bean, or pea soup—home-madewhole wheat crackers, with buttermilkdinner  a baked potatopeas or lima beanswhole wheat crackers or bran biscuitsmilk

from 2 to 5 years of age breakfast  cantaloup or a very ripe peachcoarse cerealmilklunch  a baked potato or whole wheat gema coddled egg milk or junketdinner  cream soup—home-mademashed turnips or carrotsa very ripe banana, with cream and sugar

from 2 to 5 years of age breakfast  a baked apple, with a little sugarcereal—small portionmilklunch  one or two bananasmilkdinner  corn hominy—small portion; thoroughly cookedmilk the articles of food for children ranging from two to five years of age are about the same. The proportions, however, should be administered according to age. The child from two to three years of age may be given a glass of milk between meals, but should eat a very light dinner, consisting of only two or three articles, while the child from three to five, especially after it has engaged in vigorous play, can, with safety, follow the menus herein prescribed.

from 5 to 10 years of age breakfast  a banana, with creammilk or an eggcorn hominylunch  a potato, or whole wheat bread, with butterclabbered milk or cottage cheesedinner  peas, turnips, or carrotsa potato—sweet or whitemilk or an egg

from 5 to 10 years of age breakfast  a peachmilk or an eggboiled rice, with either honey or sugar andcreamlunch  tender corn or a potatomilkdinner  vegetable soup or cream soupasparagus or string beanstender corn or a potatogelatin or junketmilk

from 5 to 10 years of age breakfast  prunes or grapescereal—a small portioncreammilklunch  boiled onionsrice or potatoesmilkdinner  one fresh vegetablemilk, fish, or an eggpotatoes or baked beans

from 5 to 10 years of age breakfast  cerealhoneymilklunch  cabbage or cauliflowerpotatoes or baked beansdinner  boiled onionscorn breadcottage cheese

from 10 to 15 years of age breakfast  dried peaches—stewedoatmeal, or corn hominy, with either cream or buttermilklunch  rice with rich milkdinner  potatoes, either sweet or whiteturnips, asparagus, or peasfish, junket, or an egg

from 10 to 15 years of age breakfast  cantaloupa banana or a sweet potatocorn cake with buttermilklunch  tender cornmilkdinner  vegetable soup or cream soupspinach, onions, carrots, peas, beans, asparagus—any two of thesea potato or whole wheat bread

from 10 to 15 years of age breakfast  a banana, with cream and nutshoney or maple-sirupcorn cakemilklunch  baked sweet potatoes, with buttermilkdinner  carrots, parsnips, or squashpotatoes, or corn bread, with buttermilknuts, raisins, and cream cheese

from 10 to 15 years of age breakfast  oatmeal or flaked wheat, thoroughly cooked; serve with thin creama baked bananamilklunch  one or two eggswhole wheat breadmilkdinner  one or two fresh vegetablesboiled rice or baked potatoesgelatin or junketmilk

from 15 to 20 years of age breakfast  a very ripe banana with cream and datesplain boiled wheat, or oatmeal, with creammilklunch  home-baked beanswhole wheat gemsmilkdinner cream or vegetable soupasparagus or peasrice or a baked potatoegg custard or ice-creammilk or cocoa

from 15 to 20 years of age breakfast  melon or peachesone or two eggs with whole wheat gemsmilklunch  fresh peas, beans, or carrotscorn or potatoesmilk—sweet or sourdinner boiled onions, beets, or squashpotatoes or lima beanslettuce and tomato salad with nutsbran meal gems

from 15 to 20 years of age breakfast  cantaloupcorn cake with maple-sirup, or rice cake with honeymilklunch  broiled fishbaked potatoesdinner  cantaloupturnips, carrots, spinach, peas, beans, or onions—any two of thesecorn bread or baked potatoesmilk or cocoa

from 15 to 20 years of age breakfast  soaked prunesrice, or corn hominy, with creamvery ripe banana with nuts and creamlunch  whole wheat bread with nut butter and nutsrich milkdinner  soupwinter squash or stewed pumpkinsweet potatoescelery and nuts

from 20 to 33 years of age breakfast  cherries or very sweet berries with sugar—no creamcereal with butterone or two eggswhole wheat muffinsmilk or cocoalunch  peas in the podbaked potatoes or whole wheat gemsbuttermilkdinner  soupasparagus or fresh peaspotatoesa green salad—optionalbran meal gems

from 20 to 33 years of age breakfast  cantaloup or peachescoddled eggswhole wheat or corn muffinscocoa or milklunch  boiled cornlettuce and tomato salad, with nuts and raisinsdinner a light soupone or two fresh vegetablesrice or tender cornice-cream or gelatin

from 20 to 33 years of age breakfast  choice of non-acid fruittwo baked bananas with creamwhole wheat, boilednutsmilk or cocoalunch  home-baked beanslettuce, or celery, with nutscottage cheese with whole wheat breaddinner  soup—optionalsweet or white potatostring or lima beanslettuce, or romaine, with nutswhole wheat or bran meal gems

from 20 to 33 years of age breakfast  a very ripe banana with dates, nuts, and creamoatmeal or corn hominy—choice; small portionmilk or cocoalunch  a poached egg or a baked potatoa glass of buttermilkdinner  tender fish, broiledbaked potatoeslettuce, or celery, with nuts and raisins

from 33 to 50 years of age breakfast  boiled whole wheat, or hominy, or corn breadtwo eggs or a bowl of clabbered milklunch  one whipped egg and a pint of milka whole wheat cracker or a baked potatodinner  cream soupasparagus, peas, turnips, or carrotspotatoes or baked beans

from 33 to 50 years of age breakfast  berries, peaches, or melona baked sweet potatoa banana with nuts, cream, and raisinsmilk or cocoalunch  tender corn on the cob, with buttera glass of milk—optionaldinner  fresh peas, beans, cabbage, brussels sprouts, beets—any two of thesegreen corn or a potatolettuce and tomato salad, with nutsorange ice or peach ice

from 33 to 50 years of age breakfast  two large, very ripe bananas, baked; serve with creamwhole wheat or graham gemsone egg or a glass of milklunch  a large, baked potato and a poached eggcocoa or chocolatedinner  soup—cream of celery or tomatoturnips and lima beansbran meal gems or a baked potatococoa or chocolate

from 33 to 50 years of age breakfast  two eggs, coddledwhole wheat muffinsa cup of chocolate or a cup of hot water with sugar and creamlunch  home-baked beanslettuce or celerya few nutsdinner  carrots, parsnips, or cabbagea baked potatobroiled fish or a nut omeletcocoa, chocolate, or sassafras teanote: sassafras tea is made from the bark of red sassafras.

from 50 to 65 years of age breakfast  a cup of hot water with milk or sugara coddled egg and a baked potatolunch  junket or a bowl of clabbered milkone or two baked bananasdinner peas or asparagusnew potatoes or bran meal gemsa cup of cocoa or a cup of hot water with cream

from 50 to 65 years of age breakfast  peaches, plums, or meloncoarse cereal with creamcocoa or hot water with creamlunch  a sweet potato with buttercheese with water-crackermilk or chocolatedinner  peas, beans, or carrotslettuce or spinachgreen corn or a potatocottage cheese with cream and a water-cracker

from 50 to 65 years of age breakfast  a bunch of grapes or a melonbran meal gems or plain boiled wheatcocoa or hot water with creamlunch  very ripe bananas with creamdates and nutsa glass of milkdinner  lima beans and creamed onionsa baked potatowhole wheat or bran meal gems

from 50 to 65 years of age breakfast  soaked prunesbaked chestnutsclabbered milk or junketlunch  a bowl of milk with boiled ricedinner  baked onions and winter squashbaked beansa cup of cocoaone or two whole wheat crackers and cottage cheese

from 65 to 80 years of age breakfast  two or three very ripe bananas, baked; serve with creamnuts, raisins, and either cream or cottage cheesecocoa or hot waterlunch  a bowl of sour milkrye bread or bran meal gemsdinner  cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, or squasha potatocheese or an eggnote: if there is a tendency toward rheumatism, gout, or lumbago, eggs should be omitted.

from 65 to 80 years of age breakfast  peaches, pears, grapes, or melona baked sweet potato or potato cakessassafras tea with creamlunch  string beans or new peasrye breadcottage cheesedinner  carrots, squash, beets, or onionslima beans or a potatobuttermilkbran meal gems

from 65 to 80 years of age breakfast  melon, persimmons, or a baked appleboiled chestnuts or rice with creama cup of chocolate or a cup of hot waterlunch  a bowl of milk with corn breaddinner  boiled onions, carrots, or stewed pumpkina potato—sweet or whitea baked banana with cream cheesea cup of cocoa or chocolate

from 65 to 80 years of age breakfast  soaked prunesboiled wheat—small portioncream, hot water, or chocolatelunch  a spanish onion cooked en casserolea baked potatobuttermilkdinner  stewed pumpkin or winter squasha sweet potatobroiled fish—small portioncocoa

from 85 to 100 years of age breakfast  two baked bananas, with creamtwo egg whites, whipped into a glass of milklunch  new peas in the pod a glass of sour milkdinner  bean soupbaked sweet or white potatoescottage cheese with cream and sugar

from 85 to 100 years of age breakfast  cantaloupa bowl of clabbered milkbran meal gemslunch  purée of rice with milkdinner  a baked or boiled sweet potatopurée of peasegg custard or gelatin

from 85 to 100 years of age breakfast  wheat flakes, thoroughly cooked; serve with creamwarm milklunch  a coddled egg with a baked potatoa cup of chocolatedinner  cream of celery soupbran meal gemsa potatococoa or sassafras tea

from 85 to 100 years of age breakfast  two very ripe bananas, baked, eaten with nut butter and creamsassafras tea or a cup of chocolatelunch  cream of potato soupwhole wheat crackersdinner  purée of peas or beansa potato—sweet or whitechocolate or hot milk cooking

the object of cooking is to tear down the cell-structure of foods, and to make them more digestible. After the cell-structure is demolished, every degree of heat to which foods are subjected injures the foods instead of improving them.

grains should be cooked whole. They should be cleansed, well covered with water, and boiled until the grains burst open as in making old-fashioned corn hominy. This will often take from three to four hours' constant boiling. Cereals prepared in this way are more delicious, more nourishing, and far more healthful than any of the prepared or patented "Breakfast foods," while the cost is perhaps about one-eighth or one-tenth of that of the popular patented products.

the old or popular method of cooking vegetables is to cover them generously with water and to boil them much longer than is necessary, then to drain off the water, season, and serve. By this process the mineral salts, in many cases the most valuable part of the food, are dissolved, passed into the water, and lost. In this way many excellent articles of food are greatly impoverished and reduced perhaps 50 per cent in nutritive value.

the time vegetables are cooked should be measured by their solidity. As an example, spinach can be thoroughly cooked in about fifteen minutes. In this way some of its elements are volatilized, giving it a delicious flavor and taste, while if cooked in an abundance of water, from half to three-quarters of an hour, which is the customary way, its best nutritive elements are lost by draining away the water, and it is rendered almost tasteless.

all succulent and watery vegetables such as cabbage and spinach, beans, carrots, onions, parsnips, peas, squash, turnips, etc., should be cooked in a casserole dish. Prepare vegetables in the usual manner as for boiling. A few tablespoonfuls of water may be added to such articles as green beans and peas, beets, carrots, cauliflower, onions, parsnips, etc. Cover, and place in an ordinary baking oven until the vegetable is thoroughly cooked or softened. In this way vegetables in reality are cooked in their own juices, rendered much softer, more digestible, more delicious, and all their mineral salts and other nutritive elements are preserved, making them also more nutritious.

rice, macaroni, and spaghetti are exceptions to the above rules. They should be cooked in an abundance of water and thoroughly drained. In this way the excess of starch which they contain is disposed of, and their nutritive elements are better balanced. They are also rendered much more palatable and digestible.

if fruits can be obtained thoroughly ripe, they should never be cooked.

dried or evaporated fruits can be prepared for the table by soaking them thoroughly in plain water for a few hours, or over night. In this way the green and inferior pieces are exposed and can be discarded. The excess of water can be boiled down to a sirup and poured over the fruit. In this way the fruit-sugar is developed, and sweetening with cane-sugar becomes unnecessary. Soaking as above described is merely a process of putting back into the fruit the water that was taken out of it by evaporation or dehydration. It is evident that that part of the fruit which will not soften sufficiently by soaking, to become palatable, was not ripe enough for food.

the average table, especially hotels and restaurants, are supplied largely from canned foods. A process of perfect preservation of foods has never been invented and probably never will be. No matter how well foods may taste, they undergo constant chemical changes from the time they leave the ground or parent stalk until they are thoroughly decomposed. All vegetables, therefore, should be used fresh, if possible.

an excellent quality of buttermilk may be made as follows: allow sweet milk to stand in a warm room until it thickens or coagulates; whip with an ordinary rotary egg beater without removing the cream.

sweet butter may be made in a few minutes from ordinary cream by placing it in a deep bowl and whipping with a rotary egg beater.

the banana is a vegetable. It is one of our most valuable foods, as well as the most prolific. It will produce more food per acre, with less care and labor, than any other plant that grows. While the banana grows only in the tropical countries, it is equally as good and useful to people of the northern zones. Bananas that are transported to the north are cut green, and often immature; that is, before they have attained their full growth. This latter variety should never be used. In their green and unripened state, they are wholly unfit for food, and for these reasons there has arisen a broadcast prejudice against this most excellent article of diet.

care should be exercised to select the largest variety—only those that have attained their full growth on the parent tree. If bananas cannot be procured "Dead ripe" from the dealer, they should be purchased, if possible, by the bunch, or a few of the lower "Hands" can be purchased and left on the stalk. They should be kept in the open air , in an even, warm temperature, and the end of the stalk covered with a clean white cloth, or immersed in water, kept fresh by changing daily. In this way the banana will mature, ripen slowly, and be almost as delicious as if obtained ripe from its native tree. Bananas should not be eaten until they are "Dead ripe"—black spotted. In this state, the carbohydrates which they contain are as readily digestible as fresh milk.

peel large ripe bananas; bake in an open pan in a very hot oven from ten to fifteen minutes, or until slightly brown. Baked bananas make a delicious dessert served with either of the following: a cream b nut butter c dairy butter d both dairy butter and a sauce made bygradually diluting nut butter with alittle water, until a smooth paste isformed bananas need much mastication, not for the purpose of reduction, but for the purpose of insalivation.

place an egg in a pint cup; cover with boiling water and allow to stand, covered, five or six minutes.

break the number desired into a narrow bowl; add a teaspoonful of sugar to each egg, and a pinch of salt; whip very briskly with a rotary egg beater from five to eight minutes. To each egg a teaspoonful of lemon juice and half a glass of milk may then be slowly whipped into the mixture, if desired.

whip two eggs very thoroughly for about five minutes; add a dash of salt, a dessert-spoonful each of corn-starch and of heavy cream. Bake very lightly in a small pan.

if we must eat the flesh of animals the young should be selected. It contains more digestible protein, especially albumin, than the old or matured animal, and has had less time in which to become contaminated by unhygienic habits. Both fish and fowl should be baked, boiled, or broiled; never fried.

after thoroughly cleansing the desired amount of fresh tender peas, unshelled, put them into a covered pot or casserole dish; add a few spoonfuls of water, a little butter and salt, and cook slowly until thoroughly softened; serve in the pod. The peas may be eaten by placing the pod between the teeth, and then giving it a gentle pull. This strips off the outer coating or pulp, leaving only the thin film of cellulose. Note: the pea pulp, or substance upon the pod, is rich in mineral salts, highly nutritious, slightly laxative, and an excellent aid in the digestion of other foods. It is a better balanced and a more valuable food than the pea.

pumpkin may be made very delicious by stewing or boiling in just enough water to prevent burning. Mash well and put through a colander. Season and serve same as squash, or, prepare as directed, and bake until slightly brown.

chop fine and boil carrots, peas, asparagus, or any other fresh vegetable from eight to ten minutes in sufficient water to make the amount of juice required; strain and serve. The tender parts of the fresh vegetable may be thoroughly cooked, put through a colander, and served as a purée.

crush the bark of the red sassafras root, allowing a piece as large as a silver dime to each cup. Add the quantity of water desired; simmer from five to ten minutes. Drink with cream and sugar.

wheat bran is the outer coating of the wheat grain. Chemically, it is pure cellulose, which is insoluble and indigestible in the ordinary digestive solvents of the body. Wheat bran serves a valuable medicinal purpose in the stomach and in the alimentary tract. When introduced into the stomach, its cell structure fills with water, and it increases from four to eight times its size in its dry state. It excites both stomach and intestinal peristalsis, thereby preventing stomach indigestion, and by carrying the water along down the intestinal tract, it prevents intestinal congestion, or what is commonly called constipation. Wheat bran may be properly called an intestinal broom or cleansing agent. Man, in the process of preparing his food, has invented expensive and complicated machinery for removing all cellulose and roughness from his diet. He has suffered both stomach and intestinal congestion just to the extent that this refining process has been carried on. Bran puts back into the diet not only what modern milling methods have taken out of it, but that which civilized habits of refining have eliminated from our food. It therefore naturalizes the diet, promotes digestion, cleanses the mucous surfaces of both the stomach and the intestines, and prevents congestion in the ascending colon, which is the primary cause of appendicitis, so called.

bran meal is the product of the entire wheat, ground coarsely, and mixed with a certain per cent of wheat bran. It makes an excellent bread. Bread made from bran meal acts on the digestive and the alimentary organs, the same as the pure bran, only in a milder capacity. It also aids the stomach in the digestion of other foods. It is more nourishing than wheat flour, for the reason that it is better balanced, containing all the carbohydrate and the proteid elements of the grain. Bread made from bran meal is better in the form of gems baked in small gem rings. This meal requires neither baking powder nor soda, and should not be sifted.

  • choice of menus wherever two menus are given, choice may be exercised, but whichever menu is chosen, it should be taken in its entirety. In other words, do not select articles from one menu and combine them with articles mentioned in another menu. Neither should any article of food be eaten with a particular menu, other than that which is mentioned therein. By observing these suggestions, the proper combinations of food are observed, which is equally as important as the selections.

note: in this volume there are some menus which contain combinations of food classed as no. 3 in lesson xii, "Tables of digestive harmonies and disharmonies," pp. 609 to 617 inclusive. This is explained by the fact that said "Tables" are laid out for the normal person, while the menus were prescribed for the treatment of some special disorder, or for the purpose of removing some offending causes.

while a majority of the menus composing this volume were prescribed for the purpose of removing the causes of some specific disorder, a vast number of those treated remained under the care of the author long after they had become normal or cured, as the transition from dis-ease to health is usually termed. Another large number of comparatively healthy persons, recognizing the relation between diet and health, came under the care of the writer for the purpose of having their diet selected, proportioned, and balanced according to age, occupation, and the season of the year.

the excellent results that were obtained, in nearly all such cases, emphasized the importance of giving a set of normal menus for normal people. All the following menus have been tested, under the direction of the author, and have been chosen because they gave the desired results.

from 2 to 5 years of age breakfast  a few soaked prunes, with creama small portion of coarse cereal, thoroughly cookedfrom one to two glasses of milklunch  a baked potatoonions or carrots, well cookedmilkdinner  home-made vegetable soup or cream soupgreen peas or asparagus tipsa baked potatomilk

from 2 to 5 years of age breakfast  one very ripe peacha small portion of coarse cereala baked sweet potatomilklunch  cream of rice, bean, or pea soup—home-madewhole wheat crackers, with buttermilkdinner  a baked potatopeas or lima beanswhole wheat crackers or bran biscuitsmilk

from 2 to 5 years of age breakfast  cantaloup or a very ripe peachcoarse cerealmilklunch  a baked potato or whole wheat gema coddled egg milk or junketdinner  cream soup—home-mademashed turnips or carrotsa very ripe banana, with cream and sugar

from 2 to 5 years of age breakfast  a baked apple, with a little sugarcereal—small portionmilklunch  one or two bananasmilkdinner  corn hominy—small portion; thoroughly cookedmilk the articles of food for children ranging from two to five years of age are about the same. The proportions, however, should be administered according to age. The child from two to three years of age may be given a glass of milk between meals, but should eat a very light dinner, consisting of only two or three articles, while the child from three to five, especially after it has engaged in vigorous play, can, with safety, follow the menus herein prescribed.

from 5 to 10 years of age breakfast  a banana, with creammilk or an eggcorn hominylunch  a potato, or whole wheat bread, with butterclabbered milk or cottage cheesedinner  peas, turnips, or carrotsa potato—sweet or whitemilk or an egg

from 5 to 10 years of age breakfast  a peachmilk or an eggboiled rice, with either honey or sugar andcreamlunch  tender corn or a potatomilkdinner  vegetable soup or cream soupasparagus or string beanstender corn or a potatogelatin or junketmilk

from 5 to 10 years of age breakfast  prunes or grapescereal—a small portioncreammilklunch  boiled onionsrice or potatoesmilkdinner  one fresh vegetablemilk, fish, or an eggpotatoes or baked beans

from 5 to 10 years of age breakfast  cerealhoneymilklunch  cabbage or cauliflowerpotatoes or baked beansdinner  boiled onionscorn breadcottage cheese

from 10 to 15 years of age breakfast  dried peaches—stewedoatmeal, or corn hominy, with either cream or buttermilklunch  rice with rich milkdinner  potatoes, either sweet or whiteturnips, asparagus, or peasfish, junket, or an egg

from 10 to 15 years of age breakfast  cantaloupa banana or a sweet potatocorn cake with buttermilklunch  tender cornmilkdinner  vegetable soup or cream soupspinach, onions, carrots, peas, beans, asparagus—any two of thesea potato or whole wheat bread

from 10 to 15 years of age breakfast  a banana, with cream and nutshoney or maple-sirupcorn cakemilklunch  baked sweet potatoes, with buttermilkdinner  carrots, parsnips, or squashpotatoes, or corn bread, with buttermilknuts, raisins, and cream cheese

from 10 to 15 years of age breakfast  oatmeal or flaked wheat, thoroughly cooked; serve with thin creama baked bananamilklunch  one or two eggswhole wheat breadmilkdinner  one or two fresh vegetablesboiled rice or baked potatoesgelatin or junketmilk

from 15 to 20 years of age breakfast  a very ripe banana with cream and datesplain boiled wheat, or oatmeal, with creammilklunch  home-baked beanswhole wheat gemsmilkdinner cream or vegetable soupasparagus or peasrice or a baked potatoegg custard or ice-creammilk or cocoa

from 15 to 20 years of age breakfast  melon or peachesone or two eggs with whole wheat gemsmilklunch  fresh peas, beans, or carrotscorn or potatoesmilk—sweet or sourdinner boiled onions, beets, or squashpotatoes or lima beanslettuce and tomato salad with nutsbran meal gems

from 15 to 20 years of age breakfast  cantaloupcorn cake with maple-sirup, or rice cake with honeymilklunch  broiled fishbaked potatoesdinner  cantaloupturnips, carrots, spinach, peas, beans, or onions—any two of thesecorn bread or baked potatoesmilk or cocoa

from 15 to 20 years of age breakfast  soaked prunesrice, or corn hominy, with creamvery ripe banana with nuts and creamlunch  whole wheat bread with nut butter and nutsrich milkdinner  soupwinter squash or stewed pumpkinsweet potatoescelery and nuts

from 20 to 33 years of age breakfast  cherries or very sweet berries with sugar—no creamcereal with butterone or two eggswhole wheat muffinsmilk or cocoalunch  peas in the podbaked potatoes or whole wheat gemsbuttermilkdinner  soupasparagus or fresh peaspotatoesa green salad—optionalbran meal gems

from 20 to 33 years of age breakfast  cantaloup or peachescoddled eggswhole wheat or corn muffinscocoa or milklunch  boiled cornlettuce and tomato salad, with nuts and raisinsdinner a light soupone or two fresh vegetablesrice or tender cornice-cream or gelatin

from 20 to 33 years of age breakfast  choice of non-acid fruittwo baked bananas with creamwhole wheat, boilednutsmilk or cocoalunch  home-baked beanslettuce, or celery, with nutscottage cheese with whole wheat breaddinner  soup—optionalsweet or white potatostring or lima beanslettuce, or romaine, with nutswhole wheat or bran meal gems

from 20 to 33 years of age breakfast  a very ripe banana with dates, nuts, and creamoatmeal or corn hominy—choice; small portionmilk or cocoalunch  a poached egg or a baked potatoa glass of buttermilkdinner  tender fish, broiledbaked potatoeslettuce, or celery, with nuts and raisins

from 33 to 50 years of age breakfast  boiled whole wheat, or hominy, or corn breadtwo eggs or a bowl of clabbered milklunch  one whipped egg and a pint of milka whole wheat cracker or a baked potatodinner  cream soupasparagus, peas, turnips, or carrotspotatoes or baked beans

from 33 to 50 years of age breakfast  berries, peaches, or melona baked sweet potatoa banana with nuts, cream, and raisinsmilk or cocoalunch  tender corn on the cob, with buttera glass of milk—optionaldinner  fresh peas, beans, cabbage, brussels sprouts, beets—any two of thesegreen corn or a potatolettuce and tomato salad, with nutsorange ice or peach ice

from 33 to 50 years of age breakfast  two large, very ripe bananas, baked; serve with creamwhole wheat or graham gemsone egg or a glass of milklunch  a large, baked potato and a poached eggcocoa or chocolatedinner  soup—cream of celery or tomatoturnips and lima beansbran meal gems or a baked potatococoa or chocolate

from 33 to 50 years of age breakfast  two eggs, coddledwhole wheat muffinsa cup of chocolate or a cup of hot water with sugar and creamlunch  home-baked beanslettuce or celerya few nutsdinner  carrots, parsnips, or cabbagea baked potatobroiled fish or a nut omeletcocoa, chocolate, or sassafras teanote: sassafras tea is made from the bark of red sassafras.

from 50 to 65 years of age breakfast  a cup of hot water with milk or sugara coddled egg and a baked potatolunch  junket or a bowl of clabbered milkone or two baked bananasdinner peas or asparagusnew potatoes or bran meal gemsa cup of cocoa or a cup of hot water with cream

from 50 to 65 years of age breakfast  peaches, plums, or meloncoarse cereal with creamcocoa or hot water with creamlunch  a sweet potato with buttercheese with water-crackermilk or chocolatedinner  peas, beans, or carrotslettuce or spinachgreen corn or a potatocottage cheese with cream and a water-cracker

from 50 to 65 years of age breakfast  a bunch of grapes or a melonbran meal gems or plain boiled wheatcocoa or hot water with creamlunch  very ripe bananas with creamdates and nutsa glass of milkdinner  lima beans and creamed onionsa baked potatowhole wheat or bran meal gems

from 50 to 65 years of age breakfast  soaked prunesbaked chestnutsclabbered milk or junketlunch  a bowl of milk with boiled ricedinner  baked onions and winter squashbaked beansa cup of cocoaone or two whole wheat crackers and cottage cheese

from 65 to 80 years of age breakfast  two or three very ripe bananas, baked; serve with creamnuts, raisins, and either cream or cottage cheesecocoa or hot waterlunch  a bowl of sour milkrye bread or bran meal gemsdinner  cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, or squasha potatocheese or an eggnote: if there is a tendency toward rheumatism, gout, or lumbago, eggs should be omitted.

from 65 to 80 years of age breakfast  peaches, pears, grapes, or melona baked sweet potato or potato cakessassafras tea with creamlunch  string beans or new peasrye breadcottage cheesedinner  carrots, squash, beets, or onionslima beans or a potatobuttermilkbran meal gems

from 65 to 80 years of age breakfast  melon, persimmons, or a baked appleboiled chestnuts or rice with creama cup of chocolate or a cup of hot waterlunch  a bowl of milk with corn breaddinner  boiled onions, carrots, or stewed pumpkina potato—sweet or whitea baked banana with cream cheesea cup of cocoa or chocolate

from 65 to 80 years of age breakfast  soaked prunesboiled wheat—small portioncream, hot water, or chocolatelunch  a spanish onion cooked en casserolea baked potatobuttermilkdinner  stewed pumpkin or winter squasha sweet potatobroiled fish—small portioncocoa

from 85 to 100 years of age breakfast  two baked bananas, with creamtwo egg whites, whipped into a glass of milklunch  new peas in the pod a glass of sour milkdinner  bean soupbaked sweet or white potatoescottage cheese with cream and sugar

from 85 to 100 years of age breakfast  cantaloupa bowl of clabbered milkbran meal gemslunch  purée of rice with milkdinner  a baked or boiled sweet potatopurée of peasegg custard or gelatin

from 85 to 100 years of age breakfast  wheat flakes, thoroughly cooked; serve with creamwarm milklunch  a coddled egg with a baked potatoa cup of chocolatedinner  cream of celery soupbran meal gemsa potatococoa or sassafras tea

from 85 to 100 years of age breakfast  two very ripe bananas, baked, eaten with nut butter and creamsassafras tea or a cup of chocolatelunch  cream of potato soupwhole wheat crackersdinner  purée of peas or beansa potato—sweet or whitechocolate or hot milk 

foods of animal origin

an intelligent discussion of this lesson leads us directly into a subject commonly known as "Vegetarianism." the question whether man should eat the flesh of animals is especially fascinating for those who give attention to the food they eat. There are many standpoints, however, from which the subject of vegetarianism may be discussed.

in the first place, nearly all religious teachings that have wielded such a powerful influence over the civilization and destiny of men, have laid some restrictions upon the flesh-eating habit. Some religions require man to refrain from all animal products, while others interdict only the flesh of certain animals. Coupled with man's world-wide search for food, these religious teachings have played a conspicuous part in the question of human nutrition.

the second phase of the question that merits attention is the moral side, or vegetarianism from the animal's standpoint; in other words, the cruelty involved in the slaughter of our dumb friends and helpers, for whose presence here we are largely responsible. That the practises and customs which train humanity in cruelty toward animal life, are to be discouraged, cannot well be disputed, but this phase of vegetarianism is one which is somewhat without the realm of applied food chemistry, hence is mentioned only as a factor in the general discussion.

I will now consider vegetarianism from the standpoint of true food science, or the welfare of the physical man. It will be observed that in the lesson entitled "Evolution of man," one of the first considerations taken up is the scientific vegetarianism from standpoint of scientific livingdiscussion of man's natural adaptation to the use of flesh foods. By natural adaptation I mean nature's evolutionary plan of fitting the physiological organism to the food man is able to procure. The organism of man will, to a certain extent, adapt itself to a given diet within the brief period of one generation, just as, in the long ages of evolution, the digestive organs of any species of animal become adapted to such diet as may be procured. Thus it is of especial importance for us to know the diet of primitive man at a time before his intellectual resourcefulness made it possible for him to gather his bill of fare from the four corners of the earth.

the diet of our related anthropoid apes, of every primitive savage tribe, and of our ancestors, indications of which have been found in fossils and caves—all three throw light upon the subject. The consensus of these various studies indicates primitive diet of manthat the original or natural diet of man was one drawn chiefly from the vegetable kingdom, but not entirely so. Fruits, nuts, green vegetables, edible foliage, tubers or roots were all included in man's primitive diet. The foods of animal origin were varied, and consisted of such articles as birds, eggs, shell-fish, many insects, and other forms of lower animal life, of which our modern habit of eating frogs' legs, eels, escargots , etc., is merely an inheritance.

since the digestive, the assimilative, and the excretory organs of man have been constructed from, and adapted to, the use of vegetables, it is obvious that the flesh of animals is unnecessary, especially in view of the fact that there is nothing in flesh that cannot be secured from the vegetable world in its best and purest form. Man's primitive diet does not prove that he is by nature a vegetarian, as is the cow, and therefore entirely unsuited to digest any material of animal origin. The anatomy of man's teeth and of his digestive organs, however, indicates that he is by nature a vegetarian, and that his digestive organs are prepared to dissolve and to assimilate a diet that is somewhat more bulky than that of carnivorous animals, but, on the other hand, less bulky than the diet of animals which subsist wholly upon succulent plants, as do the purely herbivorous species.

man is by nature a tropical animal, and so long as his habitat was confined to that section, he could live from the prodigality of nature, but when he began his early migration northward, his food was the greatest problem he had to solve. He was often forced to choose between eating the flesh of animals and death from starvation. It was this fierce struggle for food, not the character of his food, which exercised both the physical and the mental powers, and caused the aryan or northern races to think, and therefore to develop into people so much superior to their tropical brothers.

the defenders of flesh food often point to the fact that flesh-eating people have achieved the highest civilization. Man's superior achievement in northern countries can no more be credited to flesh-eating than to the wearing of fur caps or leather boots. To meet the exigencies of his environment, he was forced to think and to work, and thinking and working developed the brain and laid the foundation for his present stage of civilization.

another reason for the early habit of flesh-eating is found in the fact that in order to sustain the required amount of body-heat in cold climates, a liberal consumption of fat was necessary. Vegetable fats not being available, his only source of supply was from the body-fat of animals.

aside from fat, protein is the only nutritive element meat contains. With the variety of vegetable and butter-fats, and vegetable proteins available in this age, supplemented by our knowledge of chemistry as a guide in their use, the consumption of flesh as an article of human food is entirely unscientific and wholly without reason.

a diet composed exclusively of flesh contains fat and nitrogenous compounds only. These two classes of foods can, of course, maintain life, as was explained in our sixth lesson, as proteid is capable of forming blood, sugar, and body-fat. The fact, however, that the proteid or the fat of meat can be made to fill, in the physiological economy, the place naturally supplied by the carbohydrate materials of vegetable food, does not prove that such a diet is without its harmful effects. The living body has many wonderful provisions whereby life is maintained under unfavorable influences. Just as a blind person develops a sense of touch which in a way acts as a substitute for sight, so the ability of the body to convert either proteins or fats into sugar, may be utilized in cases of emergency, but the using of this emergency or substitute function of the body cannot develop and energize the human machine as well or as perfectly as can a naturally balanced diet. The fact that some people exist largely upon a meat diet does not prove that this is without its handicapping and evil influences, any more than the use of alcohol and tobacco proves that man is benefited by indulging in intoxicants and sedative poisons.

that flesh-eating is largely responsible for the universal desire among civilized people for some form of stimulant has ceased to be questioned by those who have been placed in a position to make experiments—the source from flesh-eating produces appetite for stimulantswhich all real knowledge is obtained. These conclusions were first forced upon the writer by noticing the gradual decline of appetite for coffee and tobacco in his own case, when he began to subsist upon natural foods. With this hint no opportunity was lost, among the thousands of patients he treated, to observe the effects and get at the truth. If only one or two people had completely lost their appetite for all forms of stimulation, after following a natural food regimen, it might have revealed only an idiosyncrasy. When a dozen undergo the same treatment, with the same results, it leaves but little doubt that the theory may be true, but when many hundreds give the same testimony, through a period of a dozen years' practise, it reveals a truth that cannot be consistently doubted. Such experience proves beyond doubt that flesh-eating supports and perpetuates the habit of taking distilled and ardent liquors, tobacco, tea, and coffee, and the numerous drugs which, altogether, have done the human race more harm; dethroned more intelligence; sapped from the human economy more vitality; ruined more homes; made more widows and orphans; changed more natural virtue into vice, and caused more sorrow and tears, more failure and fears, than all other agencies of destruction combined.

since fats and proteins are the only nutrients supplied by flesh foods, we may well ask, "Is meat the best source from which these elements may be secured?

the proteid substance of meat includes all the edible portion of a carcass except the fat. The proteid of meat is more easily and more rapidly digested than the proteid of vegetables. Notwithstanding this fact, there are serious objections to the use of meat as a source of nitrogen. All flesh food contains the unexcreted waste matter of the slaughtered animal. When the process of metabolism that is continually going on during life is suddenly arrested by death, the effete and decomposing cells, and the partly oxidized waste-products which are still held in the muscle-tissues, are left in the flesh of the dead animal, hence these poisons must be consumed by the flesh-eater in order to secure the meat proteins and fats.

it is now a matter of common knowledge among scientists, and among the more advanced school of pathologists, that the usual conditions under which animals are slain change the chemical constituents of the blood-serum, charging it with a form of poison that to the chemist is as yet unknown, but the presence and the potency of which is attested by its effect.


the method of slaughtering animals in the great abattoirs is especially conducive to the generation of these poisons. The condemned herd is driven to the place of slaughter and killed, one at a time, in plain view of their fellows. These animals are very intelligent and possess remarkable senses of danger. They are as conscious of approaching death as the creature who takes their lives, hence the amount of poisons generated in their bodies is measured by the time they are kept in waiting. Most animals when killed labor under these conditions, and that these mental states render their flesh entirely unfit for human nutrition can no longer be questioned.

we find fragments of evidence supporting this theory in the fact that nature's perfect food—the milk of a nursing animal, or of a nursing mother—can be changed in an instant into a poison by sudden fright, anger, or fear.

 

thus we see that in eating meat, we are eating animal waste-material similar to that thrown off through our own body-cells. The waste material in meat being soluble, passes through the walls of our digestive organs, and enters the circulation, where it is added to similar poisons which are constantly being produced within our own bodies. It is the universal law of animal cell-growth that the waste matter of the cell acts as its own poison. When bacteria, growing in a solution of sugar, have excreted alcohol until it forms a certain percentage of the total contents, their activity ceases—they die from poisons thrown off from their own bodies. This is the reason that liquids containing a high percentage of alcohol must be distilled, and cannot be brewed. It is obvious, therefore, that in the consumption of flesh, we are adding to our bodies the poisons that are residual in the body of other animals, and are, therefore, approaching the conditions under which bacteria kill themselves by autointoxication or self-poisoning.

plants utilize the carbon dioxid excreted by the animal, and the excrement of animals is in turn used to fertilize our fields. Although one form of life may utilize what is excreted by another form of life, the living thing that cannot get away from the excreted matter of its own activity is poisoned thereby.

the flesh of animals whose physiological processes are almost identical with our own, containing as it does waste-products that have not yet been excreted, must, when taken into the human body, add extra burdens to our excretory organs which are usually burdened with all they can do. Carnivorous animals are especially provided with an excretory system capable of taking care of such matter, but it is unreasonable to expect the excretory organs of man, which are not adapted to such a purpose, to throw off, in addition to the regular body-poisons, similar decomposing products of other animals.

it is true that flesh will support, and has supported what is commonly regarded as a high form of anthropoid life , but not having the natural standard from which to measure, we do not know how much better the opposite course would have been, or just how much longer one would live under a perfectly natural regimen. The effects of flesh-eating have not been definitely known until recent years, but is now acknowledged by the most advanced authorities to be one of the greatest errors of civilized people, and will, within a few years, disappear from the catalog of human habits, when the great masses of people are made familiar with the chemistry of food, and how to secure vegetable instead of animal proteins and fats.

 

meat, in the sense the word is here used, includes beef, mutton, pork, and an occasional allowance of wild game. Chemically considered, meat may be divided into two classes, namely flesh or lean meat, and animal fats. The former will be first considered.

lean meat is composed of the muscles of the animal. Approximately it is 70 per cent water, 20 per cent protein, and 10 per cent fat. The protein is composed of connective tissue, which is a tough, fibrous substance that forms tendons, and holds the muscle-cells in place. Chemically, connective tissue is formed of albuminoids, which were discussed in lesson iv. These substances are somewhat difficult to digest, and are not of very great importance in the human body, as they cannot take the place of true proteid in tissue-formation.

the percentage of connective tissue in flesh depends upon the cut of the meat. As every housewife knows, the cheapest cuts of meat contain a larger amount of this material.

the gelatin of commerce is a manufactured product derived from the connective tissue of animals.

other forms of protein are globulin and myosin, which form the actual muscle-substance. These elements form perhaps three-fourths of the entire proteid of the animal, and are the most valuable substances of flesh food. A very small portion of meat proteins is formed by the free albumins of the blood, which are mechanically retained in the muscle-cells, the purpose of which is the nourishment of the animal, and therefore are not unwholesome as food.

 

another class of nitrogenous substances found in flesh foods is called meat extractives. Though they exist only in quantities of from one to two per cent of the weight of the flesh, they are the most interesting from the standpoint of chemistry, because they are found only in flesh foods, and are products only of cell life, hence not wholesome as food. They are composed of urea, uric acid, creatin, etc., and are similar or identical to the waste-products of human cell metabolism. The amount of these substances contained in flesh depends upon the condition of the animal at the time of slaughter, being much greater in animals slain after the chase, or laboring under fear or abuse.

the chemical composition of the different cuts of meat does not vary greatly, except in a greater or less per cent of fat, and no chemical calculation can compute this accurately, as the fat in every cut of meat varies widely.

 

beef and mutton are comparatively the same in both nutritive value and popularity, but the use of pork has been generally condemned the world over. The reason for this is probably explained by prejudices of tradition and religion, rather than by scientific or hygienic knowledge. The prejudice against swine because of the filthy habits of the animal is more a matter of sentiment than of science. It is sometimes the custom among farmers to confine hogs in a pen, and to feed them upon swill and garbage. This makes of the animal a filthy creature. However, when left in the open fields or woods, they are as cleanly in their habits as any of their brother animals. Corn and alfalfa-fed pork is equally as wholesome as beef or mutton, when prepared in a similar manner, and eaten in temperate quantities, while the hog fattened upon acorns and herbs, in his native habitat , is much more healthy, and his flesh really superior to most of his brother animals.

the use of animal fats as food is a very ancient custom, especially among the northern tribes. This custom was once justified owing to the necessity for the consumption of a liberal amount of fats in cold countries, but in this country where our marvelous system of international transportation places at the door of every northern home the delicious fats from the olive orchards of italy, france, and spain, the refined oil from the cottonseed, and more than a dozen varieties of nuts, including the humble peanut, there is but little necessity for the use of animal fats except in the form of butter and cream.

perhaps the most injurious way in which animal fats are used is in the process of frying, which is much practised in southern countries in the preparation of other food. The chemical change which takes place in fats, when treated in this manner, renders them exceedingly indigestible, and almost wholly unfit for food.

that per cent of animal fats contained in the ordinary meat diet is quite as wholesome as any other element of nutrition secured from animal sources. However, with the splendid supply of vegetable fats civilized people have to draw upon, the use of animal fats cannot be recommended in any form except that of cream and butter, and when we consider the expense of these by comparison with many pure vegetable fats, our sense of ordinary economy would bid us discard them.

the chief distinction between animal and vegetable fats is in the proportion of olein compared with stearin and palmitin. the proportion of the two latter fats is much greater in fats of domestic animals than it is in the human body; this is especially so of tallow. For this reason vegetable fats, which are of a more liquid nature, are more desirable than those of animal origin, especially where we wish to add fatty tissue to the body.

a very small amount of the meat produced in this country at the present time is consumed near its place of slaughter. Cold storage plants and refrigerator cars have been constructed for the purpose of preserving meats until they can reach their destination, and to hold them awaiting market advances for the benefit of packers and tradesmen.

meat in cold storage is slowly undergoing a form of decomposition which is evidenced by the fact that cold storage meat decays much more rapidly upon its removal from storage than do the same cuts of fresh meat.

the process of ripening meat in rooms of varying temperatures depends upon this form of decomposition. The natural enzyms of the meat, and the bacteria contained therein, digest a portion of the proteins, forming nitrogenous decomposition products, similar to the above-mentioned meat extractives. Ripened or storage meats contain a much larger per cent of this group of compounds than does fresh meat.

the high flavor and "Peculiar rich taste" of ripened meats is produced by these decomposition products, while the decay of the gelatinoid or connective tissue is the primary reason for its tenderness. There are certain species of bacteria that produce more poisonous waste-products than others, and this occasionally causes the development of ptomains in storage meat.

the use of flesh as an article of food is fraught with many serious and scientific objections, but the use of cold storage or ripened animal products is to be condemned from every standpoint of hygiene. Nevertheless, if people insist upon using flesh foods, and economical conditions make it profitable to produce them far from their place of consumption, cold storage methods seem inevitable. The choice between storage meats and home-killed is, in its last analysis, a matter of selecting the lesser of two evils.

much has been written as to how, from dis-eased animals, human beings have contracted contagious dis-eases, especially tuberculosis. The risk of such contagion has in all probability been much exaggerated. Flesh foods are seldom taken in an uncooked form, and dis-ease germs are usually destroyed by the sterilizing process involved in cooking. The cooking process, however, must be very thorough in order to destroy dis-ease germs; that is, the heat must be sufficient to coagulate the proteins. The interior of a rare beefsteak, such as popularly demanded by the flesh-eater, has not reached this temperature, hence this form of meat should be condemned on this ground if for no other.

perhaps the worst form of dis-ease contamination from fresh flesh food is that of trichinosis. Trichinae are worm-like creatures which have the first stage of their growth in the flesh of swine, and then become encased in a cyst or egg-like structure, which, when taken into the human digestive organs are revived, and the trichinae then bore their way through the walls of the digestive organs, completing their growth in the human muscle-tissue. Trichinosis is one of the most fatal of diseases, but fortunately is not common. Tapeworms owe their origin to a similar source. There are several species of tapeworms; some have their origin in pork, and some in beef.

under this heading I will consider fish and other sea-creatures.

the flesh of most fish is quite free from fat, and consists almost entirely of water and proteins. It is less concentrated than the flesh of warm-blooded animals, averaging about 18 to 20 per cent proteins, and 60 to 70 per cent water. The percentage of ash in fish is also somewhat greater than in any other flesh food. The popular idea that fish is good food for the brain originated in the fact that analysis of some fish shows a considerable percentage of phosphorus, which substance fish as brain foodis also found in the brain. There is no reason to believe, however, that the liberal use of fish would develop or produce an excess of brain-tissue. Any well-balanced diet contains ample phosphorus to nourish the brain.

the true science of human nutrition lies in the knowledge of selecting, combining, and proportioning food according to age, climate, and work. When this is done, the tendency of the body is to eliminate dis-ease and to assume normal action; this accomplished, every part of the anatomy shares in the general improvement.

my theory advanced against the use of meat because of nitrogenous decomposition products, holds true with fish, though in a somewhat limited degree. The decomposition products of cold-blooded animals are not identical with those of mammals, hence their consumption as food does not add to the percentage of human waste-products so directly as do other meats.

oysters and clams, which are generally eaten uncooked, are recommended by many authorities as valuable sources of proteid. The serious objection to their use, and especially uncooked, is the fact that they are grown in the sea-water around harbor entrances which are flooded with sewage, and hence they are likely to be contaminated with typhoid, or similar germs. The actual food value in shell-fish is quite small. They contain only about ten per cent of proteins, and are scarcely worth considering as a source of nutrition.

the objections that I have made against the use of the flesh of fish and mammals as an article of food may also be assessed against the use of domestic and wild fowls. There are a few special points, however, in favor of poultry as food that are worth special consideration.

the production of chickens and other domestic poultry is one of the most prolific industries in america, and is of great importance to the general public because it is capable of being carried on in communities too thickly settled for the economic production of beef and other meats.

another point to be observed in the use of poultry as food is that, because of the ease with which every farmer and villager can keep a flock of chickens, it is possible for him to have fresh meat produced under the most sanitary and hygienic conditions, while if he uses meat as food, he will be compelled to depend upon the various meat products of unknown age and origin, secured from the general market.


another reason why the use of poultry, from a hygienic standpoint, is less objectionable than the use of pork and beef is that the quantity consumed is usually much smaller than the amount eaten of these heavy-blooded meats.

for example: when five pounds of beefsteak is purchased in the market, the amount consumed would be almost the full weight of the purchase. If the money were invested in a five-pound chicken, a goodly portion of this weight would be lost in preparing the fowl for the table, while a still further loss would occur in the bones and in the inedible portions, so that the actual amount of flesh consumed would not be more than perhaps two pounds.

according to the old idea of economy and diet, this would be a serious argument against the use of poultry products, but as has been clearly proved in this course of lessons, the most serious criticism that can be urged against the modern bill of fare is quantity, and especially the use of meat in large quantities, so common among the american people.

the chief reason for which meat is kept upon the bill of fare of most civilized people is that of conformity to custom, surely not to that of hygiene. That form of meat, therefore, which is pleasing to the taste, and which has a tendency to reduce the quantity of flesh consumed, is a step in the right direction of true food reform.

the methods of fattening poultry by shutting them in small coops or compartments, and feeding them upon soft mushy foods, is condemned by some writers on the ground that it is unnatural and harmful to the health of the fowls, and therefore the meat cannot be wholesome. In truth, this process, if not carried too far, will produce a quality of meat less harmful than that of the barnyard and ill-fed poultry. One of the greatest objections to the use of animal food, as already explained, is the presence of the unexcreted waste-products of animal metabolism. The flesh of fowls, fed and fattened in coops, contains the smallest possible quantity of waste or decomposition products, because of the limited amount of motion or exercise they are permitted to undergo. For this reason, when poultry is to be eaten, the whiter the meat the less objectionable it is as an article of food.

the marketing of poultry in an undrawn condition , has been much condemned by the public, and the legislatures of some states have passed laws against this practise. This, however, is to some extent a misapplication of good intentions. When poultry is to be killed for the market by those who thoroughly understand the business, the fowls are left without food for a period of twenty-four hours. Since the digestive processes of these small animals are very rapid, this results in emptying the intestines of most of the fecal matter, which removes the principal objection to the practise. On the other hand, if the fowls are drawn at the time of killing, and several days elapse before their consumption, bacteria gain access to the interior of the carcass and cause very rapid decomposition.

it is the practise in some oriental and european countries to "Hang" poultry for a few days before they are eaten. This process, as in the case of ripened meats, is simply one of partial decay. The enzymotic action taking place in the meat is arrested only by the process of cold storage. Decomposition proceeds slowly until it reaches that point when it is pronounced high-flavored and "Ripened." this is very largely practised in this country at the present time. It is a custom that is instinctively condemned by everyone from the standpoint of both hygiene and aestheticism. The people should demand and force congress to pass a law labeling all cold storage meats with the date of slaughter, and all canned meats with the date of packing.

what is true of domestic poultry is also true of all wild game. The amount of actual food contributed to the world by the slaughter of game is exceedingly small. A similar quantity of domestic food could be produced at one-tenth the cost of time and labor, without slaughtering the wild creatures of our forests. The popularity of hunting as a sport, and the idea that the flesh of all wild animals is a rare and dainty article of diet, is merely an illustration of anthropoid inheritance. It is a step backward toward savagery instead of forward toward a higher civilization.

 

eggs and milk occupy a unique place in the catalog of foods. The purpose for which they were produced in nature throws much light upon their value as food.

as will be learned from the lesson, "Evolution of man," no living creature exists for the sole benefit of other creatures, but because once created, the inherent struggle of all living matter to survive and to reproduce itself has evolved wonderful and various adaptations. Every organic substance is primarily produced in nature for a specific purpose in the life of its species. The lumber in our houses owes its existence to the plant's struggle for sunlight, which made it necessary for the tree to possess a strong storm-withstanding stem to hold aloft its leaves above the shade of other foliage.

the leaves and the stems of grass are primarily an essential part of the life of the plant, and not food for animals. The greater part of the human food of plant origin represents in nature the nutrient material supplied by the parent plant for the early life of the seedling. All grains, nuts, fruits and roots, and tubers are merely modified forms of food material adapted to the rapid nourishment of the young plant.

the starch and the oil of seeds, the sugar of fruit, and the lesser quantities of nitrogen contained in all seeds, are in a more available form for cell-nourishment than would be the original mature portions of plant life.

milk and eggs in the animal world occupy a position identical to that of seeds and fruit in the plant world; that is, they are created for the first nourishment of the offspring.

in the process of evolution, a fundamental distinction between birds and mammals is in the manner in which the young are nourished. The egg of the bird supplies sufficient nourishment to develop the young bird to a point where it can exist upon the ordinary food of the adult bird.

the hen's egg must contain all food material necessary to form all portions of the body of the chick, and to supply it for a time with heat and energy.

an average egg weighs two ounces; of this weight about 10 per cent is shell, 30 per cent yolk, and the remainder white. The white of the egg is composed of albumin and water. The yolk consists of globulin, egg-fat, and lecithin; this latter substance contains a considerable proportion of phosphorus, and is one of the essential contingents of brain and nerves. The egg-shell contains 13 per cent protein, 10 per cent fat, and one per cent ash.

the younger the animal, the more rapid is the growth of the animal body compared with the amount of energy expended. milk and eggs not a balanced adult dietfor this reason the percentage of nitrogen in milk and in eggs is much too great to form a balanced adult diet, and should be supplemented by articles containing larger proportions of heat-producing materials, preferably carbohydrates.

the proteid material of eggs is in a form especially adapted to the construction of new cells. For this reason it is one of the best known foods for use in cases of emaciation, where new tissue is to be added rapidly to the body. An egg contains about fourteen decigrams of nitrogen. Ten eggs, therefore, would supply an ample amount of nitrogen for the daily needs of the average body, were no nitrogen taken from other sources. In feeding patients who are convalescing from fevers or other wasting dis-eases, it is sometimes necessary to prescribe a diet of from ten to twelve eggs daily for a limited time.


the consumption of five eggs a day, when we rely wholly upon this article for animal proteins, is quite sufficient for one performing ordinary labor, when supplemented by one succulent and one tuber vegetable.

milk and the various products made therefrom constitute one of the most important groups of food in the modern bill of fare. Milk and eggs are interdicted by some vegetarians, but aside from the sentimental feeling against the taking of any food of animal origin, there are no scientific reasons for such exclusion. Dairy products are free from many of the objections assessed against the use of flesh, and they supply a number of readily soluble, digestible, and assimilable nutrients that, in many respects , excel anything that can be secured from the vegetable kingdom.

the composition of cow's milk varies widely. Dairy cows, by long domestication, breeding and feeding, have been brought to a high state of specialization. Some breeds have been so trained, fed, and bred as to produce large quantities of milk. Some holsteins have been known to produce one hundred pounds of milk per day each, which of course is many times the quantity required for the nourishment of their young. Some jersey stock have been so bred, raised, and fed as to produce large quantities of butter; in some cases the butter-fat of especially fed jerseys has been known to run as high as 8 or 10 per cent, whereas the normal fat content of milk is not more than 3.5 or 4 per cent.

the average composition of mixed milk from many cows runs about as follows: water, 87 per cent; lactose or milk-sugar, 4.5 per cent; butter-fat, 3.5 per cent; ash, .7 per cent; proteins, 3.3 per cent, of which about 2.5 per cent are casein, and .8 per cent albumin.

the commercial value of milk is measured almost entirely by its content of butter-fat. This is because the public knows practically nothing about the food value, or the chemistry of milk, therefore its value is estimated upon that which can be seen, and upon that which tastes best. The chief value of milk as a food lies in the nitrogenous element it contains. Fat can be secured from many other sources.

the nutritive elements of milk from various animals vary according to the natural requirements of the young of various species.

cow's milk contains too large a proportion of casein, and not enough milk-sugar to meet the natural requirements of the human infant. This subject, however, will be discussed at length in lesson xvi on "Infant feeding," vol. V, p. 1154.

the casein in cow's milk is coagulated by the hydrochloric acid of the stomach, which forms into lumps or curds, rather difficult to digest. This can be overcome or counteracted in several ways. First, if milk is allowed to sour or clabber, the casein is coagulated by nature, which is really the first process of digestion. In this form it neither burdens the digestion nor causes the supersecretion of hydrochloric acid, which is likely to occur when sweet milk is too liberally used. Second, the sipping and thorough insalivation of milk, by taking it into the mouth with something that requires thorough mastication, insures better digestion and assimilation, and less liability to produce intestinal gas.

milk will harmonize chemically with all non-acid fruits, cereals and nuts. Milk is in chemical harmony with meat and eggs, but all of these articles being highly nitrogenous, when taken at the same meal, the portions should be limited to the minimum.

milk should not be combined with acid fruits, especially those of a highly acidulous character, such as lemons, limes, grapefruit, pineapples, etc. Neither should it be taken at the same meals with succulent plants, such as lettuce, watercress, romaine, parsley, etc.

when the stomach has long been over-burdened with food, and made the receptacle in which acid fermentation has taken place until the mucous membrane has become irritated or probably ulcerated, there is no food so acceptable as milk. For the common disorder of hyperchlorhydria, which is a term used to describe a condition of chronic sour stomach or supersecretion of hydrochloric acid, milk is one of nature's best counteractive food nutrients. In cases of severe constipation or alimentary congestion, milk should be given as follows:

omit breakfast. Begin about 9:30 taking an ordinary glassful of fresh, cool milk every twenty or thirty minutes, until about one and one-half quarts have been consumed. After two or three hours, repeat the same process until about two quarts more have been taken. With each quart of milk, from three to four heaping dessert-spoonfuls of clean, wheat bran should be taken, in thin cream or rich milk. At noon and at evening a few tablespoonfuls of coarse cereal , might be eaten. They should be masticated thoroughly, and eaten with nuts and a limited quantity of cream. Under this regimen I have known the most severe cases of constipation to yield readily, and the patient to make a gain in weight of half a pound daily for a period of from twenty to thirty days. If the appetite should rebel against taking milk in this quantity, the amount should be reduced, and a cupful of soaked evaporated apricots taken at night just before retiring, and in the morning, just after rising.

when milk is taken for the purpose of counteracting a congested condition of the bowels, or an irritated condition of the mucous membrane of the stomach, it should be combined with the fewest possible things—one coarse cereal only will give the best results. A large quantity of milk, three and one-half to four quarts taken daily, as above directed, will act as a laxative, while a small quantity will have a tendency toward constipation.

the old method of adulterating milk with water has very largely gone out of practise, owing to the surveillance of city authorities, and the passing of laws that fix legal standards, which require milk to contain a certain percentage of fats and total solids.

the chief form of criminal tampering with milk has been the use of preservatives to prevent souring. Formaldehyde has been used very extensively for this purpose. Formaldehyde is a poison, destructive to all cell life, and has probably been the cause of more actual deaths than any other form of food adulteration.

pasteurization, which takes its name from pasteur, the french bacteriologist, is merely a process of heating milk to about 170 degrees fahrenheit for the purpose of destroying possible dis-ease germs, and the bacteria that produce fermentation. In this process the milk is not allowed to come to a boil for the reason that boiled milk is rather "Dead" or distasteful, and would readily be detected by the public. It is quite evident that any method of pasteurization, which would kill bacteria, would also cause coagulation of the protoplasm and the albumin of the milk, and render it much less nutritious, and much more difficult to digest.

if milk producers and dairymen understood the superior food and remedial value of naturally soured milk, and would exert some effort to educate the public in its use, they would soon establish a new and profitable industry, and would give the dairy business of the whole country a new commercial impetus. The souring of milk can be prevented by cleanliness, which renders pasteurizing unnecessary. At the time of the paris exposition, a dairy farm in illinois sent pure unpasteurized milk to paris, which arrived in an unsoured condition. This was achieved by absolute cleanliness, with the cows, dairy utensils, etc.

cheese consists of the coagulated casein of milk, together with the fat globules that may be mechanically retained. Cheese is made by coagulating the milk with rennet, which has been extracted from the stomach of a calf, the sugar of the milk being passed off in the whey, and lost.

schmier käse or cottage cheese is formed by allowing the milk to sour, and to coagulate by gradual warming. This cheese is usually made from skimmed milk, hence contains practically no fat.

the cheese of commerce is ripened in various ways. The process of ripening is due to the action of enzyms present in the milk, or to those formed by bacterial growth. Ripened cheese is considered to be more easily digested than the unripened product. The best that can be said of this process is that the ripening of cheese is perhaps the least objectionable of all processes of decomposition taking place in food proteins. The only benefit that can be claimed is one of flavor, and, in matters of flavor, the appetite for limburger, and similar cheeses, is at least a cultivated taste that furnishes evidence neither of merit nor of nutrition.

in the manufacture of cheese, the milk, sugar, and a part of the albumin and fat are wasted, and as there are no advantages in taking the milk in this changed form, there exists no scientific reason for the use of cheese when fresh milk can be obtained.

butter constitutes one of the most wholesome and palatable of all animal fats, and is probably one of the most extensively used articles of food of animal origin.


when the pure butter-fat has been separated from the casein of milk it can be kept sweet and wholesome for a length of time sufficient to transport it, and to pass it through the various links in the chain of commerce, so that it can reach the family table a long distance from its source of production. This, in addition to man's instinctive relish for dairy products, makes butter the most popular fat in the diet of civilized man.

in prescribing butter-fat, however, it is advisable to nominate fresh, unsalted, or what is commonly termed "Sweet" butter. It is also advisable for the practitioner to suggest that this can be made daily, merely by whipping either sweet or soured cream with an ordinary rotary egg beater until the fat globules have separated from the whey.

pure butter contains about 3,600 heat-calories to the pound, and therefore constitutes one of the most important and readily convertible of all winter foods.

if no other fat is used, about two ounces of butter each twenty-four hours is sufficient to give the ordinary body, under a temperature ranging from forty to sixty degrees above zero, the required amount of heat.

grains grains constitute the most important article of human food, not so much on account of their superior nutritive, curative or remedial value, but chiefly because of their prolific growth and abundant production in all civilized countries throughout the world.

the variety of grain produced in the various countries depends largely upon the climate and the habits of the people.

the predominant use of rice by the asiatics, wheat by the europeans, and maize by the aboriginal american, shows how people adapt themselves to the foods of prodigal growth. It also shows the effect different foods have upon the physical development of the various tribes that inhabit these remote countries.

wheat is said by some writers to be a complete food. This is not strictly true. Wheat contains a very small percentage of fat, and while fat can be made in the body from carbohydrates, it is more natural, and entails less work upon the digestive organs and the liver if the diet is balanced so as to contain the required amount of fat, and all other nutritive elements in the right or natural proportions.

a diet composed of wheat alone would contain 70 per cent of carbohydrates, chiefly in the form of starch. While this would be perfectly wholesome, it would give the body an excess of starch which would ultimately result in intestinal congestion, gout, rheumatism, hardening of the arteries, and premature old age. Wheat contains a larger quantity, and a greater variety of proteins than any other grain, but wheat proteins are more difficult to digest than the proteins of milk, eggs, or nuts.

wheat varies greatly in composition, according to the soil and the climate in which it is produced. This fact is not recognized or considered by the average writer on dietetics, who eulogizes wheat as the wonderful "Staff of life," because certain food tables show that wheat contains 13 per cent, while corn contains only 10 per cent of proteins. It is neither the proteid nor the carbohydrate content that determines the value of any grain as food, but rather the proportions of the different elements of nutrition it contains, that being the best which is more nearly balanced to meet the requirements of the human organism.

rye may be considered in the same class as wheat. Chemically, the contents are very similar, and the effects upon the body are very much the same. It contains a larger per cent of cellulose, and less gluten than wheat, therefore as a remedial food it is superior to all other grains for exciting intestinal peristalsis, thereby removing the causes of constipation.

the nutritive elements of barley are similar to those of wheat and rye. It contains less cellulose fiber, and therefore a larger per cent of digestible nutrients than any one of the cereal group except rice. It has never become popular as a bread-making grain because—

1 the nitrogenous or gluten substances are not tenacious enough to make the conventional "Raised" bread

2 the flour is dark in color

3 the grain is so hard and "Flinty" that it is very difficult to mill it down to the required fineness


for these reasons barley has been greatly neglected as a food commodity. From a chemical standpoint it deserves a much higher place in our dietaries than it has hitherto been given.

the composition of oats varies somewhat from that of wheat, rye and barley. They contain a larger proportion of both fat and proteins, and form a desirable food if correctly prepared. The objection to oats as an article of diet is the hasty manner in which they are usually prepared, which converts them into a gummy mass of gelatinized starch, entangled with the peculiar gummy proteid of the oat grain. Thus prepared the oat is a most prolific source of disturbed digestion.

corn is the cheapest material capable of nourishing the human body that is produced in the temperate zone. It is less digestible, and more deficient in the salts than the group of grains thus far mentioned. it is very wholesome, however, but in no way superior to other grains. In the future corn will probably play an increasing part in the problem of feeding the world, as a cheap source of carbohydrates, and for the purpose of manufacturing glucose.

in all tropical and semi-tropical countries rice occupies the same position that corn does in the temperate zone. It is more deficient in proteins and in fat than any other food grain, while the starch of rice is more easily digested than any other form of cereal starch. This grain, however, is almost entirely devoid of mineral constituents, and for this reason it is productive of serious nutritive derangements when indulged in too freely. This deficiency can be overcome by taking a liberal quantity of green salads, or fresh vegetables, whenever rice is eaten.

buckwheat is a grain whose consumption is very limited, owing to the fact that it is dark in color. It compares favorably with wheat and corn as to nutritive elements, and is now much used as a winter food by the northern people.

uses of grains the use of grains as an article of food may be considered under three headings:

1 as a source of energy

2 as a source of nitrogen

3 grain as a remedial food; that is, as a source of cellulose or roughness, for the regulation of intestinal action

grain as a source of energy

all grains are composed largely of starch, therefore the question of energy to be derived from this source is one of assimilation and use. The use of grains in the diet deserves the most careful consideration, and the study should not be confined to any particular grain, but to the entire group, and especially to the method of preparation, and the quantity that should be consumed under the varying conditions of age, temperature of environment, and work or activity. The conventional american diet contains such an abnormal quantity of grain-starch, and the methods of preparation are so unnatural, that the food scientist, in practise, will find many people whose digestive organs have become so deranged that he may deem it necessary to prohibit grain-starch almost entirely.

the grown person, pursuing the ordinary sedative occupation, should not eat more than three or four ounces of cereal food a day, while the manual laborer should not consume more than five or six ounces each twenty-four hours. This quantity contemplates cool, or winter weather. In summer this quantity should be reduced according to work or activity.

grain as a source of nitrogen grain as a source of proteid has received undue consideration in hygienic works. Upon an allowance of one-fourth of a pound of grain per day, which would make four vienos, with a nitrogen factor of six, we see that 24 decigrams of nitrogen would be supplied from the grain. The variations between the proteins contained in two varieties of breakfast food is seldom more than two or three per cent. This would amount to a variation in the daily intake of nitrogen of about five decigrams, an amount too little to be worth consideration.

grain proteins are not so easily digested as are the proteins of eggs, milk and nuts. The following list of grains and grain products is given in the order of the digestible nitrogen they contain:

1 gluten or dietetic foods 2 barley 3 macaroni 4 white flour 5 whole wheat—graham flour 6 rye 7 oatmeal 8 corn products 9 buckwheat 10 rice 11 pure starches

grain as a remedial food

grain is constipating or laxative in effect according to the way it is prepared and eaten. Whole grain, especially wheat and rye, will normalize intestinal action, and in some cases act as a laxative, while the same grains made into flour, and milled in the usual way, are constipating. Ordinary wheat bran is one of the most effective remedies known for intestinal congestion, and it can be administered or regulated with much accuracy, according to the severity of the case. An intelligent understanding of the use of bran in treating constipation is quite necessary. The object should be to employ bran as a remedy in chronic cases, and to vary the quantity, the quality, and the cellulose content of the meals. In rare cases, bran may produce irritation; in such cases it should be cooked three or hours, and eaten only with hot water. In other cases the mechanical stimulation of the peristaltic action is not effective. The practitioner can usually determine these questions on the third or the fourth day.

bran should be administered about as follows: in cases of severe constipation, one rounding tablespoonful in water, just after rising; one-half teacupful, cooked, taken at each meal, and a heaping tablespoonful in water just before retiring.

the following table gives, in the order of their laxative effects, a few of the principal grains:

1 flaked or whole rye 2 flaked or whole wheat 3 flaked or whole barley 4 flaked or whole oats

nuts

the true nut is the seed of trees and shrubs which stores the greater proportion of food material for nourishing the seedling in the form of vegetable oil. The nut is very largely a fuel food or heat producer, therefore among the primitive races, along the warmer belts of the earth's surface, the nut was not of so much importance, but in the northern or colder countries, where the body-heat meets with such powerful resistance from climatic environment, the nut is of equal, if not of more importance than fruits.

there are a few miscellaneous articles of food that are classed as nuts, which do not belong primarily to this group.

in the following discussion I will take up the several varieties of nuts in the order of their general value as articles of human nutrition:

there are several species of pine seeds from many varieties of trees, and from many different countries. The italian pine seed or nut, called in italy "Pignon," and in this country "Pignolia," is the refined or cleansed nut, called by the writer "Protoid" nut. This is a coined word given to it because it contains the highest percentage of protein of any other food that has yet been analyzed. The "Protoid" nut contains 34 per cent protein, 47 per cent oil, 9 per cent carbohydrates, 4 per cent ash, and 6 per cent water. The relative proportion of nitrogen to energy is not so great as in some other food products, such as eggs, or skimmed milk. These contain a large per cent of water, so that the protoid nut, while containing pound for pound more nitrogen than any other known food, has a lower nitrogen factor than foods which do not contain so large a percentage of fat. This same rule will apply to all nuts. They are rich in protein, but because of the large amount of fat which supplies energy in its most condensed form, the nitrogen factor, which is the relation between nitrogen and energy, is often lower in many nuts than in grain. The chief advantage of protoid nuts over other varieties is in their softness, consequently they are more digestible, and more assimilable than any other specimen of the nut family.

the pine nuts which grow prodigally in the western part of the united states are not so rich in protein as the protoid nuts, but in other respects are very excellent food. The annual crop of these is about one million pounds, but is variable, a full crop being produced only about every third year. They are harvested in a very crude way, chiefly by indians, from the remote districts of new mexico, utah and california.

the almond is a most desirable food. It contains 17 per cent nitrogen, and 54 per cent fat. The flavor is very agreeable, and the nuts, in digestibility, rank next to protoid nuts. they may be substituted for each other in many dietaries.

the pecan, which is a species of hickory-nut, contains 13 per cent protein, and 70 per cent fat. It is a very delicious article of food, though somewhat inferior to pine nuts and almonds, in digestibility, and as a source of nitrogen.

brazil-nuts contain 18 per cent protein and 66 per cent fat, and rank high as an article of body-heat and energy.

soft-shelled or white walnuts are commonly known as "English walnuts," though they are chiefly grown in france and in california. These nuts contain 24 per cent protein, 63 per cent fat, and form one of the staple nut foods of both europe and america.

filberts or hazelnuts contain 15 per cent protein, and 65 per cent fat. They differ widely from the varieties hitherto named, and are less digestible. They should be masticated exceedingly fine, and should not be taken by one whose digestion is particularly weak.

butternuts are a species of walnut. They contain 27 per cent protein, 61 per cent fat, and rank in the dietary along with english walnuts and brazil-nuts.

beechnuts contain 22 per cent protein and 57 per cent fat. Owing to the difficulty of gathering or harvesting, these nuts have never become popular as an article of human food. They are in the grain class, therefore rank high as an energy-producing material.

the cocoanut is a product of the palm tree, and, while quite distinct from our nuts of the temperate climate, is a very valuable and abundant food, deserving more extended use. Cocoanut is about one-half fat, contains 6 per cent protein and 28 per cent carbohydrates. The milk of the cocoanut is an excellent article of food, and used by the natives in the tropics in many remedial and medicinal ways.

peanuts

peanuts, which are so widely used as food, are on the boundary line between nuts and legumes. They were classed as peas by some of the early botanists, and as nuts by others. The name indicates the compromise that was made between the two theories. Another legume, which is largely used in japan and china is the soy-bean. Both the peanut and the soy-bean are better balanced, and more nutritious than common beans and peas. They are similar in composition, and contain about equal quantities of protein and fat, some peanuts yielding as much as 48 or 50 per cent oil. Neither are palatable in their natural state, but both are very delicious when their starch content is converted into dextrin by roasting. The japanese have a method of preparing the soy-bean by a process of fermenting, which renders the proteid material very digestible. Soy-beans have not yet been introduced into this country, hence there will be little opportunity to use them, and they will, therefore, not be discussed here at length.

legumes legumes are the seeds of a certain group of plants grown in pods. The term comes from a very ancient word, "Legere," meaning to gather. Beans and peas are the most familiar types of this group.

legumes are rich in nitrogen, and some varieties are also very rich in oil. They are not equal to nuts in fuel or food value, however, because in the natural state they are hard, somewhat indigestible, and unpalatable. These qualities are due to the fact that the nitrogenous material of legumes are radically different from the nitrogen found in nuts, and belong to a class not so desirable as food. Meat may be omitted from the diet and legumes adopted as the chief source of nitrogen, but this change requires some knowledge and careful feeding in the beginning. Meat is digested wholly in the stomach and does not require mastication , while dried or mature legumes require much mastication, owing to the carbohydrates they contain. The best form in which legumes can be taken is in their green or immature state, owing to the fact that the immature starch they contain is readily soluble, while mature legume starch is rather difficult to digest.

fruits the term "Fruit" in a strictly botanical sense includes a very wide range of vegetable articles—the reproductive product of trees, or other plants, such as grains, legumes, nuts, berries, apples, peaches, plums, etc. In this lesson, however, I will apply the popular meaning to the term.

the common succulent or juicy fruits, including both tree fruits and berries, have many properties in common. The chemical composition of these typical fruits consists of from 80 to 85 per cent water, 5 to 15 per cent sugar, 1 to 5 per cent organic or fruit-acids, and small quantities of protein, cellulose, and the numerous salts, a portion of which may be combined with the fruit-acids. Some unripe fruits contain starch and various other carbohydrate substances, many of which are distasteful and unwholesome. On the other hand, when fruits become over-ripe, and decay sets in, the sugar is changed into carbon dioxid, alcohol, and acetic acid, and the fruit rapidly deteriorates in nutritive value and unwholesomeness. these changes, together with the loss of water, account for the sponginess and the tastelessness of cold storage and other long-kept fruits. All varieties of fruit are best when they have been allowed to ripen naturally on the trees, but modern commercial conditions demand that fruits for shipping purposes be picked slightly immature, and allowed to ripen in transit to the markets.

the fruit-acids are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and are burned in the body the same as sugar, or fats. The actual energy-producing content of fruit is not large, and depends almost entirely upon the sugar content. The nutrient elements of fruit consist of fruit-sugar, combinations of salts, organic acids, and various flavoring or aromatic substances. These same salts, acids, etc., purchased at the drug store, and administered separately, would be of no particular value, and might produce harmful results, but in the various combinations of fruits they have very important places in the diet.

one of the most important functions that fruit performs in the body is that of an artificial solvent, or an aid to digestion. To make food serve this purpose well would require some knowledge in regard to chemical harmonies, quantity, etc. To illustrate: if the stomach does not secrete a sufficient quantity of hydrochloric acid, fruit-acid should be absolutely omitted, as any acid, except hydrochloric acid itself, tends to inhibit the formation of the normal stomach acid. And this in turn tends to fermentation of the sugars and starches—causing acid fermentation and all the symptoms that accompany this condition.

so it is very important to prevent all the causes and sources of fermentation if we would prevent the development of all the various diseases that arise from acid conditions of the stomach, and autointoxication. This explains why people of rheumatic tendency cannot take acid fruit. Citrus fruits, however, and limes, lemons, oranges, grape-fruit, etc., are beneficial in rheumatism and conditions of lowered blood alkalinity, because they are changed to alkalis in the system, and reinforce the blood alkalinity. People of rheumatic tendency, therefore, should confine the diet as nearly as possible to starchless foods, omitting all but the citrus fruits.

in the lesson on "Vieno system of food measurement" I give the energy value of various fruits, and also the nitrogen factor. These tables consider fruits in the same light with other foods; that is, as sources of energy and nitrogen. In the table which follows, the more important fruits are grouped according to their total acidity. The figures represent the volume of acidity, not strength:

 

acid fruits subacid fruits sweet and         non-acid fruits limes 95 raspberries 16 grapes 8 lemons 78 plums 14 prunes 7 grapefruit 39 cherries 13 raisins 6 cranberries 37 peaches 12 bananas 6 pineapples 22 blackberries 12 persimmons 4 oranges 20 apples 11 figs 4 apricots 18     pears 3 strawberries 18     dates 3  the fruits in the above table are all reasonably wholesome, and the particular fruits to be used depend as much upon convenience as upon the nature of the food substances. The above groups, however, will be given much attention in dietetic prescriptions, and the food scientist should become thoroughly familiar with this classification.

of the acid fruits, oranges are the best and most desirable, and cranberries perhaps the least.

acid fruits are responsible for much stomach and intestinal trouble. Food was prior to life. Animal life on this globe has been fitted into, and is the net result of food; therefore, in the wonderful adaptations of nature, it is evident that life will develop higher and better by subsisting upon the food that grows in its respective country.

acid fruits, such as lemons, limes, grapefruit, pineapples, and oranges, are grown in the tropical and semi-tropical countries, where the climate is warm, and where people subsist largely upon native vegetables. These fruits supply the acids and the fruit-sugars which the system requires in a warm climate.

in the tropics the people live out of doors, the pores of the skin are kept open, and the effete matter produced by acids can be cast out of the body.

in northern countries people live largely indoors, and are heavily clad except during a very short term in midsummer, therefore they do not eliminate freely. They subsist largely upon the heavier foods, such as flesh and grains, both of which require a large amount of hydrochloric acid for digestion, hence when the acid of fruits is added to the hydrochloric acid, of which most people have a deficiency, serious acid fermentation may result.

acid fermentation is the beginning of nearly all stomach trouble, and is the primary cause of many other ills.

practically all the fruits of the subacid group are excellent; however, on account of the mechanical irritation of the seeds, berries should not be used in cases in which the stomach and the intestines are irritated or catarrhal. In such cases the juice should be pressed from the fruit and the seeds discarded.

of the non-acid fruits, raisins, figs, and dates are excellent foods from the standpoint of furnishing a large amount of sugar in its very best form. very ripe bananas and ripe persimmons, especially the large japanese variety, are fruits which have a distinct nature, and are suited to a particular purpose in dietetics. These pulpy fruits are especially desirable in all cases of digestive irritations and disorders, because of the amount of nourishment contained in them, which is greater than that contained in the juicy fruits. In my practice I seldom, if ever, find a stomach so weak that it cannot digest ripe persimmons and very ripe bananas. I attribute much of my success in treating such cases to the skillful use of these products. The persimmon and the banana as remedial and nutritive articles, are the most valuable fruits grown.

raisins, prunes, figs, dates, apricots and peaches are common types of fruit preserved by the process of evaporation, and when soaked in clear water may be restored to almost their original condition. evaporated fruit should not be cooked. This is perhaps the most palatable and wholesome method of preserving fruit. Next in purity and importance are the methods of canning, as practised by the housewife. The ordinary commercial preparations of canned fruits, together with the many jams, marmalades and jellies, are generally of doubtful, if not inferior quality. The pure food law has accomplished much to establish honesty in the preserving and the labeling of food, but these products are still far from ideal, and are not to be considered where fresh or evaporated fruits are obtainable.

vegetables in this group we may conveniently class all food products not elsewhere discussed.

beans, peas, and corn, when taken in the immature state, are classed as vegetables. The importance of this group of food products is not their great food value per pound ; it is the great variety of nutritive substances which they contain. Lettuce contains cellulose, proteins, active chlorophyl, pentoses, sugars and starches, representing carbohydrates in various processes of transformation; small quantities of fat, and a relatively large per cent of mineral salts, besides numerous flavoring materials. All other edible plants contain many of the same elements in different proportions.

edible vegetables may be conveniently grouped according to that portion of the plant which we consume. These groups are:

a above ground b roots and tubers c leafy or succulent d cucurbita family


melons, cantaloups, and tomatoes are on the border line between vegetables and fruits. The following groups of vegetables are made up according to these classifications:

vegetables

above ground

beans— dried green beets brussels sprouts cauliflower corn eggplant lentils okra peas dried green

roots and tubers

artichokes asparagus carrots onions potatoes— sweet white parsnips radishes turnips

leafy or succulent vegetables

beet-tops cabbage celery dandelion kale lettuce parsley romaine radish-tops spinach turnip-tops watercress


miscellaneous vegetables

cantaloup muskmelon pumpkin squash watermelon

succulent vegetables are very essential in a well-rounded bill of fare, and the neglect of their use is one of the errors in dietetics. The most important function of succulent or leafy vegetables is in the supply of pure water and mineral salts. They give to the body that which cannot be obtained elsewhere.

the diet of the average person is composed of too many solids, especially of the carbohydrate class. Cereal products compose a very large proportion of the civilized diet, especially in america, yet the starch of cereals is the most difficult of all starches to digest and to assimilate. The water and solvent juices in fresh vegetables and succulent plants are important factors in the digestion and the assimilation of cereal starches. The relative importance of salads and succulent plants in the diet may be graded according to the following table:

1 spinach 2 turnip-tops 3 dandelion 4 lettuce 5 romaine 6 endive 7 celery 8 cabbage 9 kale 10 watercress 11 parsley 12 beet-tops

the irish or white potato is the only true tuber that is used very extensively as an article of food. It is formed chiefly of starch and water. The starch of this tuber is very coarse and much softer, more soluble, and hence much more digestible than the starch of cereals or legumes. Baking is the best method of preparing the white potato. The skins or peeling should be eaten in order to balance the diet as to cellulose, which is a most important article in the excitation of peristalsis of both the stomach and the intestines.

the sweet potato is a root, and differs chiefly from the irish potato in that it contains more sugar and less starch. The sweet potato is more wholesome than the irish variety. Measured by its chemical contents, it is one of the best foods of all the tuber group.

the root vegetables given in the order of my preference are: carrots, parsnips, turnips and beets. Carrots are exceedingly nutritious and palatable in an uncooked state, eaten with nuts.


tomatoes may be considered upon the border line between vegetables and fruits. They are exceedingly useful in cases of intestinal congestion and torpidity of the liver.

the watermelon is very wholesome. The water is rich in sugar, while the pulp is composed of a soft fiber, which is a mild stimulant to the digestive and the excretory organs. Muskmelons and cantaloups are rich in natural sugar. They are non-acid, hence in harmony with nearly every known article of food. Considering their chemical neutrality and food value, they are about the best articles of diet in the watery or juicy class.

the pumpkin and the squash, which are closely related to the melon, are of the genus cucurbita, and are divided into three species:

1 pepo or pumpkin 2 maxima or winter squash 3 moschata, the pear-shaped squash

with a slight variation of the water content, all of these varieties contain much the same elements of nutrition. However, the pumpkin is most important to the student of dietetics— because of its food value, and because of its prolific and universal growth.

sugars and sirups it will aid the student greatly in comprehending this subject if he will review the chemical composition of sugars as given in lesson iv under "Carbohydrates," vol. I, p. 107.)-->

sugar in its various forms is a very prolific food product. It is the principal substance contained in nearly all fruits, but we shall confine our discussion here to the various sugars and sirups as they appear in commerce, freed from the other materials with which they are associated in nature.

 

beet-sugar

contrary to common belief, the greatest proportion of the world's supply of sugar comes from the sugar-beet. Sugar, which was once manufactured solely from the maple-sap and the sugar-cane, was discovered about one hundred years ago, to be present in beets. A very interesting historical fact is that the sugar-beet industry owes its origin to the efforts of napoleon to supply france with home-produced sugar, because of the tariff or embargo laid upon foreign commerce. As a result of this effort all of central europe is now a heavy sugar-producing region.

the method of production and the quantity of sugar contained in the sugar-beet have been so greatly improved that the present industry is quite able to compete with the production of sugar from cane in the tropical regions. Crude sugar from sugar-beets is very unpalatable, but the refined or crystallized form of beet sugar is chemically identical with cane-sugar.

sugar-cane, though not so important as formerly, is still grown very extensively in several of the southern states—cuba, porto rico, and many semi-tropical countries. The chief distinction between cane-sugar and beet-sugar is that the crude cane-sugar, before it is refined, is a very wholesome and palatable product. The brown sugar of commerce is uncrystallized, or unrefined cane-sugar, and is fully as wholesome, and to most tastes more palatable than the granulated product. It is to be regretted that fashion has decreed we should use white sugar.

refined sugar, whether produced from beets or cane, is sometimes slightly contaminated with sulfurous acid and indigo, which are used for bleaching purposes, and if present in any quantity are very objectionable.

 

maple-sugar, which is made by boiling or evaporating the sap of the sugar-maple, is a product decidedly superior in natural flavor to either beet or cane-sugar. Maple-sugar contains a small proportion of glucose and levulose, but its chief distinction from other sugars is a matter of flavor. The hickory tree contains flavors somewhat similar to the maple. A cheap substitute for maple-sugar has been manufactured by flavoring common sugar with the extract of hickory bark.

the other forms of dry sugar obtainable in the market are milk-sugar and crystallized glucose. The chief use of milk-sugar as an article of diet is in humanizing cow's milk for infant feeding. The dry glucose, or, as it is sometimes called, grape-sugar, is not commonly seen in the market for the reason that it is difficult to crystallize, hence it is much cheaper to market glucose in the form of sirups.

 

commercial glucose, as was explained in lesson iv, is made by treating starch with dilute acids, and its wholesomeness depends entirely upon the care with which this is done. Theoretically, glucose is a very good food. In practise it is somewhat risky because cheap chemicals used in its manufacture may leave harmful and poisonous substances in the finished product. The manufacture of glucose is an excellent illustration of the objections to man-made foods as compared with natural foods. When we eat grapes we know that we are taking one of the most important substances required in the life-processes in a perfectly pure, unadulterated and wholesome form. Science has taught man to manufacture the identical substance that is found in the grape from corn, which is a much cheaper product, but the temptation to economize for the sake of dividends, and to allow the commercial spirit to control in the manufacture of food products is always present. For this reason the manufactured article comes under suspicion, while the natural form we know to be "Exactly as represented." the principal uses of glucose are for table sirups and confectionery. Pure glucose as an article of food lacks flavor; for this reason the usual method of manufacturing sirups is to mix glucose and some other form of sirup or molasses.

the original sources of sirups, besides commercial glucose, are cane-sirup, made directly by evaporating the juice of the sugar-cane; maple-sirup, made from the pure maple-sap; sorghum-sirup, or molasses, from the juice of the sorghum-cane, which is grown extensively in the south and central west; and last, yet perhaps most common, "New orleans" molasses, which is the residue from the manufacture of cane-sugar. This may be very wholesome if taken from the first drippings of the crystallized sugar, but if taken from sugar refineries it contains chemicals that have been used in the refining and the bleaching processes, and is a very doubtful product. An excellent quality of sirup can be made in the home by adding to the brown sugar a certain quantity of water, and boiling down to the desired consistency.

honey

honey occupies a very unique place, as it is practically the only food substance which man utilizes from the insect world. Honey cannot be strictly compared with milk and eggs as a food product, as the latter are complete foods for the nourishment of young and growing animals, hence must contain all food material necessary to construct the animal body. Honey, which is a carbohydrate, is gathered and used as a food for the adult bee. Pollen, or bee-bread, a nitrogenous substance, is the food of the larvae or young bees. This illustrates a very interesting fact in physiological chemistry. The insect differs radically from higher animals in that its life is divided into three complete stages. When the adult insect, with its wings, emerges from the cocoon or pupa, its growth is complete. Some insects never take any food in the adult stage; but the adult bee takes food, which is practically pure carbohydrates, and which would not maintain the life of a young animal.

honey is composed chiefly of glucose and levulose, with perhaps 10 per cent of cane-sugar, depending upon the flowers from which it is gathered. Honey is extensively adulterated with glucose, and sometimes with cane-sugar; thus the natural flavors are impaired and the product cheapened.

 

confections

under the general term of confections are included all products manufactured for the purpose of appealing chiefly to the sense of taste rather than to serve any special purpose as food. The chief products that enter into confections are the various forms of sugars, chiefly glucose, because of its cheapness; fruits, nut-kernels, flavoring extracts, and coloring materials. Many of the substances used are very wholesome, yet the habit of eating confections as a general rule should be discouraged, if not condemned, the reasons being—

1 that the material from which they are made is usually unknown to the public, and the temptation of manufacturers to use cheap or adulterated material too often controls, therefore quality is sacrificed to profits.


2 confections are usually eaten without regard to appetite, or the physical need of food.

3 the combination of things from which confections are made shows that they are put together not for their food value, or nutritive virtue, but wholly for the purpose of appealing to an artificial sense of taste, rather than natural appetite. This destroys the appetite for similar products in simpler forms.

the following are the best forms in which sugar can be found, given in the order of their importance:

1 sweet fruits 2 honey 3 sorghum 4 maple-sugar or sirup 5 unrefined cane-sugar 6 refined cane-sugar


even glucose sirups are perfectly wholesome when free from adulterants. The mixing, fixing, refining and manufacturing all go to make our sugar supply more expensive and less wholesome than the plain fruit-sugars, honey and sorghum.

in order to avoid repetition, all articles containing sugar are referred to throughout this work as sweets. By "Sweets" I mean sugar, sirups, honey, and all foods containing sugars, such as desserts, soda-fountain drinks, and the limitless number of confections. While carbohydrates rank second in importance in the human diet, yet nature has made no provision for sugar being taken in its concentrated form. In this form it is the most severe article of human diet, and to its use can be traced the origin of a vast number of stomach, intestinal, and other disorders. Superacidity, fermentation, intestinal gas, and the large number of sympathetic disorders that follow these conditions are caused largely by the overconsumption of sugars. It would be equally as important for the federal government, or the states, to regulate the manufacture and the sale of confections as to regulate the manufacture and the sale of intoxicating liquors.

vegetable oils

vegetable oils form too small a portion of the modern bill of fare. Oils of vegetable origin, whether taken in their natural form or pressed out, and used with other foods, are the most valuable nutrients known for the production of heat and energy. By this statement I mean to convey the idea that a given quantity of fat will produce more heat and energy than any other article of human nutrition, and that vegetable fats are more valuable than animal fats, because they are more adapted to the fat metabolism of the human body, and less likely to contain harmful substances. Vegetable oils contain a larger per cent of olein, which is considered the most palatable and the most valuable fat known.

the olive is a unique plant, standing along the border line between fruits and nuts. Ripe olives contain from 40 to 60 per cent oil, the best quality of which is extracted by cold pressure, the cheaper grades being pressed out at higher temperature. The superiority of olive-oil is due to the fact that it is composed almost wholly of olein; that it contains very little fatty acids and other impurities, and has a mild, sweet, and agreeable flavor.

the adulteration of olive-oil has been extensively practised, but the agitation of pure food, and the demand for same are improving the quality of this excellent article of food.

 

cottonseed-oil is the largest vegetable oil industry in america. It is also the cheapest of vegetable oils. The cottonseed-kernel from which the oil is taken is not an edible product. Though used as cattle feed, it contains alkaloid substances which sometimes have a poisonous effect when fed too generously.

the methods of cottonseed-oil manufacture are more complex than those of olive-oil. The oil must be heated and bleached with certain chemical agents, and if designed for salad-oils, frequently a portion of the stearin is removed to make the oil more liquid.

when the cottonseed-oil is carefully manufactured, it is considered to be entirely free from harmful substances. However, as the original material contains poisonous combinations, and as chemical agents are used in refining and bleaching, cottonseed-oil products are open to the same criticism as glucose and refined sirups; that is, they are wholesome when properly made, but cheap and careless production renders the product undesirable as food. Manufactured under careful government supervision, cottonseed-oil will, no doubt, be one of the great foods of the future. I recommend the purer brands of cottonseed-oils, when pure olive-oil cannot be obtained or afforded.

peanut-oil is an excellent food substance which is almost entirely neglected in this country. It contains the best portion of the peanut. Other vegetable oils, valuable as foods, and the use of which is to be recommended, are sesame-oil and sunflower-oil. These products are not produced extensively in this country.

the cocoa-butter is pressed from the beans from which cocoa and chocolate are made. The butter has a flavor similar to these articles. Cocoa-butter should not be confused with cocoanut-butter. These products are very different in origin.

cocoanut-butter is not extensively used in america as a food product, owing to the fact that the exposed fat globules oxidize very rapidly. It is extensively used in germany, however, and with the introduction of better methods of preservation, we expect to see cocoanut-butter more generally used in this country, as the source from which it is derived is almost unlimited.

palm-oil comes from a different species of the palm plant than that which produces the cocoanut. It is a very inexpensive product and one which is chiefly used in the production of soap and candles, although it is perfectly wholesome as a food. Such products have not been utilized in this country as food, because our boundless prairies and corn-fields have made the production of cattle and swine cheap, and our fat supply has swung toward points of least resistance.

not all vegetable oils are edible or wholesome. Some contain, in addition to olein, stearin and palmitin, and other fats quite as undesirable. Castor-oil, for example, contains ricinolein, which is a poison, and to which its purgative action is due. Croton-oil is the most powerful laxative known to medicine, owing to the fact that nature abhors a poison.

linseed-oil contains large quantities of linolein, which is the substance that oxidizes, forming the stiff, rubbery coat on the surface of linseed-oil when exposed to the air. This makes linseed-oil valuable matter to the painter, but objectionable as a food.

 

lesson ix

drugs, stimulants, and narcotics with the origin and the use of drugs in the treatment of dis-ease, most people are familiar. The purpose of this lesson, however, is to give brief but accurate information concerning the various chemical elements and compounds termed drugs or medicines.

many of the medicines in common use are neutral, having no particular effect upon the body, and the effects attributed to them are largely imaginary. Out of the many thousands of chemical materials found in nature, there are, however, certain substances, groups, and compounds which have most marked and violent effect upon all forms of living protoplasm.

 

the general theory upon which the practise of medicine rests is that certain chemical substances which are not found in the animal body, and which have no natural place therein, have mysterious and beneficial effects; that they possess certain powers, among which are the rebuilding of dis-eased cells, and the purifying of dis-eased blood. This belief arose in a very remote age, when the mind was primitive; when man was ignorant, and controlled almost wholly by superstition—when every natural phenomenon was believed to be the work or whim of some god, and every dis-ease was thought to be the work of some devil.

modern science has proved all this to be untrue. We know by the selective processes through millions of years of evolution that those chemical substances which work in harmony have become associated so as to form life. We know that life is merely an assemblement of organic matter, very complex and little understood; that it is eternally undergoing chemical changes governed by the natural laws of development and decay. We know that conformity to certain natural laws will produce physical ease, and that violation of these laws will produce dis-ease. We know that ease is what we most desire, therefore the trend of thought, throughout the world, is to realize this desire by turning toward the natural.

true food furnishes the foundation or constructive material upon which all life depends. Nearly all other substances which affect the human body are merely disturbing elements that interfere with the natural chemical processes of life.

to illustrate more fully these general principles, we will take, for example, the chemical changes that may take place in the hemoglobin of the blood. Hemoglobin is a proteid containing iron. It is a complex chemical compound and reacts with other substances very readily. In the lungs it combines with oxygen. In the muscles, this oxyhemoglobin is again received into the original body-substances. This life-giving process is only one of the many thousands selected by evolution from the millions of chemical changes possible in nature.

when carbon monoxid, which is present in illuminating gas, is breathed into the lungs, it combines with hemoglobin, producing a compound which prevents the formation of oxyhemoglobin, thus stopping the process of oxidation in the body, and death is the result.

in proportion as science has shown the origin of life, and the methods by which it has been sustained and developed, the use of drugs as a remedial agent has declined. This line of reasoning followed to its logical end, points with unerring certainty to the total abandonment of the drug theory of treating dis-ease except, perhaps, as anesthetics and disinfectants.

the means of combating dis-ease by disinfection is sometimes confused with the general system of drugging. The modern methods of preventing and of combating contagious dis-eases by disinfection are in harmony with the best known sanitary laws. These results depend, not upon the ignorant and the harmful theories on which general drug medication was founded, but upon the latest and the most scientific knowledge.

in the recent magazine exposures of patent medicines, the chief trend of argument was that these stock remedies were evil because the user took opium, cocain, or whisky without a doctor's prescription. This standpoint is more amusing than instructive. Just why a poison taken without a doctor's prescription should be dangerous, and its sale a crime, while the sale and the use of the same drug over a doctor's prescription should be highly recommended, is rather difficult to comprehend, and this the enterprising journals have not explained. The exposé that is most needed is not of a few poisonous patent preparations, but of the fundamental folly of interfering with nature's work by any form of poisoning. Poison is poison whether advertised in a newspaper as a "New discovery," or prescribed by a reputable representative of the "Ancient order of medicine men."

in a lesson of this kind it is impractical to classify all drugs accurately according to their chemical nature. For convenience of the student, however, the drugs commonly used in medicine will be divided into three groups, which have common representatives, and whose general effect upon the human body are well understood. These three groups are:

a alkaloids and narcotics b alcohols and related compounds c poisonous mineral salts and acids

a alkaloids and narcotics

all alkaloids are of vegetable origin. They all contain nitrogen, and in some respects resemble ammonia. Many of the alkaloid compounds are used in medicine. They affect primarily the nervous system, and may cause freedom from pain, or that abnormal state of exhilaration of which the cocain addict is a typical representative. Substances of this alkaloid group doubtless have useful functions in the plant in which they grew, but in the animal body they are disturbing factors. Among the most important alkaloids may be mentioned opium, cocain, nux vomica, and quinin.

opium

opium is the evaporated sap that flows from incisions made in the unripe capsules of certain asiatic species of poppy. It contains a large number of chemical compounds which belong to the alkaloid group. The chief alkaloids in opium are codein, narcotin, heroin, and morphin, the most active being heroin. Other alkaloids are of similar composition. The general effects and the uses of the crude opium and the refined morphin may be considered together. The latter, being more concentrated, is used in much smaller quantities.

the effect upon the body of either opium or of morphin is that of benumbing the nerves and producing sleep. Opium illustrates in a typical manner the progressive stages by which both the body and the mind may become enslaved to the influence of a narcotic. The last stages of the opium or of the morphin slave is probably the lowest state of depravity into which the human being can sink.

opium is eaten or smoked by the chinese and by other asiatic races to a very great extent. This habit is considered the worst form of slavery to drugs that is known except cocain. In this country the morphin habit is the more common form. Morphin is either taken internally or is injected beneath the skin by a hypodermic syringe. It is estimated that the great majority of the morphin slaves in this country begin the use of this drug under "Their" doctor's prescription.

 

the use of opium as prescribed by medical men is chiefly for the relief of either pain or of insomnia. Its employment in cases of great agony is probably justifiable, but the repeated taking of this drug until the habit is formed becomes a criminal blunder for which the doctor who prescribed it should be held responsible. Unfortunately this is only one of the uses to which opium is put by the medical profession. Prescriptions containing either opium or morphin are frequently given to relieve pain, or to produce sleep, when the primary trouble is chronic, and should be treated by removing the causes, and not alleviated by stupifying the nerves. In the majority of such cases, if the diet is balanced according to age, activity, and climate, and vigorous intestinal peristalsis created, sleep will follow, and other disorders will gradually disappear.

 

the dangers that lurk in the use of opium are so well known, and the habit has become so unpopular, that tricks are resorted to by manufacturers of this drug to deceive the people into believing that they are using some "Harmless" substance, while it is the influence of the opium that gives the medicine its apparent good effect. Patent medicines which claim to kill pain, soothe nerves, and produce sleep, usually contain opium. The popular "Soothing sirups" for children are nearly all opium products, and have been given to millions of babies in this country by deluded mothers, in the belief that because it soothed, their innocent child was being benefited. These are the crimes of greed passed on to innocent childhood through ignorance.

cocain cocain is an alkaloid, the use and the influence of which are almost as noteworthy as that of morphin. Cocain is derived from the leaves of the cocoa plant which grows in the andes of peru. Just as the chinese use opium, so the peruvian indians use cocain.

owing to its hydrochloric-acid salt, the effects of cocain differ somewhat from those of opium. It produces relative freedom from pain, and is used more particularly to produce insensibility in local parts of the body, as in the case of extracting teeth. The cocain slaves, which are increasing alarmingly in this country, usually take it by snuffing, or in an atomizer. The habit is usually acquired, as in the case of morphin, by the prescription of a physician. The patient, learning from experience the freedom from pain and the sense of exhilaration that can be produced by the drug, and not being warned by "His" physician of its baneful effects, continues the habit after the doctor's treatment has ceased, and awakes to find a monster owning his body and his mind. The cocain fiend, like the opium slave, develops an insatiable desire for the drug, and suffers extreme mental and physical pain when deprived of the usual allowance. The development of untruthfulness and trickery in a person desiring his allowance of a forbidden drug, is one of the marked traits of the narcotic slave.

there are a number of different medicines which depend for their action wholly upon the cocain they contain. A large number of catarrhal powders in the market are diluted forms of cocain, and are used extensively both by those who do not realize the nature of the drug they are using, and by those who know that they are cocain slaves, but prefer to disguise the fact in this manner.

 

nux vomica and strychnin

nux vomica is derived from the seeds of a plant that grows in india. Strychnin is the alkaloid which exists therein. Strychnin is quite different in its effects from the above-mentioned alkaloids, for instead of benumbing the nerves, causing sleep or a pleasing sensation, the effect is a nerve stimulus which causes muscular convulsions.

the medical use of strychnin is more of a stimulant than of a narcotic. It is one of the most widely used of all the drugs prescribed by the old school physicians, and is extremely dangerous in over-doses. Indeed, thousands of people have been killed by strychnin poisoning.

quinin quinin is derived from peruvian or cinchona-bark. This bark, like the juice of the poppy plant, contains a number of alkaloids. These alkaloids, in turn, may react with acids, forming salts.

sulfate of quinin is the most common form of this drug. Its principal use is for the destruction of the malarial germ, and it is, therefore, the standard drug in all malarious countries. The germs of malaria, however, are not bacteria , but minute forms of animal life. Aside from this particular use, the effect of quinin is to disturb the nervous system, produce insomnia, ringing of the ears—and even deafness, in a great many cases. It does not, however, produce an addiction, as do morphin, cocain, heroin, and other drugs.

acetanilid

acetanilid is one of the coal-tar poisons and is chemically related to anilin. This drug has come into use only within the past few years, and of all the coal tar group is one of the most remarkable in its physiological effects. Its influence is to produce at first a deadening effect upon the nervous system, which puts it in the "Pain-killer" class. Its continued use destroys the hemoglobin of the blood and produces marked cell-destroying effects throughout the body. Its medical use is for rheumatism, headache, severe coughs, and the like.

a patent medicine now being widely exploited advertises, "We print our formula." so they do, and acetanilid is one of the ingredients. The general public does not know what acetanilid is. The habitué of this "Healthful drug" experiences a craving similar to that of other narcotic drug fiends.

a person who has long used a medicine containing acetanilid shows a bluish-white complexion caused by the destruction of red blood-corpuscles. I merely mention this as an example to show that a knowledge of the composition of patent medicines does not protect the public unless the public is made familiar with the ingredients that compose these medicines.

acetanilid is the active principle in many popular headache powders, the formulas of which are not made public. The use of acetanilid by those claiming to cure suffering, or to relieve it, is one of the most glaring malpractises of the day.

other coal-tar products chemically related to acetanilid are antipyrin, phenacetin, and various derivatives of benzol and phenol. The general uses of this class of drugs are to reduce fevers and to allay pain. They accomplish this by stupifying the nerves and the nerve fibers, which serve as telegraph wires to inform the brain that something is wrong. This is equivalent to killing the messenger that warns us of our sins.

the following are a few of the toxic remedies used by old school physicians in the treatment of nearly all forms of dis-ease:

laudanum—which is merely another name for opium

paregoric—a standard baby medicine which is a tincture of opium with camphor and other drugs

codein—an alkaloid manufactured from morphin

lyoscine—the alkaloid of henbane

atropin—an alkaloid extensively used by oculists.

hellebore—a powerful alkaloid, is one of the old standard drugs used in the treatment of rheumatic gout

 

tobacco tobacco belongs strictly to the narcotic class of drugs. With the possible exception of opium, tobacco is by far the most detrimental narcotic used by man.

the active principle of tobacco is nicotin, which resides in the leaves in combination with malic acid. Nicotin is an alkaloid, and one of the most deadly poisons known. In distilled form, nicotin, even in minute quantities, produces death almost instantaneously. The nicotin contained in a pound of tobacco is sufficient to kill several hundred men if administered in the form of pure nicotin, but in smoking and chewing tobacco only a small amount of this poison is absorbed into the body at one time, and, owing to the gradual growth of the tobacco habit, the system has time to partly adjust itself to the use of this powerful drug, enough at least to prevent acute narcotic poisoning.


the violent sickness caused by the first use of tobacco evidences the poisonous effects of the nicotin upon a body not accustomed to its use.

tobacco as a narcotic is not as drastic in its effect as opium, morphin, and cocain; for this reason its use is not so generally condemned. Popular opinion, however, is now rapidly recognizing that all of these substances belong in the same general class and are deteriorating factors in human development. The rapid spread of the cigarette habit among young boys has done much to arouse popular agitation against the tobacco evil.

from the standpoint of health, nothing can be said in favor of the use of tobacco in any form, as it gradually deadens the sensitiveness and control of the nervous system. It preys with great violence upon the optic nerves, and more than any other drug known dethrones sexual vitality. The tobacco heart, which is readily recognized by medical practitioners, shows the effect of this narcotic upon the nervous system. The craving for tobacco is closely related to the craving for intoxicating liquors and for highly seasoned food—three of the most potent factors in perverting the true sense of taste and arousing abnormal cravings which destroy natural hunger.

neither tobacco nor nicotin are now used by medical practitioners. Tobacco was formerly used as a purgative, and also as a poultice to relieve swellings and inflammation.

coffee

coffee is one of the most extensively used articles in the narcotic group. The alkaloid which gives coffee its characteristic properties is caffein. Coffee also contains from three to four per cent of tannic acid. Other substances in coffee, to which the pleasant odors and taste are due, are various forms of fats and carbohydrates, but these exist in such small quantities as to be negligible food elements. The effect of the caffein is that of a nervous stimulant, increasing the general nervous and mental activity. Coffee is frequently used to keep people awake. It is given as an antidote for opium poisoning because it stimulates the nervous system and prevents sleep.

coffee, when used habitually, produces various forms of dyspepsia, especially hypersecretion of hydrochloric acid, tannic acid being the provoking factor. The effect of coffee upon the nervous system is that of continued stimulation or excitation. Its continued use overworks and wears out the nervous system, thus causing a deterioration of both body and mind. If caffein were taken in a highly concentrated form, it would result in a narcotic habit quite as enslaving as the use of opium or cocain.

tea

tea, in its chemical composition, is similar to coffee, containing even a greater percentage of the alkaloid caffein, and also a larger percentage of tannic acid. Tannic acid is present in larger quantities in green tea than in the black variety. In addition to the evil effects caused by the caffein which it contains, tea is more destructive to the normal activities of the stomach because of the tannic acid. The student may get some idea of what the stomach of the tea-user has to contend with, when it is stated that tannic acid gets its name from the essential action that this substance has in the process of tanning leather.

 

cocoa and chocolate the cocoa bean, which was mentioned as the source of chocolate and cocoa-butter, is also the source of the beverage known as breakfast cocoa. The cocoa bean contains caffein, though the per cent is considerably less than in coffee or tea. Cocoa is practically free from tannic acid. For these reasons, and because of its food value, it is decidedly the least harmful of the stimulant beverages. Cocoa, though being in reality more tasteful and nutritious than either coffee or tea, is less used because it lacks the stimulating effect.

the various alkaloid poisons thus far discussed form but an infinitesimal part of the great group of articles used by old school physicians in the treatment of dis-ease, and by civilized people as stimulating and sedative beverages.

the object of cooking is to tear down the cell-structure of foods, and to make them more digestible. After the cell-structure is demolished, every degree of heat to which foods are subjected injures the foods instead of improving them.

grains should be cooked whole. They should be cleansed, well covered with water, and boiled until the grains burst open as in making old-fashioned corn hominy. This will often take from three to four hours' constant boiling.

cereals prepared in this way are more delicious, more nourishing, and far more healthful than any of the prepared or patented "Breakfast foods," while the cost is perhaps about one-eighth or one-tenth of that of the popular patented products.

the old or popular method of cooking vegetables is to cover them generously with water and to boil them much longer than is necessary, then to drain off the water, season, and serve. By this process the mineral salts, in many cases the most valuable part of the food, are dissolved, passed into the water, and lost. In this way many excellent articles of food are greatly impoverished and reduced perhaps 50 per cent in nutritive value.


the time vegetables are cooked should be measured by their solidity. As an example, spinach can be thoroughly cooked in about fifteen minutes. In this way some of its elements are volatilized, giving it a delicious flavor and taste, while if cooked in an abundance of water, from half to three-quarters of an hour, which is the customary way, its best nutritive elements are lost by draining away the water, and it is rendered almost tasteless.

all succulent and watery vegetables such as cabbage and spinach, beans, carrots, onions, parsnips, peas, squash, turnips, etc., should be cooked in a casserole dish.

prepare vegetables in the usual manner as for boiling. A few tablespoonfuls of water may be added to such articles as green beans and peas, beets, carrots, cauliflower, onions, parsnips, etc. Cover, and place in an ordinary baking oven until the vegetable is thoroughly cooked or softened. In this way vegetables in reality are cooked in their own juices, rendered much softer, more digestible, more delicious, and all their mineral salts and other nutritive elements are preserved, making them also more nutritious.

rice, macaroni, and spaghetti are exceptions to the above rules. They should be cooked in an abundance of water and thoroughly drained. In this way the excess of starch which they contain is disposed of, and their nutritive elements are better balanced. They are also rendered much more palatable and digestible.

if fruits can be obtained thoroughly ripe, they should never be cooked.


dried or evaporated fruits can be prepared for the table by soaking them thoroughly in plain water for a few hours, or over night. In this way the green and inferior pieces are exposed and can be discarded. The excess of water can be boiled down to a sirup and poured over the fruit. In this way the fruit-sugar is developed, and sweetening with cane-sugar becomes unnecessary.

soaking as above described is merely a process of putting back into the fruit the water that was taken out of it by evaporation or dehydration.

it is evident that that part of the fruit which will not soften sufficiently by soaking, to become palatable, was not ripe enough for food.

the average table, especially hotels and restaurants, are supplied largely from canned foods. A process of perfect preservation of foods has never been invented and probably never will be. No matter how well foods may taste, they undergo constant chemical changes from the time they leave the ground or parent stalk until they are thoroughly decomposed. All vegetables, therefore, should be used fresh, if possible.

an excellent quality of buttermilk may be made as follows: allow sweet milk to stand in a warm room until it thickens or coagulates; whip with an ordinary rotary egg beater without removing the cream.

sweet butter may be made in a few minutes from ordinary cream by placing it in a deep bowl and whipping with a rotary egg beater.

 

suggestions concerning the selection and the preparation of certain articles mentioned in the menus

the banana is a vegetable. It is one of our most valuable foods, as well as the most prolific. It will produce more food per acre, with less care and labor, than any other plant that grows.

while the banana grows only in the tropical countries, it is equally as good and useful to people of the northern zones.

bananas that are transported to the north are cut green, and often immature; that is, before they have attained their full growth. This latter variety should never be used. In their green and unripened state, they are wholly unfit for food, and for these reasons there has arisen a broadcast prejudice against this most excellent article of diet.

 

care should be exercised to select the largest variety—only those that have attained their full growth on the parent tree. If bananas cannot be procured "Dead ripe" from the dealer, they should be purchased, if possible, by the bunch, or a few of the lower "Hands" can be purchased and left on the stalk. They should be kept in the open air , in an even, warm temperature, and the end of the stalk covered with a clean white cloth, or immersed in water, kept fresh by changing daily. In this way the banana will mature, ripen slowly, and be almost as delicious as if obtained ripe from its native tree.

bananas should not be eaten until they are "Dead ripe"—black spotted. In this state, the carbohydrates which they contain are as readily digestible as fresh milk.

 

peel large ripe bananas; bake in an open pan in a very hot oven from ten to fifteen minutes, or until slightly brown.

baked bananas make a delicious dessert served with either of the following:

a cream

b nut butter

c dairy butter

d both dairy butter and a sauce made by gradually diluting nut butter with a little water, until a smooth paste is formed

bananas need much mastication, not for the purpose of reduction, but for the purpose of insalivation.

recipes

place an egg in a pint cup; cover with boiling water and allow to stand, covered, five or six minutes.

 

break the number desired into a narrow bowl; add a teaspoonful of sugar to each egg, and a pinch of salt; whip very briskly with a rotary egg beater from five to eight minutes.

to each egg a teaspoonful of lemon juice and half a glass of milk may then be slowly whipped into the mixture, if desired.

whip two eggs very thoroughly for about five minutes; add a dash of salt, a dessert-spoonful each of corn-starch and of heavy cream. Bake very lightly in a small pan.

fish and fowl selection and preparation

if we must eat the flesh of animals the young should be selected. It contains more digestible protein, especially albumin, than the old or matured animal, and has had less time in which to become contaminated by unhygienic habits. Both fish and fowl should be baked, boiled, or broiled; never fried.

after thoroughly cleansing the desired amount of fresh tender peas, unshelled, put them into a covered pot or casserole dish; add a few spoonfuls of water, a little butter and salt, and cook slowly until thoroughly softened; serve in the pod.

the peas may be eaten by placing the pod between the teeth, and then giving it a gentle pull. This strips off the outer coating or pulp, leaving only the thin film of cellulose.

note: the pea pulp, or substance upon the pod, is rich in mineral salts, highly nutritious, slightly laxative, and an excellent aid in the digestion of other foods. It is a better balanced and a more valuable food than the pea.

pumpkin may be made very delicious by stewing or boiling in just enough water to prevent burning. Mash well and put through a colander. Season and serve same as squash, or, prepare as directed, and bake until slightly brown.

chop fine and boil carrots, peas, asparagus, or any other fresh vegetable from eight to ten minutes in sufficient water to make the amount of juice required; strain and serve.

the tender parts of the fresh vegetable may be thoroughly cooked, put through a colander, and served as a purée.

 

crush the bark of the red sassafras root, allowing a piece as large as a silver dime to each cup. Add the quantity of water desired; simmer from five to ten minutes. Drink with cream and sugar.

wheat bran is the outer coating of the wheat grain. Chemically, it is pure cellulose, which is insoluble and indigestible in the ordinary digestive solvents of the body.

wheat bran serves a valuable medicinal purpose in the stomach and in the alimentary tract. When introduced into the stomach, its cell structure fills with water, and it increases from four to eight times its size in its dry state. It excites both stomach and intestinal peristalsis, thereby preventing stomach indigestion, and by carrying the water along down the intestinal tract, it prevents intestinal congestion, or what is commonly called constipation. Wheat bran may be properly called an intestinal broom or cleansing agent.

man, in the process of preparing his food, has invented expensive and complicated machinery for removing all cellulose and roughness from his diet. He has suffered both stomach and intestinal congestion just to the extent that this refining process has been carried on. Bran puts back into the diet not only what modern milling methods have taken out of it, but that which civilized habits of refining have eliminated from our food. It therefore naturalizes the diet, promotes digestion, cleanses the mucous surfaces of both the stomach and the intestines, and prevents congestion in the ascending colon, which is the primary cause of appendicitis, so called.

 

bran meal is the product of the entire wheat, ground coarsely, and mixed with a certain per cent of wheat bran. It makes an excellent bread.

bread made from bran meal acts on the digestive and the alimentary organs, the same as the pure bran, only in a milder capacity. It also aids the stomach in the digestion of other foods. It is more nourishing than wheat flour, for the reason that it is better balanced, containing all the carbohydrate and the proteid elements of the grain.

bread made from bran meal is better in the form of gems baked in small gem rings.

this meal requires neither baking powder nor soda, and should not be sifted.

choice of menus wherever two menus are given, choice may be exercised, but whichever menu is chosen, it should be taken in its entirety. In other words, do not select articles from one menu and combine them with articles mentioned in another menu. Neither should any article of food be eaten with a particular menu, other than that which is mentioned therein. By observing these suggestions, the proper combinations of food are observed, which is equally as important as the selections.

note: in this volume there are some menus which contain combinations of food classed as no. 3 in lesson xii, "Tables of digestive harmonies and disharmonies," pp. 609 to 617 inclusive. This is explained by the fact that said "Tables" are laid out for the normal person, while the menus were prescribed for the treatment of some special disorder, or for the purpose of removing some offending causes.

 

normal menus the following menus are intended for those possessing normal digestion and assimilation of food; that is, for those having no digestive disorders.

while a majority of the menus composing this volume were prescribed for the purpose of removing the causes of some specific disorder, a vast number of those treated remained under the care of the author long after they had become normal or cured, as the transition from dis-ease to health is usually termed.

another large number of comparatively healthy persons, recognizing the relation between diet and health, came under the care of the writer for the purpose of having their diet selected, proportioned, and balanced according to age, occupation, and the season of the year.


the excellent results that were obtained, in nearly all such cases, emphasized the importance of giving a set of normal menus for normal people. All the following menus have been tested, under the direction of the author, and have been chosen because they gave the desired results.

 

from 2 to 5 years of age

breakfast

a few soaked prunes, with cream a small portion of coarse cereal, thoroughly cooked from one to two glasses of milk lunch

a baked potato onions or carrots, well cooked milk dinner

home-made vegetable soup or cream soup green peas or asparagus tips a baked potato milk

from 2 to 5 years of age

breakfast

one very ripe peach a small portion of coarse cereal a baked sweet potato milk lunch

cream of rice, bean, or pea soup—home-made whole wheat crackers, with butter milk dinner

a baked potato peas or lima beans whole wheat crackers or bran biscuits milk

from 2 to 5 years of age

breakfast

cantaloup or a very ripe peach coarse cereal milk lunch

a baked potato or whole wheat gem a coddled egg milk or junket dinner

cream soup—home-made mashed turnips or carrots a very ripe banana, with cream and sugar

from 2 to 5 years of age

breakfast

a baked apple, with a little sugar cereal—small portion milk lunch

one or two bananas milk dinner

corn hominy—small portion; thoroughly cooked milk

the articles of food for children ranging from two to five years of age are about the same. The proportions, however, should be administered according to age.

the child from two to three years of age may be given a glass of milk between meals, but should eat a very light dinner, consisting of only two or three articles, while the child from three to five, especially after it has engaged in vigorous play, can, with safety, follow the menus herein prescribed.

 

from 5 to 10 years of age

breakfast

a banana, with cream milk or an egg corn hominy lunch

a potato, or whole wheat bread, with butter clabbered milk or cottage cheese dinner

peas, turnips, or carrots a potato—sweet or white milk or an egg

from 5 to 10 years of age

breakfast

a peach milk or an egg boiled rice, with either honey or sugar and cream lunch

tender corn or a potato milk dinner

vegetable soup or cream soup asparagus or string beans tender corn or a potato gelatin or junket milk

from 5 to 10 years of age

breakfast

prunes or grapes cereal—a small portion cream milk lunch

boiled onions rice or potatoes milk dinner

one fresh vegetable milk, fish, or an egg potatoes or baked beans

from 5 to 10 years of age

breakfast

cereal honey milk lunch

cabbage or cauliflower potatoes or baked beans dinner

boiled onions corn bread cottage cheese

from 10 to 15 years of age

breakfast

dried peaches—stewed oatmeal, or corn hominy, with either cream or butter milk lunch

rice with rich milk dinner

potatoes, either sweet or white turnips, asparagus, or peas fish, junket, or an egg

from 10 to 15 years of age

breakfast

cantaloup a banana or a sweet potato corn cake with butter milk lunch

tender corn milk dinner

vegetable soup or cream soup spinach, onions, carrots, peas, beans, asparagus—any two of these a potato or whole wheat bread

from 10 to 15 years of age

breakfast

a banana, with cream and nuts honey or maple-sirup corn cake milk lunch

baked sweet potatoes, with butter milk dinner

carrots, parsnips, or squash potatoes, or corn bread, with butter milk nuts, raisins, and cream cheese

from 10 to 15 years of age

breakfast

oatmeal or flaked wheat, thoroughly cooked; serve with thin cream a baked banana milk lunch

one or two eggs whole wheat bread milk dinner

one or two fresh vegetables boiled rice or baked potatoes gelatin or junket milk

from 15 to 20 years of age

breakfast

a very ripe banana with cream and dates plain boiled wheat, or oatmeal, with cream milk lunch

home-baked beans whole wheat gems milk dinner

cream or vegetable soup asparagus or peas rice or a baked potato egg custard or ice-cream milk or cocoa

from 15 to 20 years of age

breakfast

melon or peaches one or two eggs with whole wheat gems milk lunch

fresh peas, beans, or carrots corn or potatoes milk—sweet or sour dinner

boiled onions, beets, or squash potatoes or lima beans lettuce and tomato salad with nuts bran meal gems

from 15 to 20 years of age

breakfast

cantaloup corn cake with maple-sirup, or rice cake with honey milk lunch

broiled fish baked potatoes dinner

cantaloup turnips, carrots, spinach, peas, beans, or onions—any two of these corn bread or baked potatoes milk or cocoa

from 15 to 20 years of age

breakfast

soaked prunes rice, or corn hominy, with cream very ripe banana with nuts and cream lunch

whole wheat bread with nut butter and nuts rich milk dinner

soup winter squash or stewed pumpkin sweet potatoes celery and nuts

from 20 to 33 years of age

breakfast

cherries or very sweet berries with sugar—no cream cereal with butter one or two eggs whole wheat muffins milk or cocoa lunch

peas in the pod baked potatoes or whole wheat gems buttermilk dinner

soup asparagus or fresh peas potatoes a green salad—optional bran meal gems

from 20 to 33 years of age

breakfast

cantaloup or peaches coddled eggs whole wheat or corn muffins cocoa or milk lunch

boiled corn lettuce and tomato salad, with nuts and raisins dinner

a light soup one or two fresh vegetables rice or tender corn ice-cream or gelatin

from 20 to 33 years of age

breakfast

choice of non-acid fruit two baked bananas with cream whole wheat, boiled nuts milk or cocoa lunch

home-baked beans lettuce, or celery, with nuts cottage cheese with whole wheat bread dinner

soup—optional sweet or white potato string or lima beans lettuce, or romaine, with nuts whole wheat or bran meal gems

from 20 to 33 years of age

breakfast

a very ripe banana with dates, nuts, and cream oatmeal or corn hominy—choice; small portion milk or cocoa lunch

a poached egg or a baked potato a glass of buttermilk dinner

tender fish, broiled baked potatoes lettuce, or celery, with nuts and raisins

from 33 to 50 years of age

breakfast

boiled whole wheat, or hominy, or corn bread two eggs or a bowl of clabbered milk lunch

one whipped egg and a pint of milk a whole wheat cracker or a baked potato dinner

cream soup asparagus, peas, turnips, or carrots potatoes or baked beans

from 33 to 50 years of age

breakfast

berries, peaches, or melon a baked sweet potato a banana with nuts, cream, and raisins milk or cocoa lunch

tender corn on the cob, with butter a glass of milk—optional dinner

fresh peas, beans, cabbage, brussels sprouts, beets—any two of these green corn or a potato lettuce and tomato salad, with nuts orange ice or peach ice

from 33 to 50 years of age

breakfast

two large, very ripe bananas, baked; serve with cream whole wheat or graham gems one egg or a glass of milk lunch

a large, baked potato and a poached egg cocoa or chocolate dinner

soup—cream of celery or tomato turnips and lima beans bran meal gems or a baked potato cocoa or chocolate

from 33 to 50 years of age

breakfast

two eggs, coddled whole wheat muffins a cup of chocolate or a cup of hot water with sugar and cream lunch

home-baked beans lettuce or celery a few nuts dinner

carrots, parsnips, or cabbage a baked potato broiled fish or a nut omelet cocoa, chocolate, or sassafras tea note: sassafras tea is made from the bark of red sassafras.

from 50 to 65 years of age

breakfast

a cup of hot water with milk or sugar a coddled egg and a baked potato lunch

junket or a bowl of clabbered milk one or two baked bananas dinner

peas or asparagus new potatoes or bran meal gems a cup of cocoa or a cup of hot water with cream

from 50 to 65 years of age

breakfast

peaches, plums, or melon coarse cereal with cream cocoa or hot water with cream lunch

a sweet potato with butter cheese with water-cracker milk or chocolate dinner

peas, beans, or carrots lettuce or spinach green corn or a potato cottage cheese with cream and a water-cracker

from 50 to 65 years of age

breakfast

a bunch of grapes or a melon bran meal gems or plain boiled wheat cocoa or hot water with cream lunch

very ripe bananas with cream dates and nuts a glass of milk dinner

lima beans and creamed onions a baked potato whole wheat or bran meal gems

from 50 to 65 years of age

breakfast

soaked prunes baked chestnuts clabbered milk or junket lunch

a bowl of milk with boiled rice dinner

baked onions and winter squash baked beans a cup of cocoa one or two whole wheat crackers and cottage cheese

from 65 to 80 years of age

breakfast

two or three very ripe bananas, baked; serve with cream nuts, raisins, and either cream or cottage cheese cocoa or hot water lunch

a bowl of sour milk rye bread or bran meal gems dinner

cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, or squash a potato cheese or an egg note: if there is a tendency toward rheumatism, gout, or lumbago, eggs should be omitted.

 

from 65 to 80 years of age

breakfast

peaches, pears, grapes, or melon a baked sweet potato or potato cakes sassafras tea with cream

lunch

string beans or new peas rye bread cottage cheese dinner

carrots, squash, beets, or onions lima beans or a potato buttermilk bran meal gems

from 65 to 80 years of age

breakfast

melon, persimmons, or a baked apple boiled chestnuts or rice with cream a cup of chocolate or a cup of hot water lunch

a bowl of milk with corn bread dinner

boiled onions, carrots, or stewed pumpkin a potato—sweet or white a baked banana with cream cheese a cup of cocoa or chocolate

from 65 to 80 years of age

breakfast

soaked prunes boiled wheat—small portion cream, hot water, or chocolate lunch

a spanish onion cooked en casserole a baked potato buttermilk dinner

stewed pumpkin or winter squash a sweet potato broiled fish—small portion cocoa

from 85 to 100 years of age

breakfast

two baked bananas, with cream two egg whites, whipped into a glass of milk lunch

new peas in the pod a glass of sour milk dinner

bean soup baked sweet or white potatoes cottage cheese with cream and sugar

from 85 to 100 years of age

breakfast

cantaloup a bowl of clabbered milk bran meal gems lunch

purée of rice with milk dinner

a baked or boiled sweet potato purée of peas egg custard or gelatin

from 85 to 100 years of age

breakfast

wheat flakes, thoroughly cooked; serve with cream warm milk lunch

a coddled egg with a baked potato a cup of chocolate dinner

cream of celery soup bran meal gems a potato cocoa or sassafras tea

from 85 to 100 years of age

breakfast

two very ripe bananas, baked, eaten with nut butter and cream sassafras tea or a cup of chocolate lunch

cream of potato soup whole wheat crackers dinner

purée of peas or beans a potato—sweet or white chocolate or hot milk

the object of cooking is to tear down the cell-structure of foods, and to make them more digestible. After the cell-structure is demolished, every degree of heat to which foods are subjected injures the foods instead of improving them.

grains should be cooked whole. They should be cleansed, well covered with water, and boiled until the grains burst open as in making old-fashioned corn hominy. This will often take from three to four hours' constant boiling.

cereals prepared in this way are more delicious, more nourishing, and far more healthful than any of the prepared or patented "Breakfast foods," while the cost is perhaps about one-eighth or one-tenth of that of the popular patented products.

the old or popular method of cooking vegetables is to cover them generously with water and to boil them much longer than is necessary, then to drain off the water, season, and serve. By this process the mineral salts, in many cases the most valuable part of the food, are dissolved, passed into the water, and lost. In this way many excellent articles of food are greatly impoverished and reduced perhaps 50 per cent in nutritive value.


the time vegetables are cooked should be measured by their solidity. As an example, spinach can be thoroughly cooked in about fifteen minutes. In this way some of its elements are volatilized, giving it a delicious flavor and taste, while if cooked in an abundance of water, from half to three-quarters of an hour, which is the customary way, its best nutritive elements are lost by draining away the water, and it is rendered almost tasteless.

all succulent and watery vegetables such as cabbage and spinach, beans, carrots, onions, parsnips, peas, squash, turnips, etc., should be cooked in a casserole dish.

prepare vegetables in the usual manner as for boiling. A few tablespoonfuls of water may be added to such articles as green beans and peas, beets, carrots, cauliflower, onions, parsnips, etc. Cover, and place in an ordinary baking oven until the vegetable is thoroughly cooked or softened. In this way vegetables in reality are cooked in their own juices, rendered much softer, more digestible, more delicious, and all their mineral salts and other nutritive elements are preserved, making them also more nutritious.

rice, macaroni, and spaghetti are exceptions to the above rules. They should be cooked in an abundance of water and thoroughly drained. In this way the excess of starch which they contain is disposed of, and their nutritive elements are better balanced. They are also rendered much more palatable and digestible.

if fruits can be obtained thoroughly ripe, they should never be cooked.


dried or evaporated fruits can be prepared for the table by soaking them thoroughly in plain water for a few hours, or over night. In this way the green and inferior pieces are exposed and can be discarded. The excess of water can be boiled down to a sirup and poured over the fruit. In this way the fruit-sugar is developed, and sweetening with cane-sugar becomes unnecessary.

soaking as above described is merely a process of putting back into the fruit the water that was taken out of it by evaporation or dehydration.

it is evident that that part of the fruit which will not soften sufficiently by soaking, to become palatable, was not ripe enough for food.

the average table, especially hotels and restaurants, are supplied largely from canned foods. A process of perfect preservation of foods has never been invented and probably never will be. No matter how well foods may taste, they undergo constant chemical changes from the time they leave the ground or parent stalk until they are thoroughly decomposed. All vegetables, therefore, should be used fresh, if possible.

an excellent quality of buttermilk may be made as follows: allow sweet milk to stand in a warm room until it thickens or coagulates; whip with an ordinary rotary egg beater without removing the cream.

sweet butter may be made in a few minutes from ordinary cream by placing it in a deep bowl and whipping with a rotary egg beater.

 

suggestions concerning the selection and the preparation of certain articles mentioned in the menus

the banana is a vegetable. It is one of our most valuable foods, as well as the most prolific. It will produce more food per acre, with less care and labor, than any other plant that grows.

while the banana grows only in the tropical countries, it is equally as good and useful to people of the northern zones.

bananas that are transported to the north are cut green, and often immature; that is, before they have attained their full growth. This latter variety should never be used. In their green and unripened state, they are wholly unfit for food, and for these reasons there has arisen a broadcast prejudice against this most excellent article of diet.

 

care should be exercised to select the largest variety—only those that have attained their full growth on the parent tree. If bananas cannot be procured "Dead ripe" from the dealer, they should be purchased, if possible, by the bunch, or a few of the lower "Hands" can be purchased and left on the stalk. They should be kept in the open air , in an even, warm temperature, and the end of the stalk covered with a clean white cloth, or immersed in water, kept fresh by changing daily. In this way the banana will mature, ripen slowly, and be almost as delicious as if obtained ripe from its native tree.

bananas should not be eaten until they are "Dead ripe"—black spotted. In this state, the carbohydrates which they contain are as readily digestible as fresh milk.

 

peel large ripe bananas; bake in an open pan in a very hot oven from ten to fifteen minutes, or until slightly brown.

baked bananas make a delicious dessert served with either of the following:

a cream

b nut butter

c dairy butter

d both dairy butter and a sauce made by gradually diluting nut butter with a little water, until a smooth paste is formed

bananas need much mastication, not for the purpose of reduction, but for the purpose of insalivation.

recipes

place an egg in a pint cup; cover with boiling water and allow to stand, covered, five or six minutes.

 

break the number desired into a narrow bowl; add a teaspoonful of sugar to each egg, and a pinch of salt; whip very briskly with a rotary egg beater from five to eight minutes.

to each egg a teaspoonful of lemon juice and half a glass of milk may then be slowly whipped into the mixture, if desired.

whip two eggs very thoroughly for about five minutes; add a dash of salt, a dessert-spoonful each of corn-starch and of heavy cream. Bake very lightly in a small pan.

fish and fowl selection and preparation

if we must eat the flesh of animals the young should be selected. It contains more digestible protein, especially albumin, than the old or matured animal, and has had less time in which to become contaminated by unhygienic habits. Both fish and fowl should be baked, boiled, or broiled; never fried.

after thoroughly cleansing the desired amount of fresh tender peas, unshelled, put them into a covered pot or casserole dish; add a few spoonfuls of water, a little butter and salt, and cook slowly until thoroughly softened; serve in the pod.

the peas may be eaten by placing the pod between the teeth, and then giving it a gentle pull. This strips off the outer coating or pulp, leaving only the thin film of cellulose.

note: the pea pulp, or substance upon the pod, is rich in mineral salts, highly nutritious, slightly laxative, and an excellent aid in the digestion of other foods. It is a better balanced and a more valuable food than the pea.

pumpkin may be made very delicious by stewing or boiling in just enough water to prevent burning. Mash well and put through a colander. Season and serve same as squash, or, prepare as directed, and bake until slightly brown.

chop fine and boil carrots, peas, asparagus, or any other fresh vegetable from eight to ten minutes in sufficient water to make the amount of juice required; strain and serve.

the tender parts of the fresh vegetable may be thoroughly cooked, put through a colander, and served as a purée.

 

crush the bark of the red sassafras root, allowing a piece as large as a silver dime to each cup. Add the quantity of water desired; simmer from five to ten minutes. Drink with cream and sugar.

wheat bran is the outer coating of the wheat grain. Chemically, it is pure cellulose, which is insoluble and indigestible in the ordinary digestive solvents of the body.

wheat bran serves a valuable medicinal purpose in the stomach and in the alimentary tract. When introduced into the stomach, its cell structure fills with water, and it increases from four to eight times its size in its dry state. It excites both stomach and intestinal peristalsis, thereby preventing stomach indigestion, and by carrying the water along down the intestinal tract, it prevents intestinal congestion, or what is commonly called constipation. Wheat bran may be properly called an intestinal broom or cleansing agent.

man, in the process of preparing his food, has invented expensive and complicated machinery for removing all cellulose and roughness from his diet. He has suffered both stomach and intestinal congestion just to the extent that this refining process has been carried on. Bran puts back into the diet not only what modern milling methods have taken out of it, but that which civilized habits of refining have eliminated from our food. It therefore naturalizes the diet, promotes digestion, cleanses the mucous surfaces of both the stomach and the intestines, and prevents congestion in the ascending colon, which is the primary cause of appendicitis, so called.

 

bran meal is the product of the entire wheat, ground coarsely, and mixed with a certain per cent of wheat bran. It makes an excellent bread.

bread made from bran meal acts on the digestive and the alimentary organs, the same as the pure bran, only in a milder capacity. It also aids the stomach in the digestion of other foods. It is more nourishing than wheat flour, for the reason that it is better balanced, containing all the carbohydrate and the proteid elements of the grain.

bread made from bran meal is better in the form of gems baked in small gem rings.

this meal requires neither baking powder nor soda, and should not be sifted.

choice of menus wherever two menus are given, choice may be exercised, but whichever menu is chosen, it should be taken in its entirety. In other words, do not select articles from one menu and combine them with articles mentioned in another menu. Neither should any article of food be eaten with a particular menu, other than that which is mentioned therein. By observing these suggestions, the proper combinations of food are observed, which is equally as important as the selections.

note: in this volume there are some menus which contain combinations of food classed as no. 3 in lesson xii, "Tables of digestive harmonies and disharmonies," pp. 609 to 617 inclusive. This is explained by the fact that said "Tables" are laid out for the normal person, while the menus were prescribed for the treatment of some special disorder, or for the purpose of removing some offending causes.

 

normal menus the following menus are intended for those possessing normal digestion and assimilation of food; that is, for those having no digestive disorders.

while a majority of the menus composing this volume were prescribed for the purpose of removing the causes of some specific disorder, a vast number of those treated remained under the care of the author long after they had become normal or cured, as the transition from dis-ease to health is usually termed.

another large number of comparatively healthy persons, recognizing the relation between diet and health, came under the care of the writer for the purpose of having their diet selected, proportioned, and balanced according to age, occupation, and the season of the year.


the excellent results that were obtained, in nearly all such cases, emphasized the importance of giving a set of normal menus for normal people. All the following menus have been tested, under the direction of the author, and have been chosen because they gave the desired results.

 

from 2 to 5 years of age

breakfast

a few soaked prunes, with cream a small portion of coarse cereal, thoroughly cooked from one to two glasses of milk lunch

a baked potato onions or carrots, well cooked milk dinner

home-made vegetable soup or cream soup green peas or asparagus tips a baked potato milk

from 2 to 5 years of age

breakfast

one very ripe peach a small portion of coarse cereal a baked sweet potato milk lunch

cream of rice, bean, or pea soup—home-made whole wheat crackers, with butter milk dinner

a baked potato peas or lima beans whole wheat crackers or bran biscuits milk

from 2 to 5 years of age

breakfast

cantaloup or a very ripe peach coarse cereal milk lunch

a baked potato or whole wheat gem a coddled egg milk or junket dinner

cream soup—home-made mashed turnips or carrots a very ripe banana, with cream and sugar

from 2 to 5 years of age

breakfast

a baked apple, with a little sugar cereal—small portion milk lunch

one or two bananas milk dinner

corn hominy—small portion; thoroughly cooked milk

the articles of food for children ranging from two to five years of age are about the same. The proportions, however, should be administered according to age.

the child from two to three years of age may be given a glass of milk between meals, but should eat a very light dinner, consisting of only two or three articles, while the child from three to five, especially after it has engaged in vigorous play, can, with safety, follow the menus herein prescribed.

 

from 5 to 10 years of age

breakfast

a banana, with cream milk or an egg corn hominy lunch

a potato, or whole wheat bread, with butter clabbered milk or cottage cheese dinner

peas, turnips, or carrots a potato—sweet or white milk or an egg

from 5 to 10 years of age

breakfast

a peach milk or an egg boiled rice, with either honey or sugar and cream lunch

tender corn or a potato milk dinner

vegetable soup or cream soup asparagus or string beans tender corn or a potato gelatin or junket milk

from 5 to 10 years of age

breakfast

prunes or grapes cereal—a small portion cream milk lunch

boiled onions rice or potatoes milk dinner

one fresh vegetable milk, fish, or an egg potatoes or baked beans

from 5 to 10 years of age

breakfast

cereal honey milk lunch

cabbage or cauliflower potatoes or baked beans dinner

boiled onions corn bread cottage cheese

from 10 to 15 years of age

breakfast

dried peaches—stewed oatmeal, or corn hominy, with either cream or butter milk lunch

rice with rich milk dinner

potatoes, either sweet or white turnips, asparagus, or peas fish, junket, or an egg

from 10 to 15 years of age

breakfast

cantaloup a banana or a sweet potato corn cake with butter milk lunch

tender corn milk dinner

vegetable soup or cream soup spinach, onions, carrots, peas, beans, asparagus—any two of these a potato or whole wheat bread

from 10 to 15 years of age

breakfast

a banana, with cream and nuts honey or maple-sirup corn cake milk lunch

baked sweet potatoes, with butter milk dinner

carrots, parsnips, or squash potatoes, or corn bread, with butter milk nuts, raisins, and cream cheese

from 10 to 15 years of age

breakfast

oatmeal or flaked wheat, thoroughly cooked; serve with thin cream a baked banana milk lunch

one or two eggs whole wheat bread milk dinner

one or two fresh vegetables boiled rice or baked potatoes gelatin or junket milk

from 15 to 20 years of age

breakfast

a very ripe banana with cream and dates plain boiled wheat, or oatmeal, with cream milk lunch

home-baked beans whole wheat gems milk dinner

cream or vegetable soup asparagus or peas rice or a baked potato egg custard or ice-cream milk or cocoa

from 15 to 20 years of age

breakfast

melon or peaches one or two eggs with whole wheat gems milk lunch

fresh peas, beans, or carrots corn or potatoes milk—sweet or sour dinner

boiled onions, beets, or squash potatoes or lima beans lettuce and tomato salad with nuts bran meal gems

from 15 to 20 years of age

breakfast

cantaloup corn cake with maple-sirup, or rice cake with honey milk lunch

broiled fish baked potatoes dinner

cantaloup turnips, carrots, spinach, peas, beans, or onions—any two of these corn bread or baked potatoes milk or cocoa

from 15 to 20 years of age

breakfast

soaked prunes rice, or corn hominy, with cream very ripe banana with nuts and cream lunch

whole wheat bread with nut butter and nuts rich milk dinner

soup winter squash or stewed pumpkin sweet potatoes celery and nuts

from 20 to 33 years of age

breakfast

cherries or very sweet berries with sugar—no cream cereal with butter one or two eggs whole wheat muffins milk or cocoa lunch

peas in the pod baked potatoes or whole wheat gems buttermilk dinner

soup asparagus or fresh peas potatoes a green salad—optional bran meal gems

from 20 to 33 years of age

breakfast

cantaloup or peaches coddled eggs whole wheat or corn muffins cocoa or milk lunch

boiled corn lettuce and tomato salad, with nuts and raisins dinner

a light soup one or two fresh vegetables rice or tender corn ice-cream or gelatin

from 20 to 33 years of age

breakfast

choice of non-acid fruit two baked bananas with cream whole wheat, boiled nuts milk or cocoa lunch

home-baked beans lettuce, or celery, with nuts cottage cheese with whole wheat bread dinner

soup—optional sweet or white potato string or lima beans lettuce, or romaine, with nuts whole wheat or bran meal gems

from 20 to 33 years of age

breakfast

a very ripe banana with dates, nuts, and cream oatmeal or corn hominy—choice; small portion milk or cocoa lunch

a poached egg or a baked potato a glass of buttermilk dinner

tender fish, broiled baked potatoes lettuce, or celery, with nuts and raisins

from 33 to 50 years of age

breakfast

boiled whole wheat, or hominy, or corn bread two eggs or a bowl of clabbered milk lunch

one whipped egg and a pint of milk a whole wheat cracker or a baked potato dinner

cream soup asparagus, peas, turnips, or carrots potatoes or baked beans

from 33 to 50 years of age

breakfast

berries, peaches, or melon a baked sweet potato a banana with nuts, cream, and raisins milk or cocoa lunch

tender corn on the cob, with butter a glass of milk—optional dinner

fresh peas, beans, cabbage, brussels sprouts, beets—any two of these green corn or a potato lettuce and tomato salad, with nuts orange ice or peach ice

from 33 to 50 years of age

breakfast

two large, very ripe bananas, baked; serve with cream whole wheat or graham gems one egg or a glass of milk lunch

a large, baked potato and a poached egg cocoa or chocolate dinner

soup—cream of celery or tomato turnips and lima beans bran meal gems or a baked potato cocoa or chocolate

from 33 to 50 years of age

breakfast

two eggs, coddled whole wheat muffins a cup of chocolate or a cup of hot water with sugar and cream lunch

home-baked beans lettuce or celery a few nuts dinner

carrots, parsnips, or cabbage a baked potato broiled fish or a nut omelet cocoa, chocolate, or sassafras tea note: sassafras tea is made from the bark of red sassafras.

from 50 to 65 years of age

breakfast

a cup of hot water with milk or sugar a coddled egg and a baked potato lunch

junket or a bowl of clabbered milk one or two baked bananas dinner

peas or asparagus new potatoes or bran meal gems a cup of cocoa or a cup of hot water with cream

from 50 to 65 years of age

breakfast

peaches, plums, or melon coarse cereal with cream cocoa or hot water with cream lunch

a sweet potato with butter cheese with water-cracker milk or chocolate dinner

peas, beans, or carrots lettuce or spinach green corn or a potato cottage cheese with cream and a water-cracker

from 50 to 65 years of age

breakfast

a bunch of grapes or a melon bran meal gems or plain boiled wheat cocoa or hot water with cream lunch

very ripe bananas with cream dates and nuts a glass of milk dinner

lima beans and creamed onions a baked potato whole wheat or bran meal gems

from 50 to 65 years of age

breakfast

soaked prunes baked chestnuts clabbered milk or junket lunch

a bowl of milk with boiled rice dinner

baked onions and winter squash baked beans a cup of cocoa one or two whole wheat crackers and cottage cheese

from 65 to 80 years of age

breakfast

two or three very ripe bananas, baked; serve with cream nuts, raisins, and either cream or cottage cheese cocoa or hot water lunch

a bowl of sour milk rye bread or bran meal gems dinner

cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, or squash a potato cheese or an egg note: if there is a tendency toward rheumatism, gout, or lumbago, eggs should be omitted.

 

from 65 to 80 years of age

breakfast

peaches, pears, grapes, or melon a baked sweet potato or potato cakes sassafras tea with cream

lunch

string beans or new peas rye bread cottage cheese dinner

carrots, squash, beets, or onions lima beans or a potato buttermilk bran meal gems

from 65 to 80 years of age

breakfast

melon, persimmons, or a baked apple boiled chestnuts or rice with cream a cup of chocolate or a cup of hot water lunch

a bowl of milk with corn bread dinner

boiled onions, carrots, or stewed pumpkin a potato—sweet or white a baked banana with cream cheese a cup of cocoa or chocolate

from 65 to 80 years of age

breakfast

soaked prunes boiled wheat—small portion cream, hot water, or chocolate lunch

a spanish onion cooked en casserole a baked potato buttermilk dinner

stewed pumpkin or winter squash a sweet potato broiled fish—small portion cocoa

from 85 to 100 years of age

breakfast

two baked bananas, with cream two egg whites, whipped into a glass of milk lunch

new peas in the pod a glass of sour milk dinner

bean soup baked sweet or white potatoes cottage cheese with cream and sugar

from 85 to 100 years of age

breakfast

cantaloup a bowl of clabbered milk bran meal gems lunch

purée of rice with milk dinner

a baked or boiled sweet potato purée of peas egg custard or gelatin

from 85 to 100 years of age

breakfast

wheat flakes, thoroughly cooked; serve with cream warm milk lunch

a coddled egg with a baked potato a cup of chocolate dinner

cream of celery soup bran meal gems a potato cocoa or sassafras tea

from 85 to 100 years of age

breakfast

two very ripe bananas, baked, eaten with nut butter and cream sassafras tea or a cup of chocolate lunch

cream of potato soup whole wheat crackers dinner

purée of peas or beans a potato—sweet or white chocolate or hot milk  


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