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Cycloserine

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Information about Cycloserine

Cycloserine is a broad spectrum antibiotic used as a second line agent for treatment of drug resistant tuberculosis, always in combination with other antituberculosis agents. Cycloserine is appears to have little or no hepatotoxic potential, but it is usually used in combination with agents that are known to be hepatotoxic, and its role in the reported cases of liver injury with combination therapy cannot always be excluded.

Mechanism of action of Cycloserine

Cycloserine (sye" kloe ser' een) is an antibiotic that is currently used largely in the therapy of tuberculosis caused by multidrug resistant mycobacteria. Cycloserine is a d-alanine analogue of isoxazolidone that was isolated initially from Streptococcus orchidaceus and has moderate activity in vitro against mycobacterial species, probably acting by inhibition of mycobacterial use of amino acids and inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Importantly, there is no cross resistance between cycloserine and most other medications for tuberculosis. Cycloserine

FDA approval information for Cycloserine

Cycloserine was approved for use in the United States in 1964, but its use for most indications has been replaced by more modern antituberculosis agents except in instances of multidrug resistance or of intolerance to the more potent agents such as isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide. Cycloserine is available in tablets of 250 mg in generic forms and under the brand name Seromycin; the typical adult dose is 250 to 500 mg twice daily (~10-15 mg/kg/day). Common side effects are drowsiness, headache, fatigue, rash and fever; rarely, cycloserine causes more serious neurological side effects such as acute psychosis, seizures and coma.


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Information about Cycloserine

Ethambutol is a first line but adjunctive antituberculosis medication which is used only in combination with other agents such as isoniazid and rifampin. Ethambutol therapy has been associated with minor, transient and asymptomatic elevations in serum aminotransferase levels, but is a rare cause of clinically apparent acute liver injury.

Mechanism of action of Cycloserine

Ethambutol (eth am' bue tol) is a semisynthetic antibiotic which is bacteriostatic against mycobacterium tuberculosis. Ethambutol interferes with the incorporation of mycolic acid into the mycobacterial cell wall, thus inhibiting its cell wall synthesis. Ethambutol has a broader spectrum of activity against mycobacterial species than isoniazid or rifampin and is therefore used largely in patients with suspected resistance or in atypical mycobacterial infections. Ethambutol is available in generic forms in tablets of 100 and 400 mg. The recommended dose is 15 mg/kg once daily in combination with other antituberculosis medications such as isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and streptomycin. Higher doses are recommended for patients being retreated after a relapse. Common side effects include gastrointestinal upset, nausea, dizziness, fever, and rash.


The following are list of antituberculosis medications that are discussed individually:

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