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Dictionary-of-government-B

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  • back office technology  - electronic and information technology located in spaces frequented only by service personnel for maintenance, repair or occasional monitoring of equipment (e.g., network switches and routers located in wiring closets)for example, network switches and routers located in wiring closets
  • backfill  - Reserve Component units and individuals recalled to replace deploying active units and/ or individuals in the continental United States and outside the continental United States. See also Reserve Component.
  • background investigation  - process of using various types of personnel security investigations into an applicant’s or an employee’s history to determine the individual’s suitability or fitness for employment and/ or to make a determination as to whether the individual is eligible for access to classified information at the appropriate level for the position conducted using a variety of methods including the completion of standard form (SF) questionnaires, electronic inquiries, written or telephonic inquiries, or through personal contact with individuals.
  • background review  - a review of information provided by the Director of National Intelligence and the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation regarding personal background, including information relating to any history of criminal activity or to any evidence of espionage.
  • background review  - a review of information provided by the Director of National Intelligence and the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation regarding personal background, including information relating to any history of criminal activity or to any evidence of espionage.
  • backhaul  - the return trip of a vehicle transporting cargo or general freight, especially when carrying goods back over all or part of the same route.
  • backstop  - The skill category of a particular position in USAID (e.g., country director, contracts officer); also, the numeric code used to identify a skill category.
  • backup  - Copy of files and programs made to facilitate recovery, if necessary.
  • baggage  - Official and personal property needed by the traveler for use en route or immediately upon arrival at destination.
  • baggage  - trunks, bags, parcels, and suitcases containing personal belongings while traveling includes both carry-on and checked-in baggage.
  • balance  - The standards development process should be balanced. Specifically, there should be meaningful involvement from a broad range of parties, with no single interest dominating the decision-making.
  • balanced magnetic switch  - switch which operates using a balanced magnetic field in such a manner as to resist defeat with an external magnet signals an alarm when it detects either an increase or decrease in magnetic field strength.
  • balanced performance measure  - approach to performance measurement that balances organizational results with the perspectives of distinct groups, including customers and employees. Terms )
  • bale cubic capacity  - The space available for cargo measured in cubic feet to the inside of the cargo battens, on the frames, and to the underside of the beams.
  • ballistic missile  - Any missile which does not rely upon aerodynamic surfaces to produce lift and consequently follows a ballistic trajectory when thrust is terminated. See also guided missile.
  • balloting materials  - official post card forms, Federal write-in absentee ballots, and any State balloting materials that, as determined by the Presidential designee, are essential to the carrying out of this chapter.
  • bandwidth  - The amount of data that can be passed along a communications channel in a given period of time.
  • bandwidth  - The amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time. For digital devices, the bandwidth is usually expressed in bits per second (bps) or bytes per second. For analog devices, the bandwidth is expressed in cycles per second (cps), or Hertz (Hz).
  • bank or banks  - national banks, State banks, trust companies, or other banks or banking associations doing business under the laws of the United States, or of any State of the United States.
  • bank or banks  - national banks, State banks, trust companies, or other banks or banking associations doing business under the laws of the United States, or of any State of the United States.
  • bank or World Bank  - the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
  • banking institution  - any person engaged primarily or incidentally in the business of banking, of granting or transferring credits, or of purchasing or selling foreign exchange or procuring purchasers and sellers thereof, as principal or agent, or any person holding credits for others as a direct or incidental part of his business, or brokers, and each principal, agent, home office, branch or correspondent of any person so engaged shall be regarded as a separate banking institution.
  • bankruptcy  - A legal proceeding in Federal court for dealing with debt problems of individuals and businesses.
  • bar-code label  - This is also called the Universal Product Code (UPC). It is a series of short black lines of varied thickness usually accompanied by alphanumeric digits. A laser reader or scanner can translate the bar codes with the alphanumeric that are used to uniquely identify a property item. This Property Identification Number (PIN) is used as a basis for the inventory and accountability.
  • bargaining unit employee  - an employee included in an appropriate exclusive bargaining unit, as determined by the Federal Labor Relations Authority, for which a labor organization has been granted exclusive recognition.
  • barge  - a vessel that is non-self-propelled and that is often pushed ahead, towed alongside, or towed astern on a hawser by a towing vessel. It does not include a vessel that is propelled by sail only.
  • barge or other bulk carrier  - any vessel which — (A) is not self-propelled, or (B) transports fungible goods that are not packaged in any form.
  • barge removal contractor  - a person that enters into a contract with the United States to remove an abandoned barge under this chapter.
  • barn  - a building (other than a dwelling) on a farm, ranch, or other agricultural operation for — (A ) housing animals; (B) storing or processing crops; (C) storing and maintaining agricultural equipment; or (D) serving an essential or useful purpose related to agricultural activities conducted on the adjacent land.
  • barometric sensor  - sensor that acts as a switch by the measurement of atmospheric (air/ water) pressure.
  • barrel  - 42 United States gallons at 60 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • barrier  - A coordinated series of natural or man-made obstacles designed or employed to channel, direct, restrict, delay, or stop the movement of an opposing force and to impose additional losses in personnel, time, and equipment on the opposing force.
  • barrier combat air patrol  - One or more divisions or elements of fighter aircraft employed between a force and an objective area as a barrier across the probable direction of enemy attack. See also combat air patrol.

barrier to local competition- (A) conditions of extreme currency volatility; (B) restrictions on repatriation of profits; (C) multiple exchange rates which significantly disadvantage United States firms; (D) government restrictions inhibiting the free convertibility of foreign exchange; or (E) conditions of extreme local political instability.

  • barrier, obstacle, and mine warfare plan  - A comprehensive, coordinated plan that includes responsibilities; general location of unspecified and specific barriers, obstacles, and minefields; special instructions; limitations; coordination; and completion times; and may designate locations of obstacle zones or belts.

barriers to, or other distortions of, international trade in services- (1) barriers to establishment in foreign markets, and(2) restrictions on the operation of enterprises in foreign markets, including — (A) direct or indirect restrictions on the transfer of information into, or out of, the country or instrumentality concerned, and (B) restrictions on the use of data processing facilities within or outside of such country or instrumentality.

  • base  - 1. A locality from which operations are projected or supported. 2. An area or locality containing installations which provide logistic or other support. 3. Home airfield or home carrier. See also facility.
  • base  - the accumulated direct costs (normally either total direct salaries and wages or total direct costs exclusive of any extraordinary or distorting expenditures) used to distribute indirect costs to individual Federal awards. The direct cost base selected should result in each award bearing a fair share of the indirect costs in reasonable relation to the benefits received from the costs.
  • base boundary  - A line that delineates the surface area of a base for the purpose of facilitating coordination and deconfliction of operations between adjacent units, formations, or areas.
  • base cluster  - In base defense operations, a collection of bases, geographically grouped for mutual protection and ease of command and control.
  • base cluster commander  - In base defense operations, a senior base commander designated by the joint force commander responsible for coordinating the defense of bases within the base cluster and for integrating defense plans of bases into a base cluster defense plan.
  • base cluster operations center  - A command and control facility that serves as the base cluster commander’s focal point for defense and security of the base cluster. Also called BCOC.Dictionary, JP 3‐10 )
  • base defense  - The local military measures, both normal and emergency, required to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of enemy attacks on, or sabotage of, a base, to ensure that the maximum capacity of its facilities is available to United States forces.
  • base defense operations center  - A command and control facility established by the base commander to serve as the focal point for base security and defense. Also called BDOC.
  • base defense zone  - An air defense zone established around an air base and limited to the engagement envelope of short-range air defense weapons systems defending that base. Also called BDZ.
  • base development  - The acquisition, development, expansion, improvement, construction and/ or replacement of the facilities and resources of a location to support forces.
  • base floodplain  - area subject to inundation from a flood of a magnitude that occurs once every 100 years on the average a flood having a 1 percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year.
  • base gasoline  - gasoline which meets the following specifications: API gravity 57.8 Sulfur, ppm 317,Color Purple, Benzene, vol. % 1.35,Reid vapor pressure 8.7, Drivability 1195, Antiknock, Index 87.3, Distillation, D–86 °F, IBP 92,10% 126,50% 219,90% 327,EP 414, Hydrocarbon Type, Vol. % FIA, Aromatics 30.9, Olefins 8.2, Saturates 60.9.
  • base market hog  - a barrow or gilt for which no discounts are subtracted from and no premiums are added to the base price.
  • base operating support  - Directly assisting, maintaining, supplying, and distributing support of forces at the operating location. Also called BOS.
  • base operating support-integrator  - The designated Service component or joint task force commander assigned to synchronize all sustainment functions for a contingency base. Also called BOS-I.
  • base period  - the allocation of indirect costs is the period in which such costs are incurred and accumulated for allocation to activities performed in that period. The base period normally should coincide with the governmental unit's fiscal year, but in any event, shall be so selected as to avoid inequities in the allocation of costs.
  • base period  - the one-year period ending the June 30 before the beginning of a fiscal year.
  • base plan  - A type of operation plan that describes the concept of operations, major forces, sustainment concept, and anticipated timelines for completing the mission without annexes or time-phased force and deployment data. Also called BPLAN.
  • base price  - the price paid for livestock, delivered at the packing plant, before application of any premiums or discounts, expressed in dollars per hundred pounds of carcass weight.

base rental rate -The base rental rate is the rental value of the quarters, before applying any administrative adjustments or charges for related facilities.

  • base support installation  — A Department of Defense Service or agency installation within the United States and its territories tasked to serve as a base for military forces engaged in either homeland defense or defense support of civil authorities. Also called BSI.  
  • baseline  - A starting point or initial value for a program or project measurement indicator.
  • baseline  - the program as set following contract award and preliminary design review of the space and ground systems.
  • baseline  - the projection of current-year levels of new budget authority, outlays, receipts, and the surplus or deficit into the budget year and the out years.
  • baseline (maritime)  - the line from which maritime zones and limits are measured. Examples of these limits include the territorial sea, contiguous zone, and exclusive economic zone. The spatial extent of the baseline is defined as ordinary low water, interpreted as mean lower low water, as depicted on National Ocean Service nautical charts and/ or appropriate supplemental information.
  • baseline measure  - formally approved version of a configuration item, regardless of media, formally designated and fixed at a specific time during the configuration item’s life cycle.
  • baseline plan  - approved plan for a project, plus or minus approved changes.
  • baseline concentration  - with respect to a pollutant, the ambient concentration levels which exist at the time of the first application for a permit in an area subject to this part, based on air quality data available in the Environmental Protection Agency or a State air pollution control agency and on such monitoring data as the permit applicant is required to submit. Such ambient concentration levels shall take into account all projected emissions in, or which may affect, such area from any major emitting facility on which construction commenced prior to January 6, 1975, but which has not begun operation by the date of the baseline air quality concentration determination. Emissions of sulfur oxides and particulate matter from any major emitting facility on which construction commenced after January 6, 1975, shall not be included in the baseline and shall be counted against the maximum allowable increases in pollutant concentrations established under this part.
  • baseline configuration  - Consists of the minimum information system security and operational controls required for Department information systems.
  • baseline costs  - The continuing annual costs of military operations funded by the operations and maintenance and military personnel appropriations.
  • baseline gasoline  - in the case of gasoline sold during the high ozone period (“summertime” and/ or as defined by the Administrator) a gasoline which meets the following specifications: BASELINE GASOLINE FUEL PROPERTIES, API Gravity 57.4, Sulfur, ppm 339, Benzene, % 1.53, RVP, psi 8.7, Octane, R+M/ 2 87.3, IBP, F 91, 10%, F 128, .50%, F 218, 90%, F 330, End Point, F 415, Aromatics, % 32.0, Olefins, % 9.2, Saturates, % 58.8.
  • baseline goal  - baseline cost, schedule, or performance goal against which actual work is measured.
  • baseline level of protection  - degree of security provided by the set of countermeasures identified facility security level which must be implemented any deviation must be justified by a risk assessment.
  • baseline risk  - current level of risk that takes into account existing risk mitigation measures.
  • basic educational assistance  - educational assistance provided under subchapter II of this chapter.
  • basic encyclopedia  - A compilation of identified installations and physical areas of potential significance as objectives for attack. Also called BE.

basic health services- (A) physician services (including consultant and referral services by a physician);

  • basic load  - The quantity of supplies required to be on hand within, and which can be moved by, a unit or formation, expressed according to the wartime organization of the unit or formation and maintained at the prescribed levels.
  • basic pay  - Basic pay for GS employees is a position’s annual salary plus any other applicable civilian employee pay entitlements. Basic pay for FWS employees is a position’s annual wages including shift differential pay and environmental pay, plus any other applicable civilian employee pay entitlements. Examples of other civilian employee pay entitlements include, but are not limited to, night differential pay for FWS employees, environmental differential pay, and premium pay (for civilian employee fire fighters and law enforcement officers).
  • basic pay  - Compensation upon which TSP deduction and contribution are computed is base pay inclusive of any locality-based comparability or interim geographic adjustment or special law enforcement adjustment under the Federal Employees Pay Comparability Act of 1990, respectively. Also include any standby pay, administratively uncontrollable overtime (AUO), law enforcement availability pay (LEAP), physicians comparability allowance (PCA), tropical differential on the Isthmus of Panama, and for Federal Wage Schedule (FWS) employees night differential, environmental differential, and Guam recruitment differential. Basic pay for TSP purposes is the same amount used to determine the mandatory retirement deductions.
  • basic pay  - rate of compensation exclusive of awards, bonuses, and differentials.
  • basic research  - research normally conducted without specific applications toward processes or products in mind.
  • basic research  - that research directed toward increasing knowledge in science. The primary aim of basic research is a fuller knowledge or understanding of the subject under study, rather than any practical application of that knowledge.
  • basic salary  - the salary fixed by law or administrative action before deductions and exclusive of additional compensation (such as NATO pay) of any kind. Basic salary excludes premium pay for overtime, night, Sunday, and holiday work, allowances, post and special differentials, and charge pay. It includes locality pay for participants in FSRDS, FSRDS Offset, and FSPS who are assigned to positions in the United States where locality pay is authorized.
  • basic seed  - the seed planted to produce certified or commercial seed.
  • basic skills deficient  - with respect to an individual—
(A) who is a youth, that the individual has English reading, writing, or computing skills at or below the 8th grade level on a generally accepted standardized test; or
(B) who is a youth or adult, that the individual is unable to compute or solve problems, or read, write, or speak English, at a level necessary to function on the job, in the individual's family, or in society. §3102 )
  • basic training  - level of training designed to provide elementary knowledge for entry level personnel who have little or no previous background, experience, or formal preparation.
  • basic work requirement  - The number of hours, excluding overtime hours, an employee is required to work or to account for by charging leave, credit hours, excused absence, holiday hours, compensatory time off, or time off as an award. A full-time employee has a basic work requirement of 80 hours in a pay period.
  • basis level  - the agreed-on adjustment to a future price to establish the final price paid for livestock.
  • basis of estimate  - rationale that supports the estimate of cost of an activity, or the document that describes that rationale.
  • battalion landing team  — In an amphibious operation, an infantry battalion normally reinforced by necessary combat and service elements; the basic unit for planning an assault landing. Also called BLT.
  • battery backup  - electrical apparatus that provides power to a load when the normal input power source fails is kept fully charged for use during a primary power failure.
  • battle damage assessment  - The estimate of damage composed of physical and functional damage assessment, as well as target system assessment, resulting from the application of lethal or nonlethal military force. Also called BDA. See also combat assessment.
  • battle damage repair  - Essential repair, which may be improvised, carried out rapidly in a battle environment in order to return damaged or disabled equipment to temporary service. Also called BDR.
  • battle injury  - Damage or harm sustained by personnel during or as a result of battle conditions. Also called BI.
  • battle management  — The management of activities within the operational environment based on the commands, direction, and guidance given by appropriate authority.
  • battlefield coordination detachment  - An Army liaison located in the air operations center that provides selected operational functions between the Army forces and the air component commander. Also called BCD. See also air operations center; liaison.
  • baud rate  - Rate at which packets of data are sent and received through the network. These rates are defined in terms of bps. The higher the baud rate, the faster the connection.
  • bayesian probability  - process of evaluating the probability of a hypothesis through 1) the specification of a prior probability and 2) modification of the prior probability by incorporation of observed information to create an updated posterior probability
  • beach  - 1. The area extending from the shoreline inland to a marked change in physiographic form or material, or to the line of permanent vegetation (coastline). 2. In amphibious operations, that portion of the shoreline designated for landing of a tactical organization.
  • beach party  - The Navy component of the landing force support party under the tactical control of the landing force support party commander. See also beachmaster unit; shore party.
  • beach support area  - In amphibious operations, the area to the rear of a landing force or elements thereof, that contains the facilities for the unloading of troops and materiel and the support of the forces ashore. Also called BSA.
  • beachhead  - A designated area on a hostile or potentially hostile shore that, when seized and held, ensures the continuous landing of troops and materiel, and provides maneuver space requisite for subsequent projected operations ashore.
  • beachmaster unit  - A commissioned naval unit of the naval beach group designed to provide to the shore party a Navy component known as a beach party, which is capable of supporting the amphibious landing of one division (reinforced). Also called BMU. See also beach party; naval beach group; shore party.
  • begin morning civil twilight  - The period of time at which the sun is halfway between beginning morning and nautical twilight and sunrise, when there is enough light to see objects clearly with the unaided eye. Also called BMCT.
  • begin morning nautical twilight  - The start of that period where, in good conditions and in the absence of other illumination, the sun is 12 degrees below the eastern horizon and enough light is available to identify the general outlines of ground objects and conduct limited military operations. Also called BMNT.
  • beginning farmer or rancher  - a farmer or rancher who has not actively operated and managed a farm or ranch with a bona fide insurable interest in a crop or livestock as an owner-operator, landlord, tenant, or sharecropper for more than 5 crop years, as determined by the Secretary.
  • behavioral health aftercare  - those activities and resources used to support recovery following inpatient, residential, intensive substance abuse, or mental health outpatient plan has been developed with the client. An aftercare plan may use such resources as a community-based therapeutic group, transitional living facilities, a 12-step sponsor, a local 12-step or other related support group, and other community-based providers or outpatient treatment. The purpose is to help prevent or deal with relapse by ensuring that by the time a client or patient is discharged from a level of care, such as outpatient treatment, an after care.
  • believed-to-be  — In mortuary affairs, the status of any human remains until a positive identification has been determined. Used interchangeably with tentative identification. Also called BTB.
  • benchmark  - an annual set of goals and performance measures established for the purpose of assessing performance in meeting a regional investment strategy of a Regional Board.
  • beneficial owner  - a person not having title to property but having ownership rights in the property, including a trustee of property in transit from an overseas place of origin that is domiciled or doing business in the United States, except that a carrier, agent of a carrier, broker, customs broker, freight forwarder, warehouser, or terminal operator is not a beneficial owner only because of providing or arranging for any part of the intermodal transportation of property.
  • beneficiary  - a person designated by a participant, or by the terms of an employee benefit plan, who is or may become entitled to a benefit thereunder.
  • beneficiary  - A person having the benefits of property of which a trustee, or executor, has legal possession or, broadly speaking, a person who is entitled to proceeds of an estate.
  • beneficiary  - a person who is a primary beneficiary of the Department of Veterans Affairs or of the Department of Defense.
  • beneficiary  - A person who is entitled to Social Security benefits.
  • beneficiary  - Person or persons receiving a benefit or other payment under Federal law, other than a payment of salary or wages.
  • beneficiary country  - any country with respect to which there is in effect a proclamation by the President designating such country as a beneficiary country for purposes of this chapter. Before the President designates any country as a beneficiary country for purposes of this chapter, he shall notify the House of Representatives and the Senate of his intention to make such designation, together with the considerations entering into such decision.
  • beneficiary developing country  - any country with respect to which there is in effect an Executive order or Presidential proclamation by the President designating such country as a beneficiary developing country for purposes of this subchapter.
  • benefit cost analysis  - A project development technique used as a systematic approach for comparing alternatives in project development; see also simplified BCA. Also called BCA.
  • benefit cost analysis  - The process of weighing the total expected costs against the total expected benefits of one or more actions to choose the best or most profitable option. Also called BCA.

benefit period- (A) the benefit year and any ensuing period, as determined under applicable State law, during which the individual is eligible for regular compensation, additional compensation, or extended compensation, or (B) the equivalent to such a benefit year or ensuing period provided for under the applicable Federal unemployment insurance law.

  • benefit, benefit of employment, or rights and benefits  - the terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, including any advantage, profit, privilege, gain, status, account, or interest (including wages or salary for work performed) that accrues by reason of an employment contract or agreement or an employer policy, plan, or practice and includes rights and benefits under a pension plan, a health plan, an employee stock ownership plan, insurance coverage and awards, bonuses, severance pay, supplemental unemployment benefits, vacations, and the opportunity to select work hours or location of employment.
  • benefit-cost analysis  - A systematic quantitative method of assessing the desirability of government projects or policies when it is important to take a long view of future effects and a broad view of possible side-effects.
  • benefitting species  - I) increasing the hydroperiod and water depth of a stream or wetland beyond what would naturally occur;
(II) improving waterfowl habitat conditions;
(III) establishing water level management capabilities for native plant communities; (IV) creating mud flat conditions important for shorebirds; and
(V) cross fencing or establishing a rotational grazing system on native range to improve grassland nesting bird habitat conditions; and (ii) an activity conducted to shift a native plant community successional stage, including — (I) burning an established native grass community to reduce or eliminate invading brush or exotic species;
(II) brush shearing to set back early successional plant communities; and (III) forest management that promotes a particular serial stage.
  • bequest  - The legal term meaning personal property left by a will.
  • berm  - The nearly horizontal portion of a beach or backshore having an abrupt fall and either formed by deposition of material by wave action at the limit of ordinary high tide or constructed to protect materials handling equipment during air cushion vehicle operations.
  • best available controls  - the degree of emissions reduction that the Administrator determines, on the basis of technological and economic feasibility, health, environmental, and energy impacts, is achievable through the application of the most effective equipment, measures, processes, methods, systems or techniques, including chemical reformulation, product or feedstock substitution, repackaging, and directions for use, consumption, storage, or disposal.
  • best judgment standard  - An assessment in context of the sensitivity of personally identifiable information (PII) and any actual or suspected breach of such information for the purpose of deciding whether reporting a breach is warranted.
  • best management practice  - method or technique that has consistently shown results superior to those achieved with other means, and that is used as a benchmark.
  • best value  - the expected outcome of an acquisition that, in the Government’s estimation, provides the greatest overall benefit in response to the requirement.
  • between the ages of eighteen and twenty-six  - men who have attained the eighteenth anniversary of the day of their birth and who have not attained the twenty-sixth anniversary of the day of their birth; and other terms designating different age groups shall be construed in a similar manner.
  • bid sample  - a product sample required to be submitted by an offeror to show characteristics of the offered products that cannot adequately be described by specifications, purchase descriptions, or the solicitation (e.g., balance, facility of use, or pattern).
  • bi-fuel vehicle  - A vehicle that is capable of operating on two different fuels that are stored in separate tanks, and the engine runs on one fuel at a time.
  • big data  - a refers to datasets whose size is beyond the ability of typical database software tools to capture, store, manage, and analyze.
  • bilateral  - affecting or undertaken reciprocally between two nations or parties as especially pertains to political, cultural, or trade relations between two nations or states.
  • Bilateral Consultative Commission  - The Bilateral Consultative Commission was created to promote the objectives and implementation of the provisions of the New START Treaty. Also called BCC.
  • bilateral procedures  - any procedures established by, or pursuant to, a bilateral arrangement, including a Memorandum of Understanding between the United States and another country, to resolve abduction and access cases, including procedures to address interim contact matters.
  • bilateral procedures country  - a country with which the United States has entered into bilateral procedures, including Memoranda of Understanding, with respect to child abductions.
  • bill  - A ship’s publication listing operational or administrative procedures.
  • billed central services  - central services that are billed to benefitted agencies and/ or programs on an individual fee-for-service or similar basis. Typical examples of billed central services include computer services, transportation services, insurance, and fringe benefits.
  • billing cycle  - A specific recurring time period during which transactions may occur and between when statements of account and invoices are processed.
  • billing cycle date  - The closing or cut-off date for all transactions that occurred during that month. The Departments purchase card billing cycle date is the 28th of each month.
  • binary explosive  - explosive formed by combining two non-explosive materials (as oxidizer and a fuel).
  • Binding Operational Directive  - a compulsory direction from the Department of Homeland Security to an agency that is for the purposes of safeguarding Federal information and information systems from a known or reasonably suspected information security threat, vulnerability, or risk; shall be in accordance with policies, principles, standards, and guidelines issued by the Director of the Office of Management and Budget; and may be revised or repealed by the Director if the direction issued on behalf of the Director is not in accordance with policies and principles developed by the Director.
  • bio-based material  - material made from substances derived from living matte.
  • biobased product  - a product determined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to be a commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that is composed, in whole or in significant part, of biological products, including renewable domestic agricultural materials and forestry materials.
  • biobased product  - a product determined by the Secretary to be a commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that is — (A) composed, in whole or in significant part, of biological products, including renewable domestic agricultural materials and forestry materials; or (B) an intermediate ingredient or feedstock.
  • bio-based product  - commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that utilizes biological products or renewable domestic agricultural (plant, animal, and marine) or forestry materials.

biobased product — (A) an industrial product (including chemicals, materials, and polymers) produced from biomass; or (B) a commercial or industrial product (including animal feed and electric power) derived in connection with the conversion of biomass to fuel.

  • biobased product manufacturing  - development, construction, and retrofitting of technologically new commercial-scale processing and manufacturing equipment and required facilities that will be used to convert renewable chemicals and other biobased outputs of biorefineries into end-user products on a commercial scale.
  • biocontainment plan  - plan describing the containment procedures commensurate with the risk of working with any particular biological material should consider the standards and guidelines established by all appropriate authorities.
  • bioenergy  - fuel grade ethanol and other biofuel.
  • bioenergy producer  - a producer of bioenergy that uses an eligible commodity to produce bioenergy.
  • bioengineering  - refers to a food — (A) that contains genetic material that has been modified through in vitro recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) techniques; and (B) for which the modification could not otherwise be obtained through conventional breeding or found in nature. US Code 7, §1639. )
  • biofuel  - a fuel derived from renewable biomass.
  • biological  - relating to life, living organisms, or the materials derived from them.
  • biological agent  — A microorganism (or a toxin derived from it) that causes disease in personnel, plants, or animals or causes the deterioration of materiel. See also chemical agent.
  • biological agent  - any micro-organism (including bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsia, or protozoa), pathogen, or infectious substance, and any naturally occurring, bioengineered, or synthesized component of any such micro-organism, pathogen, or infectious substance, whatever its origin or method of production, that is capable of causing — (1) death, disease, or other biological malfunction in a human, an animal, a plant, or another living organism; (2) deterioration of food, water, equipment, supplies, or materials of any kind; or (3) deleterious alteration of the environment.
  • biological agent  - any micro-organism (including bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsiae or protozoa), pathogen, or infectious substance, or any naturally occurring, bio-engineered or synthesized component of any such micro-organism, pathogen, or infectious substance, whatever its origin or method of production, capable of causing — (1) death, disease, or other biological malfunction in a human, an animal, a plant, or another living organism; (2) deterioration of food, water, equipment, supplies, or materials of any kind; or (3) deleterious alteration of the environment.
  • biological agent  - any microorganism (including, but not limited to, bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsiae or protozoa), or infectious substance, or any naturally occurring, bioengineered or synthesized component of any such microorganism or infectious substance, capable of causing — (A) death, disease, or other biological malfunction in a human, an animal, a plant, or another living organism; (B) deterioration of food, water, equipment, supplies, or material of any kind; or (C) deleterious alteration of the environment.
  • biological agent  - any microorganism or infectious substance, or any naturally occurring, bioengineered, or synthesized component of any such microorganism or infectious substance, capable of causing death, disease, or other biological malfunction in a human, an animal, a plant, or another living organism; deterioration of food, water, equipment, supplies, or material of any kind; or deleterious alteration of the environment including, but not limited to, bacteria, viruses, fungi, rickettsiae, or protozoa.
  • biological control organism  - any enemy, antagonist, or competitor used to control a plant pest or noxious weed.

biological event of national concern- (A) an act of terrorism involving a biological agent or toxin; or

  • biological hazard  - An organism, or substance derived from an organism, that poses a threat to human or animal health.
  • biological improvised explosive device enhancement  - microorganism that causes disease in personnel, plants, or animals or causes the deterioration of material that is deliberately added as a component to an improvised explosive device (IED).
  • biological material  - biological agent or toxin, any nucleic acid molecule, biological tissue, serum or other biologically-derived derivative and/ or product. Terms )
  • biological mishap  - incident in which the failure of a laboratory or research facility’s, equipment, and/ or procedures appropriate to the level of potential hazard of a given biological material may allow the unintentional, potential exposure of humans, the laboratory environment, or the community to that material.
  • biological resources  - data pertaining to or descriptive of (nonhuman) biological resources and their distributions and habitats, including data at the suborganismal (genetics, physiology, anatomy, etc.), organismal (subspecies, species, systematics), and ecological (populations, communities, ecosystems, biomes, etc.) levels.
  • biological select agent and toxin  - biological agent or toxin.
  • biological weapon  - 
(A) microbial or other biological agents, or toxins whatever their origin or method of production, of types and in quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, or other peaceful purposes; or (B) weapons, equipment, or means of delivery designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in armed conflict.
  • biological weapon  - live micro-organism or toxin that can incapacitate or kill humans and animals includes anthrax, plague, smallpox, tularemia, botulism, and viral hemorrhagic fever.
  • Biological Weapons Convention  - The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction entered into force March 26, 1975. The BWC was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning an entire category of weapons. It effectively prohibits the development, production, acquisition, transfer, retention, stockpiling, and use of biological and toxin weapons. The treaty currently has 155 state parties and 16 signatory parties. Also called BWC.
  • Biological Weapons Convention  - The global treaty banning the development, production, stockpiling, and acquisition of biological weapons. Also called BWC.
  • biomass  - 
(A) any organic material grown for the purpose of being converted to energy;
(B) any organic byproduct of agriculture (including wastes from food production and processing) that can be converted into energy; or
(C) any waste material that can be converted to energy, is segregated from other waste materials, and is derived from—
(i) any of the following forest-related resources: mill residues, precommercial thinnings, slash, brush, or otherwise nonmerchantable material; or
(ii) wood waste materials, including waste pallets, crates, dunnage, manufacturing and construction wood wastes (other than pressure-treated, chemically-treated, or painted wood wastes), and landscape or right-of-way tree trimmings, but not including municipal solid waste, gas derived from the biodegradation of municipal solid waste, or paper that is commonly recycled.
  • biomass  – (A) any organic matter which is available on a renewable basis, including agricultural crops and agricultural wastes and residues, wood and wood wastes and residues, animal wastes, municipal wastes, and aquatic plants. (B) For purposes of subchapter I, such term does not include municipal wastes; and for purposes of subchapter III, such term does not include aquatic plants and municipal wastes.
  • biomass  - any organic material that is available on a renewable or recurring basis, including—(AA ) agricultural crops; (BB) trees grown for energy production; (CC) wood waste and wood residues; (DD) plants (including aquatic plants and grasses); (EE) residues; (FF) fibers; (GG) animal wastes and other waste materials; and (HH) fats, oils, and greases (including recycled fats, oils, and greases); and (bb) does not include — (AA) paper that is commonly recycled; or (BB) unsegregated solid waste.
  • biomass  - total dry weight of all living organisms that can be supported at each tropic level in a food chain also, material that is biological in origin, including organic materials (both living and dead) from above and below ground (e.g., trees, crops, grasses, tree litter, roots, and animals and animal waste).
  • biomass consumer cooperative  - a consumer membership organization the purpose of which is to provide members with services or discounts relating to the purchase of biomass heating products or biomass heating systems.
  • biomass conversion facility  - a facility that converts or proposes to convert renewable biomass into —
  • Biomass Crop Assistance Program project area  - an area that — (A) has specified boundaries that are submitted to the Secretary by the project sponsor and subsequently approved by the Secretary; (B) includes producers with contract acreage that will supply a portion of the renewable biomass needed by a biomass conversion facility; and (C) is physically located within an economically practicable distance from the biomass conversion facility. Also called BCAP project area.

biomass energy- (A) biomass fuel; or (B) energy or steam derived from the direct combustion of biomass for the generation of electricity, mechanical power, or industrial process heat.

  • biomass energy project  - any facility (or portion of a facility) located in the United States which is primarily for (A) the production of biomass fuel (and byproducts); or (B) the combustion of biomass for the purpose of generating industrial process heat, mechanical power, or electricity (including cogeneration).
  • biomass fuel  - any gaseous, liquid, or solid fuel produced by conversion of biomass.
  • biometric identifier  - a technology that enables the automated identification, or verification of the identity, of an individual based on biometric information.
  • biometric identifier information  - the distinct physical or behavioral characteristics of an individual that are used for unique identification, or verification of the identity, of an individual.
  • biometrics  - A measurable physical characteristic or personal behavioral trait used to recognize the identity, or verify the claimed identity of an applicant. Facial images, fingerprints, and iris scan samples are examples of biometrics.
  • biometrics  - The process of recognizing an individual based on measurable anatomical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics.
  • biometrics  - to the measurable biological (anatomical and physiological) and behavioral characteristics that can be used for automated recognition; examples include fingerprint, face, and iris recognition.
  • biometrics person  - measurable biological (anatomical and physiological) or behavioral characteristics used for identification of an individual.
  • biometrics-enabled intelligence  - The intelligence derived from the processing of biologic identity data and other all-source for information concerning persons of interest. Also called BEI.Dictionary, JP 2‐0 )
  • biorefinery  - a facility (including equipment and processes) that — (A) converts renewable biomass into biofuels and biobased products; and (B) may produce electricity.
  • biosafety  - Development and implementation of administrative policies, work practices, facility design, and safety equipment to prevent transmission of biologic agents to workers, other persons, and the environment.
  • biosafety  - underlying principles that seek the appropriate combination of facilities, equipment, and procedures for use in handling biological materials in order to protect the worker, the environment, and the community.
  • biosafety level  - combination of work practices, safety equipment, and facilities designed to minimize exposure to hazardous or infectious biological agents and toxins.
  • biosafety officer  - official responsible for the biosafety program at an individual DHS Component, facility, or sponsored research institution.
  • biosafety plan  - safety plan describing the biosafety and containment procedures commensurate with the risk of working with any particular biological material.
  • biosecurity  - Protection of high-consequence microbial agents and toxins, or critical relevant information, against theft or diversion by those who intend to pursue intentional misuse.
  • biosurveillance  - the process of gathering near real-time biological data that relates to human and zoonotic disease activity and threats to human or animal health, in order to achieve early warning and identification of such health threats, early detection and prompt ongoing tracking of health events, and overall situational awareness of disease activity.
  • biosurveillance  - The process of gathering, integrating, interpreting, and communicating essential information related to all-hazards threats or disease activity affecting human, animal, or plant health to achieve early detection and warning, contribute to overall situational awareness of the health aspects of an incident, and to enable better decision-making at all levels.
  • bioterrorism  - use of, or threatened use of, biological agents, such as manmade or natural disease pathogens, for terrorist purposes.
  • bio-toxin  - toxic substance produced by and derived from plants and animals.
  • birth parents or parent  - In the context of Convention adoption cases, birth parent means a natural parent as used in the INA.
  • BLACK  - Designation applied to encrypted information and the information systems, the associated areas, circuits, components, and equipment processing that information. See also RED.
  • Black Router Network  - An Internet Protocol (IP)-based communications network. Multiple users can share a single BRN aggregate line. Black means the signal is bulk encrypted. See red/ black concept for further definition. Also called BRN.
  • blacklisting  - The process used to identify- (i) software programs not authorized on an information system; or (ii) prohibited Universal Resource Locators (URL)/ Web sites.
  • blackout period  - in connection with an individual account plan, any period for which any ability of participants or beneficiaries under the plan, which is otherwise available under the terms of such plan, to direct or diversify assets credited to their accounts, to obtain loans from the plan, or to obtain distributions from the plan is temporarily suspended, limited, or restricted, if such suspension, limitation, or restriction is for any period of more than 3 consecutive business days.
  • blanket travel  - A travel authorization (open authorization) that allows for travel over an extended period of time and/ or for multiple trips.
  • blasting accessory  - devices and materials used in blasting includes; cap crimpers, tamping bags, blasting machines, blasting galvanometers, and det cord.
  • blasting agent  - any material or mixture, consisting of fuel and oxidizer, intended for blasting, not otherwise defined as an explosive: Provided, That the finished product, as mixed for use or shipment, cannot be detonated by means of a numbered 8 test blasting cap when unconfined.
  • blasting agent  - explosive material which meet prescribed criteria for insensitivity to initiation.
  • blasting cap/ detonator  - device containing a sensitive explosive intended to produce a detonation wave can be either electric or non-electric (plain).
  • blended learning  - a formal education program that leverages both technology-based and face-to-face instructional approaches (A) that include an element of online or digital learning, combined with supervised learning time, and student-led learning, in which the elements are connected to provide an integrated learning experience; and (B) in which students are provided some control over time, path, or pace.
  • blind  - an individual or class of individuals whose central visual acuity does not exceed 20/ 200 in the better eye with correcting lenses or whose visual acuity, if better than 20/ 200, is accompanied by a limit to the field of vision in the better eye to such a degree that its widest diameter subtends an angle of no greater than 20 degrees.
  • blind person  - a person whose central visual acuity does not exceed 20/ 200 in the better eye with correcting lenses or whose visual acuity, if better than 20/ 200, is accompanied by a limit to the field of vision in the better eye to such a degree that its widest diameter subtends an angle of no greater than twenty degrees. In determining whether an individual is blind, there shall be an examination by a physician skilled in diseases of the eye, or by an optometrist, whichever the individual shall select.
  • blister agent  - A chemical agent that injures the eyes and lungs, and burns or blisters the skin. Also called vesicant agent.

blocked asset- (A) any asset seized or frozen by the United States; and (B) does not include property that—(i) is subject to a license issued by the United States Government for final payment, transfer, or disposition by or to a person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States in connection with a transaction for which the issuance of the license has been specifically required by a provision of law other than the International Emergency Economic Powers Act or the United Nations Participation Act of 1945 or (ii) is property subject to the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations or the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, or that enjoys equivalent privileges and immunities under the laws of the United States, and is being used exclusively for diplomatic or consular

  • blog  - A shortened term for Web log, a blog - a Web site designed for online discussions and ongoing update of content. Blogs typically include journal-style entries, commentaries that may form a conversational thread, and links to other Web sites or documents. Like other Web pages, blogs are administered by one or more persons who have overall responsibility for content and format. Visitors to the sites are encouraged to leave responsible comments on the entries. Blogs often serve as the basis for self-forming online communities involved in a wide range of subjects, including countries, regions, issues, or professional fields.
  • blood agent  - A chemical compound, including the cyanide group, that affects bodily functions by preventing the normal utilization of oxygen by body tissues.
  • blood chit  - A small sheet of material depicting an American flag and a statement in several languages to the effect that anyone assisting the bearer to safety will be rewarded. See also evasion aid.
  • blood components  - those constituents of whole blood which are used for therapy and which are obtained by physical separation processes which result in licensed products such as red blood cells, platelets, white blood cells, AHF-rich plasma, fresh-frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, and single unit plasma for infusion.
  • blood fractions  - those constituents of plasma which are used for therapy and which are obtained by licensed fractionation processes presently used in manufacturing which result in licensed products such as normal serum albumin, plasma, protein fraction, prothrombin complex, fibrinogen, AHF concentrate, immune serum globulin, and hyperimmune globulins.
  • Blue Bark  - US military personnel, US citizen civilian employees of the Department of Defense, and the dependents of both categories who travel in connection with the death of an immediate family member. It also applies to designated escorts for dependents of deceased military members. Furthermore, the term is used to designate the personal property shipment of a deceased member.
  • bluetooth  - A standard for short-range radio frequency (RF) communication used primarily to establish wireless personal area networks (WPANs).
  • Bluetooth®  - proprietary open wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices.
  • boar  - a sexually-intact male swine.
  • board of survey  - A panel consisting of three or more members who are appointed to review cases involving missing, damaged, or destroyed U.S. Government property.
  • board of trade  - any organized exchange or other trading facility.
  • boat group  - The basic organization of landing craft.
  • boat lane  - A lane for amphibious assault landing craft, which extends from the line of departure to the beach.
  • boat space  - The space and weight factor used in planning for one person with individual equipment to determine overall ship-to-shore movement requirements for boats, landing craft, and amphibious vehicles.
  • body  - The substantive part of a telegram containing the developed message or report the originator desires to communicate.
  • body armor  - any product sold or offered for sale as personal protective body covering intended to protect against gunfire, stabbing, or other physical harm.
  • body armor  - any product sold or offered for sale, in interstate or foreign commerce, as personal protective body covering intended to protect against gunfire, regardless of whether the product is to be worn alone or is sold as a complement to another product or garment.
  • bolt lock  - part of a lock which, when actuated, is projected (or thrown) from the lock into a retaining member, such as a strike plate, to prevent a door or window from moving or opening.

bona fide association- (A) has been actively in existence for at least 5 years; (B) has been formed and maintained in good faith for purposes other than obtaining insurance; (C) does not condition membership in the association on any health status-related factor relating to an individual (including an employee of an employer or a dependent of an employee); (D) makes health insurance coverage offered through the association available to all members regardless of any health status-related factor relating to such members (or individuals eligible for coverage through a member); (E) does not make health insurance coverage offered through the association available other than in connection with a member of the association; and (F) meets such additional requirements as may be imposed under State law. bona fide patient -an individual who is a patient of the practitioner involved.

  • bona fides  - 1. In personnel recovery, the use of verbal or visual communication by individuals who are unknown to one another, to establish their authenticity, sincerity, honesty, and truthfulness. See also evasion; recovery; recovery operations. 2. The lack of fraud or deceit: a determination that a person is who he/ she says he/ she is.
  • bonus  - An FSN benefit payment that occurs on a specified date or dates.
  • booby trap  - explosive or non-explosive device or other material deliberately placed to cause casualties when an apparently harmless object is disturbed or a normally safe act is performed.
  • boost phase  — That portion of the flight of a ballistic missile or space vehicle during which the booster and sustainer engines operate. See also midcourse phase; terminal phase.
  • booster  - high-explosive element sufficiently sensitive so as to be actuated by small explosive elements and powerful enough to cause detonation of the main explosive filling (initiator, booster, main charge).
  • border crosser  - alien resident of the United States reentering the country after an absence of less than six months in Canada or Mexico, or a nonresident alien entering the United States across the Canadian border for stays of no more than six months or a nonresident alien entering the United States across the Mexican border for stays of no more than 72 hours.
  • border crossing identification card  - a document of identity bearing that designation issued to an alien who is lawfully admitted for permanent residence, or to an alien who is a resident in foreign contiguous territory, by a consular officer or an immigration officer for the purpose of crossing over the borders between the United States and foreign contiguous territory in accordance with such conditions for its issuance and use as may be prescribed by regulations. Such regulations shall provide that (A) each such document include a biometric identifier (such as the fingerprint or handprint of the alien) that is machine readable and (B) an alien presenting a border crossing identification card is not permitted to cross over the border into the United States unless the biometric identifier contained on the card matches the appropriate biometric characteristic of the alien.
  • bottom mine  - A mine with negative buoyancy that remains on the seabed. See also mine.
  • bottom mine  - A mine with negative buoyancy which remains on the seabed. See also mine.
  • boundary  — A line that delineates surface areas for the purpose of facilitating coordination and deconfliction of operations between adjacent units, formations, or areas.
  • boundary protection  - Monitoring and control of communications at the external boundary of an information system to prevent and detect malicious and other unauthorized communications, through the use of boundary protection devices (e.g., proxies, gateways, routers, firewalls, guards, encrypted tunnels).
  • boundary protection device  - A device with appropriate mechanisms that- (i) facilitates the adjudication of different interconnected system security policies (e.g., controlling the flow of information into or out of an interconnected system); and/ or (ii) provides information system boundary protection.
  • branch  - 1. A subdivision of any organization. 2. A geographically separate unit of an activity, which performs all or part of the primary functions of the parent activity on a smaller scale. 3. An arm or service of the Army. 4. The contingency options built into the base plan used for changing the mission, orientation, or direction of movement of a force to aid success of the operation based on anticipated events, opportunities, or disruptions caused by enemy actions and reactions. See also sequel.
  • branch office  - An integral part of an embassy that is located at another location in the host country.
  • breach  - for any fiscal year, the amount (if any) by which new budget authority or outlays for that year
  • breach  - The loss of control, compromise, unauthorized disclosure, acquisition, access, or any similar term referring to situations in which persons other than authorized users, for an other than authorized purpose, have access or potential access to PII, whether physical or electronic.
  • breach program  - condition that occurs when a program fails to meet any cost, performance or schedule threshold as identified in the Acquisition Program Baseline (APB).
  • breach analysis  - The process used to determine whether a data breach may result in the misuse of PII or harm to the individual.
  • breach notification  - The process of notifying only those individuals who may be adversely affected by a breach of their PII.
  • breach response policy  - The process used to determine if a data breach may result in the potential misuse of PII or harm to the individual. Also called BRP.
  • breach response procedures  - The operational procedures to follow when responding to suspected or confirmed compromise of PII, including but not limited to - risk assessment, mitigation, notification, and remediation.
  • break bulk cargo  - commodity that, because of its weight, dimensions or incompatibility with other cargo, is shipped outside of standard containers.
  • break in service  - the time when an employee is no longer on the payroll of an agency. For the purpose of computing creditable service for benefits, leave accrual or service computation date, a separation of four or more calendar days is a break in service and the days of separation are subtracted from the employees total creditable service. For all other purposes, a break in service occurs whenever a termination action is processed, e.g., Resignation, Retirement, Removal or Termination, even if the employee is appointed to a different position the next day.
  • breakbulk ship  - A ship with conventional holds for stowage of breakbulk cargo and a limited number of containers, below or above deck, and equipped with cargo-handling gear.
  • break-even analysis  - variant of cost-benefit analysis that estimates the threshold value for an uncertain parameter that equates costs and benefits.
  • breeder  - the person who directs the final breeding creating a variety or who discovers and develops a variety. If the actions are conducted by an agent on behalf of a principal, the principal, rather than the agent, shall be considered the breeder. The term does not include a person who redevelops or rediscovers a variety the existence of which is publicly known or a matter of common knowledge.
  • brevity code  - A code word, which provides no security, that serves the sole purpose of shortening of messages rather than the concealment of their content.
  • bridge owner  - any State, county, municipality, or other political subdivision, or any corporation, association, partnership, or individual owning, or jointly owning, any bridge, and, when any bridge shall be in the possession or under the control of any trustee, receiver, trustee in a case under title 11, or lessee, such terms shall include both the owner of the legal title and the person or the entity in possession or control of such bridge.
  • brigade combat team  - A combined arms team that forms the basic building block of the Army’s tactical formations. Also called BCT.
  • broad agency announcement  - a general announcement of an agency’s research interest including criteria for selecting proposals and soliciting the participation of all offerors capable of satisfying the Government’s needs.
  • broadband  - A communication channel in which the bandwidth can be divided and shared by multiple simultaneous signals; such as for voice, data, or video.
  • broadband service  - any technology identified by the Secretary as having the capacity to transmit data to enable a subscriber to the service to originate and receive high-quality voice, data, graphics, and video.
  • broadcaster  - a. an alien intending to work in the United States for the Broadcasting Board of Governors
  • broken stowage  - The space lost in the holds of a vessel because of the contour of the ship, dunnage, ladders, stanchions, and the shape of the cargo. JP 3‐02.1 )
  • broken stowage factor  - A factor applied to the available space for embarkation due to the loss between boxes, between vehicles, around stanchions, and over cargo, that will vary, depending on the type and size of vehicles, type and size of general cargo, training and experience of loading personnel, type of loading, method of stowage, and configuration of compartments.
  • buddy-aid  - Acute medical care (first aid) provided by a non-medical Service member to another person.
  • budget  - the budget for that fiscal year that is submitted to Congress by the President.
  • budget  - the budget for that fiscal year that is submitted to Congress by the President.
  • budget  - The identification of resources, both personnel and funding, required to accomplish the organizations goals and objectives and programs for a specific period of time. A budget is a tool for planning, managing, and controlling the use of resources. The Department of State emphasizes the interdependence of these functions by publishing an integrated performance budget.
  • budget and cost distribution software  - A software system that facilitates budget formulation and execution of shared administrative service costs by center (function code) and agency share using either workload statistics or a form of capitation. Included are selected nonpost funded costs as well as post costs.
  • budget authority  - authority provided by federal law to enter into financial obligations that will result in immediate or future outlays involving Federal Government funds includes the credit subsidy cost for direct loan and loan guarantee programs, but does not include the underlying authority to insure or guarantee the repayment of indebtedness incurred by another person or government.
  • budget Authority  - Authority provided by federal law to enter into financial obligations that will result in outlays involving federal government funds. Budget authority includes- (1) appropriations; (2) borrowing authority; (3) contract authority; and (4) authority to obligate and expend offsetting receipts and collections.
  • budget authority  - Becomes available during the fiscal year to enter into obligations that result in immediate or future outlays of Government funds. Most budget authority is in the form of appropriations; other forms are borrowing authority, contract authority, and the authority to obligate and expend offsetting receipts and collections. Appropriations fall into two categories- (1) Direct appropriations to the Department of State; and (2) Appropriations to other departments or agencies that are subsequently transferred, allocated, or reimbursed in whole or in part to the Department of State.
  • budget authority  - the authority provided by Federal law to incur financial obligations, as follows: (i ) provisions of law that make funds available for obligation and expenditure (other than borrowing authority), including the authority to obligate and expend the proceeds of offsetting receipts and collections; (ii) borrowing authority, which means authority granted to a Federal entity to borrow and obligate and expend the borrowed funds, including through the issuance of promissory notes or other monetary credits; (iii) contract authority, which means the making of funds available for obligation but not for expenditure; and (iv) offsetting receipts and collections as negative budget authority, and the reduction thereof as positive budget authority.
  • budget outlay and outlays  - expenditures and net lending of funds under budget authority during such
  • budgetary resources  - Comprise new budget authority, which is that amount requested from and approved by the Congress for the Department each fiscal year, and other obligation authority, which includes unobligated balances carried forward, transfers, recoveries, and offsetting collections, including reimbursements. Total obligation authority is the sum of all budgetary resources for a particular account that the Department is authorized to obligate.
  • budgetary resources  - new budget authority, unobligated balances, direct spending authority, and obligation limitations.
  • budgeting  - process of translating resource requirements into a funding profile for a single year.
  • buffer zone  - 1. A defined area controlled by a peace operations force from which disputing or belligerent forces have been excluded. Also called area of separation in some United Nations operations. Also called BZ. See also line of demarcation; peace operations. 2. A designated area used for safety in military operations.
  • building coalition  - ability to coordinate with appropriate parties to maximize input from the widest range of appropriate stakeholders facilitating an open exchange of opinion from diverse groups and strengthen internal and external support includes: soliciting and considering feedback from internal and external stakeholders or customers; explaining, advocating, and expressing facts and ideas in a convincing manner and negotiates with individuals and groups internally and externally, as appropriate; developing a professional network with other organizations and identifies the internal and external politics that affect the work of the organization.
  • building operating expenses  - Expenses incident to occupying buildings and grounds, but not including improvements, repair or maintenance costs beyond those minor operating system repairs and preventive maintenance identified in the International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) Handbook. BOE include- (1) Building operating workforce (e.g., carpenters, gardeners, electricians); (2) Custodial services (e.g., janitors, cleaning, window washers, building engineers, and maintenance technicians); (3) Operating fuel; (4) Utilities; (5) Janitorial supplies and trash collection; (6) Municipal assessments and taxes (when exemptions cannot be obtained); and (7) Fire or comprehensive insurance on buildings (when required by local law). Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations (OBO) funds may not be expended for these items; BOE is funded by the posts Diplomatic and Consular Programs (D&CP) allotments from regional bureaus, by the occupant agency, or through regional bureau funding in ICASS. Also called BOE.
  • building operating expenses  - Expenses that cover other expendable items required for routine daily operation and maintenance, such as light bulbs, generator fuel, refrigerant, filters, and belts, that are specifically generated by the project that will be provided for through future International Cooperative Administrative Support Services System (ICASS) budget cycles, but require interim funding support during the first year of occupancy. These must be considered in preparing the construction working estimate (CWE). Initial preventive maintenance labor contract costs, such as recurring generator maintenance, chiller maintenance, or water treatment system maintenance, are also eligible for Initial operations and maintenance (O&M) funding.
  • building operating expenses  - The costs associated with occupying Government-owned or leased properties and can include utilities, costs for maintenance staff employees, contract services, supplies, transportation of the supplies, etc.
  • building or work  - construction activity as distinguished from manufacturing, furnishing of materials, or servicing and maintenance work. The terms include, without limitation, buildings, structures, and improvements of all types, such as bridges, dams, plants, highways, parkways, streets, subways, tunnels, sewers, mains, power lines, pumping stations, heavy generators, railways, airports, terminals, docks, piers, wharves, ways, lighthouses, buoys, jetties, breakwaters, levees, canals, dredging, shoring, rehabilitation and reactivation of plants, scaffolding, drilling, blasting, excavating, clearing, and landscaping. The manufacture or furnishing of materials, articles, supplies, or equipment (whether or not a Federal or State agency acquires title to such materials, articles, supplies, or equipment during the course of the manufacture or furnishing, or owns the materials from which they are manufactured or furnished) is not “building” or “work” within the meaning of this definition unless conducted in connection with and at the site of such building or work as is described in the foregoing sentence, or under the United States Housing Act of 1937 and the Housing Act of 1949 in the construction or development of the project..
  • building partnership capacity  - targeted effort to improve the collective capabilities and performance of the Department of Defense and its partners. Partnership capacity includes the capability to defeat terrorist networks, defend the U.S. homeland in depth, shape the choices of countries at strategic crossroads, prevent hostile states and non-state actors from acquiring or using WMD, conduct irregular warfare (IW) and stabilization, security, transition and reconstruction (SSTR) operations, conduct "military diplomacy", enable host countries to provide good governance and enable the success of integrated foreign assistance.
  • building partnership capacity  - Targeted efforts to improve the collective capabilities and performance of the Department of Defense and its partners, including other U.S. government departments and agencies; state and local governments; allies, coalition members and other nations; multinational organizations; and nongovernmental organizations at home and abroad. Also called BPC.
  • building passes  - Passes the Bureau of Diplomatic Security (DS) issues to permanent Department employees possessing a security clearance and a minimum of career-conditional status, and to DS- cleared contractors and other individuals (such as members of the press, or employee family members, etc.) with a legitimate need to enter Department facilities on a regular basis. Each pass has the holders photograph, an individual identification number, expiration date, and may provide access through an electronically operated gate or other entrance. See personal identity verification (PIV).
  • building system  - A structure assembled from manufactured components designed to provide a specific building configuration.
  • buildings and facilities  - The facility theme includes federal sites or entities with a geospatial location deliberately established for designated activities; a facility database might describe a factory, military base, college, hospital, power plant, fishery, national park, office building, space command center, or prison. Facility data is submitted from several agencies, since there is no one party responsible for all the facilities in the Nation, and facilities encompass a broad spectrum of activities. The FGDC promotes standardizing on database structures and schemas to the extent practical.
  • bulk agricultural commodity  - any agricultural commodity that can be transported in bulk and can be temporarily stored in bulk quantities without undergoing processing or packaging. Such term also includes any commodity or product that is used by producers in the production of agricultural commodities and that can be stored or shipped in bulk, such as fertilizer and fuel.
  • bulk cargo  - commodity shipped in volume where the transportation conveyance is the only external container; such as liquids, ore, or grain.
  • bulk cargo  - That which is generally shipped in volume where the transportation conveyance is the only
  • bulk data transfer  - collection or dissemination of large quantities of intelligence or information, a significant portion of which is not reasonably likely to have any ultimate intelligence or operational value to the recipient, but which is provided to the data recipient for the recipient to identify information of intelligence or operational value within it does not include the transfer of records responsive to individual identifiers (e.g., name, date of birth, social security number, etc.), but does include the transfer of records identified through the application of selectors where the transfer would include a significant number of records that, while responsive to the applied selectors, is not reasonably likely to have any ultimate intelligence or operational value to the recipient (e.g., records responsive to demographic profiles such as age, citizenship, gender, etc.); also includes the transfer of records identified through the application of data mining or predictive analytic models (including machine learning algorithms) to any DHS dataset.
  • bulk explosive  - manufactured explosive charge in its original packaging or that has been removed from weapons or munitions.
  • Bulk Load Control Officer  - The BLCO is authorized to supervise the preparation of the container or pallet. Also called BLCO.
  • bulk petroleum product  — A liquid petroleum product transported by various means and stored in tanks or containers having an individual fill capacity greater than 208 liters.
  • bulk shipment  - Official or personal shipment(s) that arrive at DPM/ U or post DPO within 7 calendar days (whether a single item or multiple parcels) which exceeds 6 cubic feet in volume (approximately the size of 5 copy paper boxes) and is addressed to one addressee/ household. Bulk shipments also include automotive tires (whether a single tire or multiple tires), and shipments that originate from the same location/ ZIP addressed to multiple people at post and appear to have been sent in order to circumvent the bulk shipment policy.
  • bulk storage  - 1. Storage in a warehouse of supplies and equipment in large quantities, usually in original containers, as distinguished from bin storage. 2. Storage of liquids, such as petroleum products in tanks, as distinguished from drum or packaged storage.
  • bulk vehicle  - a tank truck, hopper truck, rail tank car, hopper car, cargo tank, portable tank, freight container, or hopper bin, and any other vehicle in which food is shipped in bulk, with the food coming into direct contact with the vehicle.

bulk-power system- (A) facilities and control systems necessary for operating an interconnected electric energy transmission network (or any portion thereof); and (B) electric energy from generation facilities needed to maintain transmission system reliability.

  • bulletin board  - A computer or an application dedicated to the sharing or exchange of messages or other files on a network that are usually related to a common subject.
  • bundle  - one or more college textbooks or other supplemental materials that may be packaged together to be sold as course materials for one price.
  • bundled contract  - a contract that is entered into to meet requirements that are consolidated in a bundling of contract requirements.
  • bundled contribution  - a contribution (subject to the applicable threshold) which is (i) forwarded from the contributor or contributors to the committee by the person; or (ii) received by the committee from a contributor or contributors, but credited by the committee or candidate involved (or, in the case of a leadership PAC, by the individual referred to in subparagraph (B) involved) to the person through records, designations, or other means of recognizing that a certain amount of money has been raised by the person. §30103. )

bundling- (1) a subset of consolidation that combines two or more requirements for supplies or services, previously provided or performed under separate smaller contracts, into a solicitation for a single contract, a multiple-award contract, or a task or delivery order that is likely to be unsuitable for award to a small business concern (even if it is suitable for award to a small business with a Small Business Teaming Arrangement) due to– (i) The diversity, size, or specialized nature of the elements of the performance specified; (ii) The aggregate dollar value of the anticipated award; (iii) The geographical dispersion of the contract performance sites; or (iv) Any combination of the factors. (2) “Separate smaller contract” - a contract that has been performed by one or more small business concerns or that was suitable for award to one or more small business concerns. (3) does not apply to a contract that will be awarded and performed entirely outside of the United States.

  • burden  - Time, effort, or financial resources expended by persons to generate, maintain, or provide information to or for a Federal agency.
  • bureau  - the regional and functional bureaus and other special interest offices which control overseas position complements; and the office in each agency with delegated authority to process appointments.
  • bureau  - to the bureau in the Department of State and the equivalent organizational element in other agencies or the responsible official having jurisdiction and responsibility over the complaint within the agency which has the authority to resolve the grievance prior to agency review. That element is office head for USAID, the associate directorate of area office in USIA, Foreign Service Operations, US/ FCS in the Department of Commerce, and the appropriate FAS assistant administrator in the Department of Agriculture.
  • bureau support functions  - The bureau functions that do not directly support MEFs but are still deemed critical bureau functions. These functions should be resumed as soon as possible. If applicable, the bureau should be able to perform these functions for 30 days or until normal operations can be resumed, as long as performance of these functions does not impede the performance of the EFs. During an event that requires the activation of the BEAP, performance of these functions shall be the secondary responsibility of the Bureaus continuity personnel.
  • burial site  - a natural or prepared physical location, whether below, on, or above the surface of the earth, into which, as a part of a death rite or ceremony of a culture, individual human remains are deposited.
  • burial site  - any natural or prepared physical location, whether originally below, on, or above the surface of the earth, into which as a part of the death rite or ceremony of a culture, individual human remains are deposited.
  • buried line sensor fiber-optic cable  - terrain following detection device buried in the ground that responds to changes in light traveling through the fiber caused by vibrations in the ground such as an intruder stepping on the ground above the fiber passive, covert sensor.
  • buried line sensor magnetic field  - terrain following detection device buried in the ground that responds to changes in the local magnetic field caused by movement of ferromagnetic material such as vehicles or intruders with weapons passive, covert sensor.
  • buried line sensor ported coaxial cable  - terrain following detection device buried in the ground that responds to motion of a material with a high dielectric constant of high conductivity near the cables such as humans or vehicles active, covert sensor. Terms )
  • buried line sensor pressure/ seismic  - terrain following detection device buried in the ground that responds to disturbances of the soil caused by an intruder walking, running, jumping, or crawling on the ground passive, covert sensor.
  • bus rapid transit system  - a bus transit system — (A) in which the majority of each line operates in a separated right-of-way dedicated for public transportation use during peak periods; and (B) that includes features that emulate the services provided by rail fixed guideway public transportation systems, including — (i) defined stations; (ii) traffic signal priority for public transportation vehicles; (iii) short headway bidirectional services for a substantial part of weekdays and weekend days; and (iv) any other features the Secretary may determine are necessary to produce high-quality public transportation services that emulate the services provided by rail fixed guideway public transportation systems.
  • business  - any lawful activity, excepting a farm operation, conducted primarily — (A) for the purchase, sale, lease and rental of personal and real property, and for the manufacture, processing, or marketing of products, commodities, or any other personal property; (B) for the sale of services to the public;(C) by a nonprofit organization; or(D) for assisting in the purchase, sale, resale, manufacture, processing, or marketing of products, commodities, personal property, or services by the erection and maintenance of an outdoor advertising display or displays, whether or not such display or displays are located on the premises on which any of the above activities are conducted.
  • business acumen  - ability to assess, analyzes, acquire, and administer human, financial, material, and information resources in a manner that instills trust and accomplishes the organization’s mission includes: using technology to enhance processes and decision making; executing the operating budget; preparing budget requests with justifications; and managing resources.
  • business case  - A clear and concise justification describing what the program or project entails, why the product or service is necessary, how much it will cost, what risks are involved, how work and progress will be tracked and measured, and the timeframe for completion.
  • business case  - An executive report which outlines an evaluation of a proposed investment in terms of Department missions and objectives, purpose and approaches, costs and desired outcome, as well as investment risk analyses (including security risks). (This report is required for all IT projects and systems meeting the enterprise level of investment, defined as a major project by the E-Government Program Board (E-GovPB)).
  • business class air accommodations  - A premium class of accommodations offered by airlines that is higher than coach and lower than first-class, in both cost and amenities. This class of accommodation may be referred to as business, business elite, business first, world business, connoisseur, or envoy, depending on the airline.
  • Business Continuity Plan  - a plan that focuses on sustaining an organization’s mission or business processes during and after a disruption, and may be written for mission or business processes within a single business unit or may address the entire organization’s processes.
  • business continuity planning  - process of documenting a predetermined set of instructions or procedures that describe how an organization’s business functions will be sustained during and after a significant disruption.
  • business development services  - support for the growth of microenterprises through training, technical assistance, marketing assistance, improved production technologies, and other related services.
  • business development services  - support for the growth of microenterprises through training, technical assistance, marketing assistance, improved production technologies, and other related services.
  • business entity  - a corporation, association, partnership, limited liability.
  • business operations  - engaging in commerce in any form in Sudan, including by acquiring, developing, maintaining, owning, selling, possessing, leasing, or operating equipment, facilities, personnel, products, services, personal property, real property, or any other apparatus of business or commerce.

business or vocation — (A) between a place in — (i) a State, territory, or possession of the United States and a place in the District of Columbia or another State, territory, or possession of the United States; (ii) a State and another place in the same State through the airspace over a place outside the State; (iii) the District of Columbia and another place in the District of Columbia; or (iv) a territory or possession of the United States and another place in the same territory or possession; and (B) when any part of the transportation or operation is by aircraft.

  • business process reengineering  - an organization's complete and thorough analysis and reengineering of mission and support functions and processes to achieve improvements in performance, including a fundamental reshaping of the way work is done to better support an organization's mission and reduce costs.
  • Business Reference Model  - A framework that facilitates a functional (rather than organizational) view of the federal governments lines of business, including its internal operations and its services for citizens. Also called BRM.
  • business reference model  - function-driven framework to describe the lines of business and internal functions performed independent of the entities performing the functions.
  • business requirement  - constraint that outlines a user’s acceptance condition includes; procedures and information flows, the proposed changes to those procedures, the user’s assessment of information needs, a preliminary description of the desired system, and an outline of overall conditions.
  • business unit  - any segment of an organization, or an entire business organization that is not divided into segments.
  • business/ operational risk  - risk associated with business goals includes; risk that the proposed alternative fails to result in process efficiencies and streamlining; risk that business goals of the program or initiative will not be achieved; risk that the investment will not achieve operational goals; risk that the program effectiveness targeted by the project will not be achieved.
  • buyer in the ordinary course of business  - a person who, in the ordinary course of business, buys farm products from a person engaged in farming operations who is in the business of selling farm products.
  • buying green  - Obtaining cost-efficient products and services that have a reduced impact on the environment through waste minimization, natural resources conservation, pollution reduction and prevention. When Department domestic acquisitions involve the purchase of an item identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as designated recycled content material or U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) designated biobased products, the product must meet the EPA or USDA guideline standards unless there is a price, performance, or availability exception justification for not doing so maintained in the contracting officer contract file.
  • bypassed alarm system  - circumvention of an alarm system, rendering it or a portion of it inoperative.
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