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Dictionary of drugs:G

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Dictionary of pharmaceutical drugs/medications sorted alphabetically

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Dictionary of drugs G

  • golvatinib An orally bioavailable dual kinase inhibitor of c-Met (hepatocyte growth factor receptor) and VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2) tyrosine kinases with potential antineoplastic activity. Golvatinib binds to and inhibits the activities of both c-Met and VEGFR-2, which may inhibit tumor cell growth and survival of tumor cells that overexpress these receptor tyrosine kinases. c-Met and VEGFR-2 are upregulated in a variety of various tumor cell types and play important roles in tumor cell growth, migration and angiogenesis.
  • gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogue A synthetic analog of the endogenous hormone gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, GnRH analog mimics endogenous GnRH and strongly binds to and activates pituitary GnRH receptors, which stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropic hormones, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Continuous, prolonged activation by the GnRH analog results in pituitary GnRH receptor desensitization and receptor downregulation. This causes inhibition of pituitary gonadotropin secretion of LH and FSH. In males, the inhibition of LH secretion prevents the production and release of testosterone from Leydig cells in the testes and causes a significant decline in testosterone production that is near the levels seen after castration. This may inhibit androgen receptor-positive tumor progression. In females, this results in a decrease in estradiol production. GnRH, also called luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), is normally synthesized in and secreted by the hypothalamus. Synthetic analogs of GnRH have a stronger receptor binding affinity than the endogenous form.
  • gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist OBE2109 An orally bioavailable gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH or LHRH) receptor antagonist, with potential hormone production inhibitory activity. Upon oral administration of the GnRH receptor antagonist OBE2109, this agent competes with GnRH for receptor binding and inhibits GnRH receptor signaling in the anterior pituitary gland, thereby inhibiting the secretion and release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). In males, the inhibition of LH secretion prevents the release of testosterone. As a result, this may relieve symptoms associated with hormonally dependent disease states such as hormone-dependent prostate cancer. In women, this prevents the production of estrogen by the ovaries and may relieve symptoms from sex-hormone dependent diseases, such as pain associated with endometriosis, heavy menstrual bleeding or uterine fibroids.
  • Goodbelly Probiotic (Other name for: Lactobacillus plantarum 299v/Lactobacillus acidophilus/Bifidobacterium lactis probiotic supplement)
  • goserelin acetate The acetate salt of a synthetic decapeptide analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). Continuous, prolonged administration of goserelin in males results in inhibition of pituitary gonadotropin secretion, leading to a significant decline in testosterone production; in females, prolonged administration results in a decrease in estradiol production. (NCI04)
  • goserelin acetate extended-release microspheres LY01005 A long-acting, extended-release microsphere formulation of the acetate form of goserelin, a synthetic decapeptide analog of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, goserelin binds to and activates pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors. Prolonged administration of goserelin inhibits the secretion of pituitary gonadotropin, thereby decreasing levels of testosterone (in males) and estradiol (in females). Administration of this agent in an extended-release formulation may result in the regression of sex hormone-sensitive tumors and a reduction in sex organ size and function.
  • gossypol An orally-active polyphenolic aldehyde with potential antineoplastic activity. Derived primarily from unrefined cottonseed oil, gossypol induces cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and inducing apoptosis. This agent also inhibits cell-signaling enzymes, resulting in inhibition of cell growth, and may act as a male contraceptive.
  • gp100 antigen A melanoma-associated antigen. When administered in a vaccine formulation, gp100 antigen may stimulate a cytotoxic T cell HLA-A2.1-restricted immune response against tumors that express this antigen, which may result in a reduction in tumor size.
  • gp100:154-162 peptide vaccine A peptide consisting of amino acid residues 154 through 162 of the melanoma-melanocyte antigen gp100. Vaccination with gp100:154-162 peptide may enhance tumor-specific T-cell immunity. gp100 antigen is a self-antigen expressed by melanocytes, pigmented retinal cells, and most melanoma lesions and is recognized via class I and II HLA-restricted mechanisms.
  • gp100:209-217(210M) peptide vaccine A synthetic peptide cancer vaccine consisting of amino acid residues 209 through 217 of the glycoprotein 100 (gp100) melanoma antigen, with a methionine substitution at position 210 designed to improve immunogenicity. Vaccination with gp100:209-217(210M) peptide may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing gp100.
  • gp100:209-217(210M) peptide vaccine A synthetic peptide cancer vaccine consisting of amino acid residues 209 through 217 of the glycoprotein 100 (gp100) melanoma antigen, with a methionine substitution at position 210 designed to improve immunogenicity. Vaccination with gp100:209-217(210M) peptide may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing gp100.
  • gp100:280-288(288V) peptide vaccine A peptide vaccine consisting of the amino acids 280 through 288 of the melanoma antigen glycoprotein 100 (gp100) with potential antineoplastic activity. gp100:280-288(288V) peptide has a valine substitution at amino acid position 288 to improve immunogenicity. Vaccination with gp100:280-288(288V) peptide may stimulate the host immune system to mount a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells positive for the gp100 antigen, resulting in decreased tumor growth.
  • gp100-fowlpox vaccine A cancer vaccine comprised of a recombinant fowlpox virus vector encoding the melanoma antigen glycoprotein 100 (gp 100) with potential antineoplastic activity. The expression of gp100 may generate a cellular immune response to melanoma cells; this effect is enhanced by the co-administration of interleukin 2 (IL-2).
  • GP2 peptide/GM-CSF vaccine A vaccine containing a HER2/Neu-derived epitope (amino acids 654-662) (GP2), and combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential antineoplastic and immunoadjuvant activity. Upon vaccination, GP2 may activate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune response against HER2/Neu expressing cancer cells. GM-CSF may potentiate a tumor-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against cancer cells expressing the HER2/Neu antigen. HER2/neu, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types and is highly immunogenic.
  • gp96-secreting allogeneic bladder cancer cell vaccine HS-410 An allogeneic urothelial bladder cancer cell vaccine expressing a recombinant secretory form of the immunoadjuvant heat shock protein gp96 fused with an immunoglobulin Fc domain (gp96-Ig) protein, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of the gp96-Ig-secreting allogeneic bladder cancer cell vaccine HS-410, the live, irradiated tumor cells continuously secrete gp96-Ig along with its chaperoned tumor associated antigens (TAAs). This enhances antigen cross presentation to cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) and, upon expansion, leads to the induction of a potent CTL response against the TAAs on the endogenous bladder cancer cells. This vaccine also induces a memory T cell response that could fight recurring cancer cells. gp96-Ig is constructed by replacing the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention sequence of gp96 with the Fc portion of the IgG1 protein. This allows for gp96, normally an ER-resident chaperone peptide, to be released from cells.
  • GPI-0100 A semi-synthetic triterpene glycoside, derived from the naturally occurring saponins. GPI-0100 functions as an adjuvant when given as part of a vaccine preparation to improve the immunogenicity of antigens such as proteins, carbohydrates. GPI-0100 containing vaccines have been used with both viral and tumor antigens to elicit a Type 1 helper T cell response for those diseases in which a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is desired.
  • GPX-100 An analogue of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic doxorubicin. GPX-100 intercalates DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. GPX-100 was designed to be a non-cardiotoxic anthracycline antibiotic.
  • G-quadruplex stabilizer BMVC A carbazole derivative (3,6-bis[2-(1-methylpyridinium)vinyl]carbazole diiodide) that selectively targets to the G-quadruplex DNA structure, used as a fluorescent probe for cancer cytological diagnosis and with potential antitumor activity. G-quadruplex stabilizer BMVC, preferentially uptaken by cancer cells, binds to and stabilizes the telomeric G-quadruplex structure at the end of DNA; when visualized with fluorescent imaging device, BMVC emits bright fluorescent light and can be used to differentiate tumor cells from normal cells. The BMVC/G-quadruplex complexes also interfere with the activity of telomerase, which is highly active in tumor cells and plays a key role in tumorigenesis while expressed at very low levels in most somatic cells.
  • Gralise (Other name for: gabapentin) granisetron]] An indazole derivative with antiemetic properties. As a selective serotonin receptor antagonist, granisetron competitively blocks the action of serotonin at 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptors, resulting in the suppression of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
  • granisetron hydrochloride The hydrochloride salt of an indazole derivative with antiemetic properties. As a selective serotonin receptor antagonist, granisetron competitively blocks the action of serotonin at 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptors, resulting in the suppression of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
  • granisetron hydrochloride nasal spray An intranasal formulation containing the hydrochloride salt form of the indazole derivative granisetron, a selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptor antagonist, with antinauseant and antiemetic activities. Upon administration to the nostril, granisetron selectively binds to and inhibits 5-HT subtype 3 receptors (5-HT3R) located peripherally on vagus nerve terminals and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) of the area postrema, which may result in suppression of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).
  • granisetron transdermal system A transdermal system containing the selective serotonin (5-HT) receptor antagonist granisetron with antinauseant and antiemetic activities. Upon application of the transdermal system (patch) to the skin and the subsequent sustained release of granisetron into the bloodstream, granisetron selectively binds to and inhibits 5-HT subtype 3 (5-HT3) receptors located peripherally on vagus nerve terminals and centrally in the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) of the area postrema, which may result in suppression of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
  • Granix (Other name for: filgrastim)
  • Granocyte (Other name for: lenograstim)
  • grape seed extract supplement An orally bioavailable dietary supplement composed of an extract from grape seeds containing high amounts of polyphenols, particularly lower proanthocyanidin oligomers (OPCs) and catechins, with antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. Upon administration, the active components in the grape seed extract (GSE) scavenge free radicals, protect against oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and inhibit cell damage due to reactive oxygen species (ROS). This inhibits oxidative stress and protects against DNA damage. GSE also inhibits enzymes involved in inflammation, cell replication and DNA synthesis, and induces the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes. This may inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of cancer cells.
  • grapiprant An orally bioavailable antagonist of the prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4), with potential analgesic, immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of grapiprant, this agent selectively binds to and inhibits the binding of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prevents the activation of the EP4 receptor. This inhibits PGE2-EP4 receptor-mediated signaling and prevents proliferation in tumor cells in which the PGE2-EP4 signaling pathway is over-activated. In addition, EP4 receptor inhibition modulates the immune system by preventing both interleukin-23 (IL-23) production and the IL-23-mediated expansion of Th17 cells. As EP4 is expressed by peripheral sensory neurons, blockade of EP4-mediated signaling may induce an analgesic effect. EP4, a prostanoid receptor subtype, is a G protein-coupled receptor that is expressed in certain types of cancers; it promotes tumor cell proliferation and invasion.
  • green tea Tea derived from the dried leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis with potential antioxidant, chemopreventive, and lipid-lowering activities. Green tea contains polyphenols that may be responsible for its chemopreventive effect. The polyphenol fraction contains mainly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and other catechins, such as epicatechin (EC), gallocatechin gallate (GCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin gallate (ECG). Green tea polyphenols act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers and may affect enzymes involved in cellular replication and tumor angiogenesis by modulating angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).
  • green tea extract A defined, decaffeinated green tea polyphenol mixture isolated from Camellia sinensis, a plant native to Asia, with antiviral and antioxidant activities and potential chemopreventive activity. Green tea extract contains antioxidant compounds, including flavonoids, vitamins and polyphenols such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which may have antineoplastic properties. Consumption of green tea extract may confer chemopreventive protection against various cancers including those of the prostate, stomach, and esophagus.
  • green tea extract-based antioxidant supplement A dietary supplement containing a green tea extract including the catechin epigallocatechin gallate and other vitamins and antioxidants, with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. The polyphenols in green tea act as antioxidants and scavenge free radicals which may inhibit cellular oxidation and prevent free radical damage to cells. In addition, polyphenols may affect enzymes involved in cellular reproduction and tumor angiogenesis by modulating angiogenic factors. Other ingredients in green tea extract-based antioxidant supplement include dry cinnamon extract, germanium, zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, arginine, cysteine, malic acid, ascorbic acid (vitamin c), glycyrrhizinic acid, glycine, glucosamine, pyridoxal (vitamin B6), calcium pantothenate (vitamin B5), folic acid, cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12).
  • green tea lozenge A lozenge formulation of green tea, derived from the dried leaves of Camellia sinensis, with potential antioxidant and chemopreventive activities. Green tea lozenge contains polyphenols that may be responsible for its chemopreventive effect. The polyphenol fraction contains mainly epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and other catechins, such as epicatechin (EC), gallocatechin gallate (GCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin gallate (ECG). Green tea polyphenols act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers, protecting cells from the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
  • green tea/licorice extract-based antioxidant solution A nutritional supplement containing a variety of antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and amino acids, including glycyrrhizic acid, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), zinc, vitamins B5, B6 and B12, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), folic acid, malic acid, glucosamine, arginine, and glycine, with potential immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, protective, and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, the antioxidants in the solution modulate certain enzymes involved in inflammation and oxidative stress and downregulate certain pro-inflammatory mediators. They also scavenge free radicals. This protects against inflammation- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cellular damage. In addition, this formulation may also inhibit various signal transduction pathways involved in inflammation and cancer, may suppress the growth of susceptible tumor cells, induce tumor cell cycle arrest, induce apoptosis and reduce angiogenesis and metastasis.
  • GS/pan-Notch inhibitor AL101 A small-molecule gamma secretase (GS) and pan-Notch inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, GS/pan-Notch inhibitor AL101 binds to GS and blocks activation of Notch receptors, which may inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells with an overly-active Notch pathway. The integral membrane protein GS is a multi-subunit protease complex that cleaves single-pass transmembrane proteins, such as Notch receptors, at residues within their transmembrane domains that lead to their activation. Overactivation of the Notch signaling pathway, often triggered by activating mutations, has been correlated with increased cellular proliferation and poor prognosis in certain tumor types.
  • GSK-3 inhibitor 9-ING-41 A maleimide-based, small molecule inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3; serine/threonine-protein kinase GSK3) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, 9-ING-41 binds to and competitively inhibits GSK-3, which may lead to downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and decreased expression of NF-kappaB target genes including cyclin D1, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), anti-apoptotic protein XIAP, and B-cell lymphoma extra-large (Bcl-XL). This may inhibit NF-kappaB-mediated survival and chemoresistance in certain tumor types. GSK-3, a constitutively active serine/threonine kinase that plays a role in numerous pathways involved in protein synthesis, cellular proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism, is aberrantly overexpressed in certain tumor types and may promote tumor cell survival and resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • GS-pan Notch inhibitor BMS-986115 An orally bioavailable, gamma secretase (GS) and pan-Notch inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, GS/pan-Notch inhibitor BMS 986115 binds to GS and blocks the proteolytic cleavage and release of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD), which would normally follow ligand binding to the extracellular domain of the Notch receptor. This prevents both the subsequent translocation of NICD to the nucleus to form a transcription factor complex and the expression of Notch-regulated genes. This results in the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of growth of tumor cells that overexpress Notch. Overexpression of the Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation and survival. The integral membrane protein GS is a multi-subunit protease complex that cleaves single-pass transmembrane proteins, such as Notch receptors, at residues within their transmembrane domains and leads to their activation.
  • GTI-2040 A 20-mer antisense oligonucleotide complementary to a coding region in the mRNA of the R2 small subunit component of human ribonucleotide reductase. GTI-2040 decreases mRNA and protein levels of R2 in vitro and may inhibit tumor cell proliferation in human tumors in vivo.
  • GTN transdermal patch (Other name for: nitroglycerin transdermal patch)]] guadecitabine]] A dinucleotide antimetabolite of a decitabine linked via phosphodiester bond to a guanosine, with potential antineoplastic activity. Following metabolic activation by phosphorylation and incorporation into DNA, guadecitabine inhibits DNA methyltransferase, thereby causing genome-wide and non-specific hypomethylation and inducing cell cycle arrest at S-phase. This agent is resistant to cytidine deaminase, hence may result in gradual release of decitabine both extra- and intracellularly, leading to more prolonged exposures to decitabine.
  • guanabenz acetate The orally bioavailable, acetate salt form of guanabenz, a centrally-acting alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, with anti-hypertensive and potential antineoplastic, cytoprotective and bone resorption inhibitory activities. Upon oral administration, guanabenz suppresses endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by inhibiting the stress-induced dephosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2a), thereby enhancing the phosphorylation level of eIF2a. This causes elF2a-mediated downregulation of the Rac1 pathway, upregulates the expression of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), which plays a key role in osteoblastogenesis, and downregulates the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), which is a transcription factor that plays a key role in osteoclastogenesis. This enhances osteoblastogenesis and suppresses osteoclastogenesis. Altogether, this promotes new bone formation and prevents bone degradation. In addition, guanabenz blocks the proliferation, survival, motility and invasiveness of tumor cells through the eIF2a-mediated downregulation of Rac1 signaling. Rac1, a Ras-related small GTPase belonging to the Rho family, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation, survival and motility.
  • guanazole A cytostatic triazole derivative antimetabolite. Guanazole scavenges tyrosine free radicals, thereby inhibiting mammalian ribonucleotide reductase activity and DNA synthesis.
  • guarana supplement An herbal supplement containing an extract from guarana (Paullinia cupana), a climbing plant of the Sapindaceae family which is native to the Amazon basin, with stimulant, antioxidant and potential chemoprotective activities. Guarana supplement contains various phytochemicals, including caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, tannins, saponins, catechins, epicatechins, proanthocyanidols and other compounds in minor concentrations. Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant and may reduce chemotherapy-related fatigue. Tannins and other polyphenols may have chemopreventive activity. Intake of the guarana supplement may prevent cancer-related anorexia. In addition, animal studies have demonstrated that the ingestion of guarana resulted in decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of tumor cells.
  • gum Arabic solution A solution containing the polymer gum acacia (gum Arabic), exuded from various acacia trees, especially from Acacia senegal (Leguminosae), with potential protective and anti-mucositis activities. Upon administration of the gum Arabic solution in the oral cavity, the polymer forms a protective barrier over the oral mucosa, which may prevent inflammation of the mucosal membranes and may decrease chemotherapy- and/or radiation-induced oral mucositis.
  • guselkumab An orally available, human, immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) kappa, monoclonal antibody directed against the p19 protein subunit of interleukin-23 (IL-23), with immunomodulating activity. Upon administration, guselkumab binds to the p19 subunit of IL-23, thereby blocking the binding of IL-23 to the IL-23 receptor. This inhibits IL-23-mediated signaling and the differentiation of CD4-positive T-cells into Th1 and Th17 cells. This prevents Th1- and Th17-mediated immune responses and inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This may prevent or reduce symptoms and severity of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. IL-23 plays a key role in the regulation of inflammation and the immune system, and modulates the release of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. It is upregulated in various immune-mediated inflammatory disorders.
  • gusperimus A derivative of the antitumor antibiotic spergualin with immunosuppressant activity. Gusperimus inhibits the interleukin-2-stimulated maturation of T cells to the S and G2/M phases and the polarization of the T cells into IFN-gamma-secreting Th1 effector T cells, resulting in the inhibition of growth of activated naive CD4 T cells; this agent may suppress growth of certain T-cell leukemia cell lines.
  • GVAX pancreatic cancer vaccine An irradiated, autologous pancreatic cancer vaccine consisting of patient-specific pancreatic cancer cells genetically modified to secrete the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon vaccination, GVAX pancreatic cancer vaccine secretes GM-CSF. In turn, GM-CSF may stimulate the body's immune system against tumor cells by enhancing the activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and promoting antigen presentation to both B- and T-cells. In addition, GM-CSF promotes antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and increases interleukin-2-mediated lymphokine-activated killer cell function.
  • Gwt1 inhibitor APX001 An orally available small molecule inhibitor of the Gwt1 fungal enzyme with potential antifungal activity. Upon administration APX001, a N-phosphonooxymethyl prodrug, is rapidly and completely metabolized by systemic alkaline phosphatases to its active moiety, APX001A (E1210). The active prodrug targets Gwt1, a highly conserved inositol acylase which catalyzes an essential step in the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor biosynthesis pathway. Inhibition of Gwt1 prevents localization of cell wall mannoproteins, which compromises cell wall integrity, biofilm formation, germ tube formation, and fungal growth.
  • Gyne-Lotrimin (Other name for: clotrimazole)
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