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Dictionary of drugs: K

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Dictionary of pharmaceutical drugs/medications sorted alphabetically

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Dictionary of drugs K

Brand name for ado trastuzumab emtansine

Brand name for morphine sulfate

An injectable microemulsion of a purified oil extracted from the seeds of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Coix lacryma-jobi (Job's tears), with potential antineoplastic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action is unknown, kanglaite exhibits an antineoplastic effect, potentially via interfering with the cell cycle and halting tumor cells in the G2/M phase, which may eventually inhibit mitosis and proliferation of cancer cells.

A synthetic silicon-containing agent related to camptothecin with antineoplastic properties. Cositecan stabilizes the cleavable complex between topoisomerase I and DNA, resulting in DNA breaks and consequently triggering apoptosis. Because it is lipophilic, karenitecin exhibits enhanced tissue penetration and bio-availability compared to water-soluble camptothecins.

An orally available inhibitor of Karolinska nudt1 (MTH1; MutT homologue 1; NUDT1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, karonudib targets and binds to the active site of MTH1, thereby preventing the activity of MTH1. This leads to the incorporation of oxidized deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) into the DNA of cancer cells, which causes DNA damage, introduces double strand breaks (DSBs), and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. MTH1, a member of the Nudix phosphohydrolase superfamily hydrolyzes oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphates, including 8-oxo-dGTP and 2-OH-dATP, converts them into their corresponding monophosphate forms, and prevents their incorporation into DNA, which allows MTH1-expressing cells to evade cell death. Compared to normal, healthy cells, cancer cells overexpress MTH1, which leads to dysregulation of the cellular redox system and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which together prevents the incorporation of damaged and oxidized nucleotides into DNA.

A Kava supplement derived from Piper methysticum, with potential cancer preventative activity. Upon oral administration, the kava-based supplement may affect the metabolism of certain carcinogens, presumably because of the kavalactones present in this product.

Brand name for cephalexin

Brand name for cefazolin sodium

Brand name for triamcinolone acetonide

Brand name for palifermin

Brand name for levetiracetam

Brand name for topical keratin

Brand name for ketamine hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt of a synthetic derivative of cyclohexanone with analgesic and anesthetic activities. Although its mechanism of action is not well understood, ketamine appears to non-competitively block N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and may interact with opiod mu receptors and sigma receptors, thereby reducing pain perception, inducing sedation, and producing dissociative anesthesia. Check for active clinical trialsusing this agent. (NCI Thesaurus]]

A topical preparation containing the antidepressant amitriptyline and the excitatory amino acid antagonist ketamine with potential topical analgesic activity. In addition to activating adenosine A1 receptors and inhibiting the neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin, amitriptyline produces antinociceptive effects, which appear to be mediated through the modulation of multiple subtypes of glutamate receptors including the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Ketamine inhibits biogenic amine uptake, agonistically binds to mu-opioid receptors, and inhibits NMDA receptors. NDMA receptor antagonists such as amitriptyline and ketamine interfere with the role of NMDA receptors in the process of central sensitization in which NMDA receptors on spinal dorsal horn neurons are activated, resulting in an increase in synaptic efficacy and so an amplification of the response to sensory input.

A synthetic derivative of phenylpiperazine with broad antifungal properties and potential antineoplastic activity. Ketoconazole inhibits sterol 14-a-dimethylase, a microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme, thereby disrupting synthesis of ergosterol, an important component of the fungal cell wall.

A propionic acid derivate and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects. Ketoprofen inhibits the activity of the enzymes cyclo-oxygenase I and II, resulting in a decreased formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The resulting decrease in prostaglandin synthesis, by prostaglandin synthase, is responsible for the therapeutic effects of ibuprofen. Ketoprofen also causes a decrease in the formation of thromboxane A2 synthesis, by thromboxane synthase, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation.

A synthetic pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. Ketorolac non-selective inhibits the enzymes cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and COX-2. The inhibition of COX-2, up-regulated at sites of inflammation, prevents conversion of arachidonic acid to pro-inflammatory prostaglandins. The inhibition of COX-1 by this agent prevents the normal steady-state production of prostaglandins that play housekeeping roles in the protection of the gastrointestinal tract, the regulation of renal blood flow, and platelet aggregation. As a result, the inhibition of COX-1 may be associated with gastrointestinal toxicity, nephrotoxicity, and the inhibition of platelet aggregation.

The tromethamine salt of ketorolac, a synthetic pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties. Ketorolac tromethamine, a non-selective inhibitor of the cyclooxygenases (COX), inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. This agent exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by preventing conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins at inflammation site mediated through inhibition of COX-2, which is undetectable in most tissues but is up-regulated at the inflammation sites. Since COX-1 is expressed virtually in all tissues, inhibition of COX-1 enzyme by this agent prevents normal state production of prostaglandins, which plays housekeeping roles in the protection of the gastrointestinal tract, regulating renal blood flow, and functioning in platelet aggregation. As a result, inhibition of COX-1 is usually associated with adverse effects such as gastrointestinal toxicity and nephrotoxicity.

Brand name for thioureidobutyronitrile

A natural protein isolated from the marine mollusc keyhole limpet. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin is an immunogenic carrier protein that, in vivo, increases antigenic immune responses to haptens and other weak antigens such as idiotype proteins.

Brand name for pembrolizumab

Brand name for eprodisate disodium

Brand name for anakinra

Brand name for ribociclib

An orally bioavailable switch pocket control inhibitor of wild-type and mutated forms of the tumor-associated antigens (TAA) mast/stem cell factor receptor (SCFR) KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR-alpha; PDGFRa), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, DCC-2618 targets and binds to both wild-type and mutant forms of KIT and PDGFRa specifically at their switch pocket binding sites, thereby preventing the switch from inactive to active conformations of these kinases and inactivating their wild-type and mutant forms. This abrogates KIT/PDGFRa-mediated tumor cell signaling and prevents proliferation in KIT/PDGFRa-driven cancers. DCC-2618 also inhibits several other kinases, including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2; KDR), angiopoietin-1 receptor (TIE2; TEK), PDGFR-beta and macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (FMS; CSF1R), thereby further inhibiting tumor cell growth. KIT and PDGFRa are tyrosine kinase receptors that are upregulated or mutated in a variety of cancer cell types; mutated forms play a key role in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation and resistance to chemotherapy.

A conjugate consisting of keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) with potential immunostimulating activity. Vaccination with KLH-FITC may elicit an immune response against fluorescein and the production of anti-fluorescein IgG antibodies. KLH, a natural protein isolated from the marine mollusk keyhole limpet, is an immunostimulant carrier protein.

Brand name for therapeutic hydrocortisone

Brand name for tanespimycin

An orally available, small molecule inhibitor that targets the oncogenic KRAS substitution mutation, G12C, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration MRTX849 covalently binds to cytosine 12 within the switch II pocket of GDP-bound KRAS G12C, thereby inhibiting mutant KRAS-dependent signaling. KRAS, a member of the RAS family of oncogenes, serves an important role in cell signaling, division and differentiation. Mutations of KRAS may induce constitutive signal transduction leading to tumor cell growth, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis.

An orally available agent that targets the specific KRAS mutation, p.G12C, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, KRAS mutant-targeting AMG 510 selectively targets the KRAS p.G12C mutant, at either the DNA, RNA or protein level, and prevents, through an as of yet not elucidated manner, expression of and/or tumor cell signaling through the KRAS p.G12C mutant. This may inhibit growth in KRAS p.G12C-expressing tumor cells. The KRAS p.G12C mutation is seen in some tumor cell types and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation.

A semisynthetic derivative of the nucleoside-like antineoplastic antibiotic spicamycin, originally isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces alanosinicus. KRN 5500 inhibits protein synthesis by interfering with endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus functions. This agent also induces cell differentiation and caspase-dependent apoptosis.

A synthetic, small molecule targeting the kinesin spindle protein (KSP) with potential antineoplastic activity. KSP inhibitor ARRY-520 specifically inhibits KSP (kinesin-5 or Eg5), resulting in activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, induction of cell cycle arrest during the mitotic phase, and consequently cell death in tumor cells that are actively dividing. Because KSP is not involved in postmitotic processes, such as neuronal transport, this agent does not cause the peripheral neuropathy that is often associated with tubulin-targeting agents. KSP is an ATP-dependent microtubule motor protein that is essential for the formation of bipolar spindles and the proper segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis.

A synthetic kinesin spindle protein (KSP) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. KSP inhibitor AZD4877 selectively inhibits microtubule motor protein KSP (also called kinesin-5 or Eg5), which may result in the inhibition of mitotic spindle assembly; activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint; induction of cell cycle arrest during the mitotic phase; and cell death in tumor cells that are actively dividing. Because KSP is not involved in postmitotic processes, such as neuronal transport, this agent may be less likely to cause the peripheral neuropathy often associated with the tubulin-targeting agents. Eg5 is essential for the formation of bipolar spindles and the proper segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis.

A lipid nanoparticle formulation containing two small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for kinesin spindle protein (KSP) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with potential antitumor activity. Upon intravenous administration, the siRNAs in KSP/VEGF siRNAs ALN-VSP02ALN bind to both KSP and VEGF messenger RNAs (mRNAs), preventing translation of KSP and VEGF proteins; this may result in growth inhibition of tumor cells that overexpress KSP and VEGF. VEGF and KSP are upregulated in many tumor cells and play an important role in tumor proliferation and survival.

A topical ointment containing a green tea polyphenol mixture (kunecatechins) with potential antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, and chemopreventive activities. Kunecatechins is a partially purified fraction of the aqueous extract of green tea leaves from Camellia sinensis and contains catechins and other green tea components. Catechins, polyphenolic antioxidant plant metabolites or flavonoids, comprise most of the drug substance in kunecatechins with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) present as the primary catechin. Catechins may inhibit basic functions of human papillomavirus (HPV), counteract specific changes in tumor cells, affect cell signaling, and stimulate the immune system. Topical application of kunecatechins ointment has been reported to reduce HPV-induced genital and anal warts through a not yet fully understood mechanism, which may involve anti-oxidative activity.

A semisynthetic water-soluble disulfide derivative of the antineoplastic antibiotic mitomycin C. Activated by serum and glutathione, KW-2149 causes interstrand DNA cross-links and DNA-protein cross-links, resulting in single-strand DNA breaks and inhibition of DNA synthesis.

Brand name for tisagenlecleucel

Brand name for safingol

Brand name for carfilzomib

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