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Dictionary of drugs: W

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Dictionary of pharmaceutical drugs/medications sorted alphabetically

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Drug terms W

  • warfarin sodium Dictionary of drugs: W The sodium salt form of warfarin, a coumarin and a vitamin K antagonist, with anticoagulant activity. Warfarin sodium inhibits both vitamin K and vitamin K epoxide reductases, thereby interfering with the cyclic interconversion of vitamin K epoxide to its reduced form, vitamin KH2. Vitamin KH2 is a cofactor for the carboxylation of glutamate residues on the N-terminal regions of vitamin K-dependent proteins. As a result, maturation of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X and anticoagulant proteins C and S is inhibited. Without these coagulation factors, thrombogenesis and blood clot formation are prevented.
  • water O-15 Dictionary of drugs: W An inert, radiopharmaceutical of oxygen-15 (O-15) labeled water used as a tracer molecule with positron emission tomography (PET). Upon administration, water O-15 is freely diffusible and its distribution, as well as its clearance, are completely dependent on the rate of blood flow. Water O-15 can be imaged using PET to measure tissue or tumor blood flow/perfusion. This cyclotron product has a very short half life of about 2 minutes thereby allowing for multiple, serial measurements.
  • water-based vaginal lubricant Dictionary of drugs: W A water-based vaginal lubricant with hydration activity. Upon application to the vagina, the water-based vaginal lubricant provides moisture and may relieve dryness and sexual discomfort.
  • Wee1 inhibitor ZN-c3 Dictionary of drugs: W An inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase Wee1 (Wee1-like protein kinase; Wee1A kinase; WEE1hu) with potential antineoplastic sensitizing activity. Although the exact mechanism of action by which this agent inhibits Wee1 has yet to be disclosed, upon administration of ZN-c3, this agent targets and inhibits Wee1. Inhibition of Wee1 promotes both premature mitosis and a prolonged mitotic arrest leading to cell death in susceptible tumor cells, such as p53-deficient or mutated human cancers that lack the G1 checkpoint, upon treatment with DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents. Unlike normal cells, most p53-deficient or mutated human cancers lack the G1 checkpoint as p53 is the key regulator of the G1 checkpoint and these cells rely on the G2 checkpoint for DNA repair to damaged cells. Annulment of the G2 checkpoint may therefore make p53-deficient tumor cells more vulnerable to antineoplastic agents and enhance their cytotoxic effect. Overexpression of Wee1 occurs in several cancer types and high expression of Wee1 is associated with poor outcomes. Wee1 phosphorylates Cdc2 in the Cdc2/cyclin B (CDK1/cyclin B) complex which blocks progression from G2 into mitosis; it negatively regulates the G2 checkpoint by disallowing entry into mitosis in response to DNA damage.
  • Wee1 kinase inhibitor Debio 0123 Dictionary of drugs: W An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the human tyrosine kinase Wee1 (Wee1-like protein kinase; Wee1A kinase; WEE1hu), with potential antineoplastic sensitizing activity. Upon oral administration of Debio 0123, this agent targets, binds to and inhibits Wee1. Inhibition of Wee1 inhibits Cdk1 (Cdc2) phosphorylation, promotes both premature mitosis and a prolonged mitotic arrest, which results in the accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage. This leads to apoptosis in susceptible tumor cells, such as p53-deficient or mutated human cancers that lack the G1 checkpoint, especially in combination with DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents. Unlike normal cells, most p53-deficient or mutated human cancers lack the G1 checkpoint as p53 is the key regulator of the G1 checkpoint and these cells rely on the G2 checkpoint for DNA repair to damaged cells. Annulment of the G2 checkpoint may therefore make p53-deficient tumor cells more vulnerable to antineoplastic agents and enhance their cytotoxic effect. Overexpression of Wee1 occurs in several cancer types and high expression of Wee1 is associated with poor outcomes. Wee1 phosphorylates Cdc2 in the Cdc2/cyclin B (CDK1/cyclin B) complex which blocks progression from G2 into mitosis. The Wee1 tyrosine kinase is activated upon DNA damage and regulates the G2-M and S cell cycle checkpoints.
  • Welchol Dictionary of drugs: W (Brand name for: colesevelam hydrochloride)
  • welgenaleucel Dictionary of drugs: W A preparation of autologous T lymphocytes that are engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) composed of an anti-cluster of differentiation 19 (CD19) single chain variable fragment (scFv) linked to the signaling domains of 4-1BB (CD137) and the zeta chain of the TCR/CD3 complex (TCRzeta; CD247; CD3zeta), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, welgenaleucel targets, binds to and induces selective toxicity in CD19-expressing tumor cells. CD19 antigen is a B-cell specific cell surface antigen expressed in all B-cell lineage malignancies.
  • Wellbutrin Dictionary of drugs: W (Brand name for: bupropion hydrochloride)
  • Wellbutrin SR Dictionary of drugs: W (Brand name for: bupropion hydrochloride controlled-release)
  • Wellbutrin XL Dictionary of drugs: W (Brand name for: bupropion hydrochloride controlled-release)
  • wheatgrass juice Dictionary of drugs: W The juice extracted from the mature sprouts of wheatgrass, Triticum aestivum, which is a member of the Poaceae family, with potential anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and chemopreventive activities. Wheatgrass juice contains many vitamins, including A, B vitamins, C and E, minerals, including selenium, iron, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper and zinc, amino acids, chlorophyll and a number of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase and cytochrome oxidase. Although the exact mechanism(s) of action through which wheatgrass juice exerts its effect(s) has yet to be fully elucidated, the components in the juice may scavenge free radicals, reduce chemotherapy-induced myelotoxicity, neutralize toxins and carcinogens and modulate the levels of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)- 6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12.
  • whey protein isolate Dictionary of drugs: W A biologically active, cystine-rich, whey-based protein isolate. Whey protein isolate is broken down in the body into cystine and glutamylcystine, which travel safely in the blood stream, upon cell entry, deliver a sustained amount of free cysteine to the cells. The available cysteine allows cells to synthesize glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide containing amino acids glycine, glutamate and cysteine, thereby maintaining and increasing intracellular GSH concentrations. GSH plays a major role as an antioxidant, thereby protecting cells from oxidative damage due to harmful substances such as free radicals and reactive oxygen compounds.
  • whey protein isolate nutritional supplement Dictionary of drugs: W A nutritional supplement composed of a lactose- and gluten-free whey-based protein isolate and containing various vitamins and minerals, with potential immunomodulating activity. In addition to whey protein isolate, this supplement contains phosphoric acid, L-cysteine, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, zinc, ferrous sulfate, niacinamide, vitamin A, calcium pantothenate, copper, manganese, vitamin D3, pyridoxine, thiamine, riboflavin, folic acid, biotin, iodine, phytonadione, and vitamin B12. Upon administration, whey protein isolate is broken down in the body into cysteine and glutamylcysteine. The available cysteine allows cells to synthesize glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide containing amino acids glycine, glutamate and cysteine, thereby maintaining and increasing intracellular GSH concentrations. GSH plays a major role as an antioxidant, thereby protecting cells from oxidative damage due to harmful substances such as free radicals and reactive oxygen compounds. In addition, the supplement provides necessary vitamins and minerals to the body, which may stimulate the immune system, help with wound healing and regulate metabolic dysregulation.
  • white button mushroom extract Dictionary of drugs: W A heat-stable extract of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) with potential chemopreventive and immunomodulating activities. Phytochemicals, such as polysaccharides and especially beta-D-glucans found in the white button mushroom extract, bind to and inhibit the activity of aromatase, an enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens and which is often upregulated in breast cancer cells. The consequent decrease in estrogen production may result in the suppression of estrogen-dependent cellular proliferation. In addition, this extract may promote dendritic cell (DC) maturation, increase interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production, and may enhance natural killer (NK) cell activity, thus amplifying both innate and T cell-mediated immune responses against cancer cells.
  • white carrot Dictionary of drugs: W A vegetable, also known as Arracacha, with potential chemoprevenitve, anti-oxidant and protective activities. White carrot contains a variety of nutrients, including minerals and vitamins. Polyacetylenes, including falcarinol, falcarindiol and falcarindiol-3-acetate are mainly responsible for its potential anti-cancer activity.
  • white wine Dictionary of drugs: W An alcoholic beverage made from fermented white grapes with potential orexigenic activity. Although not well understood, the mechanism for white wine's potential orexigenic activity may be due, in part, to its alcohol content and may involve alterations in neurotransmitter and hormone activities related to appetite regulation.
  • Winobanin Dictionary of drugs: W (Brand name for: danazol)
  • WinRho SDF Dictionary of drugs: W (Brand name for: therapeutic immune globulin)
  • Wistar rabies virus strain PM-1503-3M vaccine Dictionary of drugs: W A vaccine containing inactivated Wistar rabies virus strain PM-1503-3M, with immunotherapeutic activity. Upon administration, Wistar rabies virus strain PM-1503-3M vaccine induces the formation of rabies-specific antibodies and rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNA), which provide protection against rabies infection. This rabies vaccine can be used for both pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis of rabies.
  • Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor SM08502 Dictionary of drugs: W An orally bioavailable, small molecule inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, SM08502 inhibits the expression of genes involved in the Wnt signaling pathway through an as of yet not fully elucidated mechanism. This decreased expression of Wnt pathway-related genes prevents Wnt signaling and may inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in which the Wnt signaling pathway is overactivated. The Wnt signaling pathway is dysregulated in many cancer cell types and plays a crucial role in tumor cell proliferation.
  • Wnt-5a mimic hexapeptide foxy-5 Dictionary of drugs: W A formylated, six amino acid, Wnt5a-derived peptide and wnt-5a mimetic with potential anti-metastatic activity. Upon intravenous administration, Wnt-5a mimic hexapeptide foxy-5 binds to and activates the wnt-5a receptors, Frizzled-2 and -5, which activates wnt-5a-mediated signaling. Increased wnt-5a signaling may inhibit endothelial tumor cell migration and invasion. This may decrease metastasis of susceptible tumor cells. However, foxy-5 does not affect tumor cell proliferation or apoptosis. Foxy-5 lacks a heparan sulfate-binding domain and contains a formyl group on its NH2-terminal methionine residue which decreases in vivo degradation. Decreased expression of wnt-5a protein is associated with increased motility of certain tumor cell types.
  • WT-1 analogue peptide vaccine Dictionary of drugs: W A peptide vaccine containing a human Wilms tumor 1 (WT-1) protein-derived epitope with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with the WT-1 analogue peptide vaccine may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT-1 expressing cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. WT-1, a zinc finger transcription factor, is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in some solid cancers.
  • WT1 124-138 peptide vaccine Dictionary of drugs: W A synthetic peptide vaccine consisting of a HLA-DR15-restricted human Wilms' Tumor protein-1 (WT1) peptide comprised of amino acids 124 through 138, a HLA class II-restricted WT1 peptide, with potential immunomodulating and antitumor activities. Vaccination with WT1 124-138 peptide may stimulate a CD4-positive helper T-lymphocyte-mediated immune response against WT1 expressing cells. Activated helper T-cells stimulate dendritic cells, and activate the proliferation of other T-lymphoctes and B-lymphocytes. This causes tumor cell lysis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in WT1-overexpressing tumor cells. WT1, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein, is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in a variety of solid cancers.
  • WT1 126-134 peptide vaccine Dictionary of drugs: W A synthetic peptide vaccine consisting of the amino acids 126 through 134 of the human Wilms' Tumor protein-1 (WT1) with potential antitumor activity. WT1, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in a variety of solid cancers. Vaccination with WT1 126-134 peptide vaccine may induce a WT1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT1 expressing cells, resulting in cell lysis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation.
  • WT1 235-243 peptide vaccine Dictionary of drugs: W A synthetic peptide vaccine consisting of a HLA-A24-restricted human Wilms' Tumor protein-1 (WT1) peptide comprised of amino acids 235 through 243, a MHC class I-restricted peptide, with potential immunomodulating and antitumor activities. Vaccination with WT1 235-243 peptide may induce a WT1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT1 expressing cells, resulting in cell lysis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. WT1, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein, is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in a variety of solid cancers.
  • WT1 247-261 peptide vaccine Dictionary of drugs: W A synthetic peptide vaccine consisting of a HLA-DRw53-restricted human Wilms' Tumor protein-1 (WT1) peptide comprised of amino acids 247 through 261, a HLA class II-restricted WT1 peptide, with potential immunomodulating and antitumor activities. Vaccination with WT1 247-261 peptide may stimulate a CD4-positive helper T-lymphocyte-mediated immune response against WT1 expressing cells. Activated helper T-cells stimulate dendritic cells, and activate the proliferation of other T-lymphoctes and B-lymphocytes. This causes tumor cell lysis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in WT1-overexpressing tumor cells. WT1, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein, is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in a variety of solid cancers.
  • WT1 mRNA-electroporated autologous dendritic cell vaccine Dictionary of drugs: W A cancer vaccine containing autologous dendritic cells electroporated with full-length mRNA encoding Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) antigen with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, WT1 mRNA-electroporated autologous dendritic cell vaccine may elicit a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing WT1. Wt1 is frequently overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types and often correlates with disease progression and poor prognosis.
  • WT1 peptide vaccine OCV-501 Dictionary of drugs: W A peptide cancer vaccine comprised of a peptide derived from Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1) protein, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, WT1 peptide vaccine OCV-501 may stimulate a CD4-positive helper T-lymphocyte-mediated immune response against WT1 expressing cells. WT1 protein, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein, is overexpressed in leukemic cells and in some solid tumors.
  • WT1 peptide vaccine WT2725 Dictionary of drugs: W A peptide cancer vaccine comprised of a peptide derived from Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1) protein, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, WT2725 may induce a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT1-overexpressing tumor cells. WT1 protein, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein, is overexpressed in leukemic cells and in a vast number of non-hematological solid tumors.
  • WT1 protein-derived peptide vaccine DSP-7888 Dictionary of drugs: W A peptide cancer vaccine comprised of peptides derived from the Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1) protein, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, WT1 protein-derived peptide vaccine DSP-7888 may induce a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT1-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, DSP-7888 induces a helper T-lymphocyte-mediated immune response against WT1 expressing tumor cells. WT1 protein, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein and transcription factor, is overexpressed in leukemic cells and in many non-hematological solid tumors.
  • WT1-A10/AS01B immunotherapeutic GSK2130579A Dictionary of drugs: W An immunotherapeutic consisting of the recombinant fusion protein WT1-A10 combined with the adjuvant ASO1B with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, WT1-A10/AS01B immunotherapeutic GSK2130579AWT1 may induce a WT1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT1-expressing tumor cells, resulting in cell lysis and the inhibition of cellular proliferation. The tumor-associated antigen WT1 (Wilms tumor protein-1) is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in a variety of solid cancers. WT1-A10 is a 292 amino acid recombinant fusion protein consisting of a 12-mer truncated tat sequence (leader sequence) and amino acids number 2-281 of the WT1 sequence; ASO1B consists of a combination of the adjuvants monophosporyl lipd A (MPL) and Q21.
  • WT1-H/K-HELP-survivin-H/K-HELP-MAGE-A4-H ⁄ K-HELP-MUC1-22 peptide-loaded autologous dendritic cells Dictionary of drugs: W A preparation of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with helper/killer-hybrid epitope long peptides (H/K-HELP) of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1 H/K-HELP), survivin, melanoma-associated antigen 4 (MAGE-4) and human mucin 1-22 (Muc1-22), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of WT1-H/K-HELP-survivin-H/K-HELP-MAGE-A4-H ⁄ K-HELP-Muc1-22 peptide-loaded autologous DCs may stimulate the host immune system to mount an anti-tumoral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), T-helper (Th), and antibody responses against WT1-, survivin-, MAGE-4- and Muc1-22-expressing cancer cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis. WT1, survivin, MAGE-4 and Muc-1-22, tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), are overexpressed on a variety of cancer cells. The DCs loaded with the long fusion polypeptides, comprising of one or more helper epitopes and killer epitopes, may enhance antigen-specific CTL and Th cell production more efficiently than when the DCs are loaded with a mixture of helper epitope and killer epitope.
  • WT1-loaded artificial adjuvant vector cell immunotherapeutic ASP7517 Dictionary of drugs: W A preparation of artificial adjuvant vector cells (aAVCs) composed of cells from the cell line HEK293, which is derived from human embryonic kidney cells, that are transfected with the natural killer T (NKT) immune cell receptor cluster of differentiation 1d (CD1d) and loaded with the glycolipid and CD1d ligand alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) on the cell surface, and loaded with the full-length tumor-associated antigen (TAA) Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of the WT1-loaded aAVC immunotherapeutic ASP7517, the alphaGalCer on the cell surface activates invariant NKT (iNKT) cells, thereby eliciting WT1-specific NKT cell responses against ASP7517. This in turn activates a natural killer (NK) cell response against WT1-expressing tumor cells. Also, the WT1 released from destroyed ASP7517 is taken up by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), mainly by dendritic cells (DCs), which in turn activates cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and results in a CTL-mediated immune response against WT1-expressing tumor cells, thereby further destroying WT1-expressing tumor cells. In addition, the activation of antigen-specific memory T cells provides long-lasting anti-tumor effects against the WT1-expressing tumor cells.
  • WT1-sensitized T cells Dictionary of drugs: W A population of allogeneic T-cells sensitized with Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) antigen with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, WT1-sensitized T cells may bind to and lyse WT1-expressing tumor cells. WT1 antigen, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein acting as a transcriptional activator or repressor depending on the cellular or chromosomal context, is overexpressed in leukemic cells and in a vast number of nonhematological solid tumors.
  • WT1/PRAME/survivin-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes Dictionary of drugs: W A preparation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specifically reactive to the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) human Wilms tumor protein (WT1), preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME; melanoma antigen preferentially expressed in tumors; Opa-interacting protein 4; OIP-4), and survivin (baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 5; BIRC5), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon collection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), these cells are stimulated with antigen presenting cells (APCs) pulsed with WT1, PRAME and survivin peptides; reactive T cells are selectively expanded. Upon administration of the WT1/PRAME/Survivin-specific CTLs, these T cells induce a CTL-mediated response against tumor cells expressing WT1, PRAME, or survivin, leading to tumor cell lysis and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. WT1, PRAME, and survivin, are expressed on certain tumor cell types and play key roles in tumor cell proliferation and survival.
  • WT1/PSMA/hTERT-encoding plasmid DNA INO-5401 Dictionary of drugs: W A preparation composed of three separate DNA plasmids encoding the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) Wilms tumor gene-1 (WT1), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activites. Upon intramuscular delivery and electroporation of the WT1/PSMA/hTERT-encoding plasmid DNA INO-5401, the genes are translated into their respective proteins inside the cell. The expressed proteins activate the immune system and induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated response against cells expressing the WT1, PSMA and hTERT antigens, causing tumor cell lysis. hTERT, WT1 and PSMA are upregulated in many cancer cell types.
  • wu-ling-san Dictionary of drugs: W A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) composed of Polyporus sclerotium (Sclerotium polypori Umbrellati; Zhu Ling), hoelen (Poria; Sclerotium Poriae Cocos; Fu Ling), Alismatis rhizome (Alisma; Rhizoma Alismatis Orientalis; Ze Xie), Cinnamomi cortex (Ramulus Cinnamomi Cassiae; Gui Zhi) and Atractylodis macrocephalae rhizome (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae; Bai Zhu) with potential diuresis-inducing and kidney-protective activities. Upon oral administration, wu-ling san may increase the removal of excess fluid, prevent the retention of water, maintain healthy water metabolism by promoting diuresis, and protect kidney function.
  • Wymox Dictionary of drugs: W (Brand name for: amoxicillin)
  • Wytensin Dictionary of drugs: W (Brand name for: guanabenz acetate)
 

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