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Dictionary of drugs: W

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Dictionary of pharmaceutical drugs/medications sorted alphabetically

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Drug terms W

The sodium salt form of warfarin, a coumarin and a vitamin K antagonist, with anticoagulant activity. Warfarin sodium inhibits both vitamin K and vitamin K epoxide reductases, thereby interfering with the cyclic interconversion of vitamin K epoxide to its reduced form, vitamin KH2. Vitamin KH2 is a cofactor for the carboxylation of glutamate residues on the N-terminal regions of vitamin K-dependent proteins. As a result, maturation of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X and anticoagulant proteins C and S is inhibited. Without these coagulation factors, thrombogenesis and blood clot formation are prevented. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


An inert, radiopharmaceutical of oxygen-15 (O-15) labeled water used as a tracer molecule with positron emission tomography (PET). Upon administration, water O-15 is freely diffusible and its distribution, as well as its clearance, are completely dependent on the rate of blood flow. Water O-15 can be imaged using PET to measure tissue or tumor blood flow/perfusion. This cyclotron product has a very short half life of about 2 minutes thereby allowing for multiple, serial measurements. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


A water-based vaginal lubricant with hydration activity. Upon application to the vagina, the water-based vaginal lubricant provides moisture and may relieve dryness and sexual discomfort. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


(Other name for: colesevelam hydrochloride)

(Other name for: bupropion hydrochloride)

(Other name for: bupropion hydrochloride controlled-release)

(Other name for: bupropion hydrochloride controlled-release)

The juice extracted from the mature sprouts of wheatgrass, Triticum aestivum, which is a member of the Poaceae family, with potential anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating and chemopreventive activities. Wheatgrass juice contains many vitamins, including A, B vitamins, C and E, minerals, including selenium, iron, magnesium, calcium, manganese, copper and zinc, amino acids, chlorophyll and a number of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase and cytochrome oxidase. Although the exact mechanism(s) of action through which wheatgrass juice exerts its effect(s) has yet to be fully elucidated, the components in the juice may scavenge free radicals, reduce chemotherapy-induced myelotoxicity, neutralize toxins and carcinogens and modulate the levels of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)- 6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


A biologically active, cystine-rich, whey-based protein isolate. Whey protein isolate is broken down in the body into cystine and glutamylcystine, which travel safely in the blood stream, upon cell entry, deliver a sustained amount of free cysteine to the cells. The available cysteine allows cells to synthesize glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide containing amino acids glycine, glutamate and cysteine, thereby maintaining and increasing intracellular GSH concentrations. GSH plays a major role as an antioxidant, thereby protecting cells from oxidative damage due to harmful substances such as free radicals and reactive oxygen compounds. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


A heat-stable extract of white button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) with potential chemopreventive and immunomodulating activities. Phytochemicals, such as polysaccharides and especially beta-D-glucans found in the white button mushroom extract, bind to and inhibit the activity of aromatase, an enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens and which is often upregulated in breast cancer cells. The consequent decrease in estrogen production may result in the suppression of estrogen-dependent cellular proliferation. In addition, this extract may promote dendritic cell (DC) maturation, increase interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production, and may enhance natural killer (NK) cell activity, thus amplifying both innate and T cell-mediated immune responses against cancer cells. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


A vegetable, also known as Arracacha, with potential chemoprevenitve, anti-oxidant and protective activities. White carrot contains a variety of nutrients, including minerals and vitamins. Polyacetylenes, including falcarinol, falcarindiol and falcarindiol-3-acetate are mainly responsible for its potential anti-cancer activity. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


An alcoholic beverage made from fermented white grapes with potential orexigenic activity. Although not well understood, the mechanism for white wine's potential orexigenic activity may be due, in part, to its alcohol content and may involve alterations in neurotransmitter and hormone activities related to appetite regulation. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


(Other name for: danazol)

(Other name for: therapeutic immune globulin)

An orally bioavailable, small molecule inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, SM08502 inhibits the expression of genes involved in the Wnt signaling pathway through an as of yet not fully elucidated mechanism. This decreased expression of Wnt pathway-related genes prevents Wnt signaling and may inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in which the Wnt signaling pathway is overactivated. The Wnt signaling pathway is dysregulated in many cancer cell types and plays a crucial role in tumor cell proliferation. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


A formylated, six amino acid, Wnt5a-derived peptide and wnt-5a mimetic with potential anti-metastatic activity. Upon intravenous administration, Wnt-5a mimic hexapeptide foxy-5 binds to and activates the wnt-5a receptors, Frizzled-2 and -5, which activates wnt-5a-mediated signaling. Increased wnt-5a signaling may inhibit endothelial tumor cell migration and invasion. This may decrease metastasis of susceptible tumor cells. However, foxy-5 does not affect tumor cell proliferation or apoptosis. Foxy-5 lacks a heparan sulfate-binding domain and contains a formyl group on its NH2-terminal methionine residue which decreases in vivo degradation. Decreased expression of wnt-5a protein is associated with increased motility of certain tumor cell types. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


A synthetic peptide vaccine consisting of a HLA-DR15-restricted human Wilms' Tumor protein-1 (WT1) peptide comprised of amino acids 124 through 138, a HLA class II-restricted WT1 peptide, with potential immunomodulating and antitumor activities. Vaccination with WT1 124-138 peptide may stimulate a CD4-positive helper T-lymphocyte-mediated immune response against WT1 expressing cells. Activated helper T-cells stimulate dendritic cells, and activate the proliferation of other T-lymphoctes and B-lymphocytes. This causes tumor cell lysis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in WT1-overexpressing tumor cells. WT1, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein, is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in a variety of solid cancers. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


A synthetic peptide vaccine consisting of the amino acids 126 through 134 of the human Wilms' Tumor protein-1 (WT1) with potential antitumor activity. WT1, a tumor associated antigen, is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in a variety of solid cancers. Vaccination with WT1 126-134 peptide vaccine may induce a WT1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT1 expressing cells, resulting in cell lysis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


A synthetic peptide vaccine consisting of a HLA-A24-restricted human Wilms' Tumor protein-1 (WT1) peptide comprised of amino acids 235 through 243, a MHC class I-restricted peptide, with potential immunomodulating and antitumor activities. Vaccination with WT1 235-243 peptide may induce a WT1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT1 expressing cells, resulting in cell lysis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. WT1, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein, is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in a variety of solid cancers. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


A synthetic peptide vaccine consisting of a HLA-DRw53-restricted human Wilms' Tumor protein-1 (WT1) peptide comprised of amino acids 247 through 261, a HLA class II-restricted WT1 peptide, with potential immunomodulating and antitumor activities. Vaccination with WT1 247-261 peptide may stimulate a CD4-positive helper T-lymphocyte-mediated immune response against WT1 expressing cells. Activated helper T-cells stimulate dendritic cells, and activate the proliferation of other T-lymphoctes and B-lymphocytes. This causes tumor cell lysis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation in WT1-overexpressing tumor cells. WT1, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein, is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in a variety of solid cancers. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


A peptide vaccine containing a human Wilms tumor 1 (WT-1) protein-derived epitope with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with the WT-1 analogue peptide vaccine may induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT-1 expressing cells, resulting in tumor cell lysis and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation. WT-1, a zinc finger transcription factor, is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in some solid cancers. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


A cancer vaccine containing autologous dendritic cells electroporated with full-length mRNA encoding Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) antigen with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, WT1 mRNA-electroporated autologous dendritic cell vaccine may elicit a cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing WT1. Wt1 is frequently overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types and often correlates with disease progression and poor prognosis. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS using this agent.


A peptide cancer vaccine comprised of a peptide derived from Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1) protein, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, WT1 peptide vaccine OCV-501 may stimulate a CD4-positive helper T-lymphocyte-mediated immune response against WT1 expressing cells. WT1 protein, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein, is overexpressed in leukemic cells and in some solid tumors. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


A peptide cancer vaccine comprised of a peptide derived from Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1) protein, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, WT2725 may induce a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT1-overexpressing tumor cells. WT1 protein, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein, is overexpressed in leukemic cells and in a vast number of non-hematological solid tumors. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


A peptide cancer vaccine comprised of peptides derived from the Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1) protein, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, WT1 protein-derived peptide vaccine DSP-7888 may induce a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT1-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, DSP-7888 induces a helper T-lymphocyte-mediated immune response against WT1 expressing tumor cells. WT1 protein, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein and transcription factor, is overexpressed in leukemic cells and in many non-hematological solid tumors. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


A preparation composed of three separate DNA plasmids encoding the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) Wilms tumor gene-1 (WT1), prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activites. Upon intramuscular delivery and electroporation of the WT1/PSMA/hTERT-encoding plasmid DNA INO-5401, the genes are translated into their respective proteins inside the cell. The expressed proteins activate the immune system and induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated response against cells expressing the WT1, PSMA and hTERT antigens, causing tumor cell lysis. hTERT, WT1 and PSMA are upregulated in many cancer cell types. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


An immunotherapeutic consisting of the recombinant fusion protein WT1-A10 combined with the adjuvant ASO1B with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, WT1-A10/AS01B immunotherapeutic GSK2130579AWT1 may induce a WT1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against WT1-expressing tumor cells, resulting in cell lysis and the inhibition of cellular proliferation. The tumor-associated antigen WT1 (Wilms tumor protein-1) is overexpressed in most types of leukemia and in a variety of solid cancers. WT1-A10 is a 292 amino acid recombinant fusion protein consisting of a 12-mer truncated tat sequence (leader sequence) and amino acids number 2-281 of the WT1 sequence; ASO1B consists of a combination of the adjuvants monophosporyl lipd A (MPL) and Q21. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


A population of allogeneic T-cells sensitized with Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) antigen with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, WT1-sensitized T cells may bind to and lyse WT1-expressing tumor cells. WT1 antigen, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein acting as a transcriptional activator or repressor depending on the cellular or chromosomal context, is overexpressed in leukemic cells and in a vast number of nonhematological solid tumors. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) composed of Polyporus sclerotium (Sclerotium polypori Umbrellati; Zhu Ling), hoelen (Poria; Sclerotium Poriae Cocos; Fu Ling), Alismatis rhizome (Alisma; Rhizoma Alismatis Orientalis; Ze Xie), Cinnamomi cortex (Ramulus Cinnamomi Cassiae; Gui Zhi) and Atractylodis macrocephalae rhizome (Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae; Bai Zhu) with potential diuresis-inducing and kidney-protective activities. Upon oral administration, wu-ling san may increase the removal of excess fluid, prevent the retention of water, maintain healthy water metabolism by promoting diuresis, and protect kidney function. ACTIVE CLINICAL TRIALS


(Other name for: amoxicillin)

(Other name for: guanabenz acetate)

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