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Dictionary of drugs: X

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Dictionary of pharmaceutical drugs/medications sorted alphabetically

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Drug dictionary starting with X

  • xaliproden hydrochloride Dictionary of drugs: X The hydrochloride salt of xaliproden, an orally-active, synthetic, non-peptidic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 1A receptor agonist with neurotrophic and neuroprotective activities. Although its mechanism of action is not fully understood, xaliproden appears to either mimic the effects of neurotrophins or stimulate their synthesis, thereby stimulating neuronal cell differentiation and proliferation and inhibiting neuronal cell death. The neuroprotective effect of this agent involves the activation of MAP kinase pathways via stimulation of the 5-HT1A receptor.
  • Xalkori Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: crizotinib)
  • Xanax Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: alprazolam)
  • xanthohumol Dictionary of drugs: X A prenylated flavonoid derived from the female flowers of the hops plant (Humulus lupulus L), with potential chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, xanthohumol scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby preventing DNA damage due to oxidative stress. In addition, xanthohumol is able to increase the expression of phase II cytoprotective enzymes, thereby inactivating carcinogens. This agent exerts anti-inflammatory activity, through the inhibition of inflammation-inducing enzymes, inhibits DNA synthesis, and induces apoptosis of susceptible cancer cells. Xanthohumol also decreases the expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), thereby preventing cancer cell invasion.
  • Xanthotoxin Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: methoxsalen)
  • Xarelto Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: rivaroxaban)
  • Xatmep Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: methotrexate sodium)
  • XBP1-US/XBP1-SP/CD138/CS1 multipeptide vaccine PVX-410 Dictionary of drugs: X A cancer vaccine containing immunogenic, HLA-A2-specific epitopes derived from X-box–binding protein 1-unspliced (XBP1-US), XBP1-spliced (SP), syndecan-1 (CD138), and CS1 (CD2 subset 1, CRACC, SLAMF7, CD319) with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, XBP1-US/XBP1-SP/CD138/CS1 multipeptide vaccine PVX-410 may stimulate the immune system to induce a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response against the four myeloma-specific antigens. The tumor associated antigens (TAAs) XBP1-US, XBP1-SP, CD138 and CS1, are overexpressed on the surface of multiple myeloma (MM) cells.
  • Xcytrin Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: motexafin gadolinium)
  • XELIRI regimen Dictionary of drugs: X A chemotherapy regimen containing capecitabine and irinotecan used in the treatment of colorectal, esophageal and gastric cancer.
  • Xeloda Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: capecitabine)
  • XELOX regimen Dictionary of drugs: X A chemotherapy regimen consisting of capecitabine (Xeloda) and oxaliplatin used for the treatment of advanced-stage colorectal cancer. This regimen differs from a similar regimen, CAPOX, with regards to the dosing schedule for oxaliplatin.
  • xenogeneic tyrosinase DNA vaccine Dictionary of drugs: X A plasmid DNA vaccine, encoding an epitope of mouse tyrosinase, with potential antineoplastic activity. Administered via intramuscular electroporation, vaccination with xenogeneic tyrosinase DNA vaccine may induce both humoral and cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) immune responses against melanoma cells that express tyrosinase, resulting in decreased tumor growth. .
  • xenon Dictionary of drugs: X A colorless, heavy, odorless noble gas element with atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.3.
  • xentuzumab Dictionary of drugs: X A humanized IgG1 insulin-like growth factor (IGF) monoclonal antibody targeting the IGF ligands 1 (IGF-1) and 2 (IGF-2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, xentuzumab binds to both IGF-1 and IGF-2 and inhibits the binding of these ligands to their receptor, IGF-1R. This blocks the insulin growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway, which is upregulated in a number of cancer cell types and plays a key role in cancer cell proliferation and chemoresistance. In addition, xentuzumab prevents the binding of IGF-2 to insulin receptor variant A (IR-A), preventing its activation.
  • Xerecept Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: corticorelin acetate)
  • Xermelo Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: telotristat etiprate)
  • xevinapant Dictionary of drugs: X An orally available mimetic of the natural second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases (Smac) and inhibitor of Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs), with potential immunomodulating, apoptotic-inducing, chemo-radio-sensitizing and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration,xevinapant targets and binds to the Smac binding groove on IAPs, including the direct caspase inhibitor X chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP), and the cellular IAPs 1 (c-IAP1) and 2 (c-IAP2). This inhibits the activities of these IAPs and promotes the induction of apoptosis. Additionally, as xevinapant inhibits the activity of IAPs, it may work synergistically with cytotoxic drugs and/or radiation to overcome tumor cell resistance to apoptosis. As IAPs regulate nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkB) signaling pathways, which drives the expression of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses, xevinapant may enhance anti-tumor immune responses when administered with certain immunomodulating agents, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors. IAPs are overexpressed by many cancer cell types and suppress both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis by binding to and inhibiting active caspases via their baculoviral lAP repeat (BIR) domains. They contribute to chemo-radio-resistance of cancer cells to certain cytotoxic agents and radiation, promote tumor cell survival and are associated with poor prognosis in certain types of cancer. SMAC, a pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein, is an endogenous inhibitor of the IAPs family of cellular proteins.
  • Xgeva Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: denosumab)
  • Xiang Sha Liu Jun Zi decoction Dictionary of drugs: X A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction composed of multiple herbs that may be used for the treatment of a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms and disturbance including vomiting, gastric fullness and dyspepsia.
  • xianling gubao Dictionary of drugs: X An orally bioavailable phytoestrogen-rich Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) containing extracts from the six herbs Herba epimedii, Radix dipsaci (Dipsacus root), Radix salvia miltiorrhiza (Salvia root, Danshen, red sage root), Rhizoma anemarrhenae (zhi Mu), Fructus Psoraleae (fruit of Psoralea corylifolia L), and Radix Rehmanniae (Rehmannia root, Rehmannia glutinosa, Sheng Di Huang, Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch), with potential anti-osteoporotic and bone-strengthening activities. Xianling gubao (XLGB) contains various phytochemicals, including flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, alkaloids and terpenes. Upon oral administration of XLGB, the active ingredients may strengthen bones and may treat or prevent osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, bone loss and bone fractures.
  • Xiaoai Jiedu decoction Dictionary of drugs: X A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction composed of Oldenlandia, Kuh-seng, Codonopsis pilosula, bighead atractylodes rhizome, smoked plum, the rhizome of Chinese goldthread, rhizome zingiberis preparata and semen Coicis, with potential chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of Xiaoai Jiedu decoction, the active ingredients in this decoction may inhibit a variety of signal transduction pathways involved in carcinogenesis. This may induce cell cycle arrest and tumor cell apoptosis and inhibit tumor cell formation and proliferation.
  • XIAP/cIAP1 antagonist ASTX660 Dictionary of drugs: X An orally bioavailable, non-peptidomimetic antagonist of both X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and cellular IAP 1 (cIAP1), with potential antineoplastic and pro-apoptotic activities. Upon administration, XIAP/cIAP1 antagonist ASTX660 selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of XIAP and cIAP1. This restores and promotes the induction of apoptotic signaling pathways in cancer cells, and inactivates the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB)-mediated survival pathway. XIAP and cIAP1 are overexpressed by many cancer cell types and suppress apoptosis by inhibiting the activity of certain caspases; they promote both cancer cell survival and chemotherapy resistance.
  • Xifaxan Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: rifaximin)
  • Xilonix Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: anti-interleukin-1 alpha monoclonal antibody MABp1)
  • Xinlay Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: atrasentan hydrochloride)
  • xinmailong Dictionary of drugs: X A Chinese medicine composed of bioactive composite extracted from Periplaneta americana consisting of adenosine, inosine, protocatechuic acid, and pyroglutamate dipeptides, with potential cardioprotective activity. Upon administration, xinmailong may inhibit the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (MAPK3/ERK1), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1)/ERK2, AKT, and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3-beta), thereby decreasing the expression of transcription factor GATA-4. GATA-4 is a key regulator of cardiac hypertrophy, mediating gene expressions in response to heart failure (HF) stimuli by activating a variety of HF-associated genes, such as atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC). Decreased expression of GATA-4 may limit the transcription of these genes and offer protection against certain types of HF.
  • xisomab 3G3 Dictionary of drugs: X A humanized anti-factor XI (FXI) antibody, with potential anti-thrombotic activity. Upon administration, xisomab 3G3 targets and binds to the apple 2 domain of FXI, thereby preventing the binding of FXI to factor XIIa (FXIIa). This blocks factor XIIa-mediated FXI activation without inhibiting FXI activation by thrombin or the procoagulant function of FXIa. The abrogation of FXI activation prolongs the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and reduces platelet and fibrin accumulation. This results in the inhibition of contact activation-initiated blood coagulation and prevents thrombus formation. FXI contributes to thrombotic disease while playing a limited role in normal hemostasis. Activation of FXI is essential for thrombus growth and stabilization.
  • XL820 Dictionary of drugs: X An orally bioavailable, small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. XL820 binds to and inhibits the receptor tyrosine kinases for vascular endothelial drowth factor (VEGF), c-kit, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). In tumor models of breast carcinomas, gliomas, and leukemia, this agent exhibits dose-dependent growth inhibition and has been shown to cause tumor regression.
  • XL844 Dictionary of drugs: X A synthetic small-molecule inhibitor of checkpoint kinases 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) with potential antineoplastic activity. XL844 binds to and inhibits Chks 1 and 2, resulting in inhibition of cell cycle arrest, progressive DNA damage, inhibition of DNA repair, and, ultimately, tumor cell apoptosis. This agent also inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3), important mediators of tumor angiogenesis and lymphogenesis, respectively. In the presence of DNA damage or incomplete DNA replication, eukaryotic cells activate cell cycle checkpoints that temporarily halt the cell cycle to permit DNA repair or completion of DNA replication to take place. In the presence of extensive damage or absence of timely repair, these checkpoint-signaling pathways may also trigger a pathway that effects apoptosis. Normal functions of Chks involve the initiation of cell-cycle arrest and the up-regulation of transcription genes involved with DNA excision repair and dNTP synthesis.
  • Xofigo Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: radium Ra 223 dichloride)
  • Xofluza Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: baloxavir marboxil)
  • Xolair Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: omalizumab)
  • Xolegel Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: ketoconazole)
  • Xospata Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: gilteritinib fumarate)
  • Xpovio Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: selinexor)
  • Xtampza ER Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: extended-release microsphere capsule-based oxycodone)
  • Xtandi Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: enzalutamide)
  • Xylocaine Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: lidocaine hydrochloride)
  • Xylocitin Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: lidocaine hydrochloride)
  • Xylonest Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: prilocaine hydrochloride)
  • Xyotax Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: paclitaxel poliglumex)
  • Xyzal Dictionary of drugs: X - (brand name for: levocetirizine dihydrochloride) National Cancer Institute
 

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