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Dictionary of drugs: Z

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Dictionary of pharmaceutical drugs/medications sorted alphabetically

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Drugs starting with Z

  • Z-360 Dictionary of drugs: Z - A selective, orally available, 1,5-benzodiazepine-derivative gastrin/cholecystokinin 2 CCK-2 receptor antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. Z-360 binds to the gastrin/CCK-2 receptor, thereby preventing receptor activation by gastrin, a peptide hormone frequently associated with the proliferation of gastrointestinal and pancreatic tumor cells.
  • Z-endoxifen hydrochloride Dictionary of drugs: Z - The hydrochloride salt and the z cis- stereoisomer of endoxifen with potential antineoplastic activity. Endoxifen, the active metabolite of tamoxifen, competitively inhibits the binding of estradiol to estrogen receptors, thereby preventing the receptor from binding to the estrogen-response element on DNA and thus reducing DNA synthesis. Unlike tamoxifen, however, which relies on CYP2D6 activity for its conversion to the active metabolite endoxifen, the direct administration of endoxifen bypasses the CYP2D6 route. As CYP2D6 activity can vary widely among individuals due to genetic CYP2D6 polymorphisms, endoxifen is therefore theoretically more potent and more uniform in its bioavailability across patient populations.
  • Zaditen Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: ketotifen fumarate
  • Zaditor Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: ketotifen fumarate
  • zafirlukast Dictionary of drugs: Z - A tolyl compound and leukotriene receptor antagonist LTRA, with anti-asthmatic and potential capsular contracture-preventing activities. Upon administration, zafirlukast selectively and competitively binds to and blocks the cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor CYSLTR1, thereby preventing the potent pro-inflammatory mediators leukotriene C4, D4 and E4 from binding. This prevents leukotriene-mediated actions, including enhanced migration of eosinophils and neutrophils, increased adhesion of leukocytes, increased monocyte and neutrophil aggregation, increased airway edema, inflammation, capillary permeability and bronchoconstriction. In addition, zafirlukast may decrease collagen deposition, fibrosis, and capsular thickness after implantation, thereby preventing scar tissue.
  • zalcitabine Dictionary of drugs: Z - A synthetic dideoxynucleoside. After intracellular phosphorylation to its active metabolite, zalcitabine preferentially inhibits the gamma form of DNA polymerase present in tumor cell mitochondria, resulting in the inhibition of tumor cell mitochondrial DNA replication and tumor cell death.
  • Zaltrap Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: ziv-aflibercept
  • zalutumumab Dictionary of drugs: Z - A fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR with potential antineoplastic activity. Zalutumumab selectively binds to the EGFR receptor and blocks receptor binding of EGF and transforming growth factor-alpha TGF-a, which results in the disruption of EGFR-mediated cell signaling, cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in EGFR-expressing tumor cells. In addition, this agent triggers antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity ADCC in EGFR-expressing cells. EGFR is a cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase, overexpressed on many cancer cells.
  • Zalypsis Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: PM00104
  • Zanaflex Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: tizanidine hydrochloride
  • zanamivir Dictionary of drugs: Z - A sialic acid-analogue neuraminidase inhibitor with antiviral activity. Administered into the respiratory tract by aerosol inhalation, zanamivir selectively binds to and inhibits influenza A and B virus neuraminidase-mediated cleavage of sialic acid residues in host cell membrane-bound glycoprotein receptors for influenza viruses, preventing the release of progeny viruses from host cell surfaces and, so, further viral replication.
  • zanidatamab Dictionary of drugs: Z - An engineered immunoglobulin G1 IgG1 bi-specific monoclonal antibody that targets two different non-overlapping epitopes of the human tumor-associated antigen TAA epidermal growth factor receptor 2 HER2, ECD2 and ECD4, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, zanidatamab targets and binds to the two distinct HER2 domains on the tumor cell surface. This results in dual HER2 signal blockade, HER2 clustering, receptor internalization and downregulation. This also induces a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte CTL response and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity ADCC against tumor cells that overexpress HER2. Antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis ADCP is also induced and further stimulates the immune system to kill HER2-overexpressing tumor cells. The HER2 receptor internalization also further inhibits HER2 activation, HER2-mediated signaling and HER2-mediated tumor cell growth. HER2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed by many cancer cell types.
  • zanolimumab Dictionary of drugs: Z - A human IgG1k monoclonal antibody against the CD4 receptor on T lymphocytes, with potential antineoplastic and immunosuppressing activities. Zanolimumab targets and binds to the CD4 receptor on certain T cells thereby preventing the interaction between the CD4 receptor and the major histocompatibility complex class II molecule. This prevents activation of CD4-positive T cells. In addition, zanolimumab is able to induce an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity ADCC response against CD4-expressing tumor cells. CD4, a receptor located on a subset of T-lymphocytes, is upregulated in T-cell lymphomas.
  • Zanosar Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: streptozocin
  • Zantac Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: ranitidine hydrochloride
  • zanubrutinib Dictionary of drugs: Z - An inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase BTK with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, zanubrutinib inhibits the activity of BTK and prevents the activation of the B-cell antigen receptor BCR signaling pathway. This prevents both B-cell activation and BTK-mediated activation of downstream survival pathways, which leads to the inhibition of the growth of malignant B-cells that overexpress BTK. BTK, a member of the Src-related BTK/Tec family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in B-cell malignancies; it plays an important role in B-lymphocyte development, activation, signaling, proliferation and survival.
  • Zarnestra Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: tipifarnib
  • Zarontin Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: ethosuximide
  • Zarxio Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: filgrastim
  • ZD6126 Dictionary of drugs: Z - A water-soluble phosphate prodrug of N-acetylcolchinol with potential antiangiogenesis and antineoplastic activities. ZD6126 is converted in vivo into N-acetylcolchinol. N-acetylcolchinol binds to and destabilizes the tubulin cytoskeleton of endothelial cells in tumor blood vessels, which may result in tumor endothelial cel apoptosis, the selective occlusion of tumor blood vessels, cessation of tumor blood flow, and tumor necrosis.
  • Zejula Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: niraparib tosylate monohydrate
  • zelavespib Dictionary of drugs: Z - A purine-based heat shock protein 90 Hsp90 inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Zelavespib specifically inhibits active Hsp90, thereby inhibiting its chaperone function and promoting the proteasomal degradation of oncogenic signaling proteins involved in tumor cell proliferation and survival. This may result in the inhibition of cellular proliferation in susceptible tumor cell populations. Hsp90, a molecular chaperone protein, is upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types.
  • Zelboraf Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: vemurafenib
  • zelenoleucel Dictionary of drugs: Z - A preparation of allogeneic multi-tumor-associated antigen MultiTAA-specific T lymphocytes, with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, zelenoleucel may target and kill tumor cells expressing the TAAs.
  • Zemplar Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: paricalcitol
  • Zemuron Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: rocuronium bromide
  • Zenapax Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: daclizumab
  • zenocutuzumab Dictionary of drugs: Z - A full-length IgG1 bispecific antibody with enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity ADCC directed against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 HER2; EGFR2, ERBB2 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 HER3; ErbB3, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration of zenocutuzumab, the bispecific antibody docks on HER2, and subsequently blocks heregulin-stimulated proliferation of tumor cells by binding HER3. In addition to inhibiting HER3-dependent signaling, simultaneous targeting of HER2 and HER3 by zenocutuzumab may overcome a common resistance mechanism driven by heregulin-mediated dimerization of HER2 and HER3. Zenocutuzumab is expected to eliminate tumor cells by recruiting natural killer NK cells to tumor cells coated with the bispecific antibody.
  • Zenpep Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: pancrelipase
  • Zentel Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: albendazole
  • Zepatier Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: elbasvir/grazoprevir
  • Zepzelca Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: lurbinectedin
  • Zerbaxa Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: ceftolozane-tazobactam
  • Zerit Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: stavudine
  • Zestril Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: lisinopril
  • Zetia Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: ezetimibe
  • Zevalin Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: ibritumomab tiuxetan
  • Zeven Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: Hsp90 inhibitor debio 0932
  • Zeven Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: dalbavancin
  • zhongyao fufang Dictionary of drugs: Z - A combination formula consisting of two or more unknown Traditional Chinese Medicine TCM ingredients, with potential anti-osteoporotic activity. Upon oral administration, this particular formula of zhongyao fufang may promote increased bone strength and density.
  • Ziagen Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: abacavir sulfate
  • zibotentan Dictionary of drugs: Z - An orally available selective antagonist of the endothelin-A ET-A receptor with potential antineoplastic activity. Zibotentan binds selectively to the ET-A receptor, thereby inhibiting endothelin-mediated mechanisms that promote tumor cell proliferation.
  • ziconotide Dictionary of drugs: Z - A synthetic, nonopiod, twenty-five amino acid polybasic peptide analogue of an omega-conotoxin derived from the marine snail Conus magus with analgesic activity. Ziconotide appears to block neuronal N-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels NCCB, inhibiting transmission from pain-sensing primary nociceptors. This agent may exhibit significant analgesic activity in refractory pain.
  • zidovudine Dictionary of drugs: Z - A synthetic dideoxynucleoside. After intracellular phosphorylation to its active metabolite, zidovudine inhibits DNA polymerase, resulting in the inhibition of DNA replication and cell death. This agent also decreases levels of available pyrimidines.
  • Ziextenzo Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: pegfilgrastim
  • zileuton Dictionary of drugs: Z - A synthetic derivative of hydroxyurea with antiasthmatic properties. The leukotriene inhibitor zileuton blocks 5-lipoxygenase, which catalyzes the formation of leukotrienes from arachidonic acid; causes bronchodilation; decreases bronchial mucous secretion and edema; and may prevent or decrease the symptoms of asthma.
  • zilucoplan Dictionary of drugs: Z - A synthetic macrocyclic peptide inhibitor of the terminal complement protein C5, with potential anti-inflammatory and cell protective activities. Upon subcutaneous administration, zilucoplan binds to a unique site in terminal complement protein C5, which blocks C5 cleavage into C5a and C5b and prevents the C5b-dependent assembly of the membrane-attack complex MAC. Zilucoplan also inhibits the interaction between C5b and C6, thereby further blocking MAC assembly. This prevents MAC-mediated lysis and destruction of red blood cells RBCs that occurs in complement-mediated diseases, such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria PNH, generalized myasthenia gravis gMG and lupus nephritis LN. C5, a complement pathway protein, is expressed at high levels by the liver.
  • zimberelimab Dictionary of drugs: Z - A human immunoglobulin G4 IgG4 monoclonal antibody directed against the negative immunoregulatory human cell receptor programmed cell death protein 1 PD-1; PDCD1; CD279, with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, zimberelimab targets, binds to and inhibits PD-1 and its downstream signaling pathways. This may restore immune function through the activation of T cells and T-cell-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. PD-1, a transmembrane protein in the immunoglobulin superfamily IgSF expressed on T cells, functions as an immune checkpoint that negatively regulates T-cell activation and effector function when activated by its ligands programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 PD-L1; B7-H1; CD274 and 2 PD-L2; it plays an important role in tumor evasion from host immunity.
  • zinc finger nuclease ZFN-603 Dictionary of drugs: Z - A zinc finger nuclease ZFN targeting the human papillomavirus HPV type 16 HPV16 oncoprotein E7, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon transfection of ZFN-603 into HPV16-positive cells, ZFN-603 targets, binds to and cleaves the HPV16 E7 oncogene in HPV16-infected cells. By cleaving the HPV16 E7 DNA, the E7 oncoprotein is not expressed. This results in an inhibition of E7-mediated signaling, an induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in HPV16-expressing cells. In addition, preventing E7 expression induces the expression of tumor suppressor genes, thereby further preventing HPV-induced cancer cell formation and proliferation. E7 plays a key role in promoting both viral infection and carcinogenesis. ZFN, an engineered endonuclease in which a DNA-binding zinc finger protein is fused to a DNA-cleavable domain, cleaves specific DNA sites.
  • zinc finger nuclease ZFN-758 Dictionary of drugs: Z - A zinc finger nuclease ZFN targeting the human papillomavirus HPV type 18 HPV18 oncoprotein E7, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon transfection of ZFN-758 into HPV18-positive cells, ZFN-758 targets, binds to and cleaves the HPV18 E7 oncogene in HPV18-infected cells. By cleaving the HPV18 E7 DNA, the E7 oncoprotein is not expressed. This results in an inhibition of E7-mediated signaling, an induction of apoptosis, and an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in HPV18-expressing cells. In addition, preventing E7 expression induces the expression of tumor suppressor genes, thereby further preventing HPV-induced cancer cell formation and proliferation. E7 plays a key role in promoting both viral infection and carcinogenesis. ZFN, an engineered endonuclease in which a DNA-binding zinc finger protein is fused to a DNA-cleavable domain, cleaves specific DNA sites.
  • zinc gluconate Dictionary of drugs: Z - A nutritional supplement containing the zinc salt form of gluconic acid for the purpose of providing zinc. As an essential trace element, zinc is of key importance in many biological processes, acts as an antioxidant and strengthens the immune system. Although the mechanism of action is not completely known, zinc supplementation may be used to increase immunity against viruses or may interfere with the replication of certain viruses, such as the human papillomavirus HPV.
  • zinc oxide/aluminum starch octenylsuccinate/glycyrrhetinic phytosome/vitamin E/botanical extracts-based skin protectant paste Dictionary of drugs: Z - A paste containing multiple skin protectants with anti-oxidant, skin protecting, moisturizing, anti-erythema and anti-inflammatory activities. The paste includes zinc oxide, aluminum starch octenylsuccinate, lanolin, allantoin, chamomile and sweet almond oil, rice bran oil, shea butter, dimethicone polymerized siloxane, petrolatum, vitamin E, phytosome of glycyrrhetinic acid and botanical extracts derived from Calendula officinalis, Malva sylvestris and Tilia tomentosa. Upon application, this paste provides a physical barrier on the skin and may help protect, soothe and moisturize the skin as well as restore skin softness, integrity and elasticity. When this paste is applied to the perineum area, it may help prevent radiation-induced dermatitis.
  • zinc sulfate Dictionary of drugs: Z - A salt of the essential trace metal zinc. Zinc is involved in tissue repair and is an important constituent of some proteins, including those involved in taste and smell. Zinc sulfate supplementation may prevent radiation-induced aguesia.
  • Zinecard Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: dexrazoxane hydrochloride
  • zinostatin Dictionary of drugs: Z - An enediyne antineoplastic antibiotic hybrid containing an aminoglycoside chromophore. Zinostatin is isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces carzinostaticus. The aminoglycoside component of zinostatin intercalates into DNA and the benzene diradical intermediate of the enediyne core binds to the minor groove of DNA, resulting in single- and double-strand breaks in DNA and apoptosis.
  • Zinplava Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: bezlotoxumab
  • Zipan Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: promethazine hydrochloride
  • Zirabev Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: bevacizumab
  • zirconium Zr 89 anti-CD8 antibody ZED88082A Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of an antibody targeting the human CD8 antigen on CD8-positive CD8+ T cells and labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89, with potential imaging activity using positron emission tomography PET. Upon administration, the antibody moiety of ZED88082A specifically targets and binds to the CD8 antigen expressed on T cells. This allows for visualization of CD8+ T cells upon imaging using PET. CD8+ T cells are effector cells involved in the immune response against tumor cells and play a key role in the eradication of tumor cells.
  • zirconium Zr 89-anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody ABT-806 Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate composed of ABT-806, a humanized immunoglobulin G1 IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR, labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89, with potential use as an imaging agent upon positron emission tomography PET. Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89 anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody ABT-806, the antibody moiety binds to a specific EGFR epitope of either the wild-type or the variant III mutant EGFRvIII; de2-7 EGFR; DEGFR on tumor cells. Upon PET imaging, EGFR-expressing tumor cells can be visualized and assessed. This may result in the quantification of EGFR-expressing tumor cells, an assessment of the expected response to treatment with ABT-806 and the selection of patients that would respond to ABT-806. ABT-806 is the humanized version of chimeric monoclonal antibody 806. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed on the cell surfaces of many tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation.
  • zirconium Zr 89-bevacizumab Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody bevacizumab labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89 Zr 89 with radioisotopic activity and potential imaging use. The antibody moiety of zirconium Zr 89-bevacizumab targets and binds to the extracellular domain of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor VEGFR. Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using positron emission tomography PET, allowing the imaging and quantification of VEGFR-expressing tumor cells. VEGFR, a tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor cell types.
  • zirconium Zr 89-cetuximab Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the recombinant chimeric monoclonal antibody cetuximab labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Z 89 Zr 89 with radioisotopic activity and potential imaging use. The antibody moiety of zirconium Zr 89-cetuximab binds to the extracellular domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR. Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using positron emission tomography PET, allowing the imaging and quantification of EGFR-expressing tumor cells. EGFR is a tyrosine kinase that may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor cell types.
  • zirconium Zr 89-desferrioxamine B monoclonal antibody huJ591 Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody J591 against prostate-specific membrane antigen PSMA conjugated to chelator desferrioxamine B DFO-B and labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89 with potential imaging property used in positron emission tomography PET imaging. Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89-desferrioxamine B monoclonal antibody huJ591, the antibody moiety binds to the extracellular domain of PSMA, and the radioisotope moiety may be detected using PET, thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of PSMA-expressing tumor cells. PSMA, or folate hydrolase is a cell surface peptidase highly expressed by malignant prostate epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells of numerous solid tumor malignancies. In addition, upon PET imaging this agent provides high tumor:background tissue ratios.
  • zirconium Zr 89-Df-IAB22M2C Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of a minibody Mb, an inert antibody fragment against the human CD8-antigen on CD8-positive T cells, conjugated to the chelator desferrioxamine Df and labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89, with potential positron emission tomography PET imaging activity. Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89-Df-IAB22M2C, the Mb moiety specifically targets and binds to the CD8 antigen expressed on T cells. This enables PET detection of the radioisotope moiety, and may allow the imaging, tracking and quantification of CD8-expressing T cells. This may detect CD8-positive T-cell distribution and activity, and may help determine the patient's response to cancer immunotherapeutic agents. CD8-positive T cells play a key role in the eradication of cancer cells. Although the Mb has the same antigen specificity and binding affinity as the full-length antibody, the Mb does not activate or induce the proliferation of CD8-positive T cells.
  • zirconium Zr 89-Df-IAB2M Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of an antibody fragment IAB2M against prostate-specific membrane antigen PSMA, conjugated to the chelator desferrioxamine Df and labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89, with potential positron emission tomography PET imaging activity. Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89-Df-IAB2M, the antibody moiety binds to the extracellular domain of PSMA expressed on cancer cells. This may enable PET detection of the radioisotope moiety, and allows the imaging and quantification of PSMA-expressing tumor cells. PSMA is a cell surface peptidase highly expressed by malignant prostate epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells in various solid tumor malignancies.
  • zirconium Zr 89-DFO-cRGDY PEG-Cy5-C' dots Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioconjugate composed of a tumor-selective fluorescent imaging agent containing silica-based nanoparticles labeled with a near-infrared NIR fluorophore, cyanine 5 Cy5, and surrounded by polyethylene glycol PEG chains attached to cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-tyrosine cyclo-Arg-Gly-Asp-Tyr; cRGDY peptides C' dots; Cornell prime dots; cRGDY-PEG-C' dots, and linked, via the chelator desferrioxamine DFO, to the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89 Zr89, with potential diagnostic properties upon positron emission tomography PET imaging. Upon intradermal administration of the zirconium Zr 89 cRGDY PEG-Cy5-C' dots, the cRGDY moiety selectively binds to alphaVbeta3 integrin expressed on tumor cells. Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using PET, thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of integrin-expressing tumor cells as well as the visualization of the distribution, uptake and removal within tumor tissues. The fluorescence imaging agent is used to visualize alphaVbeta3-expressing tumor cells and assess the degree of both tumor metastasis and sentinel lymph node SLN trafficking. Integrins are transmembrane glycoproteins upregulated on proliferating tumor vessel endothelial cells and various cancer cells; their overexpression has been associated with neovascularization, differentiation, proliferation of tumor cells, metastasis and an overall poor prognosis.
  • zirconium Zr 89-DFO-daratumumab Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate containing daratumumab, a human immunoglobulin G1 kappa IgG1k monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface glycoprotein CD38, and linked, via the chelator desferrioxamine DFO, to the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89 Zr89, with potential diagnostic properties upon positron emission tomography PET imaging. Upon administration, the monoclonal antibody moiety of zirconium Zr 89-DFO-daratumumab specifically targets and binds to cell surface antigen CD38. Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using PET, thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of CD38-expressing tumor cells. CD38, a cell surface glycoprotein, is expressed on various hematopoietic cells and is overexpressed on multiple myeloma MM cells.
  • zirconium Zr 89-DFO-fianlimab Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of fianlimab, a human monoclonal antibody directed against the inhibitory receptor lymphocyte activation gene-3 protein LAG-3; LAG3; CD223, linked, via the chelator desferrioxamine DFO, to the positron-emitting radionuclide zirconium Zr 89 Zr89, with potential use as an imaging agent upon positron emission tomography PET imaging. Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89-DFO- fianlimab, the fianlimab moiety specifically targets and binds to LAG-3. Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using PET, thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of LAG-3-expressing tumor infiltrating lymphocytes TILs. LAG-3, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily IgSF, is expressed on various immune cells; its expression on TILs is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression and the negative regulation of both cellular proliferation and T-cell activation.
  • zirconium Zr 89-DFO-REGN3504 Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate consisting of an antibody directed against the immunosuppressive ligand programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 PD-L1; cluster of differentiation 274; CD274, linked, via the chelator desferrioxamine DFO, to the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89 Zr89, with potential diagnostic properties upon positron emission tomography PET imaging. Upon administration, the antibody moiety of zirconium Zr 89-DFO-REGN3504 specifically targets and binds to PD-L1. Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using PET, thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of PD-L1-expressing tumor cells. PD-L1, a transmembrane protein expressed on activated T cells, is overexpressed in some cancer types and plays a significant role in immune evasion by tumor cells.
  • zirconium Zr 89-DFO-SC16.56 Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate composed of SC16.56, a monoclonal antibody directed against the tumor-associated antigen TAA delta-like protein 3 DLL3; delta like canonical notch ligand 3; drosophila delta homolog 3; delta3; delta-like 3; SCDO1, and linked, via the chelator desferrioxamine DFO, to the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89 Zr89, with potential diagnostic properties upon positron emission tomography PET imaging. Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89-DFO-SC16.56, the monoclonal antibody moiety specifically targets and binds to DLL3. Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety is detected using PET, thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of DLL3-expressing tumor cells. DLL3, a Notch pathway protein, is overexpressed on a variety of cancer cell types. It plays a key role in embryonic development and in tumor initiation and proliferation.
  • zirconium Zr 89-DFO-vandortuzumab vedotin Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate composed of the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89 conjugated to an antibody that targets six transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 1 STEAP1 that can potentially be used as a prostate cancer tracer during positron emission tomography PET. Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89-DFO-vandortuzumab vedotin, the antibody moiety DFO-vandortuzumab vedotin binds to STEAP1 on prostate cancer cells. In turn, Zr 89 allows for the visualization of those cells using PET. STEAP1, a six-transmembrane domain protein, is overexpressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells.
  • zirconium Zr 89-girentuximab Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the recombinant chimeric monoclonal antibody girentuximab, that binds an extracellular epitope of carbonic anhydrase IX CAIX, and labeled with the radioisotope zirconium 89 Zr 89 with potential use as an imaging agent upon positron emission tomography PET. The antibody moiety of zirconium Zr 89-girentuximab binds to CAIX expressed on tumor cells. Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using PET, which enables the imaging and quantification of CAIX-expressing tumor cells. CAIX, a hypoxia-inducible transmembrane glycoprotein, is overexpressed on renal cell carcinoma RCC and various other tumors; it plays a key role in intra- and extracellular pH regulation, cancer cell progression, survival, migration and invasion.
  • zirconium Zr 89-labeled anti-CA19-9 monoclonal antibody 5B1 Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the recombinant human monoclonal antibody against the carbohydrate antigen sialyl-Lewis a carbohydrate antigen 19-9; CA19-9 conjugated to the chelator desferrioxamine DFO and labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89 Zr 89, with radioisotopic activity and potential use as an imaging agent in positron emission tomography PET. The antibody moiety of zirconium Zr 89 anti-CA19-9 monoclonal antibody 5B1 targets and binds to CA19-9 expressing-tumor cells. Upon binding, internalization and proteolysis, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using PET, thus allowing imaging and quantification of CA19-9-expressing tumor cells. CA19-9, overexpressed on a number of different tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell survival and metastasis.
  • zirconium Zr 89-labeled anti-PIGF monoclonal antibody RO5323441 Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate comprised of the humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody directed against placental growth factor PlGF and labeled with zirconium Zr 89 Zr 89, with potential radiotracer activity upon positron emission tomography PET imaging. The monoclonal antibody moiety of RO5323441 binds to both PlGF-1 and -2, thereby preventing the binding of PlGF-1 and -2 to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 VEGFR-1 and the subsequent activation of VEGFR-1. The radioisotope moiety of RO5323441 may be detected using PET, thereby allowing for visualization of the antibody‚Äôs distribution and PlGF expression. PlGF, a member of the VEGF sub-family and a key molecule in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, is upregulated in many cancers.
  • zirconium Zr 89-labeled atezolizumab Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate composed of atezolizumab, a humanized, Fc-optimized, monoclonal antibody directed against programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 PD-L1 and labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89, with potential use for assessing PD-L1-expressing tumor cells using positron emission tomography PET. Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89-labeled atezolizumab, the antibody moiety targets and binds to PD-L1. Following tumor cell uptake, the radioisotope moiety can be visualized using PET. This may result in the quantification of PD-L1-expressing tumor cells, an assessment of the expected response to treatment with atezolizumab as well as selection of patients that would respond to atezolizumab. PD-L1 is overexpressed on many human cancer cell types; PD-L1 binding to programmed cell death 1 PD-1 on T-cells suppresses the immune system and results in increased immune evasion.
  • zirconium Zr 89-labeled monoclonal antibody MMOT0530A Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate composed of a monoclonal antibody that targets an antigen overexpressed in pancreatic and ovarian cancer and labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89, with potential use for assessing tumor antigen expression using positron emission tomography PET. Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89-labeled monoclonal antibody MMOT0530A, this agent targets an antigen expressed on certain tumor cells and is internalized. Following tumor cell uptake, the radioisotope moiety can be visualized using PET imaging. This may result in both the quantification of tumor antigen expression and an assessment of the response to treatment with therapeutics targeting the antigen.
  • zirconium Zr 89-labeled RO5479599 Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate containing a glycoengineered, humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor HER3 ErbB3 and labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89, with radioisotopic activity and potential use as an imaging agent as well as potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the RO5479599 moiety of zirconium Zr 89-labeled RO5479599 binds to the extracellular domain of HER3 and inhibits HER3 dimerization, thereby preventing EGFR-dependent signaling. In addition, RO5479599 elicits enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity ADCC. Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using positron emission tomography PET, thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of HER3-expressing tumor cells. HER3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is frequently overexpressed in tumors; it has no active kinase domain but is activated through heterodimerization with other members of the EGFR receptor family, such as HER2.
  • zirconium Zr 89-nanocolloidal albumin Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate composed of a nanoformulation of colloidal human serum albumin HSA labeled with zirconium Zr 89 Zr89, via the bifunctional chelate p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-desferrioxamine B, with potential imaging activity using positron emission tomography PET. Upon administration, the zirconium Zr 89-nanocolloidal albumin travels through the bloodstream and into the lymphatic system. Using PET, the draining pattern of the lymph nodes can be visualized and lymph node status, including that of the sentinel lymph node SLN, can be detected and analyzed. Compared to some other formulations, the smaller particle size of nanocolloidal albumin allows for enhanced imaging of the lymphatic system.
  • zirconium Zr 89-panitumumab Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate composed of panitumumab, a human immunoglobulin G2 IgG2 monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR; HER1; ErbB1, labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89, with potential use as an imaging agent upon positron emission tomography PET. Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89-panitumumab, the antibody moiety targets and binds to the extracellular domain of EGFR on tumor cells. Upon PET imaging, EGFR-expressing tumor cells can be visualized and assessed. This allows quantification of EGFR-expressing tumor cells and may allow selection of patients that would respond to panitumumab therapy. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed on the cell surfaces of many tumor cell types, plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation.
  • zirconium Zr 89-pembrolizumab Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate composed of pembrolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody immunoglobulin Ig G4 antibody directed against the human cell surface receptor programmed cell death 1 PD-1; PDCD1; CD279; programmed cell death-1, labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89, with potential use as an imaging agent upon positron emission tomography PET. Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89 pembrolizumab, the antibody moiety binds to PD-1, an inhibitory signaling receptor expressed on the surface of activated T cells, and blocks the binding to and activation of PD-1 by its ligands. Upon PET imaging, PD-1-expressing T cells, as well as pembrolizumab biodistribution, can be visualized and the expected response to treatment with pembrolizumab, as well as selection of patients that would respond to pembrolizumab, can be assessed. The ligands for PD-1 include programmed cell death-1 ligand 1 PD-L1, which is overexpressed on certain cancer cells, and programmed cell death-1 ligand 2 PD-L2, which is primarily expressed on antigen-presenting cells APCs. Activated PD-1 negatively regulates T-cell activation and plays a key role in tumor evasion from host immunity.
  • zirconium Zr 89-pertuzumab Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate composed of pertuzumab, a humanized recombinant monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular dimerization domain of the tyrosine kinase receptor human epidermal growth factor-2 HER2; HER-2, and linked, via the chelator desferrioxamine DFO, to the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89 Zr89, with potential use in imaging of HER-2-expressing tumor cells upon positron emission tomography PET. Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89-DFO-pertuzumab, the pertuzumab moiety targets and binds to HER-2. After binding and internalization into HER-2-expressing tumor cells, Zr89 facilitates the visualization and detection of HER-2-expressing tumor cells using PET. This assesses HER2-expression and may predict or evaluate the tumor's response to certain HER-2-targeting chemotherapeutics.
  • zirconium Zr 89-ss-pertuzumab Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate composed of pertuzumab, a humanized recombinant monoclonal antibody directed against the extracellular dimerization domain of the tyrosine kinase receptor human epidermal growth factor-2 HER2; HER-2, and linked, using a site-specific bioconjugation method, to the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89 Zr89, with potential use in the imaging of HER-2-expressing tumor cells upon positron emission tomography PET. Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89-ss-pertuzumab, the pertuzumab moiety targets and binds to HER-2. After binding and internalization into HER-2-expressing tumor cells, Zr89 facilitates the visualization and detection of HER-2-expressing tumor cells using PET. This assesses HER2-expression and may predict or evaluate the tumor's response to certain HER-2-targeting chemotherapeutics. Site-specific bioconjugation may produce better defined and more homogeneous radioimmunoconjugates.
  • zirconium Zr 89-TAK-164 Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate composed of TAK-164, an antibody-drug conjugate ADC comprised of a full-length, human immunoglobulin G1 IgG1 monoclonal antibody mAb directed against the extracellular domain of guanylyl cyclase C GCC; GUCY2C conjugated to the DNA alkylator DGN549 IGN-P1, and linked to the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89 Zr89, with potential use in imaging of GCC-expressing tumor cells upon positron emission tomography PET. Upon administration of zirconium Zr 89-TAK-164, the TAK-164 moiety targets and binds to GCC. After binding, Zr89 facilitates the visualization and detection of GCC-expressing tumor cells using PET. This assesses GCC-expression and may predict or evaluate the tumor's response to TAK-164.
  • zirconium Zr 89-trastuzumab Dictionary of drugs: Z - A radioimmunoconjugate containing the recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab labeled with the radioisotope zirconium Zr 89 with radioisotopic activity and potential use as an imaging agent. The trastuzumab moiety of zirconium Zr 89-trastuzumab binds with high affinity to the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 HER2. Upon binding, the radioisotope moiety may be detected using positron emission tomography PET, thereby allowing the imaging and quantification of HER2-expressing tumor cells. HER2, a tyrosine kinase client protein of heat shock protein 90 Hsp90, may be overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various tumor cell types.
  • Zithromax Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: azithromycin
  • ziv-aflibercept Dictionary of drugs: Z - A protein comprised of segments of the extracellular domains of human vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 VEGFR1 and 2 VEGFR2 fused to the constant region Fc of human IgG1 with potential antiangiogenic activity. Afilbercept, functioning as a soluble decoy receptor, binds to pro-angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factors VEGFs, thereby preventing VEGFs from binding to their cell receptors. Disruption of the binding of VEGFs to their cell receptors may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, metastasis, and ultimately tumor regression.
  • Zocor Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: simvastatin
  • Zofran Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: ondansetron hydrochloride
  • Zofran Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: ondansetron
  • Zoladex Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: goserelin acetate
  • zolbetuximab Dictionary of drugs: Z - A monoclonal antibody directed against the antigen GC182 with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, zolbetuximab specifically binds to GC128, which may stimulate the immune system to mount a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte CTL response against GC182-expressing tumor cells, resulting in decreased tumor cell proliferation. The CD20-like antigen GC182, a gastric differentiation protein, is often overexpressed on the cell surfaces of a variety of tumor cells, including gastric, pancreatic, esophageal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer NSCLC cells.
  • zoledronic acid Dictionary of drugs: Z - A synthetic imidazole bisphosphonate analog of pyrophosphate with anti-bone-resorption activity. A third-generation bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid binds to hydroxyapatite crystals in the bone matrix, slowing their dissolution and inhibiting the formation and aggregation of these crystals. This agent also inhibits farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, an enzyme involved in terpenoid biosynthesis. Inhibition of this enzyme prevents the biosynthesis of isoprenoid lipids, donor substrates of farnesylation and geranylgeranylation during the post-translational modification of small GTPase signalling proteins, which are important in the process of osteoclast turnover. Decreased bone turnover and stabilization of the bone matrix contribute to the analgesic effect of zoledronic acid with respect to painful osteoblastic lesions. The agent also reduces serum calcium concentrations associated with hypercalcemia.
  • Zolinza Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: vorinostat
  • zolmitriptan Dictionary of drugs: Z - A member of the triptan class agents with anti-migraine property. Zolmitriptan selectively binds to and activates serotonin 5-HT 1B expressed in intracranial arteries and 5_HT 1D receptors located on peripheral trigeminal sensory nerve terminals in the meninges and central terminals in brain stem sensory nuclei. Receptor binding results in constriction of cranial vessels, reduction of the vessel pulsation and inhibition of nociceptive transmission, thereby providing relief of migraine headaches. Zolmitriptan may also relief migraine headaches by inhibition pro-inflammatory neuropeptide release.
  • Zoloft Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: sertraline hydrochloride
  • zolpidem tartrate Dictionary of drugs: Z - The tartrate salt of an imidazopyridine with non-benzodiazepine benzodiazepine-receptor agonist and sedative-hypnotic activities. Zolpidem binds selectively to the alpha 1 subunit of the omega-1 BZ1 receptor of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A GABA-A receptor-chloride ionophore complex, thereby opening neuronal chloride channels, hyperpolarizing neuronal cell membranes, and inhibiting neuronal firing. In contrast, benzodiazepines non-selectively bind to and activate all omega receptor subtypes, exhibiting anticonvulsant and myorelaxant activities in addition to a sedative-hypnotic activity.
  • Zometa Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: zoledronic acid
  • Zomig Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: zolmitriptan
  • zopiclone Dictionary of drugs: Z - The racemic form of a nonbenzodiazepine, cyclopyrrolone with hypnotic and sedative activity and without significant anxiolytic activity. Although the exact mechanism of action remains to be fully elucidated, zopiclone is able to bind to and activate the omega-1 subtype of the alpha subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-benzodiazepine GABA receptor complex GABA-A, a chloride ionophore complex in the central nervous system CNS. This leads to the opening of chloride channels, causing hyperpolarization, inhibition of neuronal firing, and enhancement of the inhibitory effect of GABA. This eventually leads to a hypnotic effect and allows for an induction of sleep.
  • zoptarelin doxorubicin Dictionary of drugs: Z - A peptide agonist of the gonadotropin releasing hormone-1 receptor GnRH-1R that is conjugated to the anthracycline antibiotic doxorubicin with potential antineoplastic activity. Zoptarelin doxorubicin binds to GnRH-1Rs, which may be highly expressed on endometrial and ovarian tumor cell membrane surfaces, and is internalized. Once inside the cell, the doxorubicin moiety of this agent intercalates into DNA and inhibits the topoisomerase II activity, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell DNA replication and tumor cell proliferation.
  • Zortress Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: everolimus
  • zorubicin hydrochloride Dictionary of drugs: Z - A benzoyl-hydrazone derivative of the anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic daunorubicin. Zorubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis.
  • Zostavax Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: varicella zoster virus strain Oka/Merck live antigen
  • zoster vaccine recombinant, adjuvanted Dictionary of drugs: Z - A recombinant, subunit herpes zoster HZ vaccine containing varicella-zoster virus VZV glycoprotein E gE, that can potentially be used to prevent HZ infection, also called shingles. Upon administration, zoster vaccine recombinant, adjuvanted stimulates the host immune system to induce both specific CD4-positive T-cells and antibodies against VZV gE, thereby protecting against infection with HZ. VZV gE, the most common antigen in VZV viral particles, plays a key role in VZV infection. Compared to live-attenuated vaccines, the subunit vaccine prevents the risk of vaccine-induced HZ in immunocompromised patients.
  • zosuquidar trihydrochloride Dictionary of drugs: Z - A difluorocyclopropyl quinoline. Zosuquidar trihydrochloride binds with high affinity to P-glycoprotein and inhibits P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance MDR. P-glycoprotein, encoded by the MDR-1 gene, is a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of transmembrane transporters and prevents the intracellular accumulation of many natural product-derived cytotoxic agents.
  • zotatifin Dictionary of drugs: Z - A selective inhibitor of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A eIF4A, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of zotatifin, this agent targets and binds to elF4A, and promotes eIF4A binding to mRNA with specific polypurine motifs within their 5'-untranslated region 5'-UTR, leading to the formation of a stable sequence-specific ternary complex with eIF4A and mRNA elF4A- zotatifin-mRNA. This results in the translational repression of key oncogenes and anti-apoptotic proteins involved in tumor cell proliferation, survival and metastasis, such as KRAS, Myc, myeloid cell leukemia-1 Mcl-1, B-cell lymphoma 2 Bcl-2, cyclin-dependent kinase CDK 4 and 6, cyclin D, fibroblast growth factor receptor FGFR 1 and 2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 HER2; ERBB2, and beta-catenin. The inhibition of the expression of these oncogenes leads to the inhibition of various oncogenic signal transduction pathways. This inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. eIF4A, a RNA helicase and the rate-limiting component of the eukaryotic translation initiation complex, catalyzes the ATP-dependent unwinding of RNA duplexes and facilitates 43S ribosome scanning within the 5'-UTR. elF4A is activated by various oncogenic signaling pathways, including RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase MAPK and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase PI3K/AKT pathways, and regulates the translation of oncogenes and tumor survival factors with complex secondary structures within the 5'-UTRs that are required for tumor cell proliferation, survival and metastasis.
  • Zurinol Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: allopurinol sodium
  • Zyban Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: bupropion hydrochloride controlled-release
  • Zyban Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: bupropion hydrochloride
  • Zybrestat Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: fosbretabulin tromethamine
  • ZYBRESTAT Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: fosbretabulin disodium
  • ZYC300 Dictionary of drugs: Z - A plasmid DNA encoding an inactivated form of the carcinogen activator cytochrome P450 1B1 CYP1B1 encapsulated in biodegradable poly-DL-lactide-coglycolide microparticles with potential antineoplastic activity. Vaccination with ZYC300 may stimulate the immune system to elicit a cytotoxic T lymphocyte CTL response against the tumor-associated antigen TAA CYP1B1, which may result in the lysis of tumor cells expressing CYP1B1. CYP1B1, an extrahepatic monooxygenase of the cytochrome P450 family, is overexpressed in many cancers with only restricted expression in normal tissues.
  • Zyclara Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: imiquimod
  • Zydelig Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: idelalisib
  • Zyflo Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: zileuton
  • Zykadia Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: ceritinib
  • Zyloprim Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: allopurinol sodium
  • Zymase Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: pancrelipase
  • Zynlonta Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: loncastuximab tesirine-lpyl
  • Zyprexa Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: olanzapine
  • Zytiga Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: abiraterone acetate
  • Zyvox Dictionary of drugs: Z - is the brand name for: linezolid National Cancer Institute
 

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