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Dictionary of medicine

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Dictionary of medicine
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  • Abetalipoproteinemia -  a rare inherited disorder of fat metabolism; characterized by severe deficiency of beta-lipoproteins and abnormal red blood cells (acanthocytes) and abnormally low cholesterol levels
  • Abortifacient -  causing abortion;  a drug (or other chemical agent) that causes abortion
  • Abrasion -  erosion by friction; an abraded area where the skin is torn or worn off; the wearing down of rock particles by friction due to water or wind or ice
  • Abstinence -  act or practice of refraining from indulging an appetite; the trait of abstaining (especially from alcohol)
  • academic -  hypothetical or theoretical and not expected to produce an immediate or practical result; marked by a narrow focus on or display of learning especially its trivial aspects; associated with academia or an academy;  an educator who works at a college or university
  • Acanthocyte -  an abnormal red blood cell that has thorny projections of protoplasm
  • accident -  anything that happens by chance without an apparent cause; a mishap; especially one causing injury or death
  • Accreditation -  the act of granting credit or recognition (especially with respect to educational institution that maintains suitable standards)
  • acetic acid -  a colorless pungent liquid widely used in manufacturing plastics and pharmaceuticals
  • Acetyl chloride -  colorless liquid acyl chloride (CH3COCl) that has a pungent odor
  • Achlorhydria -  an abnormal deficiency or absence of free hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice; often associated with severe anemias and cancer of the stomach
  • Acidosis -  abnormally high acidity (excess hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
  • Actifed -  trade name for a drug containing an antihistamine and a decongestant; used to treat upper respiratory conditions and minor allergies
  • Actinomycosis -  disease of cattle that can be transmitted to humans; results from infection with actinomycetes; characterized by hard swellings that exude pus through long sinuses
  • Adaptation -  (physiology) the responsive adjustment of a sense organ (as the eye) to varying conditions (as of light); a written work (as a novel) that has been recast in a new form; the process of adapting to something (such as environmental conditions)
  • Adenoma -  a benign epithelial tumor of glandular origin
  • Adenomyosis -  the presence of endometrium elsewhere than in the lining of the uterus; causes premenstrual pain and dysmenorrhea
  • Adhesive bandage -  bandage consisting of a medical dressing of plain absorbent gauze held in place by a plastic or fabric tape coated with adhesive
  • Adjuvant -  enhancing the action of a medical treatment; furnishing added support;  an additive that enhances the effectiveness of medical treatment
  • Aerophagia -  swallowing air (usually followed by belching and discomfort and flatulence)
  • Agility -  the gracefulness of a person or animal that is quick and nimble
  • Airborne -  moved or conveyed by or through air
  • Airborne transmission -  a transmission mechanism in the which the infectious agent is spread as an aerosol and usually enters a person through the respiratory tract
  • Airsickness -  motion sickness experienced while traveling by air (especially during turbulence)
  • Albert Sabin -  United States microbiologist (born in Poland) who developed the Sabin vaccine that is taken orally against poliomyelitis (born 1906)
  • Albuminuria -  the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
  • Alcohol thermometer -  thermometer consisting of a glass capillary tube marked with degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit and containing alcohol which rises or falls as it expands or contracts with changes in temperature
  • Alcoholism -  habitual intoxication; prolonged and excessive intake of alcoholic drinks leading to a breakdown in health and an addiction to alcohol such that abrupt deprivation leads to severe withdrawal symptoms; an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess
  • Alkalosis -  abnormally high alkalinity (low hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
  • Alpha wave -  the normal brainwave in the electroencephalogram of a person who is awake but relaxed; occurs with a frequency of 8-12 hertz
  • alternative medicine -  the practice of medicine without the use of drugs; may involve herbal medicines or self-awareness or biofeedback or acupuncture
  • Alveolar process -  a ridge that forms the borders of the upper and lower jaws and contains the sockets of the teeth
  • Amastia -  absence of the mammary glands (either through surgery or developmental defect)
  • Amelia -  congenital absence of an arm or leg
  • Ampicillin -  semisynthetic penicillin (trade names Principen and Polycillin and SK-Ampicillin)
  • Amputation -  a surgical removal of all or part of a limb; a condition of disability resulting from the loss of one or more limbs
  • Analgesia -  absence of the sense of pain without loss of consciousness
  • Anaplasia -  loss of structural differentiation within a cell or group of cells often with increased capacity for multiplication, as in a malignant tumor
  • Anastomosis -  a natural or surgical joining of parts or branches of tubular structures so as to make or become continuous
  • anatomy -  a detailed analysis; the branch of morphology that deals with the structure of animals; alternative names for the body of a human being
  • Anderson -  United States physicist who discovered antimatter in the form of an antielectron that is called the positron (1905-1991); United States contralto noted for her performance of spirituals (1902-1993); United States dramatist (1888-1959); United States physicist who studied the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems (1923-); United States author whose works were frequently autobiographical (1876-1941)
  • Anesthesia -  loss of bodily sensation with or without loss of consciousness
  • Angiography -  roentgenographic examination of blood vessels after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium; produces an angiogram
  • Angiology -  the branch of medical science that studies the blood and lymph vessels and their disorders
  • Angioma -  a tumor consisting of a mass of blood or lymphatic vessels
  • Angiopathy -  any disease of the blood vessels or lymph ducts
  • Angiosarcoma -  a rare malignant neoplasm arising from vascular tissue; usually occurs in the breast and skin and is believed to originate from the endothelial cells of blood vessels
  • Aniseikonia -  visual defect in which the shape and size of an ocular image differ in the two eyes
  • Anisometropia -  difference in the refractive power of the two eyes
  • Ankylosis -  abnormal adhesion and rigidity of the bones of a joint
  • Anomic aphasia -  inability to name objects or to recognize written or spoken names of objects
  • Anorchia -  absence of one of both testes
  • Anorexia -  a prolonged disorder of eating due to loss of appetite
  • Anovulation -  the absence of ovulation due to immaturity or post-maturity or pregnancy or oral contraceptive pills or dysfunction of the ovary
  • Anthelmintic -  capable of expelling or destroying parasitic worms;  a medication capable of causing the evacuation of parasitic intestinal worms
  • antibody -  any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response
  • Anticipation -  something expected (as on the basis of a norm); pleasurable expectation; wishing with confidence of fulfillment; the act of predicting (as by reasoning about the future)
  • Antidote -  a remedy that stops or controls the effects of a poison
  • Antiemetic -  a drug that prevents or alleviates nausea and vomiting
  • Antigua -  the largest of the islands comprising Antigua and Barbuda
  • Antimetabolite -  an antineoplastic drug that inhibits the utilization of a metabolite
  • Antipyretic -  preventing or alleviating fever;  any medicine that lowers body temperature to prevent or alleviate fever
  • antiseptic -  (extended sense) of exceptionally clean language; clean and honest; thoroughly clean and free of or destructive to disease-causing organisms; made free from live bacteria or other microorganisms; freeing from error or corruption;  a substance that destroys micro-organisms that carry disease without harming body tissues
  • Antitoxin -  an antibody that can neutralize a specific toxin
  • Apgar score -  an assessment of the physical condition of a newborn infant; involves heart rate and muscle tone and respiratory effort and color and reflex responsiveness
  • Aphakia -  absence of the natural lens of the eye (usually resulting from the removal of cataracts)
  • Aphonia -  a disorder of the vocal organs that results in the loss of voice
  • Apoplexy -  a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain
  • Appetite -  a feeling of craving something
  • Archive -  a depository containing historical records and documents;  put into an archive
  • Arcus senilis -  an whitish deposit in the shape of an arc that is sometimes seen in the cornea
  • Argyrol -  antiseptic consisting of a compound of protein and silver (trade name Argyrol)
  • Arthrodesis -  the surgical fixation of a joint which is intended to result in bone fusion
  • Arthrogram -  an X ray of a joint after the injection of a contrast medium
  • Arthroplasty -  surgical reconstruction or replacement of a malformed or degenerated joint
  • Arthur Mitchell -  United States dancer who formed the first Black classical ballet company (born in 1934)
  • Artificial kidney -  a machine that uses dialysis to remove impurities and waste products from the bloodstream before returning the blood to the patient's body
  • Artificial skin -  a synthetic covering with two layers used experimentally to treat burn victims
  • Asepsis -  (of non-living objects) the state of being free of pathogenic organisms; the process of inhibiting the growth and multiplication of microorganisms
  • Aspiration pneumonia -  inflammation of the lungs caused by inhaling or choking on vomitus; may occur during unconsciousness (anesthesia or drunkenness or seizure or cardiac arrest)
  • aspirin -  the acetylated derivative of salicylic acid; used as an analgesic anti-inflammatory drug (trade names Bayer and Empirin) usually taken in tablet form; used as an antipyretic; slows clotting of the blood by poisoning platelets
  • Asthenia -  an abnormal loss of strength
  • Astigmatism -  (optics) defect in an optical system in which light rays from a single point fail to converge in a single focal point; (ophthalmology) impaired eyesight resulting usually from irregular conformation of the cornea
  • Asystole -  absence of systole; failure of the ventricles of the heart to contract (usually caused by ventricular fibrillation) with consequent absence of the heart beat leading to oxygen lack and eventually to death
  • Atelectasis -  collapse of an expanded lung (especially in infants); also failure of pulmonary alveoli to expand at birth
  • Atherosclerosis -  a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
  • Atrioventricular block -  recurrent sudden attacks of unconsciousness caused by impaired conduction of the impulse that regulates the heartbeat
  • Atrophy -  any weakening or degeneration (especially through lack of use); a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse;  undergo atrophy
  • Atropine -  a poisonous crystalline alkaloid extracted from the nightshade family; used as an antispasmodic and to dilate the eye pupil; also administered in large amounts as an antidote for organophosphate nerve agents or organophosphate insecticides
  • attorney -  a professional person authorized to practice law; conducts lawsuits or gives legal advice
  • Auditory agnosia -  inability to recognize or understand the meaning of spoken words
  • Augustine -  (Roman Catholic Church) one of the great fathers of the early Christian church; after a dramatic conversion to Christianity he became bishop of Hippo Regius in North Africa; St. Augustine emphasized man's need for grace (354-430)
  • Auscultation -  listening to sounds within the body (usually with a stethoscope)
  • Autoinjector -  a hypodermic syringe to use in injecting yourself with a liquid
  • Autologous -  derived from organisms of the selfsame individual
  • Automatism -  any reaction that occurs automatically without conscious thought or reflection (especially the undirected behavior seen in psychomotor epilepsy)
  • Autoregulation -  (physiology) processes that maintain a generally constant physiological state in a cell or organism
  • Aversion therapy -  any technique of behavior modification that uses unpleasant stimuli in a controlled fashion to alter behavior in a therapeutic way; primarily used for alcoholism or drug abuse (but with little success)
  • aviation medicine -  the study and treatment of disorders associated with flight (especially with space flight)
  • Azerbaijan -  a landlocked republic in southwestern Asia; formerly an Asian soviet
  • Baby-walker -  an enclosing framework on casters or wheels; helps babies learn to walk
  • bacitracin -  a polypeptide antibiotic of known chemical structure effective against several types of Gram-positive organisms; usually applied locally
  • Bagassosis -  alveolitis caused by inhaling bagasse (sugarcane dust)
  • Balanitis -  inflammation of the head of the penis
  • Bandage -  a piece of soft material that covers and protects an injured part of the body;  dress by covering or binding; wrap around with something so as to cover or enclose
  • Banding -  an adornment consisting of a strip of a contrasting color or material; a stripe or stripes of contrasting color
  • Banti's syndrome -  a disease characterized by congestion and enlargement of the spleen; accompanied by anemia or cirrhosis
  • Baroreceptor -  a sensory receptor that responds to pressure
  • basketball -  a game played on a court by two opposing teams of 5 players; points are scored by throwing the ball through an elevated horizontal hoop; an inflated ball used in playing basketball
  • Bed rest -  confinement to bed continuously (as in the case of some sick or injured persons)
  • Benzocaine -  a white crystalline ester used as a local anesthetic
  • Benzoyl peroxide -  a white crystalline peroxide used in bleaching (flour or oils or fats) and as a catalyst for free radical reactions
  • Beta-Carotene -  an isomer of carotene that is found in dark green and dark yellow fruits and vegetables
  • Beta Endorphin -  an endorphin produced by the pituitary gland that suppresses pain
  • biochemist -  someone with special training in biochemistry
  • biochemistry -  the organic chemistry of compounds and processes occuring in organisms; the effort to understand biology within the context of chemistry
  • Bioethics -  the branch of ethics that studies moral values in the biomedical sciences
  • biologist -  (biology) a scientist who studies living organisms
  • biology -  the science that studies living organisms; characteristic life processes and phenomena of living organisms; all the plant and animal life of a particular region
  • Biomedicine -  the branch of medical science that studies the ability of organisms to withstand environmental stress (as in space travel); the branch of medical science that applies biological and physiological principles to clinical practice
  • Birmingham -  a city in central England; 2nd largest English city and an important industrial and transportation center; the largest city in Alabama; located in northeastern Alabama
  • Birth trauma -  emotional injury inflicted on an infant by events incident to birth that is alleged to appear in symbolic form in patients with mental illness; physical injury to an infant during the birth process
  • Birthmark -  a blemish on the skin that is formed before birth
  • Black eye -  a bad reputation; an unfortunate happening that hinders or impedes; something that is thwarting or frustrating; a swollen bruise caused by a blow to the eye
  • Blackwater fever -  severe and often fatal malaria characterized by kidney damage resulting in dark urine
  • Blepharitis -  inflammation of the eyelids characterized by redness and swelling and dried crusts
  • Blepharospasm -  spasm of the eyelid muscle resulting in closure of the eye
  • Blind spot -  the point where the optic nerve enters the retina; not sensitive to light; a subject about which you are ignorant or prejudiced and fail to exercise good judgment
  • Blood bank -  a place for storing whole blood or blood plasma
  • Blood blister -  blister containing blood or bloody serum usually caused by an injury
  • Blunt trauma -  injury incurred when the human body hits or is hit by a large outside object (as a car)
  • Body odor -  malodorousness resulting from a failure to bathe
  • Bodywork -  the work of making or repairing vehicle bodies; the exterior body of a motor vehicle
  • Bone age -  a person's age measured by matching their bone development (as shown by X rays) with bone development of an average person of known chronological age
  • Booster dose -  an additional dose that makes sure the first dose was effective
  • Borrelia -  cause of e.g. European and African relapsing fever
  • Boswellia -  genus of trees of North Africa and India that yield incense
  • Bottled gas -  hydrocarbon gases, usually propane or butane, kept under pressure
  • Boutonneuse fever -  a disease (common in India and around the Mediterranean area) caused by a rickettsia that is transmitted to humans by a reddish brown tick (ixodid) that lives on dogs and other mammals
  • Bowman's capsule -  thin double membrane surrounding the glomerulus of a nephron
  • Brain fever -  meningitis caused by bacteria and often fatal
  • Bromide -  any of the salts of hydrobromic acid; formerly used as a sedative but now generally replaced by safer drugs; a trite or obvious remark
  • Bronchospasm -  a spasm of the bronchi that makes exhalation difficult and noisy; associated with asthma and bronchitis
  • Bundle of His -  a bundle of modified heart muscle that transmits the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contract
  • Burping -  a reflex that expels wind noisily from the stomach through the mouth
  • businessman -  a person engaged in commercial or industrial business (especially an owner or executive)
  • Cachexia -  any general reduction in vitality and strength of body and mind resulting from a debilitating chronic disease
  • Cadaver -  the dead body of a human being
  • Caffeinism -  poisoning resulting from excessive intake of caffeine containing products
  • Calamine -  a white mineral; a common ore of zinc
  • Calcification -  a process that impregnates something with calcium (or calcium salts); an inflexible and unchanging state; tissue hardened by deposition of lime salts
  • Calculus -  the branch of mathematics that is concerned with limits and with the differentiation and integration of functions; a hard lump produced by the concretion of mineral salts; found in hollow organs or ducts of the body; an incrustation that forms on the teeth and gums
  • Cannula -  a small flexible tube inserted into a body cavity for draining off fluid or introducing medication
  • Capitation -  a tax levied on the basis of a fixed amount per person
  • Carbuncle -  an infection larger than a boil and with several openings for discharge of pus; deep-red cabochon garnet cut without facets
  • Carcinoma -  any malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue; one of the four major types of cancer
  • Carcinoma in situ -  a cluster of malignant cells that has not yet invaded the deeper epithelial tissue or spread to other parts of the body
  • Carcinosarcoma -  a malignant neoplasm composed of carcinoma and sarcoma extensively intermixed
  • cardiology -  the branch of medicine dealing with the heart and its diseases
  • Cartilage -  tough elastic tissue; mostly converted to bone in adults
  • Casualty -  a decrease of military personnel or equipment; someone injured or killed in an accident; someone injured or killed or captured or missing in a military engagement; an accident that causes someone to die
  • Catalepsy -  a trancelike state with loss of voluntary motion and failure to react to stimuli
  • Catarrh -  inflammation of the nose and throat with increased production of mucus
  • Catecholamine -  any of a group of chemicals including epinephrine and norepinephrine that are produced in the medulla of the adrenal gland
  • Cathartic -  strongly laxative; emotionally purging (of e.g. art); emotionally purging;  a purging medicine; stimulates evacuation of the bowels
  • Causalgia -  a burning pain in a limb along the course of a peripheral nerve; usually associated with skin changes
  • Cauterization -  the act of coagulating blood and destroying tissue with a hot iron or caustic agent or by freezing
  • Cefoperazone -  a parenteral cephalosporin (trade name Cefobid) used for severe infections
  • Cefuroxime -  a cephalosporin that can be given parenterally (trade name Zinacef) or orally by tablets (trade name Ceftin); indicated for infections of the lungs or throat or ears or urinary tract or meninges
  • Cephalohematoma -  a collection of blood under the scalp of a newborn; caused by pressure during birth
  • Challenge -  a demand by a sentry for a password or identification; questioning a statement and demanding an explanation; a formal objection to the selection of a particular person as a juror; a call to engage in a contest or fight; a demanding or stimulating situation;  raise a formal objection in a court of law; ask for identification; issue a challenge to; take exception to
  • Chancre -  a small hard painless nodule at the site of entry of a pathogen (as syphilis)
  • Charcot -  French neurologist who tried to use hypnotism to cure hysteria (1825-1893)
  • charity -  an activity or gift that benefits the public at large; a kindly and lenient attitude toward people; an institution set up to provide help to the needy; a foundation created to promote the public good (not for assistance to any particular individuals); pinnate-leaved European perennial having bright blue or white flowers
  • Charley-horse -  a muscular cramp (especially in the thigh or calf) following vigorous exercise
  • chemist -  a scientist who specializes in chemistry; a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs
  • Chemosis -  edema of the mucous membrane of the eyeball and eyelid lining
  • chemotherapy -  the use of chemical agents to treat or control disease (or mental illness)
  • Chicago -  largest city in Illinois; a bustling Great Lakes port that extends 26 miles along the southwestern shoreline of Lake Michigan; a gambling card game in which chips are placed on the ace and king and queen and jack of separate suits (taken from a separate deck); a player plays the lowest card of a suit in his hand and successively higher cards are played until the sequence stops; the player who plays a card matching one in the layout wins all the chips on that card
  • Chilblains -  inflammation of the hands and feet caused by exposure to cold and moisture
  • Chlordiazepoxide -  a tranquilizer (trade names Librium and Libritabs) used in the treatment of alcoholism
  • Chlorhexidine -  a long-lasting liquid antiseptic; used by surgeons to wash their hands before performing surgery
  • chloride -  any salt of hydrochloric acid (containing the chloride ion); any compound containing a chlorine atom
  • Chloropicrin -  a heavy colorless insoluble liquid compound that causes tears and vomiting; used as a pesticide and as tear gas
  • Chlorosis -  iron deficiency anemia in young women; characterized by weakness and menstrual disturbances and a green color to the skin
  • Choking -  the act of suffocating (someone) by constricting the windpipe; a condition caused by blocking the airways to the lungs (as with food or swelling of the larynx)
  • Cholangiography -  roentgenographic examination of the bile ducts after a contrast medium has been injected
  • Cholestasis -  a condition in which little or no bile is secreted or the flow of bile into the digestive tract is obstructed
  • Cholic acid -  an insoluble crystalline acid present in bile
  • Chondrodystrophy -  an inherited skeletal disorder beginning before birth; cartilage is converted to bone resulting in dwarfism
  • Chorionic villus sampling -  a prenatal test to detect birth defects at an early stage of pregnancy; tissue from the chorionic villi is assayed
  • Choroid -  a highly vascular membrane in the eye between the retina and the sclera
  • Chromosome -  a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
  • Clanging -  having a loud resonant metallic sound
  • Claudication -  disability of walking due to crippling of the legs or feet
  • Climacteric -  a period in a man's life corresponding to menopause; the time in a woman's life in which the menstrual cycle ends
  • Clostridium perfringens -  anaerobic Gram-positive rod bacterium that produces epsilon toxin; can be used as a bioweapon
  • clothing -  a covering designed to be worn on a person's body
  • Clyster -  injection of a liquid through the anus to stimulate evacuation; sometimes used for diagnostic purposes
  • Co-option -  the act of appointing summarily (with or without the appointee's consent); the selection of a new member (usually by a vote of the existing membership)
  • Coagulase -  an enzyme that induces coagulation
  • Coal tar -  a tar formed from distillation of bituminous coal; coal tar can be further distilled to give various aromatic compounds
  • Coitus interruptus -  a method of birth control in which coitus is initiated but the penis is deliberately withdrawn before ejaculation
  • Cold turkey -  complete and abrupt withdrawal of all addictive drugs or anything else on which you have become dependent; a blunt expression of views
  • Colitis -  inflammation of the colon
  • Colostomy -  a surgical operation that creates an opening from the colon to the surface of the body to function as an anus
  • Common bile duct -  a duct formed by the hepatic and cystic ducts; opens into the duodenum
  • company -  an institution created to conduct business; a unit of firefighters including their equipment; a social gathering of guests or companions; organization of performers and associated personnel (especially theatrical); small military unit; usually two or three platoons; the state of being with someone; crew of a ship including the officers; the whole force or personnel of a ship; a band of people associated temporarily in some activity; a social or business visitor;  be a companion to somebody
  • Complement fixation test -  a blood test in which a sample of serum is exposed to a particular antigen and complement in order to determine whether or not antibodies to that particular antigen are present; used as a diagnostic test
  • Compliance -  happy friendly agreement; the act of submitting; usually surrendering power to another; acting according to certain accepted standards; a disposition or tendency to yield to the will of others
  • Complication -  the act or process of complicating; a development that complicates a situation; a situation or condition that is complex or confused; any disease or disorder that occurs during the course of (or because of) another disease; puzzling complexity
  • Comstock -  United States reformer who led moral crusades against art and literature that he considered obscene (1844-1915)
  • Concert -  a performance of music by players or singers not involving theatrical staging;  settle by agreement; contrive (a plan) by mutual agreement
  • Confabulation -  (psychiatry) a plausible but imagined memory that fills in gaps in what is remembered; an informal conversation
  • Conformation -  a symmetrical arrangement of the parts of a thing; acting according to certain accepted standards; any spatial attributes (especially as defined by outline)
  • Confusion -  a mistake that results from taking one thing to be another; an act causing a disorderly combination of elements with identities lost and distinctions blended; a mental state characterized by a lack of clear and orderly thought and behavior; a feeling of embarrassment that leaves you confused; disorder resulting from a failure to behave predictably
  • Congenital afibrinogenemia -  a rare congenital disorder of blood coagulation in which no fibrinogen is found in the blood plasma
  • conjunctiva -  a transparent membrane covering the eyeball and under surface of the eyelid
  • Contraindication -  (medicine) a reason that makes it inadvisable to prescribe a particular drug or employ a particular procedure or treatment
  • Convulsion -  a physical disturbance such as an earthquake or upheaval; a violent disturbance; violent uncontrollable contractions of muscles; a sudden uncontrollable attack
  • Coprophagia -  eating feces; in human a symptom of some kinds of insanity
  • Cordial -  sincerely or intensely felt; showing warm and heartfelt friendliness; diffusing warmth and friendliness;  strong highly flavored sweet liquor usually drunk after a meal
  • Coroner -  a public official who investigates by inquest any death not due to natural causes
  • Cortisone -  a corticosteroid hormone (trade name Cortone Acetate) normally produced by the adrenal cortex; is converted to hydrocortisone
  • Costochondritis -  inflammation at the junction of a rib and its cartilage
  • Cowlick -  a tuft of hair that grows in a different direction from the rest of the hair and usually will not lie flat
  • Craniotomy -  a surgical opening through the skull
  • Cryosurgery -  the use of extreme cold (usually liquid nitrogen) to destroy unwanted tissue (warts or cataracts or skin cancers)
  • Culdoscopy -  endoscopic examination of a woman's pelvic organs by the insertion of a culdoscope through the vagina
  • Culture -  the raising of plants or animals; (biology) the growing of microorganisms in a nutrient medium (such as gelatin or agar); the tastes in art and manners that are favored by a social group; the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization; a particular society at a particular time and place; all the knowledge and values shared by a society; a highly developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable quality
  • Cyanosis -  a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes; a sign that oxygen in the blood is dangerously diminished (as in carbon monoxide poisoning)
  • Cyclopia -  a developmental abnormality in which there is only one eye
  • Cyclothymia -  a mild bipolar disorder that persists over a long time
  • Cyproheptadine -  an antihistamine (trade name Periactin) used to treat some allergic reactions
  • Cytology -  the branch of biology that studies the structure and function of cells
  • Cytopenia -  a deficiency of some cellular element of the blood
  • Cytotoxicity -  the degree to which something is toxic to living cells
  • Dacryocystitis -  inflammation of the lacrimal sac causing obstruction of the tube draining tears into the nose
  • Darier's disease -  a rare hereditary condition marked by dark crusted patches (sometimes containing pus)
  • database -  an organized body of related information
  • David Bruce -  Australian physician and bacteriologist who described the bacterium that causes undulant fever or brucellosis (1855-1931)
  • Debridement -  surgical removal of foreign material and dead tissue from a wound in order to prevent infection and promote healing
  • deficiency -  lack of an adequate quantity or number; the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable
  • Deformity -  an affliction in which some part of the body is misshapen or malformed; an appearance that has been spoiled or is misshapen
  • Deletion -  the act of deleting something written or printed; the omission that is made when an editorial change shortens a written passage; (genetics) the loss or absence of one or more nucleotides from a chromosome; any process whereby sounds are left out of spoken words or phrases
  • Delta wave -  the normal brainwave in the encephalogram of a person in deep dreamless sleep; occurs with high voltage and low frequency (1 to 4 hertz)
  • dementia -  mental deterioration of organic or functional origin
  • Demulcent -  having a softening or soothing effect especially to the skin;  a medication (in the form of an oil or salve etc.) that soothes inflamed or injured skin
  • Dental hygienist -  someone trained to provide preventive dental service (cleaning teeth or taking x-rays)
  • dentistry -  the branch of medicine dealing with the anatomy and development and diseases of the teeth
  • Depression -  pushing down; sad feelings of gloom and inadequacy; angular distance below the horizon (especially of a celestial object); a concavity in a surface produced by pressing; a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity; a long-term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment; a period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment; a sunken or depressed geological formation; a state of depression and anhedonia so severe as to require clinical intervention; an air mass of lower pressure; often brings precipitation
  • depressive disorder -  a state of depression and anhedonia so severe as to require clinical intervention
  • Dermabrasion -  removal of scars or tattoos by anesthetizing the skin surface and then sanding or scraping off some of the outer skin layer
  • Dermatoglyphics -  the study of the whorls and loops and arches in the fingertips and on the palms of the hand and the soles of the feet
  • Dermatome -  a surgical instrument used to cut very thin slices of skin
  • Dermatomyositis -  myositis characterized by weakness of limb and neck muscles and much muscle pain and selling accompanied by skin rash affecting cheeks and eyelids and neck and chest and limbs; progression and severity vary among individuals
  • Dermoid cyst -  a cystic tumor (usually benign) with a wall lined with epithelium and a cavity containing other material
  • Designer drug -  a psychoactive drug deliberately synthesized to avoid anti-drug laws; mimics the effects of a banned drug; law was revised in 1986 to ban designer drugs
  • Desquamation -  loss of bits of outer skin by peeling or shedding or coming off in scales
  • Detoxification -  treatment for poisoning by neutralizing the toxic properties (normally a function of the liver); a treatment for addiction to drugs or alcohol intended to remove the physiological effects of the addictive substances
  • dexamethasone -  a corticosteroid drug (trade names Decadron or Dexamethasone Intensol or Dexone or Hexadrol or Oradexon) used to treat allergies or inflammation
  • Dextrocardia -  abnormal condition where the heart is located toward the right side of the chest
  • Diabetes -  any of several metabolic disorders marked by excessive urination and persistent thirst
  • Diastole -  the widening of the chambers of the heart between two contractions when the chambers fill with blood
  • Diathermy -  a method of physical therapy that involves generating local heat in body tissues by high-frequency electromagnetic currents
  • Diazoxide -  vasodilator (trade name Hyperstat) used to treat severe hypertension
  • Dicoumarol -  an anticoagulant drug that has now been largely replaced by warfarin
  • Diethyl ether -  a colorless volatile highly inflammable liquid formerly used as an inhalation anesthetic
  • Differential diagnosis -  a systematic method of diagnosing a disorder (e.g., headache) that lacks unique symptoms or signs
  • Diflunisal -  nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (trade name Dolobid) used to treat arthritis and other inflammatory conditions
  • Dioxin -  any of several toxic or carcinogenic hydrocarbons that occur as impurities in herbicides
  • Diplegia -  paralysis of corresponding parts on both sides of the body
  • Diplopia -  visual impairment in which an object is seen as two objects
  • Directive -  showing the way by conducting or leading; imposing direction on;  a procement encouraging or banning some activity
  • disease -  an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
  • Disfigurement -  an appearance that has been spoiled or is misshapen; the act of damaging the appearance or surface of something
  • Disorganized schizophrenia -  a form of schizophrenia characterized by severe disintegration of personality including erratic speech and childish mannerisms and bizarre behavior; usually becomes evident during puberty; the most common diagnostic category in mental institutions
  • Distal muscular dystrophy -  a form of muscular dystrophy that sets in between 40 and 60 years of age and is characterized by weakness and wasting of the muscles of the hands and forearms and lower legs; inheritance is autosomal dominant
  • Distress -  the seizure and holding of property as security for payment of a debt or satisfaction of a claim; psychological suffering; extreme physical pain; a state of adversity (danger or affliction or need);  cause mental pain to
  • Disulfiram -  a drug (trade name Antabuse) used in the treatment of alcoholism; causes nausea and vomiting if alcohol is ingested
  • Diuresis -  increased secretion of urine; if not due to increased liquid intake or to the action of a diuretic drug it can be a symptom of diabetes mellitus
  • Diverticulosis -  presence of multiple diverticula in the walls of the colon
  • Diverticulum -  a herniation through the muscular wall of a tubular organ (especially the colon)
  • Dizziness -  a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall
  • doctor -  children take the roles of physician or patient or nurse and pretend they are at the physician's office; a licensed medical practitioner; a person who holds Ph.D. degree (or the equivalent) from an academic institution; (Roman Catholic Church) a title conferred on 33 saints who distinguished themselves through the orthodoxy of their theological teaching;  give medical treatment to; restore by replacing a part or putting together what is torn or broken; alter and make impure, as with the intention to deceive
  • Domoic acid -  a neurotoxin that is deadly for humans; found in various marine algae
  • Douche -  irrigation with a jet of water or medicated solution into or around a body part (especially the vagina) to treat infections or cleanse from odorous contents; a small syringe with detachable nozzles; used for vaginal lavage and enemas;  direct a spray of water into a bodily cavity, for cleaning
  • Draco -  a reptile genus known as flying dragons or flying lizards; a faint constellation twisting around the north celestial pole and lying between Ursa Major and Cepheus; Athenian lawmaker whose code of laws prescribed death for almost every offense (circa 7th century BC)
  • Drain -  emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it; a gradual depletion of energy or resources; a pipe through which liquid is carried away; tube inserted into a body cavity (as during surgery) to remove unwanted material;  empty of liquid; drain the liquid from; deplete of resources; flow off gradually; make weak
  • Dysarthria -  impaired articulatory ability resulting from defects in the peripheral motor nerves or in the speech musculature
  • Dyscalculia -  impaired ability to learn grade-appropriate mathematics
  • Dyscrasia -  an abnormal or physiologically unbalanced state of the body
  • Dyskinesia -  abnormality in performing voluntary muscle movements
  • Dysosmia -  a disorder in the sense of smell
  • Dysplasia -  abnormal development (of organs or cells) or an abnormal structure resulting from such growth
  • Dysuria -  painful or difficult urination
  • Ecchymosis -  the escape of blood from ruptured blood vessels into the surrounding tissue to form a purple or black-and-blue spot on the skin; the purple or black-and-blue area resulting from a bruise
  • Ectrodactyly -  congenital abnormality involving the absence of some fingers or toes
  • Eczema herpeticum -  eczema characterized by a feverish condition and widespread eruption of vesicles; most common in children
  • Eczema vaccinatum -  a now rare complication of vaccinia superimposed on atopic dermatitis with high fever and generalized vesicles and papulovesicles
  • Elastic bandage -  a bandage containing stretchable material that can apply local pressure
  • electrocardiography -  diagnostic procedure consisting of recording the activity of the heart electronically with a cardiograph (and producing a cardiogram)
  • Electrocution -  killing by electric shock; execution by electricity
  • Elephantiasis -  hypertrophy of certain body parts (usually legs and scrotum); the end state of the disease filariasis
  • Elixir -  a substance believed to cure all ills; a sweet flavored liquid (usually containing a small amount of alcohol) used in compounding medicines to be taken by mouth in order to mask an unpleasant taste; a hypothetical substance that the alchemists believed to be capable of changing base metals into gold
  • Embolectomy -  surgical removal of an embolus (usually from an artery)
  • Emmetropia -  (ophthalmology) the normal refractive condition of the eye in which there is clear focus of light on the retina
  • Encephalocele -  protrusion of brain tissue through a congenital fissure in the skull
  • Encopresis -  involuntary defecation not attributable to physical defects or illness
  • Endemic -  native to or confined to a certain region; of or relating to a disease (or anything resembling a disease) constantly present to greater or lesser extent in a particular locality; originating where it is found;  a plant that is native to a certain limited area; a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain class or in people living in a particular location
  • Endometritis -  inflammation of the lining of the uterus (of the endometrium)
  • England -  a division of the United Kingdom
  • Enteritis -  inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine); usually characterized by diarrhea
  • Enterolith -  a calculus occurring in the intestines
  • Enterovirus -  any of a group of picornaviruses that infect the gastrointestinal tract and can spread to other areas (especially the nervous system)
  • Enuresis -  inability to control the flow of urine and involuntary urination
  • Eosinophilia -  a symptom of allergic states; increased eosinophils in the blood
  • epidemiologist -  a medical scientist who studies the transmission and control of epidemic diseases
  • epidemiology -  the branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of disease
  • Epiglottitis -  inflammation of the epiglottis; characterized by fever and a severe sore throat and difficulty in swallowing
  • Epiphora -  repetition of the ends of two or more successive sentences, verses, etc.
  • Epispadias -  a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethra is on the upper surface of the penis
  • Epizootic -  (of animals) epidemic among animals of a single kind within a particular region
  • Erb's palsy -  paralysis of the arm resulting from injury to the brachial plexus (usually during childbirth)
  • Erethism -  an abnormally high degree of irritability or sensitivity to stimulation of an organ or body part
  • Ergosterol -  a plant sterol that is converted into vitamin D by ultraviolet radiation
  • Erysipelas -  an acute streptococcal infection characterized by deep-red inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes
  • Erythema -  abnormal redness of the skin resulting from dilation of blood vessels (as in sunburn or inflammation)
  • Erythema multiforme -  a red rash caused by hypersensitivity to a drug or disease or other allergen
  • Erythroderma -  any skin disorder involving abnormal redness
  • Esmolol -  intravenous beta blocker (trade name Brevibloc) that acts for only a short time; used primarily for cardiac arrhythmias
  • Esophagitis -  inflammation of the esophagus; often caused by gastroesophageal reflux
  • Esotropia -  strabismus in which one or both eyes turn inward toward the nose
  • Essential hypertension -  persistent and pathological high blood pressure for which no specific cause can be found
  • Essex -  a county in southeastern England on the North Sea and the Thames estuary
  • Etodolac -  a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (trade name Lodine)
  • Europe -  the nations of the European continent collectively; the 2nd smallest continent (actually a vast peninsula of Eurasia); the British use `Europe' to refer to all of the continent except the British Isles; an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
  • Evans -  British archaeologist who excavated the palace of Knossos in Crete to find what he called Minoan civilization (1851-1941); United States anatomist who identified four pituitary hormones and discovered vitamin E (1882-1971)
  • Exanthem -  eruption on the skin occurring as a symptom of a disease
  • excess -  more than is needed, desired, or required;  immoderation as a consequence of going beyond sufficient or permitted limits; a quantity much larger than is needed; excessive indulgence; the state of being more than full
  • Exchange transfusion -  slow removal of a person's blood and its replacement with equal amounts of a donor's blood
  • Excretion -  the bodily process of discharging waste matter; waste matter (as urine or sweat but especially feces) discharged from the body
  • Exostosis -  a benign outgrowth from a bone (usually covered with cartilage)
  • Exotropia -  strabismus in which one or both eyes are directed outward
  • Extravasation -  the process of exuding or passing out of a vessel into surrounding tissues; said of blood or lymph or urine; an extravasated liquid (blood or lymph or urine); the product of extravasation; (of volcanos) pouring out fumes of lava (or a deposit so formed)
  • Exudate -  a substance that oozes out from plant pores;  release (a liquid) in drops or small quantities
  • Eye bank -  a place for storing and preserving corneas that are obtained from human corpses immediately after death; used for corneal transplantation to patients with corneal defects
  • Eye chart -  a chart that is read from a fixed distance; used as a test of vision
  • eyelid -  either of two folds of skin that can be moved to cover or open the eye
  • Factor IX -  coagulation factor whose absence is associated with hemophilia B
  • Factor VIII -  a coagulation factor (trade name Hemofil) whose absence is associated with hemophilia A
  • Factor VIII -  a coagulation factor (trade name Hemofil) whose absence is associated with hemophilia A
  • Factor X -  coagulation factor that is converted to an enzyme that converts prothrombin to thrombin in a reaction that depends on calcium ions and other coagulation factors
  • Factor XI -  coagulation factor whose deficiency results in a hemorrhagic tendency
  • Falling -  becoming lower or less in degree or value; decreasing in amount or degree; coming down freely under the influence of gravity
  • Family history -  part of a patient's medical history in which questions are asked in an attempt to find out whether the patient has hereditary tendencies toward particular diseases
  • Family medicine -  medical practice that provides health care regardless of age or sex while placing emphasis on the family unit
  • Family Practice -  medical practice that provides health care regardless of age or sex while placing emphasis on the family unit
  • Famotidine -  a histamine blocker (trade name Pepcid) used to treat peptic ulcers and gastritis and esophageal reflux
  • Farmer's lung -  alveolitis caused by an allergic reaction to fungal spores in the dust that is inhaled from moldy hay
  • Fasciculation -  muscular twitching of contiguous groups of muscle fibers
  • Fasciolopsiasis -  infestation with the large intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski; common in eastern Asia
  • Fecal impaction -  accumulation of hardened feces in the rectum or lower colon which the person cannot move
  • Fellowship -  money granted (by a university or foundation or other agency) for advanced study or research; an association of people who share common beliefs or activities; the state of being with someone
  • Fenoprofen -  a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (trade name Nalfon) used in the treatment of arthritis and other painful inflammatory disorders
  • Fetal distress -  an abnormal condition of a fetus; usually discovered during pregnancy and characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm
  • Fiberscope -  a flexible medical instrument involving fiber optics that is used to examine internal organs
  • Fibrillation -  act or process of forming fibrils; muscular twitching involving individual muscle fibers acting without coordination
  • Fibroma -  nonmalignant tumor of connective tissue
  • Fibrosis -  development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ
  • Fibrous dysplasia of bone -  a disturbance in which bone that is undergoing lysis is replaced by an abnormal proliferation of fibrous tissue resulting in bone lesions or skin lesions
  • Field of view -  the area that is visible (as through an optical instrument)
  • Filariasis -  a disease caused by nematodes in the blood or tissues of the body causing blockage of lymphatic vessels
  • Fish oil -  a fatty oil obtained from the livers of various fish
  • Fish oil -  a fatty oil obtained from the livers of various fish
  • Fistula -  an abnormal passage leading from a suppurating cavity to the body surface; a chronic inflammation of the withers of a horse
  • Fitness -  the condition of being suitable; the quality of being qualified; good physical condition; being in shape or in condition; fitness to traverse the seas
  • Fixation -  (histology) the preservation and hardening of a tissue sample to retain as nearly as possible the same relations they had in the living body; the activity of fastening something firmly in position; an unhealthy and compulsive preoccupation with something or someone; an abnormal state in which development has stopped prematurely
  • Flaccid paralysis -  weakness or loss of muscle tone resulting from injury or disease of the nerves innervating the muscles
  • Flagging -  weak from exhaustion;  a walk of flagstones; flagstones collectively
  • Flight surgeon -  a medical officer specializing in aviation medicine
  • Florida -  a state in southeastern United States between the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; one of the Confederate states during the American Civil War
  • Fluorescein -  a yellow dye that is visible even when highly diluted; used as an absorption indicator when silver nitrate solution is added to sodium chloride in order to precipitate silver chloride (turns pink when no chloride ions are left in solution and negative fluorescein ions are then absorbed)
  • fluoxetine -  a selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor commonly prescribed as an antidepressant (trade name Prozac)
  • Flurazepam -  tranquilizer (trade name Dalmane) used to treat insomnia
  • Flurbiprofen -  a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (trade name Ansaid) that is administered only orally
  • Fomite -  any inanimate object (as a towel or money or clothing or dishes or books or toys etc.) that can transmit infectious agents from one person to another
  • Foot rot -  contagious degenerative infection of the feet of hoofed animals (especially cattle and sheep); plant disease in which the stem or trunk rots at the base
  • Forceps -  an extractor consisting of a pair of pincers used in medical treatment (especially for the delivery of babies)
  • Forebrain -  the anterior portion of the brain; the part of the brain that develops from the anterior part of the neural tube
  • Formication -  hallucinated sensation that insects or snakes are crawling over the skin; a common side-effect of extensive use of cocaine or amphetamines
  • Formulary -  of or relating to or of the nature of a formula;  (pharmacology) a book containing a compilation of pharmaceutical products with their formulas and methods of preparation
  • Foundation -  lowest support of a structure; education or instruction in the fundamentals of a field of knowledge; an institution supported by an endowment; the basis on which something is grounded; the act of starting something for the first time; introducing something new; a woman's undergarment worn to give shape to the contours of the body; the fundamental assumptions from which something is begun or developed or calculated or explained
  • Fovea centralis -  area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
  • France -  a republic in western Europe; the largest country wholly in Europe; French writer of sophisticated novels and short stories (1844-1924)
  • Galactose -  a simple sugar found in lactose
  • Gallium -  a rare silvery (usually trivalent) metallic element; brittle at low temperatures but liquid above room temperature; occurs in trace amounts in bauxite and zinc ores
  • Gamma globulin -  a plasma protein containing the immunoglobulins that are responsible for immune responses
  • Garland -  a city in northeastern Texas (suburb of Dallas); United States singer and film actress (1922-1969); flower arrangement consisting of a circular band of foliage or flowers for ornamental purposes; an anthology of short literary pieces and poems and ballads etc.;  adorn with bands of flowers or leaves
  • Gastrectomy -  surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
  • Gastroenterology -  the branch of medicine that studies the gastrointestinal tract and its diseases
  • Gemfibrozil -  medication (trade name Lopid) used to lower the levels of triglyceride in the blood
  • Generalized epilepsy -  epilepsy in which the attack involves loss of consciousness and tonic spasms of the musculature followed by generalized jerking
  • generator -  engine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by electromagnetic induction; an apparatus that produces a vapor or gas; an electronic device for producing a signal voltage; someone who originates or causes or initiates something
  • genetic -  of or relating to the science of genetics; pertaining to or referring to origin; tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity; of or relating to or produced by or being a gene
  • Genetic marker -  a specific gene that produces a recognizable trait and can be used in family or population studies
  • genetics -  the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
  • Genitourinary system -  the system that includes all organs involved in reproduction and in the formation and voidance of urine
  • Genome -  the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism; the full DNA sequence of an organism
  • Genu varum -  a leg bowed outward at the knee (or below the knee)
  • Geophagia -  eating earth or clay or chalk; occurs in some primitive tribes or sometimes in cases of nutritional deficiency
  • Germany -  a republic in central Europe; split into East German and West Germany after World War II and reunited in 1990
  • Giardiasis -  infection of the intestines with protozoa found in contaminated food and water; characterized by diarrhea and nausea and flatulence and abdominal discomfort
  • Gigantism -  excessive largeness of stature; excessive size; usually caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland
  • Glare -  an angry stare; great brightness; a focus of public attention;  shine intensely; be sharply reflected; look at with a fixed gaze
  • Globe -  a sphere on which a map (especially of the earth) is represented; the 3rd planet from the sun; the planet we live on; an object with a spherical shape
  • Glottis -  the vocal apparatus of the larynx; the true vocal folds and the space between them where the voice tone is generated
  • Glycoprotein -  a conjugated protein having a carbohydrate component
  • Glycoside -  a group of compounds derived from monosaccharides
  • Glycosuria -  the presence of abnormally high levels of sugar in the urine
  • Goggles -  tight-fitting spectacles worn to protect the eyes
  • Goitrogen -  any substance (such as thiouracil) that induces the formation of a goiter
  • Gold standard -  a paragon of excellence; a monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by a stated quantity of gold
  • Goodman -  United States clarinetist who in 1934 formed a big band (including Black as well as White musicians) and introduced a kind of jazz known as swing (1909-1986)
  • governor -  a control that maintains a steady speed in a machine (as by controlling the supply of fuel); the head of a state government
  • Grading -  changing the ground level to a smooth horizontal or gently sloping surface; evaluation of performance by assigning a grade or score; the act of arranging in a graduated series
  • Graft -  the act of grafting something onto something else; (surgery) tissue or organ transplanted from a donor to a recipient; in some cases the patient can be both donor and recipient; the practice of offering something (usually money) in order to gain an illicit advantage;  cause to grow together parts from different plants; place the organ of a donor into the body of a recipient
  • Granulation -  the act of forming something into granules or grains; new connective tissue and tiny blood vessels that form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process
  • Granulation tissue -  new connective tissue and tiny blood vessels that form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process
  • Grapheme -  a written symbol that is used to represent speech
  • Greene -  English novelist and Catholic (1904-1991)
  • Greenstick fracture -  a partial fracture of a bone (usually in children); the bone is bent but broken on only one side
  • Grim Reaper -  Death personified as an old man or a skeleton with a scythe
  • Gross anatomy -  the study of the structure of the body and its parts without the use of a microscope
  • Growing pains -  problems that arise in enlarging an enterprise (especially in the early stages); emotional distress arising during adolescence; pain in muscles or joints sometimes experienced by children and often attributed to rapid growth
  • Growth hormone -  a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland; promotes growth in humans
  • Gumma -  a small rubbery granuloma that is characteristic of an advanced stage of syphilis
  • Gynecologic -  of or relating to or practicing gynecology
  • Hairball -  a compact mass of hair that forms in the alimentary canal (especially in the stomach of animals as a result of licking fur)
  • Halocarbon -  one of various compounds of carbon and any of the halogens
  • Hamartoma -  a focal growth that resembles a neoplasm but results from faulty development in an organ
  • Hamilton -  the capital of Bermuda; a port city in southeastern Ontario at the western end of Lake Ontario; United States statesman and leader of the Federalists; as the first Secretary of the Treasury he establish a federal bank; was mortally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr (1755-1804); United States toxicologist known for her work on industrial poisons (1869-1970); English beauty who was the mistress of Admiral Nelson (1765-1815); Irish mathematician (1806-1865)
  • HAMLET -  a community of people smaller than a village; the hero of William Shakespeare's tragedy who hoped to avenge the murder of his father; a settlement smaller than a town
  • handwriting -  the activity of writing by hand; something written by hand
  • Harrison -  9th President of the United States; caught pneumonia during his inauguration and died shortly after (1773-1841); 23rd President of the United States (1833-1901); English rock star; lead guitarist of the Beatles (1943-2001); English actor on stage and in films (1908-1990)
  • Harvey Cushing -  United States neurologist noted for his study of the brain and pituitary gland and who identified Cushing's syndrome (1869-1939)
  • Healing -  tending to cure or restore to health;  the natural process by which the body repairs itself
  • Health Check -  a thorough physical examination; includes a variety of tests depending on the age and sex and health of the person
  • Health club -  a place of business with equipment and facilities for exercising and improving physical fitness
  • Health professional -  a person who helps in identifying or preventing or treating illness or disability
  • healthcare -  the preservation of mental and physical health by preventing or treating illness through services offered by the health profession
  • Heartburn -  a painful burning sensation in the chest caused by gastroesophageal reflux (backflow from the stomach irritating the esophagus); symptomatic of an ulcer or a diaphragmatic hernia or other disorder
  • Heating pad -  heater consisting of electrical heating elements contained in a flexible pad
  • Hematochezia -  passage of stools containing blood (as from diverticulosis or colon cancer or peptic ulcer)
  • Hematocolpos -  accumulation of menstrual blood in the vagina (usually due to an imperforate hymen)
  • Hematocrit -  a measuring instrument to determine (usually by centrifugation) the relative amounts of corpuscles and plasma in the blood; the ratio of the volume occupied by packed red blood cells to the volume of the whole blood as measured by a hematocrit
  • Hematology -  the branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs
  • Hematoma -  a localized swelling filled with blood
  • Hematuria -  the presence of blood in the urine; often a symptom of urinary tract disease
  • Hemeralopia -  inability to see clearly in bright light
  • Hemoglobinopathy -  a blood disease characterized by the presence of abnormal hemoglobins in the blood
  • Hemoptysis -  coughing up blood from the respiratory tract; usually indicates a severe infection of the bronchi or lungs
  • Hemosiderin -  a granular brown substance composed of ferric oxide; left from the breakdown of hemoglobin; can be a sign of disturbed iron metabolism
  • Hemostat -  a surgical instrument that stops bleeding by clamping the blood vessel
  • Heterophile antibody -  an antibody found in the blood of someone suffering from infectious mononucleosis
  • Hindbrain -  the posterior portion of the brain including cerebellum and brainstem
  • Hippocrates -  medical practitioner who is regarded as the father of medicine; author of the Hippocratic oath (circa 460-377 BC)
  • Histiocytosis -  a blood disease characterized by an abnormal multiplication of macrophages
  • Hoffmann -  German writer of fantastic tales (1776-1822); United States chemist (born in Poland) who used quantum mechanics to understand chemical reactions (born in 1937); German chemist (1818-1892); Austrian architect known for his use of rectilinear units (1870-1956)
  • Howard -  Queen of England as the fifth wife of Henry VIII who was accused of adultery and executed (1520-1542); English actor of stage and screen (1893-1943)
  • Hughes -  United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1862-1948); United States industrialist who was an aviator and a film producer; during the last years of his life he was a total recluse (1905-1976); United States writer (1902-1967); English poet (born in 1930)
  • Human -  having human form or attributes as opposed to those of animals or divine beings; characteristic of humanity; relating to a person;  any living or extinct member of the family Hominidae characterized by superior intelligence, articulate speech, and erect carriage
  • Hyaluronidase -  an enzyme (trade name Hyazyme) that splits hyaluronic acid and so lowers its viscosity and increases the permeability of connective tissue and the absorption of fluids
  • Hydrazoic acid -  a colorless explosive liquid that is volatile and poisonous and foul-smelling
  • hydrochlorothiazide -  a diuretic drug (trade name Esidrix and HydroDIURIL) used in the treatment of hypertension
  • Hydronephrosis -  accumulation of urine in the kidney because of an obstruction in the ureter
  • Hydroxy -  being or containing a hydroxyl group
  • hygienist -  a medical specialist in hygiene
  • Hyperacusis -  abnormal acuteness of hearing due to increased irritability of the sensory neural mechanism; characterized by intolerance for ordinary sound levels
  • Hyperaemia -  increased blood in an organ or other body part
  • Hypercapnia -  the presence of an abnormally high level of carbon dioxide in the circulating blood
  • Hypernatremia -  excessive amounts of sodium in the blood; possibly indicating diabetes insipidus
  • Hyperparathyroidism -  excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; can affect many systems of the body (especially causing bone resorption and osteoporosis)
  • Hypertension -  a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
  • Hypertrophy -  abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ;  undergo hypertrophy
  • Hyperventilation -  an increased depth and rate of breathing greater than demanded by the body needs; can cause dizziness and tingling of the fingers and toes and chest pain if continued
  • Hypervitaminosis -  an abnormal condition resulting from taking vitamins excessively; can be serious for vitamins A or D or K
  • Hypervolemia -  a blood disorder consisting of an increase in the volume of circulating blood
  • Hyphema -  bleeding into the interior chamber of the eye
  • Hypocapnia -  a state in which the level of carbon dioxide in the blood is lower than normal; can result from deep or rapid breathing
  • Hypochondrium -  the upper region of the abdomen just below the lowest ribs on either side of the epigastrium
  • Hypochromic anemia -  anemia characterized by a decrease in the concentration of corpuscular hemoglobin
  • Hypogammaglobulinemia -  an abnormally low concentration of gamma globulin in the blood and increased risk of infection
  • Hypogonadism -  incompetence of the gonads (especially in the male with low testosterone); results in deficient development of secondary sex characteristics and (in prepubertal males) a body with long legs and a short trunk
  • Hypokalemia -  abnormally low level of potassium in the circulating blood leading to weakness and heart abnormalities; associated with adrenal tumors or starvation or taking diuretics
  • Hypoparathyroidism -  inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood
  • Hypoplasia -  underdevelopment of an organ because of a decrease in the number of cells
  • Hypovolemia -  a blood disorder consisting of a decrease in the volume of circulating blood
  • Hysteroscopy -  visual examination of the uterus and uterine lining using an endoscope inserted through the vagina
  • ibuprofen -  a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicine (trade names Advil and Motrin and Nuprin) used to relieve the pain of arthritis and as an analgesic and antipyretic
  • Ice pack -  a waterproof bag filled with ice: applied to the body (especially the head) to cool or reduce swelling; a large expanse of floating ice
  • Ichthyosis -  any of several congenital diseases in which the skin is fishlike (dry and scaly)
  • Idiosyncrasy -  a behavioral attribute that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual
  • Ileostomy -  surgical procedure that creates an opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall to function as an anus; performed in cases of cancer of the colon or ulcerative colitis
  • Imbibition -  (chemistry) the absorption of a liquid by a solid or gel; the act of consuming liquids
  • Immunoassay -  identification of a substance (especially a protein) by its action as an antigen
  • Immunodeficiency -  immunological disorder in which some part of the body's immune system is inadequate and resistance to infectious diseases is reduced
  • Immunofluorescence -  (immunology) a technique that uses antibodies linked to a fluorescent dye in order to study antigens in a sample of tissue
  • Immunoglobulin M -  one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; involved in fighting blood infections and in triggering production of immunoglobulin G
  • Immunohistochemistry -  an assay that shows specific antigens in tissues by the use of markers that are either fluorescent dyes or enzymes (such as horseradish peroxidase)
  • Immunology -  the branch of medical science that studies the body's immune system
  • Immunotherapy -  therapy designed to produce immunity to a disease or to enhance resistance by the immune system
  • implant -  a prosthesis placed permanently in tissue;  become attached to and embedded in the uterus; fix or set securely or deeply; put firmly in the mind
  • Implant -  a prosthesis placed permanently in tissue;  become attached to and embedded in the uterus; fix or set securely or deeply; put firmly in the mind
  • Incidence -  the striking of a light beam on a surface; the relative frequency of occurrence of something
  • Incubation period -  the period between infection and the appearance of symptoms of the disease
  • Indapamide -  diuretic (trade name Lozal) used in the treatment of hypertension
  • Index case -  the earliest documented case of a disease that is included in an epidemiological study
  • Indication -  something (as a course of action) that is indicated as expedient or necessary; something that serves to indicate or suggest; (medicine) a reason to prescribe a drug or perform a procedure; the act of indicating or pointing out by name; a datum about some physical state that is presented to a user by a meter or similar instrument
  • Indigestion -  a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea
  • Indinavir -  a protease inhibitor (trade name Crixivan) used for treating HIV
  • Infarction -  localized necrosis resulting from obstruction of the blood supply
  • Infestation -  a swarm of insects that attack plants; the state of being invaded or overrun by parasites
  • Infiltration -  a process in which individuals (or small groups) penetrate an area (especially the military penetration of enemy positions without detection); the slow passage of a liquid through a filtering medium
  • Ingestion -  the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)
  • Ingrown hair -  a hair that does not emerge from the follicle but remains embedded in the skin (usually causing inflammation)
  • Inhalation -  the act of inhaling; the drawing in of air (or other gases) as in breathing; a medication to be taken by inhaling it
  • Inhaler -  a dispenser that produces a chemical vapor to be inhaled in order to relieve nasal congestion
  • inhibitor -  a substance that retards or stops an activity
  • Initiative -  serving to set in motion;  the first of a series of actions; readiness to embark on bold new ventures
  • injury -  an act that injures someone; an accident that results in physical damage or hurt; any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.; a casualty to military personnel resulting from combat
  • inner ear -  a complex system of interconnecting cavities; concerned with hearing and equilibrium
  • Insanity -  relatively permanent disorder of the mind
  • Institute -  an association organized to promote art or science or education;  advance or set forth in court; set up or lay the groundwork for
  • instrument -  the means whereby some act is accomplished; a device that requires skill for proper use; a person used by another to gain an end; any of various devices or contrivances that can be used to produce musical tones or sounds; the semantic role of the entity (usually inanimate) that the agent uses to perform an action or start a process; (law) a document that states some contractual relationship or grants some right;  address a legal document to; write an instrumental score for; equip with instruments for measuring, recording, or controlling
  • Interleukin -  any of several lymphokines that promote macrophages and killer T cells and B cells and other components of the immune system
  • Interleukin -  any of several lymphokines that promote macrophages and killer T cells and B cells and other components of the immune system
  • Intermittent claudication -  lameness due to pain in leg muscles because the blood supply is inadequate; pain subsides with rest
  • Internal medicine -  the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and (nonsurgical) treatment of diseases of the internal organs (especially in adults)
  • Interstitial fluid -  liquid found between the cells of the body that provides much of the liquid environment of the body
  • Intertrigo -  chafing between two skin surfaces that are in contact (as in the armpit or under the breasts or between the thighs)
  • Intraocular pressure -  pressure inside the eyeball; regulated by resistance to the outward flow of aqueous humor
  • Intrinsic factor -  a substance produced by the mucosa of the stomach and intestines that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12
  • inventor -  someone who is the first to think of or make something
  • Iontophoresis -  therapy that uses a local electric current to introduce the ions of a medicine into the tissues
  • Ireland -  an island comprising the republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland; a republic consisting of 26 of 32 counties comprising the island of Ireland; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1921
  • Iridectomy -  surgical removal of part of the iris of the eye
  • Iridocyclitis -  inflammation of the iris and ciliary body of the eye
  • Iritis -  inflammation of the iris
  • Irradiation -  (Pavolvian conditioning) the elicitation of a conditioned response by stimulation similar but not identical to the original stimulus; the apparent enlargement of a bright object when viewed against a dark background; (physiology) the spread of sensory neural impulses in the cortex; the condition of being exposed to radiation; (medicine) the treatment of disease (especially cancer) by exposure to a radioactive substance; a column of light (as from a beacon)
  • Irritability -  an irritable petulant feeling; a disposition to exhibit uncontrolled anger; excessive sensitivity of an organ or body part
  • Irritation -  the psychological state of being irritated or annoyed; (pathology) abnormal sensitivity to stimulation; the act of troubling or annoying someone; unfriendly behavior that causes anger or resentment; an uncomfortable feeling of mental painfulness or distress; a sudden outburst of anger; the neural or electrical arousal of an organ or muscle or gland
  • Isothiocyanate -  a family of compounds derived from horseradish and radishes and onions and mustards; source of the hotness of those plants and preparations
  • Israel -  an ancient kingdom of the Hebrew tribes at the southeastern end of the Mediterranean Sea; founded by Saul around 1025 BC and destroyed by the Assyrians in 721 BC; Jewish republic in southwestern Asia at eastern end of Mediterranean; formerly part of Palestine
  • James -  a river that rises in North Dakota and flows southward across South Dakota to the Missouri; a river in Virginia that flows east into Chesapeake Bay at Hampton Roads; (New Testament) disciple of Jesus; brother of John; author of the Epistle of James in the New Testament; writer who was born in the United States but lived in England (1843-1916); United States pragmatic philosopher and psychologist (1842-1910); United States outlaw who fought as a Confederate soldier and later led a band of outlaws that robbed trains and banks in the West until he was murdered by a member of his own gang (1847-1882); the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings (1566-1625); the last Stuart to be king of England and Ireland and Scotland; overthrown in 1688 (1633-1701); a Stuart king of Scotland who married a daughter of Henry VII; when England and France went to war in 1513 he invaded England and died in defeat at Flodden (1473-1513); a New Testament book attributed to Saint James the Apostle
  • Jean Martin Charcot -  French neurologist who tried to use hypnotism to cure hysteria (1825-1893)
  • John Rock -  United States gynecologist and devout Catholic who conducted the first clinical trials of the oral contraceptive pill (1890-1984)
  • journal -  the part of the axle contained by a bearing; a record book as a physical object; a periodical dedicated to a particular subject; a daily written record of (usually personal) experiences and observations; a ledger in which transactions have been recorded as they occurred
  • Keratitis -  inflammation of the cornea causing watery painful eyes and blurred vision
  • Keratoacanthoma -  skin tumor that grows rapidly (especially in older people) and resembles a carcinoma but does not spread; it usually disappears spontaneously, often leaving a scar
  • Keratosis pilaris -  keratosis characterized by hard conical elevations in the openings of sebaceous glands (especially of arms and thighs)
  • Kerion -  ringworm infection of the hair follicles of the scalp and beard that usually results in a swelling that is covered with pustules and oozes fluid
  • Kernicterus -  an abnormal accumulation of bile pigment in the brain and other nerve tissue; causes yellow staining and tissue damage
  • Ketoprofen -  nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (trade names Orudis or Orudis KT or Oruvail)
  • kidney -  either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine
  • Kindling -  material for starting a fire; the act of setting something on fire
  • Kwashiorkor -  severe malnutrition in children resulting from a diet excessively high in carbohydrates and low in protein
  • Labetalol -  antihypertensive drug (trade names Trandate and Normodyne) that blocks alpha and beta-adrenergic receptors of the sympathetic nervous system (leading to a decrease in blood pressure)
  • Labyrinthitis -  inflammation of the inner ear; can cause vertigo and vomiting
  • Lacrimal sac -  either of the two dilated ends of the lacrimal ducts at the nasal ends of the eyes that fill with tears secreted by the lacrimal glands
  • Laminectomy -  surgical removal of the bony arches on one or more vertebrae
  • lamivudine -  a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is very effective in combination with zidovudine in treating AIDS and HIV
  • Lanugo -  the fine downy hair covering a human fetus; normally shed during the ninth month of gestation
  • Laparoscopy -  laparotomy performed with a laparoscope that makes a small incision to examine the abdominal cavity (especially the ovaries and Fallopian tubes)
  • Laryngitis -  inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx; characterized by hoarseness or loss of voice and coughing
  • Laryngospasm -  a closure of the larynx that blocks the passage of air to the lungs
  • Lawrence -  a town in northeastern Kansas on the Kansas River; scene of raids by John Brown in 1856; English novelist and poet and essayist whose work condemned industrial society and explored sexual relationships (1885-1930); United States physicist who developed the cyclotron (1901-1958); English actress (1898-1952); English portrait painter remembered for the series of portraits of the leaders of the alliance against Napoleon (1769-1830); Welsh soldier who from 1916 to 1918 organized the Arab revolt against the Turks; he later wrote an account of his adventures (1888-1935); Roman martyr; supposedly Lawrence was ordered by the police to give up the church's treasure and when he responded by presenting the poor people of Rome he was roasted to death on a gridiron (died in 258)
  • Laxative -  stimulating evacuation of feces;  a mild cathartic
  • Lazaretto -  hospital for persons with infectious diseases (especially leprosy); a small locker at the stern of a boat or between decks of a ship
  • Lecithin -  a yellow phospholipid essential for the metabolism of fats; found in egg yolk and in many plant and animal cells; used commercially as an emulsifier
  • Lectin -  any of several plant glycoproteins that act like specific antibodies but are not antibodies in that they are not evoked by an antigenic stimulus
  • Leflunomide -  an anti-TNF compound (trade name Arava) that is given orally; can slow the progression of rheumatoid arthritis by slowing the proliferation of white blood cells which reduces inflammation in the synovium
  • Leiomyoma -  benign tumor of smooth muscle (usually in the uterus or digestive tract)
  • Leiomyosarcoma -  sarcoma of smooth muscle; occurs most often digestive tract or uterus or bladder or prostate
  • Lentiform nucleus -  a basal ganglion shaped like a lens and including the outer reddish putamen and the inner pale yellow pallidum
  • Lentigo -  a small brownish spot (of the pigment melanin) on the skin
  • Lesion -  any visible abnormal structural change in a bodily part; any break in the skin or an organ caused by violence or surgical incision
  • Leukemia -  malignant neoplasm of blood-forming tissues; characterized by abnormal proliferation of leukocytes; one of the four major types of cancer
  • Leukocytosis -  an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood as a result of infection (as in leukemia)
  • Leukoderma -  a congenital skin condition characterized by spots or bands of unpigmented skin
  • Leukopenia -  an abnormal lowering of the white blood cell count
  • Leukorrhea -  discharge of white mucous material from the vagina; often an indication of infection
  • levodopa -  the levorotatory form of dopa (trade names Bendopa and Brocadopa and Larodopa); as a drug it is used to treat Parkinson's disease
  • librarian -  a professional person trained in library science and engaged in library services
  • Licensed practical nurse -  a nurse who has enough training to be licensed by a state to provide routine care for the sick
  • Lidocaine -  a local anesthetic (trade names Lidocaine and Xylocaine) used topically on the skin and mucous membranes
  • Life-support -  of or pertaining to equipment or methods used to sustain life
  • Lifeguard -  an attendant employed at a beach or pool to protect swimmers from accidents
  • Lightheadedness -  a frivolous lack of prudence; a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall
  • Lincolnshire -  an agricultural county of eastern England on the North Sea
  • Liothyronine -  thyroid hormone similar to thyroxine but with one less iodine atom per molecule and produced in smaller quantity; exerts the same biological effects as thyroxine but is more potent and briefer
  • Lipaemia -  presence of excess lipids in the blood
  • Liposome -  an artificially made microscopic vesicle into which nucleic acids can be packaged; used in molecular biology as a transducing vector
  • Lithotomy -  surgical removal of a stone (calculus)
  • Lithotomy position -  a position lying on your back with knees bent and thighs apart; assumed for vaginal or rectal examination
  • Liver fluke -  flatworm parasitic in liver and bile ducts of domestic animals and humans
  • Liver spot -  a type of skin disease that causes brown spots on the skin
  • Livonia -  a region on the Baltic that is divided between northern Estonia and southern Latvia
  • Lobar pneumonia -  pneumonia affecting one or more lobes of the lung; commonly due to streptococcal infection
  • Lobectomy -  surgical removal of a lobe from any organ of the body (as the lung or brain)
  • Local anesthesia -  loss of sensation in a small area of the body (as when a local anesthetic is injected for a tooth extraction)
  • Lochia -  substance discharged from the vagina (cellular debris and mucus and blood) that gradually decreases in amount during the weeks following childbirth
  • London -  the capital and largest city of England; located on the Thames in southeastern England; financial and industrial and cultural center; United States writer of novels based on experiences in the Klondike gold rush (1876-1916)
  • Long-chain -  of molecules having relatively long chains of atoms in a molecule
  • Lordosis -  an abnormal inward (forward) curvature of the vertebral column
  • Loxapine -  a tranquilizer (trade name Loxitane) used to treat schizophrenia
  • Lumpectomy -  surgical removal of a tumor without removing much of the surrounding tissue or lymph nodes; performed in some cases of breast cancer
  • Lunatic -  insane and believed to be affected by the phases of the moon;  an insane person; a reckless impetuous irresponsible person
  • Lung Cancer -  carcinoma of the lungs; one of the commonest forms of cancer
  • Lunula -  a crescent-shaped metal ornament of the Bronze Age; the crescent-shaped area at the base of the human fingernail
  • Lupus vulgaris -  tuberculosis of the skin; appears first on the face and heals slowly leaving deep scars
  • Luteal phase -  the second half of the menstrual cycle after ovulation; the corpus luteum secretes progesterone which prepares the endometrium for the implantation of an embryo; if fertilization does not occur then menstrual flow begins
  • Luteinizing hormone -  a gonadotropic hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary; stimulates ovulation in female mammals and stimulates androgen release in male mammals
  • Lymphadenopathy -  chronic abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes (usually associated with disease)
  • Lymphangioma -  benign angioma consisting of a mass of lymphatic vessels
  • Lymphocytopenia -  an abnormally small number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
  • lymphoma -  a neoplasm of lymph tissue that is usually malignant; one of the four major types of cancer
  • Macrocytic anaemia -  anemia in which the average size of erythrocytes is larger than normal
  • Macrocytic anemia -  anemia in which the average size of erythrocytes is larger than normal
  • Madhouse -  pejorative terms for an insane asylum
  • magazine -  a storehouse (as a compartment on a warship) where weapons and ammunition are stored; product consisting of a paperback periodic publication as a physical object; a light-tight supply chamber holding the film and supplying it for exposure as required; a periodic publication containing pictures and stories and articles of interest to those who purchase it or subscribe to it; a business firm that publishes magazines; a metal frame or container holding cartridges; can be inserted into an automatic gun
  • Major depressive episode -  (psychiatry) a state of depression with all the classic symptoms (anhedonia and lethargy and sleep disturbance and despondency and morbid thoughts and feelings of worthlessness and sometimes attempted suicide) but with no known organic dysfunction
  • Malabsorption -  abnormal absorption of nutrients from the digestive tract
  • Malaise -  physical discomfort (as mild sickness or depression)
  • Malathion -  a yellow insecticide used as a dust or spray to control garden pests and house flies and mites
  • Malingering -  evading duty or work by pretending to be incapacitated
  • Mandalay -  a city in central Myanmar north of Rangoon
  • Maple syrup urine disease -  an inherited disorder of metabolism in which the urine has a odor characteristic of maple syrup; if untreated it can lead to mental retardation and death in early childhood
  • Marie Curie -  French chemist (born in Poland) who won two Nobel prizes; one (with her husband and Henri Becquerel) for research on radioactivity and another for her discovery of radium and polonium (1867-1934)
  • Martin -  any of various swallows with squarish or slightly forked tail and long pointed wings; migrate around Martinmas; United States singer (1917-1995); United States actress (1913-1990); United States actor and comedian (born in 1945); French bishop who is a patron saint of France (died in 397)
  • Maternal -  characteristic of a mother; relating to or derived from one's mother; relating to or characteristic of or befitting a parent; related on the mother's side
  • McBurney's point -  a point one third of the way along a line drawn from the hip to the umbilicus; the point of maximum sensitivity in acute appendicitis
  • Meclizine -  an antihistamine (trade name Antivert) used to treat or prevent motion sickness
  • Medial geniculate body -  a neural structure that serves as the last of a series of processing centers along the auditory pathway from the cochlea to the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex
  • medical -  requiring or amenable to treatment by medicine especially as opposed to surgery; relating to the study or practice of medicine; of or belonging to Aesculapius or the healing art;  a thorough physical examination; includes a variety of tests depending on the age and sex and health of the person
  • Medical evacuation -  the evacuation of persons (usually be air transportation) to a place where they can receive medical care
  • Medical history -  the case history of a medical patient as recalled by the patient
  • medication -  the act of treating with medicines or remedies; (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease
  • medicine -  the learned profession that is mastered by graduate training in a medical school and that is devoted to preventing or alleviating or curing diseases and injuries; (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease; the branches of medical science that deal with nonsurgical techniques; punishment for one's actions;  treat medicinally, treat with medicine
  • MEDLINE -  the computer-based telephone system of the United States National Library of Medicine that provides rapid linkage to MEDLARS
  • Mefenamic acid -  a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic drug (trade name Ponstel) used to treat mild pain (especially menstrual cramps)
  • Megaloblastic anemia -  anemia characterized by many large immature and dysfunctional red blood cells (megaloblasts) in the bone marrow; associated with pernicious anemia
  • Melasma -  a tan discoloration of a woman's face that is associated with pregnancy or with the use of oral contraceptives
  • Melena -  abnormally dark tarry feces containing blood (usually from gastrointestinal bleeding)
  • Meningism -  symptoms that mimic those of meningitis but without inflammation of the meninges
  • mental health -  the psychological state of someone who is functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behavioral adjustment
  • Mental Health -  the psychological state of someone who is functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behavioral adjustment
  • Mental state -  (psychology) a mental condition in which the qualities of a state are relatively constant even though the state itself may be dynamic
  • Mercury -  temperature measured by a mercury thermometer; the smallest planet and the nearest to the sun; (Roman mythology) messenger of Jupiter and god of commerce; counterpart of Greek Hermes; a heavy silvery toxic univalent and bivalent metallic element; the only metal that is liquid at ordinary temperatures
  • Mestranol -  a synthetic form of estrogen used in combination with a progestin in oral contraceptives
  • Metabolic alkalosis -  alkalosis resulting from hydrogen-ion loss or excessive intake of alkaline substances
  • Methocarbamol -  muscle relaxant for skeletal muscles (trade name Robaxin) used to treat spasms
  • Methyldopa -  antihypertensive drug (trade name Aldomet) used in the treatment of high blood pressure
  • Methylene blue -  a dark green dye used as a stain, an antiseptic, a chemical indicator, and an antidote in cyanide poisoning
  • methyltestosterone -  an androgenic compound contained in drugs that are used to treat testosterone deficiency and female breast cancer and to stimulate growth and weight gain
  • Mexiletine -  antiarrhythmic drug (trade name Mexitil) used to treat ventricular arrhythmias
  • Michigan -  a gambling card game in which chips are placed on the ace and king and queen and jack of separate suits (taken from a separate deck); a player plays the lowest card of a suit in his hand and successively higher cards are played until the sequence stops; the player who plays a card matching one in the layout wins all the chips on that card; a midwestern state in north central United States in the Great Lakes region; the 3rd largest of the Great Lakes; the largest freshwater lake entirely within the United States borders
  • Microcytic anemia -  anemia in which the average size of erythrocytes is smaller than normal
  • Micronutrient -  a substance needed only in small amounts for normal body function (e.g., vitamins or minerals)
  • Microsurgery -  surgery using operating microscopes and miniaturized precision instruments to perform intricate procedures on very small structures
  • Migraine -  a severe recurring vascular headache; occurs more frequently in women than men
  • Milano -  the capital of Lombardy in northern Italy; has been an international center of trade and industry since the Middle Ages
  • Miliary tuberculosis -  acute tuberculosis characterized by the appearance of tiny tubercles on one or more organs of the body (presumably resulting from tubercle bacilli being spread in the bloodstream)
  • Miller -  machine tool in which metal that is secured to a carriage is fed against rotating cutters that shape it; someone who works in a mill (especially a grain mill); United States playwright (born 1915); United States novelist whose novels were originally banned as pornographic (1891-1980); United States bandleader of a popular big band (1909-1944); any of various moths that have powdery wings
  • Minoxidil -  a vasodilator (trade name Loniten) used to treat severe hypertension; one side effect is hirsutism so it is also sold (trade name Rogaine) as a treatment for male-patterned baldness
  • Miosis -  reflex contraction of the sphincter muscle of the iris in response to a bright light (or certain drugs) causing the pupil to become smaller; (genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms; the nucleus divides into four nuclei each containing half the chromosome number (leading to gametes in animals and spores in plants)
  • missionary -  relating to or connected to a religious mission;  someone who attempts to convert others to a particular doctrine or program; someone sent on a mission--especially a religious or charitable mission to a foreign country
  • Missouri -  a dialect of the Chiwere language spoken by the Missouri; a midwestern state in central United States; a border state during the American Civil War, Missouri was admitted to the Confederacy without actually seceding from the Union; the longest river in the United States; arises in Montana and flows southeastward to become a tributary of the Mississippi at Saint Louis; a member of the Siouan people formerly inhabiting the valley of the Missouri river in Missouri
  • Mitigation -  the action of lessening in severity or intensity; to act in such a way as to cause an offense to seem less serious; a partial excuse to mitigate censure; an attempt to represent an offense as less serious than it appears by showing mitigating circumstances
  • Mitogen -  an agent that triggers mitosis
  • Mittelschmerz -  pain in the area of the ovary that is felt at the time of ovulation (usually midway through the menstrual cycle)
  • mobility -  the quality of moving freely
  • Monitor -  any of various large tropical carnivorous lizards of Africa and Asia and Australia; fabled to warn of crocodiles; a piece of electronic equipment that keeps track of the operation of a system continuously and warns of trouble; electronic equipment that is used to check the quality or content of electronic transmissions; display produced by a device that takes signals and displays them on a television screen or a computer monitor; an ironclad vessel built by Federal forces to do battle with the Merrimac; someone who gives a warning so that a mistake can be avoided; someone who supervises (an examination);  keep tabs on; keep an eye on; keep under surveillance
  • Monorchism -  failure of one testes to descend into the scrotum
  • monosomy -  chromosomal abnormality consisting of the absence of one chromosome from the normal diploid number
  • Morgue -  a building (or room) where dead bodies are kept before burial or cremation
  • Muckle -  (often followed by `of') a large number or amount or extent
  • Murine typhus -  acute infection caused by rickettsia and transmitted by the bite of an infected flea; characterized by fever and chills and muscle aches and a rash
  • Murphy -  an edible tuber native to South America; a staple food of Ireland
  • Murrain -  any disease of domestic animals that resembles a plague
  • Mydriasis -  reflex pupillary dilation as a muscle pulls the iris outward; occurs in response to a decrease in light or certain drugs
  • Myelography -  roentgenography of the spinal cord to detect possible lesions (usually after injection of a contrast medium into the subarachnoid space)
  • Myopathy -  any pathology of the muscles that is not attributable to nerve dysfunction
  • Myositis -  inflammation of muscle tissue
  • Myotonia -  abnormally long muscular contractions; slow relaxation of a muscle after a contraction
  • Myotonia congenita -  a mild, rare, congenital form of myotonia characterized by muscle stiffness
  • Mysophobia -  a morbid fear of dirt or contamination
  • Myxedema -  hypothyroidism marked by dry skin and swellings around lips and nose as well as mental deterioration
  • Myxoma -  a benign tumor of connective tissue containing jellylike material
  • Nabothian cyst -  a cyst that forms in the nabothian glands of the uterine cervix
  • Nabumetone -  a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (trade name Relafen)
  • Naegele's rule -  rule for calculating an expected delivery date; subtract three months from the first day of the last menstrual period and add seven days to that date
  • Naltrexone -  an oral antagonist against the action of opiates
  • Naphazoline -  vasoconstrictor (trade names Privine and Sudafed) used in nasal sprays to treat symptoms of nasal congestion and in eyedrops to treat eye irritation
  • naproxen sodium -  a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (trademarks Aleve and Anaprox and Aflaxen)
  • Natural childbirth -  labor and childbirth without medical intervention; no drugs are given to relieve pain or aid the birth process
  • naturalist -  a biologist knowledgeable about natural history (especially botany and zoology); an advocate of the doctrine that the world can be understood in scientific terms
  • Nausea -  disgust so strong it makes you feel sick; the state that precedes vomiting
  • Neomycin -  an antibiotic obtained from an actinomycete and used (as a sulphate under the trade name Neobiotic) as an intestinal antiseptic in surgery
  • Neonatology -  that branch of pediatric medicine concerned with the newborn; the diagnosis and treatment of neonates
  • Neonatology -  that branch of pediatric medicine concerned with the newborn; the diagnosis and treatment of neonates
  • Neopallium -  the cortical part of the neencephalon
  • Nephrocalcinosis -  renal lithiasis in which calcium deposits form in the renal parenchyma and result in reduced kidney function and blood in the urine
  • nerve agent -  a toxic gas that is inhaled or absorbed through the skin and has harmful effects on the nervous and respiratory system
  • Neuralgia -  acute spasmodic pain along the course of one or more nerves
  • Neurectomy -  surgical removal of all or part of a nerve
  • Neuritis -  inflammation of a nerve accompanied by pain and sometimes loss of function
  • Neuroblast -  a cell from which a nerve cell develops
  • Neurohormone -  a hormone that is released by nerve impulses (e.g., norepinephrine or vasopressin)
  • Neuroma -  any tumor derived from cells of the nervous system
  • Neurophysiology -  the branch of neuroscience that studies the physiology of the nervous system
  • neuropsychology -  the branch of psychology that is concerned with the physiological bases of psychological processes
  • neurosurgeon -  someone who does surgery on the nervous system (especially the brain)
  • New Zealand -  North Island and South Island and adjacent small islands in the South Pacific; an independent country within the British Commonwealth; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1907; known for sheep and spectacular scenery
  • Nipple shield -  a rubber or plastic shield to protect the nipples of nursing women
  • Nitrobenzene -  a poisonous oily water-soluble liquid used as a solvent and in the manufacture of aniline
  • Nitrogen mustard -  a toxic compound resembling mustard gas in structure; important in cancer treatment
  • Nonunion -  not belonging to or not allowing affiliation with a trade union
  • Norethandrolone -  a synthetic progestational hormone (trade name Norlutin) used in oral contraceptives and to treat endometriosis
  • Norgestrel -  synthetic progestin used in oral contraceptives
  • Northern Ireland -  a division of the United Kingdom located on the northern part of the island of Ireland
  • Nortriptyline -  a tricyclic antidepressant drug (trade name Pamelor) used along with psychotherapy to treat dysthymic depression; may interact dangerously if taken with other drugs
  • Nosology -  the branch of medical science dealing with the classification of disease
  • Nucleus -  a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction; any histologically identifiable mass of neural cell bodies in the brain or spinal cord; the positively charged dense center of an atom; (astronomy) the center of the head of a comet; consists of small solid particles of ice and frozen gas that vaporizes on approaching the sun to form the coma and tail; a small group of indispensable persons or things
  • Nude mouse -  a mouse with a genetic defect that prevents them from growing hair and also prevents them from immunologically rejecting human cells and tissues; widely used in preclinical trials
  • nutrition -  the scientific study of food and drink (especially in humans); (physiology) the organic process of nourishing or being nourished; the processes by which an organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance; a source of materials to nourish the body
  • Nyctalopia -  inability to see clearly in dim light; due to a deficiency of vitamin A or to a retinal disorder
  • Nystagmus -  involuntary movements of the eyeballs; its presence or absence is used to diagnose a variety of neurological and visual disorders
  • Obsessive -  characterized by or constituting an obsession;  a person who has obsessions
  • obstetrics -  the branch of medicine dealing with childbirth and care of the mother
  • Occupational disease -  disease or disability resulting from conditions of employment (usually from long exposure to a noxious substance or from continuous repetition of certain acts)
  • Ochronosis -  an accumulation of dark pigment in cartilage and other connective tissue; usually a symptom of alkaptonuria or phenol poisoning
  • Ointment -  semisolid preparation (usually containing a medicine) applied externally as a remedy or for soothing an irritation; toiletry consisting of any of various substances in the form of a thick liquid that have a soothing and moisturizing effect when applied to the skin
  • Oligodactyly -  congenital condition in which some fingers or toes are missing
  • Oliguria -  production of an abnormally small amount of urine; abnormally small production of urine; can be a symptom of kidney disease or obstruction of the urinary tract or edema or an imbalance of fluids and electrolytes in the body
  • Omphalocele -  protrusion of the intestine and omentum through a hernia in the abdominal wall near the navel; usually self correcting after birth
  • oncology -  the branch of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of tumors
  • Ontario -  a prosperous and industrialized province in central Canada; the smallest of the Great Lakes
  • Operating table -  table on which the patient lies during a surgical operation
  • ophthalmologist -  a medical doctor specializing in the treatment of diseases of the eye
  • ophthalmology -  the branch of medicine concerned with the eye and its diseases
  • Ophthalmoscope -  medical instrument for examining the retina of the eye
  • Ophthalmoscopy -  examination of the interior of an eye using an ophthalmoscope
  • Opportunistic infection -  any infection caused by a microorganism that does not normally cause disease in humans; occurs in persons with abnormally functioning immune systems (as AIDS patients or transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs)
  • Orchiectomy -  surgical removal of one or both testicles
  • Orchiopexy -  operation to bring an undescended testicle into the scrotum
  • Orchitis -  inflammation of one or both testes; characterized by pain and swelling
  • Orderly -  devoid of violence or disruption; not haphazard; marked by or adhering to method or system; marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts; marked by system or regularity or discipline; according to custom or rule or natural law;  a male hospital attendant who has general duties that do not involve the medical treatment of patients; a soldier who serves as an attendant to a superior officer
  • Organic brain syndrome -  mental abnormality resulting from disturbance of the structure or function of the brain
  • organisation -  the act of forming something; the activity or result of distributing or disposing persons or things properly or methodically; the act of organizing a business or an activity related to a business; an ordered manner; orderliness by virtue of being methodical and well organized; an organized structure for arranging or classifying; a group of people who work together; the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something
  • organization -  the activity or result of distributing or disposing persons or things properly or methodically; the act of organizing a business or an activity related to a business; an ordered manner; orderliness by virtue of being methodical and well organized; a group of people who work together; the act of forming something; an organized structure for arranging or classifying; the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something
  • Orphenadrine -  a skeletal muscle relaxant (trade name Norflex) used to treat severe muscle strain and Parkinsonism
  • orthopaedic -  of or relating to or employed in orthopedics
  • orthopedics -  the branch of medical science concerned with disorders or deformities of the spine and joints
  • Oscar -  an annual award by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for achievements in motion picture production and performance
  • Ossification -  hardened conventionality; the developmental process of bone formation; the process of becoming rigidly fixed in a conventional pattern of thought or behavior; the calcification of soft tissue into a bonelike material
  • Osteolysis -  lysis of bone caused by disease or infection or inadequate blood supply
  • Osteoma -  a slow growing benign tumor of consisting of bone tissue; usually on the skull or mandible
  • Osteopetrosis -  an inherited disorder characterized by an increase in bone density; in severe forms the bone marrow cavity may be obliterated
  • Otoscope -  medical instrument consisting of a magnifying lens and light; used for examining the external ear (the auditory meatus and especially the tympanic membrane)
  • outbreak -  a sudden violent spontaneous occurrence (usually of some undesirable condition)
  • Oite -  (dentistry) malocclusion in which the upper teeth extend abnormally far over the lower teeth
  • Owens -  United States athlete and Black American whose success in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin outraged Hitler (1913-1980)
  • Oxaprozin -  a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (trade name Daypro)
  • Oxazepam -  a tranquilizing drug (trade name Serax) used to treat anxiety and insomnia and alcohol withdrawal
  • Oxygen mask -  a breathing device that is placed over the mouth and nose; supplies oxygen from an attached storage tank
  • Oxytetracycline -  a yellow crystalline antibiotic (trademark Terramycin) obtained from a soil actinomycete; used to treat various bacterial and rickettsial infections
  • Pakistan -  a Muslim republic that occupies the heartland of ancient south Asian civilization in the Indus River valley; formerly part of India; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1947
  • Paleopathology -  the study of disease of former times (as inferred from fossil evidence)
  • Palpation -  a method of examination in which the examiner feels the size or shape or firmness or location of something (of body parts when the examiner is a health professional)
  • Pancytopenia -  an abnormal deficiency in all blood cells (red blood cells and white blood cells and platelets); usually associated with bone marrow tumor or with aplastic anemia
  • Papilledema -  swelling of the optic disc (where the optic nerve enters the eyeball); usually associated with an increase in intraocular pressure
  • Papilloma -  a benign epithelial tumor forming a rounded mass
  • Papillon -  small slender toy spaniel with erect ears and a black-spotted brown to white coat
  • Pappataci fever -  a mild viral disease transmitted by the bite of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasii
  • Paracentesis -  centesis of the belly to remove fluid for diagnosis
  • Paralysis -  loss of the ability to move a body part
  • Paraplegia -  paralysis of the lower half of the body (most often as a result of trauma)
  • Paresis -  a slight or partial paralysis
  • Paresthesia -  abnormal skin sensations (as tingling or tickling or itching or burning) usually associated with peripheral nerve damage
  • Parkinsonism -  a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by tremor and impaired muscular coordination
  • Parotitis -  inflammation of one or both parotid glands
  • Patch test -  a test to determine allergic sensitivity by applying small pads soaked with allergen to the unbroken skin
  • Patched -  mended usually clumsily by covering a hole with a patch; having spots or patches (small areas of contrasting color or texture)
  • Patellar reflex -  a reflex extension of the leg resulting from a sharp tap on the patellar tendon
  • Pathogenesis -  the origination and development of a disease
  • pathologist -  a doctor who specializes in medical diagnosis
  • pathology -  the branch of medical science that studies the causes and nature and effects of diseases; any deviation from a healthy or normal condition
  • Patient -  enduring without protest or complaint; enduring trying circumstances with even temper or characterized by such endurance;  a person who requires medical care; the semantic role of an entity that is not the agent but is directly involved in or affected by the happening denoted by the in the clause
  • Pediculosis -  infestation with lice (Pediculus humanus) resulting in severe itching
  • Pegleg -  a prosthesis that replaces a missing leg
  • Pelvimetry -  measurement of the dimensions of the bony birth canal (to determine whether vaginal birth is possible)
  • Pentoxifylline -  a drug (trade name Trental) used to treat claudication; believed to increase the flexibility of red blood cells so they can flow through the blood vessels to the legs and feet
  • Pentylenetetrazol -  a drug used as a circulatory and respiratory stimulant; larger doses cause convulsions in shock therapy; Metrazol is a trademark
  • Percussion -  the act of exploding a percussion cap; the act of playing a percussion instrument; tapping a part of the body for diagnostic purposes; the section of a band or orchestra that plays percussion instruments
  • Percutaneous -  through the unbroken skin; refers to medications applied directly to the skin (creams or ointments) or in time-release forms (skin patches)
  • Perforated eardrum -  an eardrum with a hole or tear in it; can interfere with normal hearing and cause other ear problems
  • Peritonsillar abscess -  a painful pus filled inflammation of the tonsils and surrounding tissues; usually a complication of tonsillitis
  • person -  a human being; a human body (usually including the clothing); a grammatical category of pros and forms
  • Pessary -  a contraceptive device consisting of a flexible dome-shaped cup made of rubber or plastic; it is filled with spermicide and fitted over the uterine cervix
  • Petasites hybridus -  small Eurasian herb having broad leaves and lilac-pink rayless flowers; found in moist areas
  • Petechia -  a minute red or purple spot on the surface of the skin as the result of tiny hemorrhages of blood vessels in the skin (as in typhoid fever)
  • pharmacist -  a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs
  • Pharmacogenetics -  the branch of genetics that studies the genetically determined variations in responses to drugs in humans or laboratory organisms
  • pharmacology -  the science or study of drugs: their preparation and properties and uses and effects
  • pharmacy -  the art and science of preparing and dispensing drugs and medicines,; a retail shop where medicine and other articles are sold
  • Pharmacy -  the art and science of preparing and dispensing drugs and medicines,; a retail shop where medicine and other articles are sold
  • Pharyngeal reflex -  normal reflex consisting of retching; may be produced by touching the soft palate in the back of the mouth
  • Phenazopyridine -  analgesic (trade name Pyridium) used to treat urinary tract infections
  • Phenelzine -  monoamine oxidase inhibitor (trade name Nardil) used to treat clinical depression
  • pheniramine -  an antihistamine used in preparations to treat allergies and respiratory infections; used to treat rhinitis and skin rashes and pruritus
  • Phentolamine -  a virility drug (trade name Vasomax) to treat erectile dysfunction in men
  • Philosophy -  any personal belief about how to live or how to deal with a situation; the rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics; a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school
  • Phlebitis -  inflammation of a vein (usually in the legs)
  • Phlebotomy -  surgical incision into a vein; used to treat hemochromatosis
  • Phlegm -  expectorated matter; saliva mixed with discharges from the respiratory passages; in ancient and medieval physiology it was believed to cause sluggishness; inactivity; showing an unusual lack of energy; apathy demonstrated by an absence of emotional reactions
  • Phocomelia -  an abnormality of development in which the upper part of an arm or leg is missing so the hands or feet are attached to the body like stumps; rare condition that results from taking thalidomide during pregnancy
  • Photo -  a picture of a person or scene in the form of a print or transparent slide; recorded by a camera on light-sensitive material
  • photography -  the occupation of taking and printing photographs or making movies; the act of taking and printing photographs; the process of producing images of objects on photosensitive surfaces
  • Photophobia -  a morbid fear of light; pain in the eye resulting from exposure to bright light (often associated with albinism)
  • Phycomycosis -  any fungal infection caused by fungi of the Phycomycetes group
  • physical -  having substance or material existence; perceptible to the senses; concerned with material things; characterized by energetic bodily activity; according with material things or natural laws (other than those peculiar to living matter); involving the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit; relating to the sciences dealing with matter and energy; especially physics; impelled by physical force especially against resistance
  • physician -  a licensed medical practitioner
  • physiology -  processes and functions of an organism; the branch of the biological sciences dealing with the functioning of organisms
  • Pierce -  14th President of the United States (1804-1869);  make a hole into; penetrate or cut through with a sharp instrument; cut or make a way through; move or affect (a person's emotions or bodily feelings) deeply or sharply; sound sharply or shrilly
  • Pimple -  a small inflamed elevation of the skin; a pustule or papule; common symptom in acne
  • Pince-nez -  spectacles clipped to the nose by a spring
  • Pindolol -  an oral beta blocker (trade name Visken) used in treating hypertension
  • Pinguecula -  a slightly elevated elastic tissue deposit in the conjunctiva that may extend to the cornea but does not cover it
  • Piroxicam -  a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (trade name Feldene) used to treat arthritis and other inflammatory conditions
  • pituitary -  of or relating to the pituitary gland; having abnormal size with overgrown extremities resulting from abnormal pituitary secretion;  the master gland of the endocrine system; located at the base of the brain
  • Pityriasis alba -  common form of pityriasis (usually in children or young adults) characterized by round patches of depigmentation
  • Pityriasis rosea -  pityriasis in which an itchy rash develops over the trunk and extremities
  • Pivot joint -  a freely moving joint in which movement is limited to rotation
  • Plasmapheresis -  plasma is separated from whole blood and the rest is returned to the donor
  • Plethysmograph -  a measuring instrument for measuring changes in volume of a part or organ or whole body (usually resulting from fluctuations in the amount of blood it contains)
  • Pneumoconiosis -  chronic respiratory disease caused by inhaling metallic or mineral particles
  • Pneumonectomy -  surgical removal of a lung (usually to treat lung cancer)
  • Podiatry -  the branch of medicine concerned with the feet
  • politician -  a person active in party politics; a leader engaged in civil administration; a schemer who tries to gain advantage in an organization in sly or underhanded ways
  • Polyarteritis nodosa -  a progressive disease of connective tissue that is characterized by nodules along arteries; nodules may block the artery and result in inadequate circulation to the particular area
  • Polymyositis -  myositis characterized by weakness of limb and neck muscles and much muscle pain and swelling; progression and severity vary among individuals
  • Polyp -  one of two forms that coelenterates take e.g. a hydra or coral: usually sedentary and has a hollow cylindrical body usually with a ring of tentacles around the mouth; a small vascular growth on the surface of a mucous membrane
  • position -  the act of positing; an assumption taken as a postulate or axiom; a job in an organization; (in team sports) the role assigned to an individual player; the spatial property of a place where or way in which something is situated; the arrangement of the body and its limbs; a rationalized mental attitude; a way of regarding situations or topics etc.; the particular portion of space occupied by something; the appropriate or customary location; the post or function properly or customarily occupied or served by another; the act of putting something in a certain place; an item on a list or in a sequence; an opinion that is held in opposition to another in an argument or dispute; a point occupied by troops for tactical reasons; a condition or position in which you find yourself; the relative position or standing of things or especially persons in a society;  cause to be in an appropriate place, state, or relation; put into a certain place or abstract location
  • Position -  the act of positing; an assumption taken as a postulate or axiom; a job in an organization; (in team sports) the role assigned to an individual player; the spatial property of a place where or way in which something is situated; the arrangement of the body and its limbs; a rationalized mental attitude; a way of regarding situations or topics etc.; the particular portion of space occupied by something; the appropriate or customary location; the post or function properly or customarily occupied or served by another; the act of putting something in a certain place; an item on a list or in a sequence; an opinion that is held in opposition to another in an argument or dispute; a point occupied by troops for tactical reasons; a condition or position in which you find yourself; the relative position or standing of things or especially persons in a society;  cause to be in an appropriate place, state, or relation; put into a certain place or abstract location
  • Potassium bromide -  a white crystalline salt (KBr) used as a sedative and in photography
  • Prazosin -  antihypertensive drug (trade name Minipress)
  • Preceptor -  teacher at a university or college (especially at Cambridge or Oxford)
  • Premolar -  a tooth having two cusps or points; located between the incisors and the molars
  • priest -  a clergyman in Christian churches who has the authority to perform or administer various religious rites; one of the Holy Orders; a person who performs religious duties and ceremonies in a non-Christian religion
  • Primary care -  the medical care received on first contact with the medical system (before being referred elsewhere)
  • primus -  the presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church of Scotland; a portable paraffin cooking stove; used by campers
  • Procaine -  a white crystalline powder (trade name Ethocaine) administered near nerves as a local anesthetic in dentistry and medicine
  • Prochlorperazine -  antipsychotic and antiemetic drug used to treat schizophrenia and to combat nausea and vomiting
  • Proctitis -  inflammation of the rectum; marked by bloody stools and a frequent urge to defecate; frequently associated with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
  • Proctor -  someone who supervises (an examination);  watch over (students taking an exam, to prevent cheating)
  • Prodrome -  an early symptom that a disease is developing or that an attack is about to occur
  • professor -  someone who is a member of the faculty at a college or university
  • Progestogen -  any of a group of steroid hormones that have the effect of progesterone
  • Prognosis -  a prediction of the course of a disease; a prediction about how something (as the weather) will develop
  • Prolapse -  the slipping or falling out of place of an organ (as the uterus);  slip or fall out of place, as of body parts
  • Prostatectomy -  surgical removal of part or all of the prostate gland
  • Protamine -  a simple protein found in fish sperm; rich in arginine; simpler in composition than globulin or albumin; counteracts the anticoagulant effect of heparin
  • Protease inhibitor -  an antiviral drug used against HIV; interrupts HIV replication by binding and blocking HIV protease; often used in combination with other drugs
  • protein -  any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes
  • Proteinuria -  the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
  • Protriptyline -  tricyclic antidepressant used to treat clinical depression
  • Pruritus ani -  chronic itching of the skin around the anus
  • Pseudoephedrine -  poisonous crystalline alkaloid occurring with ephedrine and isomorphic with it
  • Pseudohermaphroditism -  congenital condition in which a person has external genitalia of one sex and internal sex organs of the other sex
  • Psychiatry -  the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
  • Psychological Medicine -  the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
  • Psychopathology -  the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; the branch of psychology concerned with abnormal behavior
  • Pterygium -  either of two thickened triangular layers of conjunctiva extending from the nasal edge of the eye to the cornea; it arises from irritation of the pinguecula
  • Ptosis -  drooping of the upper eyelid caused by muscle paralysis and weakness
  • Purpura -  any of several blood diseases causing subcutaneous bleeding
  • Putamen -  the outer reddish part of the lenticular nucleus
  • Pycnodysostosis -  a form of dwarfism accompanied by fragile bones and bad teeth
  • Pyridoxine -  a B vitamin that is essential for metabolism of amino acids and starch
  • Q fever -  an acute disease resembling influenza
  • Quackery -  medical practice and advice based on observation and experience in ignorance of scientific findings; the dishonesty of a charlatan
  • Quaker -  one who quakes and trembles with (or as with) fear; a member of the Religious Society of Friends founded by George Fox (the Friends have never called themselves Quakers)
  • Quality of life -  your personal satisfaction (or dissatisfaction) with the cultural or intellectual conditions under which you live (as distinct from material comfort)
  • Quinidine -  cardiac drug (trade names Quinidex and Quinora) used to treat certain heart arrhythmias
  • Rabbit test -  pregnancy test that involves injecting some of the woman's urine into an unmated female rabbit and later examining the ovaries of the rabbit; presence of corpora lutea indicates that the woman is pregnant
  • Rachischisis -  a not uncommon congenital defect in which a vertebra is malformed; unless several vertebrae are affected or there is myelomeningocele there are few symptoms; can be diagnosed by amniocentesis
  • Radial keratotomy -  radial pattern of incisions in the cornea that cause the cornea to bulge; performed to correct myopia
  • radiation therapy -  (medicine) the treatment of disease (especially cancer) by exposure to a radioactive substance
  • Radioimmunoassay -  immunoassay of a substance that has been radioactively labeled
  • Radiology -  the branch of medical science dealing with the medical use of X-rays or other penetrating radiation; (radiology) examination of the inner structure of opaque objects using X rays or other penetrating radiation
  • Radium -  an intensely radioactive metallic element that occurs in minute amounts in uranium ores
  • Ramsay Hunt syndrome -  syndrome resulting from infection by the herpes varicella zoster virus; characterized by vertigo and pain in the ears and facial nerve paralysis and sometimes hearing loss
  • Reabsorption -  the organic process in which the substance of some differentiated structure that has been produced by the body undergoes lysis and assimilation
  • receptor -  a cellular structure that is postulated to exist in order to mediate between a chemical agent that acts on nervous tissue and the physiological response; an organ having nerve endings (in the skin or viscera or eye or ear or nose or mouth) that respond to stimulation
  • Rectocele -  protrusion or herniation of the rectum into the vagina; can occur if pelvic muscles are weakened by childbirth
  • Red-eye -  travel on an overnight flight
  • Reduction -  the act of reducing complexity; any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen); always occurs accompanied by oxidation of the reducing agent; the act of decreasing or reducing something
  • Regional anaesthesia -  loss of sensation in a region of the body produced by application of an anesthetic agent to all the nerves supplying that region (as when an epidural anesthetic is administered to the pelvic region during childbirth)
  • Regulator gene -  a gene that produces a repressor substance that inhibits an operator gene
  • Rehabilitation -  the restoration of someone to a useful place in society; the treatment of physical disabilities by massage and electrotherapy and exercises; vindication of a person's character and the re-establishment of that person's reputation; the conversion of wasteland into land suitable for use of habitation or cultivation
  • Rejuvenation -  the act of restoring to a more youthful condition; the phenomenon of vitality and freshness being restored
  • Relapsing fever -  marked by recurring high fever and transmitted by the bite of infected lice or ticks; characterized by episodes of high fever and chills and headache and muscle pain and nausea that recur every week or ten days for several months
  • releasing hormone -  any of several hormones produced in the hypothalamus and carried by a vein to the anterior pituitary gland where they stimulate the release of anterior pituitary hormones; each of these hormones causes the anterior pituitary to secrete a specific hormone; a substance produced by the hypothalamus that is capable of accelerating the secretion of a given hormone by the anterior pituitary gland
  • Renal colic -  sharp pain in the lower back that radiates into the groin; associated with the passage of a renal calculus through the ureter
  • report -  a short account of the news; the act of informing by al report; a written document describing the findings of some individual or group; a sharp explosive sound (especially the sound of a gun firing); the general estimation that the public has for a person; an essay (especially one written as an assignment); a written evaluation of a student's scholarship and deportment;  to give an account or representation of in words; make known to the authorities; complain about; make a charge against; ance one's presence; ance as the result of an investigation, or ance something to the proper authorities; be responsible for reporting the details of, as in journalism
  • Rescue -  recovery or preservation from loss or danger;  take forcibly from legal custody; free from harm or evil
  • Rescue -  recovery or preservation from loss or danger;  take forcibly from legal custody; free from harm or evil
  • Respiratory acidosis -  acidosis resulting from reduced gas exchange in the lungs (as in emphysema or pneumonia); excess carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid which increases the acidity of the blood
  • Respiratory quotient -  the ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide expired to the volume of oxygen consumed by an organism or cell in a given period of time
  • Resuscitator -  a breathing apparatus used for resuscitation by forcing oxygen into the lungs of a person who has undergone asphyxia or arrest of respiration
  • Reticuloendothelial system -  a widely distributed system consisting of all the cells able to ingest bacteria or colloidal particles etc, except for certain white blood cells
  • Retrospective -  concerned with or related to the past;  an exhibition of a representative selection of an artist's life work
  • Rheumatism -  any painful disorder of the joints or muscles or connective tissues; a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities; something (possibly a virus) triggers an attack on the synovium by the immune system, which releases cytokines that stimulate an inflammatory reaction that can lead to the destruction of all components of the joint
  • Rheumatoid factor -  autoantibody that is usually present in the serum of people with rheumatoid arthritis
  • Rhinophyma -  enlargement of the nose with dilation of follicles and redness and prominent vascularity of the skin; often associated with excessive consumption of alcohol
  • Rhinosporidiosis -  fungal infection of the nose; often acquired while swimming
  • Rhizotomy -  surgical procedure in which spinal nerve roots are cut; done (anterior roots) to relieve intractable pain or (posterior roots) to stop severe muscle spasms
  • Ribose -  a pentose sugar important as a component of ribonucleic acid
  • Ritonavir -  a protease inhibitor (trade name Norvir) used in treating HIV
  • Salpingectomy -  surgical removal of one or both Fallopian tubes
  • Sanitary napkin -  a disposable absorbent pad (trade name Kotex); worn to absorb menstrual flow
  • Saquinavir -  a weak protease inhibitor (trade name Invirase) used in treating HIV
  • Sarcoma -  a usually malignant tumor arising from connective tissue (bone or muscle etc.); one of the four major types of cancer
  • Saxitoxin -  a powerful neurotoxin produced by certain dinoflagellates found in red tides; it can accumulate in mollusks that feed on the dinoflagellates and cause food poisoning to humans
  • Scalding -  marked by harshly abusive criticism
  • Scalpel -  a thin straight surgical knife used in dissection and surgery
  • Scaphocephaly -  congenital malformation of the skull which is long and narrow; frequently accompanied by mental retardation
  • Scatology -  (medicine) the chemical analysis of excrement (for medical diagnosis or for paleontological purposes); a preoccupation with obscenity (especially that dealing with excrement or excretory functions)
  • Schistosoma -  type genus of the family Schistosomatidae: blood flukes
  • Schmidt -  German statesman who served as chancellor of Germany (born in 1918)
  • scientist -  a person with advanced knowledge of one or more sciences
  • Scintillating scotoma -  a localized area of diminished vision edged by shimmering colored lights; in many people it indicates the onset of migraine
  • Scleredema -  a skin disease marked by hard edema of the tissue usually beginning in the face
  • Scope -  an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control: "the range of a supersonic jet"; electronic equipment that provides visual images of varying electrical quantities; a magnifier of images of distant objects; the state of the environment in which a situation exists
  • Scotland -  one of the four countries that make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; located on the northern part of the island of Great Britain; famous for bagpipes and plaids and kilts
  • Scotoma -  an isolated area of diminished vision within the visual field
  • Scotopic vision -  the ability to see in reduced illumination (as in moonlight)
  • Scrubs -  protective garment worn by surgeons during operations
  • Seclusion -  the act of secluding yourself from others; the quality of being secluded from the presence or view of others
  • Sedation -  the administration of a sedative agent or drug; a state of reduced excitement or anxiety that is induced by the administrative of a sedative agent
  • Sedative -  tending to soothe or tranquilize;  a drug that reduces excitability and calms a person
  • Self-hatred -  shame resulting from strong dislike of yourself or your actions
  • Sellers -  English comic actor (1925-1980)
  • Sensory nerve -  a nerve that passes impulses from receptors toward or to the central nervous system
  • Septicemic plague -  an especially dangerous and generally fatal form of the plague in which infecting organisms invade the bloodstream; does not spread from person to person
  • Sequela -  any abnormality following or resulting from a disease or injury or treatment
  • Serology -  the branch of medical science that deals with serums; especially with blood serums and disease
  • Serum -  watery fluid of the blood that resembles plasma but contains fibrinogen
  • Serum sickness -  a delayed allergic reaction to the injection of an antiserum caused by an antibody reaction to an antigen in the donor serum
  • Sesamoid bone -  any of several small round bones formed in a tendon where it passes over a joint
  • Sex chromosome -  (genetics) a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual
  • Sex linkage -  an association between genes in sex chromosomes that makes some characteristics appear more frequently in one sex than in the other
  • Shell shock -  a mental disorder caused by stress of active warfare
  • Shivering -  vibrating slightly and irregularly; as e.g. with fear or cold or like the leaves of an aspen in a breeze;  a sensation of cold that often marks the start of an infection and the development of a fever
  • Shunt -  implant consisting of a tube made of plastic or rubber; for draining fluids within the body; a conductor having low resistance in parallel with another device to divert a fraction of the current; a passage by which a bodily fluid (especially blood) is diverted from one channel to another;  transfer to another track, of trains; provide with or divert by means of an electrical shunt
  • Sigmoidoscopy -  visual examination (with a sigmoidoscope) of the lower third of the colon in a search for polyps
  • Silver -  having the white lustrous sheen of silver; made from or largely consisting of silver; expressing yourself readily, clearly, effectively; of lustrous grey; covered with or tinged with the color of silver;  coins made of silver; a soft white precious univalent metallic element having the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of any metal; occurs in argentite and in free form; used in coins and jewelry and tableware and photography; silverware eating utensils; a trophy made of silver (or having the appearance of silver) that is usually awarded for winning second place in a competition; a light shade of grey;  turn silver; make silver in color; coat with a layer of silver or a silver amalgam
  • Simpson -  Scottish obstetrician and surgeon who pioneered in the use of ether and discovered the anesthetic effects of chloroform (1811-1870); United States divorcee whose marriage to Edward VIII created a constitutional crisis leading to his abdication
  • simvastatin -  an oral lipid-lowering medicine (trade name Zocor) administered to reduce blood cholesterol levels; recommended after heart attacks
  • Sitz bath -  a bathtub in which your buttocks and hips are immersed as if you were sitting in a chair and you bathe in a sitting position
  • Skin condition -  texture and appearance of the skin of the face; a disease affecting the skin
  • Sling -  bandage to support an injured forearm; consisting of a wide triangular piece of cloth hanging from around the neck; a simple weapon consisting of a looped strap in which a projectile is whirled and then released; a highball with liquor and water with sugar and lemon or lime juice; a shoe that has a strap that wraps around the heel; a plaything consisting of a Y-shaped stick with elastic between the arms; used to propel small stones;  hurl as if with a sling
  • Smelling salts -  a pungent preparation of ammonium carbonate and perfume; sniffed as a stimulant to relieve faintness
  • Snellen chart -  display consisting of a printed card with letters and numbers in lines of decreasing size; used to test visual acuity
  • Snuff -  snuff colored; of a greyish to yellowish brown;  finely powdered tobacco for sniffing up the nose; a pinch of smokeless tobacco inhaled at a single time; the charred portion of a candlewick; sensing an odor by inhaling through the nose;  inhale audibly through the nose; sniff or smell inquiringly
  • Social insurance -  government provision for unemployed or injured or aged; financed by contributions from employers and employees as well as by government revenue
  • sociologist -  a social scientist who studies the institutions and development of human society
  • SOCRATES -  ancient Athenian philosopher; teacher of Plato and Xenophon (470-399 BC)
  • Sodium fluoride -  a colorless crystalline salt of sodium (NaF) used in fluoridation of water and to prevent tooth decay
  • Soft diet -  a diet that does not require chewing; advised for those with intestinal disorders
  • Sopor -  a torpid state resembling deep sleep
  • Sound -  thorough; free from moral defect; financially secure and safe; in good condition; free from defect or damage or decay; (of sleep) deep and complete; in excellent physical condition; exercising or showing good judgment; having legal efficacy or force; logically valid;  the particular auditory effect produced by a given cause; the subjective sensation of hearing something; the sudden occurrence of an audible event; a large ocean inlet or deep bay; mechanical vibrations transmitted by an elastic medium; the audible part of a transmitted signal; (phonetics) an individual sound unit of speech without concern as to whether or not it is a phoneme of some language; a narrow channel of the sea joining two larger bodies of water;  appear in a certain way; give off a certain sound or sounds; make a certain noise or sound; cause to sound; ance by means of a sound; measure the depth of (a body of water) with a sounding line; utter with vibrating vocal chords
  • Space medicine -  the branch of medicine concerned with the effects of space flight on human beings
  • Specialty -  the special line of work you have adopted as your career; a distinguishing trait; an asset of special worth or utility
  • Spermatocele -  a swelling on the epididymis or the testis; usually contains spermatozoa
  • Spider angioma -  a dilation of superficial capillaries with a central red dot from which blood vessels radiate
  • Spinal fusion -  correction of an unstable part of the spine by joining two or more vertebrae; usually done surgically but sometimes done by traction or immobilization
  • Splint -  an orthopedic mechanical device used to immobilize and protect a part of the body (as a broken leg); a thin sliver of wood;  support with a splint
  • Spondylitis -  inflammation of a spinal joint; characterized by pain and stiffness
  • Sports medicine -  the branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of injuries or illness resulting from athletic activities
  • Sprain -  a painful injury to a joint caused by a sudden wrenching of its ligaments;  twist suddenly so as to sprain
  • Sputum -  expectorated matter; saliva mixed with discharges from the respiratory passages; in ancient and medieval physiology it was believed to cause sluggishness
  • Stabbing -  causing physical or especially psychological injury; as physically painful as if caused by a sharp instrument
  • Stabilization -  the act of stabilizing something or making it more stable; the act of making something (as a vessel or aircraft) less likely to overturn
  • Standing -  having a supporting base; (of persons) on the feet; having the torso in an erect position supported by straight legs; executed in or initiated from a standing position; (of fluids) not moving or flowing; not created for a particular occasion; permanent;  the act of assuming or maintaining an erect upright position; an ordered listing of scores or results showing the relative positions of competitors (individuals or teams) in a sporting event; social or financial or professional status or reputation
  • statistics -  a branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters
  • Steinman -  United States civil engineer noted for designing suspension bridges (including the George Washington Bridge) (1886-1960)
  • Stenosis -  abnormal narrowing of a bodily canal or passageway
  • Sterilization -  the procedure of making some object free of live bacteria or other microorganisms (usually by heat or chemical means); the act of making an organism barren or infertile (unable to reproduce)
  • Stewart -  Scottish philosopher and follower of Thomas Reid (1753-1828); United States film actor who portrayed incorruptible but modest heros (1908-1997)
  • Stinger -  a sharp stinging blow; a sharp organ of offense or defense (as of a wasp or stingray or scorpion) often connected with a poison gland; a portable low altitude surface-to-air missile system using infrared guidance and an impact fuse; fired from the shoulder; a remark capable of wounding mentally; a cocktail made of made of creme de menthe and brandy
  • Stoma -  a mouth or mouthlike opening (especially one created by surgery on the surface of the body to create an opening to an internal organ); a minute epidermal pore in a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor can pass
  • Stomatitis -  inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth
  • Strain -  an intense or violent exertion; (physics) deformation of a physical body under the action of applied forces; injury to a muscle (often caused by overuse); results in swelling and pain; (psychology) nervousness resulting from mental stress; the act of singing; an effortful attempt to attain a goal; a lineage or race of people; the general meaning or substance of an utterance; a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence; a special variety of domesticated animals within a species; (biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups; difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension;  use to the utmost; exert vigorously or to full capacity; become stretched or tense or taught; cause to be tense and uneasy or nervous or anxious; alter the shape of (something) by stress; to exert much effort or energy; rub through a strainer or process in an electric blender; remove by passing through a filter; separate by passing through a sieve or other straining device to separate out coarser elements; test the limits of
  • Stratum corneum -  the outermost layer of the epidermis consisting of dead cells that slough off
  • Stratum granulosum -  the layer of epidermis just under the stratum corneum or (on the palms and soles) just under the stratum lucidum; contains cells (with visible granules) that die and move to the surface
  • Stratum lucidum -  the layer of epidermis immediately under the stratum corneum in the skin of the palms and soles
  • Stress -  the relative prominence of a syllable or musical note (especially with regard to stress or pitch); (physics) force that produces strain on a physical body; difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension; special emphasis attached to something; (psychology) a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense;  put stress on; utter with an accent; to stress, single out as important; test the limits of
  • Stress fracture -  fracture resulting from excessive activity rather than a specific injury
  • Stretch reflex -  reflex contraction of a muscle when an attached tendon is pulled; important in maintaining erect posture
  • Stridor -  a whistling sound when breathing (usually heard on inspiration); indicates obstruction of the trachea or larynx
  • Stroboscope -  scientific instrument that provides a flashing light synchronized with the periodic movement of an object; can make moving object appear stationary
  • Stroke -  a light touch with the hands; a single complete movement; (sports) the act of swinging or striking at a ball with a club or racket or bat or cue or hand; any one of the repeated movements of the limbs and body used for locomotion in swimming or rowing; a mark made by a writing implement (as in cursive writing); a light touch; the oarsman nearest the stern of the shell who sets the pace for the rest of the crew; a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain; a punctuation mark (/) used to separate related items of information; the maximum movement available to a pivoted or reciprocating piece by a cam;  treat gingerly or carefully; strike a ball with a smooth blow; row at a particular rate; touch lightly and with affection, with brushing motions
  • Strontium -  a soft silver-white or yellowish metallic element of the alkali metal group; turns yellow in air; occurs in celestite and strontianite
  • Structural genomics -  the branch of genomics that determines the three-dimensional structures of proteins
  • Strychnine -  an alkaloid plant toxin extracted chiefly from nux vomica; formerly used as a stimulant
  • Stupor -  marginal consciousness; the feeling of distress and disbelief that you have when something bad happens accidentally
  • Suction -  a force over an area produced by a pressure difference; the act of sucking;  empty or clean (a body cavity) by the force of suction; remove or draw away by the force of suction
  • sulfate -  a salt or ester of sulphuric acid;  convert into a sulfate
  • sulfuric acid -  (H2SO4) a highly corrosive acid made from sulfur dioxide; widely used in the chemical industry
  • Sulindac -  a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (trade name Clinoril)
  • Superfecundation -  fertilization of two or more ova released during the same menstrual cycle by sperm from separate acts of coitus (especially by different males)
  • surgeon -  a physician who specializes in surgery
  • surgery -  a room where a doctor or dentist can be consulted; the branch of medical science that treats disease or injury by operative procedures; a medical procedure involving an incision with instruments; performed to repair damage or arrest disease in a living body; a room in a hospital equipped for the performance of surgical operations
  • Surgical incision -  the cutting of or into body tissues or organs (especially by a surgeon as part of an operation)
  • Surveillance -  close observation of a person or group (usually by the police)
  • Sydenham's chorea -  chorea occurring chiefly in children and associated with rheumatic fever
  • symptom -  anything that accompanies X and is regarded as an indication of X's existence; (medicine) any sensation or change in bodily function that is experienced by a patient and is associated with a particular disease
  • Syndrome -  a complex of concurrent things; a pattern of symptoms indicative of some disease
  • Synovitis -  inflammation of the synovial membrane that lines a synovial joint; results in pain and swelling
  • Syrinx -  the vocal organ of a bird; a primitive wind instrument consisting of several parallel pipes bound together
  • Systole -  the contraction of the chambers of the heart (especially the ventricles) to drive blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery
  • Tablet -  a small flat compressed cake of some substance; a slab of stone or wood suitable for bearing an inscription; a dose of medicine in the form of a small pellet; a number of sheets of paper fastened together along one edge
  • Takayasu's arteritis -  disorder characterized by the absence of a pulse in both arms and in the carotid arteries
  • Tamponade -  blockage or closure (as of a wound or body cavity) by (or as if by) a tampon (especially to stop bleeding)
  • Technetium -  a crystalline metallic element not found in nature; occurs as one of the fission products of uranium
  • Telencephalon -  the anterior division of the forebrain; the cerebrum and related parts of the hypothalamus
  • Temporal arteritis -  inflammation of the temporal arteries; characterized by headaches and difficulty chewing and (sometimes) visual impairment
  • Terazosin -  antihypertensive drug (trade name Hytrin) used to treat high blood pressure
  • Testosterone -  a potent androgenic hormone produced chiefly by the testes; responsible for the development of male secondary sex characteristics
  • Tetany -  clinical neurological syndrome characterized by muscular twitching and cramps and (when severe) seizures; associated with calcium deficiency (hypoparathyroidism) or vitamin D deficiency or alkalosis
  • Thanatology -  the branch of science that studies death (especially its social and psychological aspects)
  • Thelarche -  the start of breast development in a woman at the beginning of puberty
  • Therapy -  (medicine) the act of caring for someone (as by medication or remedial training etc.)
  • Thiotepa -  an antineoplastic drug used to treat certain malignancies
  • Thomas -  the Apostle who would not believe the resurrection of Jesus until he saw Jesus with his own eyes; Welsh poet (1914-1953); a radio broadcast journalist during World War I and World War II noted for his nightly new broadcast (1892-1981); United States socialist who was a candidate for president six times (1884-1968); United States clockmaker who introduced mass production (1785-1859)
  • Thoracotomy -  surgical incision into the chest walls opening up the pleural cavity
  • Thorax -  part of an insect's body that bears the wings and legs; the part of the human torso between the neck and the diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates; the middle region of the body of an arthropod between the head and the abdomen
  • Thrombectomy -  surgical removal of a blood clot (thrombus) from a blood vessel
  • Thrombolysis -  the process of breaking up and dissolving blood clots
  • Thrombus -  a blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin
  • Thyroglobulin -  an iodine containing protein that is obtained from the thyroid gland and exhibits the general properties of the globulins
  • timolol -  a beta blocker (trade name Blocadren) administered after heart attacks
  • Tincture -  (pharmacology) a medicine consisting of an extract in an alcohol solution; a substances that colors metals; a quality of a given color that differs slightly from a primary color; an indication that something has been present;  stain or tint with a color; fill, as with a certain quality
  • Tincture of iodine -  a tincture consisting of a solution of iodine in ethyl alcohol; applied topically to wounds as an antiseptic
  • Tine test -  a tuberculin test in which a disk with several tines bearing tuberculin antigen is used to puncture the skin; development of a hard red area indicates past or present exposure to tubercle bacilli and the need for further testing
  • Tinea cruris -  fungal infection of the groin (most common in men)
  • tobacco -  leaves of the tobacco plant dried and prepared for smoking or ingestion; aromatic annual or perennial herbs and shrubs
  • Tobramycin -  an antibiotic (trade name Nebcin) that is especially effective against Gram-negative bacteria
  • Tomography -  (medicine) obtaining pictures of the interior of the body
  • Torticollis -  an unnatural condition in which the head leans to one side because the neck muscles on that side are contracted
  • Toxic waste -  poisonous waste materials; can cause injury (especially by chemical means)
  • Toxicant -  having the qualities or effects of a poison;  any substance that causes injury or illness or death of a living organism
  • Toxicodendron -  in some classifications: comprising those members of the genus Rhus having foliage that is poisonous to the touch; of North America and northern South America
  • Toxoid -  a bacterial toxin that has been weakened until it is no longer toxic but is strong enough to induce the formation of antibodies and immunity to the specific disease caused by the toxin
  • Traction -  (orthopedics) the act of pulling on a bone or limb (as in a fracture) to relieve pressure or align parts in a special way during healing; the friction between a body and the surface on which it moves (as between an automobile tire and the road)
  • Transaminase -  a class of transferases that catalyze transamination (that transfer an amino group from an amino acid to another compound)
  • Transgender -  involving a partial or full reversal of gender
  • Traumatology -  the branch of medicine that deals with the surgical repair of injuries and wounds arising from accidents
  • Trench fever -  marked by pain in muscles and joints and transmitted by lice
  • Trench foot -  resembling frostbite but without freezing; resulting from exposure to cold and wet
  • Trichophyton -  a genus of fungus of the family Moniliaceae; causes ringworm and favus
  • Trisomy -  chrosomal abnormality in which there is one more than the normal number of chromosomes in a cell
  • Trisomy -  chrosomal abnormality in which there is one more than the normal number of chromosomes in a cell
  • Trophoblast -  the membrane that forms the wall of the blastocyst in early development; aids implantation in the uterine wall
  • Tropical sprue -  a chronic disorder that occurs in tropical and non-tropical forms and in both children and adults; nutrients are not absorbed; symptoms include foul-smelling diarrhea and emaciation
  • Tuberculin -  a sterile liquid containing a purified protein derivative of the tuberculosis bacterium; used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis
  • Tucker -  a detachable yoke of linen or lace worn over the breast of a low-cut dress; a sewer who tucks; United States vaudevillian (born in Russia) noted for her flamboyant performances (1884-1966); United States anarchist influential before World War I (1854-1939);  wear out completely
  • Tumescence -  tumidity resulting from the presence of blood or other fluid in the tissues
  • Tunnel vision -  visual impairment involving a loss of peripheral vision
  • Tympanoplasty -  surgical correction or repair of defects or injuries in the eardrum or the bones of the middle ear
  • Tyrosinemia -  autosomal recessive defect in tyrosine metabolism resulting in liver and kidney disturbances and mental retardation
  • Ultrasound -  very high frequency sound; used in ultrasonography; using the reflections of high-frequency sound waves to construct an image of a body organ (a sonogram); commonly used to observe fetal growth or study bodily organs
  • Umbilical hernia -  protrusion of the intestine and omentum through a hernia in the abdominal wall near the navel; usually self correcting after birth
  • Unconsciousness -  a state lacking normal awareness of the self or environment
  • Ureterocele -  prolapse of the end of the ureter into the bladder; may obstruct urine flow
  • Urethritis -  inflammation of the urethra; results in painful urination
  • Urethrocele -  prolapse of the urethra into the vagina
  • Urobilinogen -  a chromogen formed in the intestine from the breakdown of bilirubin; yields urobilins on oxidation; some is excreted in the feces and some is resorbed and excreted in bile or urine
  • Urology -  the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the urinary tract or urogenital system
  • Uterine contraction -  a rhythmic tightening in labor of the upper uterine musculature that contracts the size of the uterus and pushes the fetus toward the birth canal
  • Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty -  surgical resection of unnecessary palatal and oropharyngeal tissue to open the airway; intended to cure extreme cases of snoring (with or without sleep apnea)
  • Vaginal discharge -  discharge of secretions from the cervical glands of the vagina; normally clear or white
  • Vardenafil -  virility drug (trade name Levitra) used to treat erectile dysfunction in men
  • Vasodilation -  dilation of blood vessels (especially the arteries)
  • Vasovasostomy -  a surgical procedure that attempts to restore the function of the vas deferens after a vasectomy
  • Vector -  a variable quantity that can be resolved into components; any agent (person or animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease; a straight line segment whose length is magnitude and whose orientation in space is direction
  • Ventilation -  the act of supplying fresh air and getting rid of foul air; a mechanical system in a building that provides fresh air; the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation; the process of taking in oxygen from inhaled air and releasing carbon dioxide by exhalation; free and open discussion of (or debate on) some question of public interest
  • Vernix caseosa -  a white cheeselike protective material that covers the skin of a fetus
  • Very low density lipoprotein -  large lipoproteins rich in triglycerides; VLDLs circulate through the blood giving up their triglycerides to fat and muscle tissue until the VLDL remnants are modified and converted into LDL
  • Viremia -  the presence of a virus in the blood stream
  • Virilization -  the abnormal development of male sexual characteristics in a female (usually as the result of hormone therapies or adrenal malfunction)
  • Virino -  (microbiology) a hypothetical infectious particle thought to be the cause of scrapie and other degenerative diseases of the central nervous system; consists of nucleic acid in a protective coat of host cell proteins
  • vision -  the perceptual experience of seeing; a vivid mental image; a religious or mystical experience of a supernatural appearance; the formation of a mental image of something that is not perceived as real and is not present to the senses; the ability to see; the visual faculty
  • visual -  able to be seen; relating to or using sight
  • Visual agnosia -  inability to recognize or interpret objects in the visual field
  • Visual field -  all of the points of the physical environment that can be perceived by a stable eye at a given moment
  • Vital capacity -  the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation (usually tested with a spirometer); used to determine the condition of lung tissue
  • Vitamin B -  originally thought to be a single vitamin but now separated into several B vitamins
  • Vitamin D -  a fat-soluble vitamin that prevents rickets
  • Vulvectomy -  surgical removal of part or all of the vulva
  • Walker -  an enclosing framework on casters or wheels; helps babies learn to walk; a light enclosing framework (trade name Zimmer) with rubber castors or wheels and handles; helps invalids or the handicapped or the aged to walk; a shoe designed for comfortable walking; United States writer (born in 1944); New Zealand runner who in 1975 became the first person to run a mile in less that 3 minutes and 50 seconds (born in 1952); a person who travels by foot
  • Walker -  an enclosing framework on casters or wheels; helps babies learn to walk; a light enclosing framework (trade name Zimmer) with rubber castors or wheels and handles; helps invalids or the handicapped or the aged to walk; a shoe designed for comfortable walking; United States writer (born in 1944); New Zealand runner who in 1975 became the first person to run a mile in less that 3 minutes and 50 seconds (born in 1952); a person who travels by foot
  • Wandering -  of a path e.g.; having no fixed course; (of groups of people) tending to travel and change settlements frequently;  travelling about without any clear destination
  • Warner -  someone who gives a warning to others; United States filmmaker who with his brothers founded the movie studio that produced the first talking picture (1881-1958)
  • Wellness -  a healthy state of wellbeing free from disease
  • Wheeze -  breathing with a husky or whistling sound; (Briticism) a clever or amusing scheme or trick;  breathe with difficulty
  • Whole blood -  blood that has not been modified except for the addition of an anticoagulant
  • Widal test -  a test for detecting typhoid fever and other salmonella infections
  • Willem Einthoven -  Dutch physiologist who devised the first electrocardiograph (1860-1927)
  • William Cowper -  English poet who wrote hymns and poetry about nature (1731-1800); English surgeon who discovered Cowper's gland (1666-1709)
  • Windburn -  redness and irritation of the skin caused by exposure to high-velocity wind
  • Word salad -  jumble of incoherent speech as sometimes heard in schizophrenia
  • Worth -  having a specified value; having sufficient worth;  the quality that renders something desirable or valuable or useful; French couturier (born in England) regarded as the founder of Parisian haute couture; noted for introducing the bustle (1825-1895); an indefinite quantity of something having a specified value
  • Wrinkle -  a clever method of doing something (especially something new and different); a minor difficulty; a slight depression in the smoothness of a surface;  make wrinkles or creases into a smooth surface; become wrinkled or crumpled or creased; make wrinkled or creased; gather or contract into wrinkles or folds; pucker
  • Writer's cramp -  muscular spasms of thumb and forefinger while writing with a pen or pencil
  • Xanthelasma -  xanthoma of the eyelids; occurs chiefly in the elderly
  • Xanthoma -  a skin problem marked by the development (on the eyelids and neck and back) of irregular yellow nodules; sometimes attributable to disturbances of cholesterol metabolism
  • Xeroderma -  a mild form of ichthyosis characterized by abnormal dryness and roughness of the skin
  • Xerophthalmia -  abnormal dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eyes; may be due to a systemic deficiency of vitamin A
  • Yangon -  the capital and largest city of Myanmar; located in the south near the Irrawaddy river delta
  • Zebra -  any of several fleet black-and-white striped African equines
  • zidovudine -  an antiviral drug (trade name Retrovir) used in the treatment of AIDS; adverse side effects include liver damage and suppression of the bone marrow
  • Zona pellucida -  thick membrane around the mammalian ovum; can be penetrated by one sperm in the fertilization process; usually remains around the fertilized egg until it is implanted in the wall of the uterus


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