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Dictionary of pathology

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  • abo system a classification system for the antigens of human blood; used in blood transfusion therapy; four groups are A and B and AB and O
  • abscess symptom consisting of a localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue
  • acanthocytosis the presence of acanthocytes in the blood stream (as in abetalipoproteinemia)
  • acantholysis a breakdown of a cell layer in the epidermis (as in pemphigus)
  • acanthosis nigricans a skin disease characterized by dark wartlike patches in the body folds; can be benign or malignant
  • acanthosis an abnormal but benign thickening of the prickle cell layer of the skin (as in psoriasis)
  • achlorhydria an abnormal deficiency or absence of free hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice; often associated with severe anemias and cancer of the stomach
  • achondroplasia an inherited skeletal disorder beginning before birth; cartilage is converted to bone resulting in dwarfism
  • acidophil an organism that thrives in a relatively acid environment
  • acidosis abnormally high acidity (excess hydrogen ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
  • acinar pertaining to the individual parts making up an aggregate fruit like a blackberry;  pertaining to one of the small sacs (as in a compound gland)
  • acinus one of the small sacs or saclike dilations in a compound gland;  one of the small drupes making up an aggregate or multiple fruit like a blackberry
  • acne vulgaris the most common form of acne; usually affects people from puberty to young adulthood
  • acoustic of or relating to the science of acoustics;   a remedy for hearing loss or deafness
  • acquired gotten through environmental forces
  • acromegaly enlargement of bones of hands and feet and face; often accompanied by headache and muscle pain and emotional disturbances; caused by overproduction of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary gland (due to a tumor)
  • acth a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex
  • actinic keratosis an overgrowth of skin layers resulting from extended exposure to the sun
  • actinomycosis disease of cattle that can be transmitted to humans; results from infection with actinomycetes; characterized by hard swellings that exude pus through long sinuses
  • acute having or experiencing a rapid onset and short but severe course;  of critical importance and consequence;  extremely sharp or intense;  having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions;  of an angle; less than 90 degrees;  ending in a sharp point;   a mark (') placed above a vowel to indicate pronunciation
  • adenocarcinoma malignant tumor originating in glandular epithelium
  • adenoma a benign epithelial tumor of glandular origin
  • adenomyosis the presence of endometrium elsewhere than in the lining of the uterus; causes premenstrual pain and dysmenorrhea
  • adenosis a disorder of the glands of the body
  • adh hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus; affects blood pressure by stimulating capillary muscles and reduces urine flow by affecting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules
  • adhesion a fibrous band of scar tissue that binds together normally separate anatomical structures;  abnormal union of bodily tissues; most common in the abdomen;  faithful support for a religion or cause or political party;  the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or the joining of surfaces of different composition
  • adhesive tending to adhere;   a substance that unites or bonds surfaces together
  • adipose tissue a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy; it also cushions and insulates vital organs
  • adnexal of or pertaining to adnexa
  • adrenal cortex the cortex of the adrenal gland; secretes corticosterone and sex hormones
  • adrenal gland either of a pair of complex endocrine glands situated near the kidney
  • adrenal of or pertaining to the adrenal glands or their secretions;  near the kidneys;   either of a pair of complex endocrine glands situated near the kidney
  • adrenocortical of or derived from the cortex of the adrenal glands
  • adult (of animals) fully developed;   any mature animal;  a fully developed person from maturity onward
  • aeroembolism pain resulting from rapid change in pressure; obstruction of the circulatory system caused by an air bubble as, e.g., accidentally during surgery or hypodermic injection or as a complication from scuba diving
  • afp an abnormally large amount of this fetoprotein in the fetus can signal an abnormality of the neural tube (as spina bifida or anencephaly)
  • ageing growing old;   the organic process of growing older and showing the effects of increasing age;  acquiring desirable qualities by being left undisturbed for some time
  • agenesis imperfect development; nondevelopment of a part
  • aggregation the act of gathering something together;  several things grouped together or considered as a whole
  • aging growing old;   the organic process of growing older and showing the effects of increasing age;  acquiring desirable qualities by being left undisturbed for some time
  • agranulocytosis an acute blood disorder (often caused by radiation or drug therapy) characterized by severe reduction in granulocytes
  • aids a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
  • air pollution pollution of the atmosphere
  • albinism the congenital absence of pigmentation in the eyes and skin and hair
  • albuminous relating to or containing or resembling albumin
  • alcoholic addicted to alcohol;  characteristic of or containing alcohol;   a person who drinks alcohol to excess habitually
  • alcoholism habitual intoxication; prolonged and excessive intake of alcoholic drinks leading to a breakdown in health and an addiction to alcohol such that abrupt deprivation leads to severe withdrawal symptoms;  an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess
  • aldosterone a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland; regulates salt (sodium and potassium) and water balance
  • alimentary tract tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination
  • alimentary of or providing nourishment
  • alkalosis abnormally high alkalinity (low hydrogen ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
  • alkaptonuria a rare recessive metabolic anomaly marked by ochronosis and the presence of alkapton in the urine
  • all completely given to or absorbed by;  quantifier; used with either mass or count s to indicate the whole number or amount of or every one of a class;   to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole' is often used informally for `wholly')
  • allergic having an allergy or peculiar or excessive susceptibility (especially to a specific factor);  characterized by or caused by allergy
  • allergy hypersensitivity reaction to a particular allergen; symptoms can vary greatly in intensity
  • allograft tissue or organ transplanted from a donor of the same species but different genetic makeup; recipient's immune system must be suppressed to prevent rejection of the graft
  • alpha early testing stage of a software or hardware product; first in order of importance;   the 1st letter of the Greek alphabet;  the beginning of a series or sequence
  • altitude elevation especially above sea level or above the earth's surface;  the perpendicular distance from the base of a geometric figure to opposite vertex (or side if parallel);  angular distance above the horizon (especially of a celestial object)
  • alveolar pertaining to the tiny air sacs of the lungs;  pertaining to the alveolar ridge;   a consonant articulated with the tip of the tongue near the gum ridge
  • amaurosis partial or total loss of sight without pathology of the eye; caused by disease of optic nerve or retina or brain
  • aminotransferase a class of transferases that catalyze transamination (that transfer an amino group from an amino acid to another compound)
  • amniotic fluid the serous fluid in which the embryo is suspended inside the amnion
  • amoebiasis infection by a disease causing ameba
  • amoebic pertaining to or resembling amoebae
  • amyloidosis a disorder characterized by deposit of amyloid in organs or tissues; often secondary to chronic rheumatoid arthritis or tuberculosis or multiple myeloma
  • anal a stage in psychosexual development when the child's interest is concentrated on the anal region; fixation at this stage is said to result in orderliness, meanness, stubbornness, compulsiveness, etc.;  of or related to the anus
  • analgesic capable of relieving pain;   a medicine used to relieve pain
  • anaphylactic related to the hypersensitivity known as anaphylaxis
  • anaplasia loss of structural differentiation within a cell or group of cells often with increased capacity for multiplication, as in a malignant tumor
  • anaplastic of or relating to anaplasia
  • anas type genus of the Anatidae: freshwater ducks
  • anasarca generalized edema with accumulation of serum in subcutaneous connective tissue
  • anatomy a detailed analysis;  the branch of morphology that deals with the structure of animals;  alternative names for the body of a human being
  • anencephaly a defect in brain development resulting in small or missing brain hemispheres
  • aneuploidy an abnormality involving a chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the haploid number (one chromosome set is incomplete)
  • angiitis inflammation of a blood vessel or lymph duct
  • angina pectoris a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
  • angina any disease of the throat or fauces marked by spasmodic attacks of intense suffocative pain;  a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
  • angiogenesis the formation of new blood vessels
  • angioplasty an operation to repair a damaged blood vessel or unblock a coronary artery
  • angiosarcoma a rare malignant neoplasm arising from vascular tissue; usually occurs in the breast and skin and is believed to originate from the endothelial cells of blood vessels
  • angiotensin any of several vasoconstrictor substances (trade name Hypertensin) that cause narrowing of blood vessels
  • anoxia severe hypoxia; absence of oxygen in inspired gases or in arterial blood or in the tissues
  • anthracosis lung disease caused by inhaling coal dust
  • anthrax a disease of humans that is not communicable; caused by infection with Bacillus anthracis followed by septicemia;  a highly infectious animal disease (especially cattle and sheep); it can be transmitted to people
  • antibody any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response
  • antidiuretic hormone hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus; affects blood pressure by stimulating capillary muscles and reduces urine flow by affecting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules
  • antigen any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates an immune response in the body (especially the production of antibodies)
  • aortic valve a semilunar valve between the left ventricle and the aorta; prevents blood from flowing from the aorta back into the heart
  • aortic of or relating to the aorta
  • aortitis inflammation of the aorta
  • apical situated at an apex
  • aplasia failure of some tissue or organ to develop
  • apoplectic pertaining to or characteristic of apoplexy
  • apoptosis a type of cell death in which the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself; a cell suicide mechanism that enables metazoans to control cell number and eliminate cells that threaten the animal's survival
  • appendicitis inflammation of the vermiform appendix
  • appendix a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch;  supplementary material that is collected and appended at the back of a book
  • arterial of or involving or contained in the arteries
  • arteriolosclerosis sclerosis of the arterioles
  • arteriosclerosis sclerosis of the arterial walls
  • arteriovenous connecting an artery to a vein
  • arteritis inflammation of an artery
  • arthritis inflammation of a joint or joints
  • ascites accumulation of serous fluid in peritoneal cavity
  • ascorbic acid a vitamin found in fresh fruits (especially citrus fruits) and vegetables; prevents scurvy
  • ascus saclike structure in which ascospores are formed through sexual reproduction of ascomycetes
  • aspergillosis disease especially in agricultural workers caused by inhalation of Aspergillus spores causing lumps in skin and ears and respiratory organs;  an opportunistic infection by a fungus of the genus Aspergillus; characterized by inflammation and lesions of the ear and other organs;  severe respiratory disease of birds that takes the form of an acute rapidly fatal pneumonia in young chickens and turkeys
  • aspiration a will to succeed;  a manner of articulation involving an audible release of breath;  the act of inhaling; the drawing in of air (or other gases) as in breathing;  a cherished desire
  • asthma respiratory disorder characterized by wheezing; usually of allergic origin
  • asymmetric characterized by asymmetry in the spatial arrangement or placement of parts or components
  • atelectasis collapse of an expanded lung (especially in infants); also failure of pulmonary alveoli to expand at birth
  • atheroma a fatty deposit in the intima (inner lining) of an artery; can obstruct blood flow
  • atheromatous of or relating to or resembling atheroma
  • atherosclerosis a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
  • atherosclerotic of or relating to atherosclerosis
  • atp a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the major source of energy for cellular reactions
  • atresia an abnormal condition in which a normal opening or tube in the body (as the urethra) is closed or absent
  • atrial septal defect an abnormal opening between the left and right atria of the heart
  • atrophic relating to or characterized by atrophy
  • atrophy any weakening or degeneration (especially through lack of use);  a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse;  verb undergo atrophy
  • atypical deviating from normal expectations; somewhat odd, strange, or abnormal;  not representative of a group, class, or type
  • aural relating to or characterized by an aura;  of or pertaining to hearing or the ear
  • autograft tissue that is taken from one site and grafted to another site on the same person
  • autoimmune of or relating to the immune response of the body against substance normally present in the body
  • autolysis lysis of plant or animal tissue by an internal process
  • avascular without blood vessels
  • axonal of or relating to or resembling an axon
  • azotaemia accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine
  • b complex originally thought to be a single vitamin but now separated into several B vitamins
  • bacillary formed like a bacillus;  relating to or produced by or containing bacilli
  • bacterial relating to or caused by bacteria
  • bagassosis alveolitis caused by inhaling bagasse (sugarcane dust)
  • balloon large tough nonrigid bag filled with gas or heated air; small thin inflatable rubber bag with narrow neck;  verb become inflated;  ride in a hot air balloon
  • bantu of or relating to the African people who speak one of the Bantoid languages or to their culture;   a family of languages widely spoken in the southern half of the African continent;  a member of any of a large number of linguistically related peoples of Central and South Africa
  • bartholin Danish physician who discovered Bartholin's gland (1585 1629)
  • basophilia the tendency of cells to stain with basic dyes
  • benedict Italian monk who founded the Benedictine order about 540 (480 547);  United States anthropologist (1887 1948);  a newly married man (especially one who has long been a bachelor)
  • benign pleasant and beneficial in nature or influence; kindness of disposition or manner;  not dangerous to health; not recurrent or progressive (especially of a tumor)
  • beriberi avitaminosis caused by lack of thiamine (vitamin B1)
  • berry any of numerous small and pulpy edible fruits; used as desserts or in making jams and jellies and preserves;  United States rock singer (born in 1931);  a small fruit having any of various structures, e.g., simple (grape or blueberry) or aggregate (blackberry or raspberry);  verb pick or gather berries
  • beta carotene an isomer of carotene that is found in dark green and dark yellow fruits and vegetables
  • beta preliminary or testing stage of a software or hardware product;  second in order of importance;   the 2nd letter of the Greek alphabet;  beets
  • bi a heavy brittle diamagnetic trivalent metallic element (resembles arsenic and antimony chemically); usually recovered as a by product from ores of other metals
  • bile duct a duct formed by the hepatic and cystic ducts; opens into the duodenum
  • biliary relating to the bile ducts or the gallbladder;  relating to or containing bile
  • bilirubin an orange yellow pigment in the bile that forms as a product of hemoglobin; excess amounts in the blood produce the yellow appearance observed in jaundice
  • biologic pertaining to biology or to life and living things
  • biopsy examination of tissues or liquids from the living body to determine the existence or cause of a disease
  • biotin a B vitamin that aids in body growth
  • birefringence splitting a ray into two parallel rays polarized perpendicularly
  • blastomycosis any of several infections of the skin or mucous membrane caused by Blastomyces
  • blindness the state of being blind or lacking sight
  • blood transfusion the introduction of blood or blood plasma into a vein or artery
  • blood temperament or disposition;  the fluid (red in vertebrates) that is pumped by the heart;  people viewed as members of a group;  the descendants of one individual;  a dissolute man in fashionable society;  verb smear with blood, as in a hunting initiation rite, where the face of a person is smeared with the blood of the kill
  • bloom a rosy color (especially in the cheeks) taken as a sign of good health;  the best time of youth;  a powdery deposit on a surface;  reproductive organ of angiosperm plants especially one having showy or colorful parts;  the organic process of bearing flowers;  the period of greatest prosperity or productivity;  verbproduce or yield flowers
  • boil a painful sore with a hard core filled with pus;  the temperature at which a liquid boils at sea level;  verb cook in boiling liquid;  bring to, or maintain at, the boiling point;  come to the boiling point and change from a liquid to vapor;  be in an agitated emotional state;  be agitated
  • bone marrow the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones;  very tender and very nutritious tissue from marrowbones
  • bone consisting of or made up of bone;   a shade of white the color of bleached bones;  rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates;  the porous calcified substance from which bones are made;  verb remove the bones from;  study intensively, as before an exam
  • bony having bones especially many or prominent bones;  very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold;  composed of or containing bone
  • borderline of questionable or minimal quality;   a line that indicates a boundary
  • botulism food poisoning from ingesting botulin; not infectious; affects the CNS; can be fatal if not treated promptly
  • bowel the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus
  • bowman a person who is expert in the use of a bow and arrow
  • brain that part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers; enclosed within the skull; continuous with the spinal cord;  mental ability;  the brain of certain animals used as meat;  that which is responsible for one's thoughts and feelings; the seat of the faculty of reason;  someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality;  verb kill by smashing someone's skull;  hit on the head
  • branchial of or relating to gills (or to parts of the body derived from embryonic gills)
  • bronchial asthma respiratory disorder characterized by wheezing; usually of allergic origin
  • bronchial relating to or associated with the bronchi
  • bronchitis inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes
  • broncho an unbroken or imperfectly broken mustang
  • bronchus either of the two main branches of the trachea
  • bronzed diabetes pathology in which iron accumulates in the tissues; characterized by bronzed skin and enlarged liver and diabetes mellitus and abnormalities of the pancreas and the joints
  • bronzed (of skin) having a tan color from exposure to the sun
  • brooke English lyric poet (1887 1915)
  • brown (of skin) deeply suntanned;  of a color similar to that of wood or earth;   an orange of low brightness and saturation; abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800 1858);  Scottish botanist who first observed the movement of small particles in fluids now known a Brownian motion (1773 1858);  a university in Rhode Island;  verb fry in a pan until it changes color
  • brushing the act of brushing your hair;  the act of brushing your teeth
  • bse a fatal disease of cattle that affects the central nervous system; causes staggering and agitation
  • bursitis inflammation of a bursa; frequently in the shoulder
  • bypass a road that takes traffic around the edge of a town;  a surgically created shunt (usually around a damaged part);  a conductor having low resistance in parallel with another device to divert a fraction of the current;  verb avoid something unpleasant or laborious
  • cachectic relating to or having the symptoms of cachexia
  • cachexia any general reduction in vitality and strength of body and mind resulting from a debilitating chronic disease
  • cad someone who is morally reprehensible;  software used in art and architecture and engineering and manufacturing to assist in precision drawing
  • caisson large watertight chamber used for construction under water;  a chest to hold ammunition;  a two wheeled military vehicle carrying artillery ammunition;  an ornamental sunken panel in a ceiling or dome
  • calcification a process that impregnates something with calcium (or calcium salts);  an inflexible and unchanging state;  tissue hardened by deposition of lime salts
  • calcitonin thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bone
  • calculus the branch of mathematics that is concerned with limits and with the differentiation and integration of functions;  a hard lump produced by the concretion of mineral salts; found in hollow organs or ducts of the body;  an incrustation that forms on the teeth and gums
  • callus (botany) an isolated thickening of tissue, especially a stiff protuberance on the lip of an orchid;  bony tissue formed during the healing of a fractured bone;  an area of skin that is thick or hard from continual pressure or friction (as the sole of the foot);  verb form a callus or calluses;  cause a callus to form on
  • candidiasis an infection caused by fungi of the genus Monilia or Candida (especially Candida albicans)
  • carbon monoxide an odorless very poisonous gas that is a product of incomplete combustion of carbon
  • carbon tetrachloride a colorless nonflammable liquid used as a solvent for fats and oils; because of its toxicity its use as a cleaning fluid or fire extinguisher has declined
  • carbuncle an infection larger than a boil and with several openings for discharge of pus;  deep red cabochon garnet cut without facets
  • carcinoma in situ a cluster of malignant cells that has not yet invaded the deeper epithelial tissue or spread to other parts of the body
  • carcinoma any malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue; one of the four major types of cancer
  • cardiac of or relating to the heart
  • cardiospasm a spasm of the cardiac sphincter (between the esophagus and the stomach); if the cardiac sphincter does not relax during swallowing the passage of food into the stomach is obstructed
  • cardiovascular of or pertaining to or involving the heart and blood vessels
  • caries soft decayed area in a tooth; progressive decay can lead to the death of a tooth
  • carotid body a chemoreceptor located near the bifurcations of the carotid arteries; monitors oxygen content of the blood and helps control respiration
  • cartilage tough elastic tissue; mostly converted to bone in adults
  • caseous of damaged or necrotic tissue; cheeselike
  • cat scratch disease a disease thought to be transmitted to humans by a scratch from a cat
  • cataract a large waterfall; violent rush of water over a precipice;  clouding of the natural lens of the eye
  • cauliflower compact head of white undeveloped flowers;  a plant having a large edible head of crowded white flower buds
  • cell death (physiology) the normal degeneration and death of living cells (as in various epithelial cells)
  • cell membrane a thin membrane (a double layer of lipids) enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell; proteins in the membrane control passage of ions (like sodium or potassium or calcium) in and out of the cell
  • cellular characterized by or divided into or containing cells or compartments (the smallest organizational or structural unit of an organism or organization);  relating to cells
  • cellulitis an inflammation of body tissue (especially that below the skin) characterized by fever and swelling and redness and pain
  • cementum a specialized bony substance covering the root of a tooth
  • central nervous system the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
  • central in or near a center or constituting a center; the inner area;  centrally located and easy to reach;  used in the description of a place that in the middle of another place;  serving as an essential component;   a workplace that serves as a telecommunications facility where lines from telephones can be connected together to permit communication
  • centriole one of a pair of small cylindrical cell organelles near the nucleus in animal cells; composed of nine triplet microtubules and form the asters during mitosis
  • centromere a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
  • centrosome small region of cytoplasm adjacent to the nucleus; contains the centrioles and serves to organize the microtubules
  • cerebral involving intelligence rather than emotions or instinct; of or relating to the cerebrum or brain
  • cerebrospinal fluid clear liquid produced in the ventricles of the brain; fills and protects cavities in the brain and spinal cord
  • cervical relating to or associated with the neck;  of or relating to the cervix of the uterus
  • cervicitis inflammation of the uterine cervix
  • cervix necklike opening to the uterus;  the part of an organism that connects the head to the rest of the body
  • chalazion a small sebaceous cyst of the eyelid resulting when a Meibomian gland is blocked
  • chancre a small hard painless nodule at the site of entry of a pathogen (as syphilis)
  • chemical relating to or used in chemistry;  of or made from or using substances produced by or used in reactions involving atomic or molecular changes;   produced by or used in a reaction involving changes in atoms or molecules
  • chemotaxis movement by a cell or organism in reaction to a chemical stimulus
  • chickenpox an acute contagious disease caused by herpes varicella zoster virus; causes a rash of vesicles on the face and body
  • chloasma a tan discoloration of a woman's face that is associated with pregnancy or with the use of oral contraceptives
  • chloride any salt of hydrochloric acid (containing the chloride ion);  any compound containing a chlorine atom
  • cholangitis inflammation of the bile ducts
  • cholecystitis inflammation of the gall bladder
  • cholelithiasis the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder
  • cholestasis a condition in which little or no bile is secreted or the flow of bile into the digestive tract is obstructed
  • choline a B complex vitamin that is a constituent of lecithin; essential in the metabolism of fat
  • chondroma a common benign tumor of cartilage cells
  • chondrosarcoma a malignant neoplasm of cartilage cells
  • choroid plexus a vascular plexus of the cerebral ventricles that regulate intraventricular pressure
  • christmas disease a clotting disorder similar to hemophilia A but caused by a congenital deficiency of factor IX
  • chromatin the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins; during mitotic division it condenses into chromosomes
  • chromosomal of or relating to a chromosome
  • chronic bronchitis a form of bronchitis characterized by excess production of sputum leading to a chronic cough and obstruction of air flow
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease a nonreversible lung disease that is a combination of emphysema and chronic bronchitis; usually patients have been heavy cigarette smokers
  • chronic being long lasting and recurrent or characterized by long suffering
  • chyle a milky fluid consisting of lymph and emulsified fats; formed in the small intestine during digestion of ingested fats
  • circle of willis a ring of arteries at the base of the brain
  • cirrhosis a chronic disease interfering with the normal functioning of the liver; the major cause is chronic alcoholism
  • cjd rare (usually fatal) brain disease (usually in middle age) caused by an unidentified slow virus; characterized by progressive dementia and gradual loss of muscle control
  • classic characteristic of the classical artistic and literary traditions;  adhering to established standards and principles;   a creation of the highest excellence;  an artist who has created classic works
  • claudius Roman Emperor after his nephew Caligula was murdered; consolidated the Empire and conquered southern Britain; was poisoned by his fourth wife Agrippina after her son Nero was named as Claudius' heir (10 BC to AD 54)
  • cloning a general term for the research activity that creates a copy of some biological entity (a gene or organism or cell)
  • clotting time the time it takes for a sample of blood to clot; used to diagnose some clotting disorders
  • cns the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
  • coagulation the process of forming semisolid lumps in a liquid
  • coccidioidomycosis an infection of the lungs and skin characterized by excessive sputum and nodules
  • colitis inflammation of the colon
  • collagen a fibrous scleroprotein in bone and cartilage and tendon and other connective tissue; yields gelatin on boiling
  • colloid a mixture with properties between those of a solution and fine suspension
  • colorectal relating to or affecting the colon and the rectum
  • columnar characterized by columns;  having the form of a column
  • coma a state of deep and often prolonged unconsciousness; usually the result of disease or injury;  (astronomy) the luminous cloud of particles surrounding the frozen nucleus of a comet; forms as the comet approaches the sun and is warmed;  a usually terminal tuft of hairs especially on a seed
  • combined made or joined or united into one;  involving the joint activity of two or more
  • common cold a mild viral infection involving the nose and respiratory passages (but not the lungs)
  • compensated receiving or eligible for compensation
  • complicated difficult to analyze or understand
  • concentric having a common center
  • concussion any violent blow;  injury to the brain caused by a blow; usually resulting in loss of consciousness
  • condyloma acuminatum a small benign wart on or around the genitals and anus
  • congenital present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development
  • congestion excessive crowding;  excessive accumulation of blood or other fluid in a body part
  • congestive heart failure inability to pump enough blood to avoid congestion in the tissues
  • congestive relating to or affected by an abnormal collection of blood or other fluid
  • congo red a red brown azo dye especially as a chemical pH indicator (congo red is red in basic and blue in acidic solutions)
  • conjugated of an organic compound; containing two or more double bonds each separated from the other by a single bond; formed by the union of two compounds;  joined together especially in a pair or pairs
  • conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye
  • connverb conduct or direct the steering of a ship or plane
  • connective tissue tissue of mesodermal origin consisting of e.g. collagen fibroblasts and fatty cells; supports organs and fills spaces between them and forms tendons and ligaments
  • consolidation the act of combining into an integral whole; combining into a solid mass;  something that has consolidated into a compact mass
  • contracture an abnormal and usually permanent contraction of a muscle
  • cor pulmonale enlargement of the right ventricle of the heart due to disease of the lungs or of the pulmonary blood vessels
  • coronary artery disease a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
  • coronary surrounding like a crown (especially of the blood vessels surrounding the heart);   obstruction of blood flow in a coronary artery by a blood clot (thrombus)
  • cortex the tissue forming the outer layer of an organ or structure in plant or animal;  the layer of unmyelinated neurons (the grey matter) forming the cortex of the cerebrum
  • cortical of or relating to a cortex
  • councilman a man who is a council member
  • cretinism severe hypothyroidism resulting in physical and mental stunting
  • crick English biochemist who (with Watson in 1953) helped discover the helical structure of DNA (1916 2004);  a painful muscle spasm especially in the neck or back (`rick' and `wrick' are British); verb twist (a body part) into a strained position
  • crohn United States physician who specialized in diseases of the intestines; he was the first to describe regional ileitis which is now known as Crohn's disease (1884 1983)
  • crypt a cellar or vault or underground burial chamber (especially beneath a church)
  • cryptococcosis a fungal infection characterized by nodular lesions first in the lungs and spreading to the nervous system
  • cryptorchidism failure of one or both testes to move into the scrotum as the male fetus develops
  • curling of hair having curls;   a game played on ice in which heavy stones with handles are slid toward a target
  • cushing United States neurologist noted for his study of the brain and pituitary gland and who identified Cushing's syndrome (1869 1939)
  • cyanide an extremely poisonous salt of hydrocyanic acid; any of a class of organic compounds containing the cyano radical CN
  • cystic fibrosis the most common congenital disease; the child's lungs and intestines and pancreas become clogged with thick mucus; caused by defect in a single gene; there is no cure
  • cystic of or relating to or resembling a cyst;  of or relating to a normal cyst (as the gallbladder or urinary bladder)
  • cystitis inflammation of the urinary bladder and ureters
  • cytogenetics the branch of biology that studies the cellular aspects of heredity (especially the chromosomes)
  • cytology the branch of biology that studies the structure and function of cells
  • cytoskeleton a microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and coherence
  • cytosol the aqueous part of the cytoplasm within which various particles and organelles are suspended
  • d the 4th letter of the Roman alphabet;  a fat soluble vitamin that prevents rickets
  • dad an informal term for a father; probably derived from baby talk
  • debridement surgical removal of foreign material and dead tissue from a wound in order to prevent infection and promote healing
  • decompression sickness pain resulting from rapid change in pressure
  • deficiency lack of an adequate quantity or number;  the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable
  • definition clarity of outline;  a concise explanation of the meaning of a word or phrase or symbol
  • degenerative joint disease chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints; the most common form of arthritis occurring usually after middle age
  • dehydration the process of extracting moisture;  depletion of bodily fluids;  dryness resulting from the removal of water
  • dengue fever an infectious disease of the tropics transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by rash and aching head and joints
  • dengue an infectious disease of the tropics transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by rash and aching head and joints
  • dental of or relating to the teeth;  of or relating to dentistry;  a consonant articulated with the tip of the tongue near the gum ridge
  • dentin bone (calcified tissue) surrounding the pulp cavity of a tooth;  a calcareous material harder and denser than bone that comprises the bulk of a tooth
  • denture a dental appliance that artificially replaces missing teeth
  • dependent addicted to a drug;  contingent on something else; not independent;  (of a clause) unable to stand alone syntactically as a complete sentence;  being under the power or sovereignty of another or others;  supported from above;   a person who relies on another person for support (especially financial support)
  • dermatitis inflammation of the skin; skin becomes itchy and may develop blisters
  • dermoid cyst a cystic tumor (usually benign) with a wall lined with epithelium and a cavity containing other material
  • developmental of or relating to or constituting development
  • devil a word used in exclamations of confusion;  one of the evil spirits of traditional Jewish and Christian belief;  (Judeo Christian and Islamic religions) chief spirit of evil and adversary of God; tempter of mankind; master of Hell;  a rowdy or mischievous person (usually a young man);  a cruel wicked and inhuman person;  verbcoat or stuff with a spicy paste;  cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations
  • dextrocardia abnormal condition where the heart is located toward the right side of the chest
  • diabetes insipidus a rare form of diabetes resulting from a deficiency of vasopressin (the pituitary hormone that regulates the kidneys); characterized by the chronic excretion of large amounts of pale dilute urine which results in dehydration and extreme thirst
  • diabetes mellitus diabetes caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and characterized by polyuria
  • diabetic suffering from diabetes;  of or relating to or causing diabetes;   someone who has diabetes
  • diagnostic characteristic or indicative of e.g. a disease; concerned with diagnosis; used for furthering diagnosis
  • diffuse spread out; not concentrated in one place;  lacking conciseness;  (of light) transmitted from a broad light source or reflected;  verb move outward;  cause to become widely known; spread or diffuse through
  • dilatation the state of being stretched beyond normal dimensions;  the act of expanding an aperture
  • dilated made wider or larger in all dimensions
  • diphtheria acute contagious infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae; marked by the formation of a false membrane in the throat and other air passages causing difficulty in breathing
  • disease an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
  • divers many and different
  • dl a metric unit of volume equal to one tenth of a liter
  • dna (biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix; associated with the transmission of genetic information
  • dropsy swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
  • drug abuse excessive use of drugs
  • dry gangrene (pathology) gangrene that develops in the presence of arterial obstruction and is characterized by dryness of the dead tissue and a dark brown color
  • dubverb provide (movies) with a soundtrack of a foreign language; give a nickname to;  raise (someone) to knighthood
  • duodenal ulcer a peptic ulcer of the duodenum
  • duodenal in or relating to the duodenum
  • dura mater the outermost (and toughest) of the 3 meninges
  • dwarfism a genetic abnormality resulting in short stature
  • dysplasia abnormal development (of organs or cells) or an abnormal structure resulting from such growth
  • eccrine (of exocrine glands) producing a clear aqueous secretion without releasing part of the secreting cell; important in regulating body temperature
  • echinococcosis infestation with larval echinococci (tapeworms)
  • ectopia abnormal position of a part or organ (especially at the time of birth)
  • eczema generic term for inflammatory conditions of the skin; particularly with vesiculation in the acute stages
  • ehrlich German bacteriologist who found a `magic bullet' to cure syphilis and was a pioneer in the study of immunology (1854 1915)
  • electron microscope a microscope that is similar in purpose to a light microscope but achieves much greater resolving power by using a parallel beam of electrons to illuminate the object instead of a beam of light
  • electron an elementary particle with negative charge
  • electrophoresis the motion of charged particles in a colloid under the influence of an electric field; particles with a positive charge go to the cathode and negative to the anode
  • embryonal carcinoma malignant neoplasm of the testis
  • embryonal of an organism prior to birth or hatching
  • emigration migration from a place (especially migration from your native country in order to settle in another)
  • emphysema an abnormal condition of the lungs marked by decreased respiratory function; associated with smoking or chronic bronchitis or old age
  • empyema a collection of pus in a body cavity (especially in the lung cavity)
  • enamel any smooth glossy coating that resembles ceramic glaze;  a paint that dries to a hard glossy finish;  hard white substance covering the crown of a tooth;  a colored glassy compound (opaque or partially opaque) that is fused to the surface of metal or glass or pottery for decoration or protection;  verb coat, inlay, or surface with enamel
  • encephalitis inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus; symptoms include headache and neck pain and drowsiness and nausea and fever (`phrenitis' is no longer in scientific use)
  • encephalocele protrusion of brain tissue through a congenital fissure in the skull
  • encephalomyelitis inflammation of the brain and spinal cord
  • encephalopathy any disorder or disease of the brain
  • enchondroma benign slow growing tumor of cartilaginous cells at the ends of tubular bones (especially in the hands and feet)
  • endemic native to or confined to a certain region;  of or relating to a disease (or anything resembling a disease) constantly present to greater or lesser extent in a particular locality;  originating where it is found;   a plant that is native to a certain limited area;  a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain class or in people living in a particular location
  • endocarditis inflammation of the endocardium and heart valves
  • endocrine system the system of glands that produce endocrine secretions that help to control bodily metabolic activity
  • endocrine of or belonging to endocrine glands or their secretions;   any of the glands of the endocrine system that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream;  the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
  • endometrial carcinoma cancer of the uterine lining
  • endometrial of or relating to the endometrium
  • endometriosis the presence of endometrium elsewhere than in the lining of the uterus; causes premenstrual pain and dysmenorrhea
  • endometritis inflammation of the lining of the uterus (of the endometrium)
  • endometrium (pregnancy) the mucous membrane that lines the uterus; thickens under hormonal control and (if pregnancy does not occur) is shed in menstruation; if pregnancy occurs it is shed along with the placenta at parturition
  • endotoxin a toxin that is confined inside the microorganisms and is released only when the microorganisms are broken down or die
  • enl an inflammatory complication of leprosy that results in painful skin lesions on the arms and legs and face
  • enteric fever serious infection marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration; caused by Salmonella typhosa ingested with food or water
  • enteric of or relating to the enteron;  of or relating to or inside the intestines
  • enteritis inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine); usually characterized by diarrhea
  • enteropathy a disease of the intestinal tract
  • eosinophilia a symptom of allergic states; increased eosinophils in the blood
  • eosinophilic of or relating to eosinophil
  • ependyma thin epithelial membrane lining the ventricles of the brain and the spinal cord canal
  • epidermal of or relating to a cuticle or cuticula
  • epidermis the outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates
  • epididymitis painful inflammation of the epididymis
  • epidural on or outside the dura mater;   regional anesthesia resulting from injection of an anesthetic into the epidural space of the spinal cord; sensation is lost in the abdominal and genital and pelvic areas; used in childbirth and gynecological surgery
  • epispadias a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethra is on the upper surface of the penis
  • epithelial of or belonging to the epithelium
  • er a room in a hospital or clinic staffed and equipped to provide emergency care to persons requiring immediate medical treatment;  a trivalent metallic element of the rare earth group; occurs with yttrium
  • eruption the emergence of a tooth as it breaks through the gum;  (of volcanos) pouring out fumes of lava (or a deposit so formed);  symptom consisting of a breaking out and becoming visible;  a sudden very loud noise;  a sudden violent spontaneous occurrence (usually of some undesirable condition);  the sudden occurrence of a violent discharge of steam and volcanic material
  • erythema multiforme a red rash caused by hypersensitivity to a drug or disease or other allergen
  • erythema nodosum leprosum an inflammatory complication of leprosy that results in painful skin lesions on the arms and legs and face
  • erythema abnormal redness of the skin resulting from dilation of blood vessels (as in sunburn or inflammation)
  • erythropoiesis the process of producing red blood cells by the stem cells in the bone marrow
  • erythropoietin a glycoprotein secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells
  • esr microwave spectroscopy in which there is resonant absorption of radiation by a paramagnet;  the rate at which red blood cells settle out in a tube of blood under standardized conditions; a high rate usually indicates the presence of inflammation
  • essential basic and fundamental;  absolutely required and not to be used up or sacrificed;  absolutely necessary; vitally necessary; being or relating to or containing the essence of a plant etc;  defining rights and duties as opposed to giving the rules by which rights and duties are established;  of the greatest importance;   anything indispensable
  • ethanol the intoxicating agent in fermented and distilled liquors; used pure or denatured as a solvent or in medicines and colognes and cleaning solutions and rocket fuel; proposed as a renewable clean burning additive to gasoline
  • etiology the philosophical study of causation;  the cause of a disease
  • examination the act of examining something closely (as for mistakes);  the act of giving students or candidates a test (as by questions) to determine what they know or have learned;  a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge;  a detailed inspection of your conscience (as done daily by Jesuits);  formal systematic questioning
  • exocrine of or relating to exocrine glands or their secretions;  a gland that secretes externally through a duct
  • exostosis a benign outgrowth from a bone (usually covered with cartilage)
  • exotoxin a toxin that is secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding medium
  • extracellular located or occurring outside a cell or cells
  • exudate a substance that oozes out from plant pores;  verbrelease (a liquid) in drops or small quantities
  • facial of or pertaining to the outside surface of an object;  of or concerning the face;   care for the face that usually involves cleansing and massage and the application of cosmetic creams; cranial nerve that supplies facial muscles
  • failure an unexpected omission;  an act that fails;  an event that does not accomplish its intended purpose;  a person with a record of failing; someone who loses consistently;  loss of ability to function normally;  lack of success;  inability to discharge all your debts as they come due
  • fallopian tube either of a pair of tubes conducting the egg from the ovary to the uterus
  • fallopius Italian anatomist who first described the Fallopian tubes (1523 1562)
  • fallot French physician who described cardiac anomalies including Fallot's tetralogy (1850 1911)
  • familial tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity;  relating to or having the characteristics of a family
  • farmer a person who operates a farm;  an expert on cooking whose cookbook has undergone many editions (1857 1915);  United States civil rights leader who in 1942 founded the Congress of Racial Equality (born in 1920)
  • fat embolism serious condition in which fat blocks an artery; fat can enter the blood stream after a long bone is fractured or if adipose tissue is injured or as a result of a fatty liver
  • fat soluble soluble in fats
  • fatty liver yellow discoloration as a result of the accumulation of certain fats (triglycerides) in the liver; can be caused by alcoholic cirrhosis or pregnancy or exposure to certain toxins
  • fatty containing or composed of fat;   a rotund individual
  • favism anemia resulting from eating fava beans; victims have an inherited blood abnormality and enzyme deficiency
  • ferritin a protein containing 20% iron that is found in the intestines and liver and spleen; it is one of the chief forms in which iron is stored in the body
  • fever intense nervous anticipation;  a rise in the temperature of the body; frequently a symptom of infection
  • fibrinogen a protein present in blood plasma; converts to fibrin when blood clots
  • fibrinolysis a normal ongoing process that dissolves fibrin and results in the removal of small blood clots
  • fibroadenoma benign and movable and firm and not tender tumor of the breast; common in young women and caused by high levels of estrogen
  • fibroma nonmalignant tumor of connective tissue
  • fibrosis development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ
  • fibrous dysplasia of bone a disturbance in which bone that is undergoing lysis is replaced by an abnormal proliferation of fibrous tissue resulting in bone lesions or skin lesions
  • fibrous (of meat) full of sinews; especially impossible to chew; having or resembling fibers especially fibers used in making cordage such as those of jute
  • fiedler popular United States conductor (1894 1979)
  • filariasis a disease caused by nematodes in the blood or tissues of the body causing blockage of lymphatic vessels
  • filter device that removes something from whatever passes through it;  an electrical device that alters the frequency spectrum of signals passing through it;  verb remove by passing through a filter; pass through;  run or flow slowly, as in drops or in an unsteady stream
  • fissure (anatomy) a long narrow slit or groove that divides an organ into lobes;  a long narrow opening;  a long narrow depression in a surface;  verb break into fissures or fine cracks
  • fistula an abnormal passage leading from a suppurating cavity to the body surface;  a chronic inflammation of the withers of a horse
  • flea bitten worn and broken down by hard use
  • florid inclined to a healthy reddish color often associated with outdoor life;  elaborately or excessively ornamented
  • fluorescent emitting light during exposure to radiation from an external source;  brilliantly colored and apparently giving off light;  a lighting fixture that uses a fluorescent lamp
  • fluorochrome any of various fluorescent substances used in fluorescence microscopy to stain specimens
  • fluorosis a pathological condition resulting for an excessive intake of fluorine (usually from drinking water)
  • focal having or localized centrally at a focus;  of or relating to a focus
  • folate a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction
  • follicular of or relating to or constituting a follicle
  • folliculitis inflammation of a hair follicle
  • food poisoning illness caused by poisonous or contaminated food
  • fracture the act of cracking something;  breaking of hard tissue such as bone;  (geology) a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other;  verbfracture a bone of;  break (a bone);  become fractured;  violate or abuse;  break into pieces;  interrupt, break, or destroy
  • free radical an atom or group of atoms with at least one unpaired electron; in the body it is usually an oxygen molecule than has lost an electron and will stabilize itself by stealing an electron from a nearby molecule
  • fulminant sudden and severe
  • fungal of or relating to fungi
  • furuncle a painful sore with a hard core filled with pus
  • gabriel (Bible) the archangel who was the messenger of God
  • galactocele a cystic tumor containing milk or a milky substance (especially in the mammary glands)
  • galen Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance (circa 130 200)
  • gallbladder a muscular sac attached to the liver that secretes bile and stores it until needed for digestion
  • gangrene necrotic tissue; a mortified or gangrenous part or mass;  the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply);  verb undergo necrosis
  • gardner writer of detective novels featuring Perry Mason (1889 1970);  United States collector and patron of art who built a museum in Boston to house her collection and opened it to the public in 1903 (1840 1924)
  • gastric lavage washing out the stomach with sterile water or a saltwater solution; removes blood or poisons
  • gastric ulcer a peptic ulcer of the stomach
  • gastric relating to or involving the stomach
  • gastrin polypeptide hormone secreted by the mucous lining of the stomach; induces the secretion of gastric juice
  • gastritis inflammation of the lining of the stomach; nausea and loss of appetite and discomfort after eating
  • gastrointestinal tract tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination
  • genetic of or relating to the science of genetics;  pertaining to or referring to origin;  tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity;  of or relating to or produced by or being a gene
  • genome the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism; the full DNA sequence of an organism
  • gestational of or relating to gestation
  • gigantism excessive largeness of stature;  excessive size; usually caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland
  • gingival of or relating to the gums
  • gingivitis inflammation of the gums
  • gist the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience;  the central meaning or theme of a speech or literary work
  • glaucoma increased pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor; damages the optic disc and impairs vision (sometimes progressing to blindness)
  • global involving the entire earth; not limited or provincial in scope;  having the shape of a sphere or ball
  • glomerulonephritis nephritis marked by inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney; characterized by decreased production of urine and by the presence of blood and protein in the urine and by edema
  • glomerulus a small intertwined group of capillaries in the malpighian body; it filters the blood during urine formation
  • glossitis inflammation of the tongue
  • glucose tolerance test test of the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates; used in the diagnosis of hypoglycemia and diabetes mellitus
  • glucosuria the presence of abnormally high levels of glucose in the urine
  • glycogen one form in which body fuel is stored; stored primarily in the liver and broken down into glucose when needed by the body
  • goitre abnormally enlarged thyroid gland; can result from underproduction or overproduction of hormone or from a deficiency of iodine in the diet
  • golgi apparatus a netlike structure in the cytoplasm of animal cells (especially in those cells that produce secretions)
  • gout a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism resulting in deposits of the acid and its salts in the blood and joints
  • gouty suffering from gout
  • grading changing the ground level to a smooth horizontal or gently sloping surface;  evaluation of performance by assigning a grade or score;  the act of arranging in a graduated series
  • graft the act of grafting something onto something else; (surgery) tissue or organ transplanted from a donor to a recipient; in some cases the patient can be both donor and recipient;  the practice of offering something (usually money) in order to gain an illicit advantage;  verb cause to grow together parts from different plants; place the organ of a donor into the body of a recipient
  • granuloma a tumor composed of granulation tissue resulting from injury or inflammation or infection
  • granulomatous relating to or characterized by granulomas
  • gumma a small rubbery granuloma that is characteristic of an advanced stage of syphilis
  • gut a narrow channel or strait;  a strong cord made from the intestines of sheep and used in surgery;  the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus;  verb remove the guts of; empty completely; destroy the inside of
  • haemangioma benign angioma consisting of a mass of blood vessels; some appear as birthmarks
  • haematemesis vomiting blood
  • haematocele swelling caused by blood collecting in a body cavity (especially a swelling of the membrane covering the testis)
  • haematoma a localized swelling filled with blood
  • haematopoiesis the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)
  • haematopoietic pertaining to the formation of blood or blood cells
  • haemoglobinopathy a blood disease characterized by the presence of abnormal hemoglobins in the blood
  • haemoglobinuria presence of hemoglobin in the urine
  • haemophilia congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding; usually affects males and is transmitted from mother to son
  • haemoptysis coughing up blood from the respiratory tract; usually indicates a severe infection of the bronchi or lungs
  • haemorrhage flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels
  • haemorrhagic of or relating to a hemorrhage
  • haemosiderin a granular brown substance composed of ferric oxide; left from the breakdown of hemoglobin; can be a sign of disturbed iron metabolism
  • haemosiderosis abnormal deposit of hemosiderin; often a symptom of thalassemia or hemochromatosis
  • haemostasis surgical procedure of stopping the flow of blood (as with a hemostat)
  • haemothorax accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity (the space between the lungs and the walls of the chest)
  • hageman factor coagulation factor whose deficiency results in prolongation of clotting time of venous blood
  • hair follicle a small tubular cavity containing the root of a hair; small muscles and sebaceous glands are associated with them
  • ham meat cut from the thigh of a hog (usually smoked);  an unskilled actor who overacts;  a licensed amateur radio operator; (Old Testament) son of Noah;  verb exaggerate one's acting
  • hamartoma a focal growth that resembles a neoplasm but results from faulty development in an organ
  • harrison 9th President of the United States; caught pneumonia during his inauguration and died shortly after (1773 1841);  23rd President of the United States (1833 1901);  English rock star; lead guitarist of the Beatles (1943 2001);  English actor on stage and in films (1908 1990)
  • hay fever a seasonal rhinitis resulting from an allergic reaction to pollen
  • hay grass mowed and cured for use as fodder;  verb convert (plant material) into hay
  • hcg hormone produced early in pregnancy by the placenta; detection in the urine and serum is the basis for one kind of pregnancy test
  • hdl a lipoprotein that transports cholesterol in the blood; composed of a high proportion of protein and relatively little cholesterol; high levels are thought to be associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis
  • healing tending to cure or restore to health;   the natural process by which the body repairs itself
  • health the general condition of body and mind;  a healthy state of wellbeing free from disease
  • heart failure inability of the heart to pump enough blood to sustain normal bodily functions
  • heartburn a painful burning sensation in the chest caused by gastroesophageal reflux (backflow from the stomach irritating the esophagus); symptomatic of an ulcer or a diaphragmatic hernia or other disorder
  • hepatic pertaining to or affecting the liver;   any of numerous small green nonvascular plants of the class Hepaticopsida growing in wet places and resembling green seaweeds or leafy mosses
  • hepatitis inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or a toxin
  • hepatocellular carcinoma carcinoma of the liver
  • hepatolenticular degeneration a rare inherited disorder of copper metabolism; copper accumulates in the liver and then in the red blood cells and brain
  • hereditary inherited or inheritable by established rules (usually legal rules) of descent;  tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity
  • hernia rupture in smooth muscle tissue through which a bodily structure protrudes
  • herpes simplex virus a herpes virus that affects the skin and nervous system
  • herpes virus any of the animal viruses that cause painful blisters on the skin
  • herpes zoster a herpes virus that causes shingles;  eruptions along a nerve path often accompanied by severe neuralgia
  • heterophile antibody an antibody found in the blood of someone suffering from infectious mononucleosis
  • hiatus a missing piece (as a gap in a manuscript);  a natural opening or perforation through a bone or a membranous structure; an interruption in the intensity or amount of something
  • high altitude occurring at or from a relative high altitude
  • hilar of or relating to or located near a hilum
  • hippocrates medical practitioner who is regarded as the father of medicine; author of the Hippocratic oath (circa 460 377 BC)
  • hirschsprung Danish pediatrician (1830 1916)
  • histamine amine formed from histidine that stimulates gastric secretions and dilates blood vessels; released by the human immune system during allergic reactions
  • histiocytosis a blood disease characterized by an abnormal multiplication of macrophages
  • hiv infection by the human immunodeficiency virus;  the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); it replicates in and kills the helper T cells
  • hodgkin English physiologist who, with Andrew Huxley, discovered the role of potassium and sodium atoms in the transmission of the nerve impulse (born in 1914);  English chemist (born in Egypt) who used crystallography to study the structure of organic compounds (1910 1994);  English physician who first described Hodgkin's disease (1798 1866)
  • hollander a native or inhabitant of Holland
  • homeostasis (physiology) metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes
  • homogentisic acid an acid formed as an intermediate product of the metabolism of tyrosine and phenylalanine
  • hordeolum an infection of the sebaceous gland of the eyelid
  • human genome project an international study of the entire human genetic material
  • human immunodeficiency virus the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); it replicates in and kills the helper T cells
  • human papilloma virus any of a group of papovaviruses associated with genital or oral carcinomas or a group associated with benign genital tumors
  • human having human form or attributes as opposed to those of animals or divine beings;  characteristic of humanity;  relating to a person;   any living or extinct member of the family Hominidae characterized by superior intelligence, articulate speech, and erect carriage
  • hunter a watch with a hinged metal lid to protect the crystal; someone who hunts game;  a person who searches for something;  a constellation on the equator east of Taurus; contains Betelgeuse and Rigel
  • hutchinson American colonist (born in England) who was banished from Boston for her religious views (1591 1643)
  • hyaline membrane disease an acute lung disease of the newborn (especially the premature newborn); lungs cannot expand because of a wetting agent is lacking; characterized by rapid shallow breathing and cyanosis and the formation of a glassy hyaline membrane over the alveoli
  • hyaline resembling glass in transparency or translucency;  a glassy translucent material that occurs in hyaline cartilage or in certain skin conditions
  • hybridisation (genetics) the act of mixing different species or varieties of animals or plants and thus to produce hybrids
  • hybridoma a hybrid cell resulting from the fusion of a lymphocyte and a tumor cell; used to culture a specific monoclonal antibody
  • hydatid disease infestation with larval echinococci (tapeworms)
  • hydatidiform mole an abnormality during pregnancy; chorionic villi around the fetus degenerate and form clusters of fluid filled sacs; usually associated with the death of the fetus
  • hydrocele disorder in which serous fluid accumulates in a body sac (especially in the scrotum)
  • hydrocephalus an abnormal condition in which cerebrospinal fluid collects in the ventricles of the brain; in infants it can cause abnormally rapid growth of the head and bulging fontanelles and a small face; in adults the symptoms are primarily neurological
  • hydronephrosis accumulation of urine in the kidney because of an obstruction in the ureter
  • hydrothorax accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity (the space between the lungs and the walls of the chest) often resulting from disease of the heart or kidneys
  • hyperadrenalism a glandular disorder caused by excessive ACTH resulting in greater than normal functioning of the adrenal gland; characterized by obesity
  • hyperaemia increased blood in an organ or other body part
  • hyperaldosteronism a condition caused by overproduction of aldosterone
  • hypercalcaemia the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; usually the result of excessive bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism or Paget's disease
  • hyperglycaemia abnormally high blood sugar usually associated with diabetes
  • hyperlipidaemia presence of excess lipids in the blood
  • hyperparathyroidism excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; can affect many systems of the body (especially causing bone resorption and osteoporosis)
  • hyperpigmentation unusual darkening of the skin
  • hyperpituitarism excessive activity of the pituitary gland (especially overactivity of the anterior lobe which leads to excess secretion of growth hormone)
  • hyperplasia abnormal increase in number of cells
  • hypersensitivity extreme sensitivity;  pathological sensitivity
  • hypersplenism enlarged spleen and a decrease in one or more types of blood cells; associated with many disorders
  • hypertension a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
  • hypertensive having abnormally high blood pressure;   a person who has abnormally high blood pressure
  • hyperthermia abnormally high body temperature; sometimes induced (as in treating some forms of cancer)
  • hyperthyroidism an overactive thyroid gland; pathologically excessive production of thyroid hormones or the condition resulting from excessive production of thyroid hormones
  • hypertrophy abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ; verb undergo hypertrophy
  • hyphema bleeding into the interior chamber of the eye
  • hypoadrenalism a glandular disorder caused by failure of function of the cortex of the adrenal gland and marked by anemia and prostration with brownish skin
  • hypocalcaemia abnormally low level of calcium in the blood; associated with hypoparathyroidism or kidney malfunction or vitamin D deficiency
  • hypoglycaemia abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet
  • hypoparathyroidism inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood
  • hypopigmentation unusual lack of skin color
  • hypoplasia underdevelopment of an organ because of a decrease in the number of cells
  • hypospadias an abnormal condition in males in which the urethra opens on the under surface of the penis
  • hypothyroidism an underactive thyroid gland; a glandular disorder resulting from insufficient production of thyroid hormones
  • hypovolaemic of or relating to a decrease in the volume of circulating blood
  • i the 9th letter of the Roman alphabet;  a nonmetallic element belonging to the halogens; used especially in medicine and photography and in dyes; occurs naturally only in combination in small quantities (as in sea water or rocks)
  • icc a former independent federal agency that supervised and set rates for carriers that transported goods and people between states; was terminated in 1995
  • idiopathic (of diseases) arising from an unknown cause
  • iga one of the most common of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; the chief antibody in the membranes of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts
  • illness impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism
  • immature lacking in development;  not yet mature; characteristic of a lack of maturity;  (of birds) not yet having developed feathers;  not fully developed or mature; not ripe;  (used of living things especially persons) in an early period of life or development or growth
  • immune system a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response
  • immune (usually followed by `to') not affected by a given influence;  relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection); secure against;  relating to the condition of immunity;   a person who is immune to a particular infection
  • immunity the quality of being unaffected by something; (medicine) the condition in which an organism can resist disease;  an act exempting someone;  the state of not being susceptible
  • immunohistochemistry an assay that shows specific antigens in tissues by the use of markers that are either fluorescent dyes or enzymes (such as horseradish peroxidase)
  • immunologic of or relating to immunology
  • immunopathology the branch of immunology that deals with pathologies of the immune system
  • immunotherapy therapy designed to produce immunity to a disease or to enhance resistance by the immune system
  • imprint a device produced by pressure on a surface;  a distinctive influence;  an impression produced by pressure or printing;  an identification of a publisher; a publisher's name along with the date and address and edition that is printed at the bottom of the title page;  a concavity in a surface produced by pressing;  verbestablish or impress firmly in the mind;  mark or stamp with or as if with pressure
  • in situ being in the original position; not having been moved
  • in currently fashionable;  directed or bound inward;  holding office;   to or toward the inside of;   a state in midwestern United States;  a unit of length equal to one twelfth of a foot;  a rare soft silvery metallic element; occurs in small quantities in sphalerite
  • incompetence lack of physical or intellectual ability or qualifications;  inability of a part or organ to function properly
  • incontinence involuntary urination or defecation;  indiscipline with regard to sensuous pleasures
  • indeterminate not leading to a definite ending or result;  not capable of being determined;  not precisely determined or established; not fixed or known in advance;  having a capacity for continuing to grow at the apex;  of uncertain or ambiguous nature
  • infantile being or befitting or characteristic of an infant;  of or relating to infants or infancy;  indicating a lack of maturity
  • infarction localized necrosis resulting from obstruction of the blood supply
  • infectious agent an agent capable of producing infection
  • infectious mononucleosis an acute disease characterized by fever and swollen lymph nodes and an abnormal increase of mononuclear leucocytes or monocytes in the bloodstream; not highly contagious; some believe it can be transmitted by kissing
  • infectious easily spread;  caused by infection or capable of causing infection;  of or relating to infection
  • infective able to cause disease;  caused by infection or capable of causing infection
  • infertility the state of being unable to produce offspring; in a woman it is an inability to conceive; in a man it is an inability to impregnate
  • inflammation arousal to violent emotion;  a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat;  the act of setting something on fire;  the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up
  • inflammatory bowel disease inflammation of the colon
  • inflammatory characterized or caused by inflammation; arousing to action or rebellion
  • insufficiency lack of an adequate quantity or number; (pathology) inability of a bodily part or organ to function normally;  a lack of competence
  • intercellular located between cells
  • interferon an antiviral protein produced by cells that have been invaded by a virus; inhibits replication of the virus
  • interleukin any of several lymphokines that promote macrophages and killer T cells and B cells and other components of the immune system
  • interstitial of or relating to interstices
  • intestinal obstruction blockage of the intestine (especially the ileum) that prevents the contents of the intestine from passing to the lower bowel
  • intestinal of or relating to or inside the intestines
  • intestine the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus
  • intracellular located or occurring within a cell or cells
  • intracerebral within the brain
  • intracranial within the skull
  • intrinsic factor a substance produced by the mucosa of the stomach and intestines that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12
  • intussusception (biology) growth in the surface area of a cell by the deposit of new particles between existing particles in the cell wall;  the folding in of an outer layer so as to form a pocket in the surface
  • invasive marked by a tendency to spread especially into healthy tissue;  relating to a technique in which the body is entered by puncture or incision;  gradually intrusive without right or permission;  involving invasion or aggressive attack
  • inverted being in such a position that top and bottom are reversed;  (of a plant ovule) completely inverted; turned back 180 degrees on its stalk
  • iron extremely robust;   home appliance consisting of a flat metal base that is heated and used to smooth cloth;  a golf club that has a relatively narrow metal head;  implement used to brand live stock;  a heavy ductile magnetic metallic element; is silver white in pure form but readily rusts; used in construction and tools and armament; plays a role in the transport of oxygen by the blood;  verbpress and smooth with a heated iron
  • irreversible incapable of being reversed
  • ischaemia local anemia in a given body part sometimes resulting from vasoconstriction or thrombosis or embolism
  • ischaemic relating to or affected by ischemia
  • j the 10th letter of the Roman alphabet;  a unit of electrical energy equal to the work done when a current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second
  • jaundice yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood; can be a symptom of gallstones or liver infection or anemia;  a rough and bitter manner;  verb affect with, or as if with, jaundice;  distort adversely
  • jaw holding device consisting of one or both of the opposing parts of a tool that close to hold an object;  the part of the skull of a vertebrate that frames the mouth and holds the teeth;  the bones of the skull that frame the mouth and serve to open it; the bones that hold the teeth;  verb censure severely or angrily;  talk incessantly and tiresomely;  talk socially without exchanging too much information; chew (food)
  • jenner English physician who pioneered vaccination; Jenner inoculated people with small amounts of cowpox to prevent them from getting smallpox (1749 1823)
  • juvenile of or relating to or characteristic of or appropriate for children or young people;  displaying or suggesting a lack of maturity;   a youthful person
  • karyolysis disintegration and dissolution of a cell nucleus when a cell dies
  • keloid raised pinkish scar tissue at the site of an injury; results from excessive tissue repair
  • keratoconjunctivitis inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva
  • keratomalacia softening and drying and ulceration of the cornea resulting from vitamin A deficiency; symptom of cystic fibrosis or sprue
  • keratosis follicularis a rare hereditary condition marked by dark crusted patches (sometimes containing pus)
  • keratosis a skin condition marked by an overgrowth of layers of horny skin
  • kernicterus an abnormal accumulation of bile pigment in the brain and other nerve tissue; causes yellow staining and tissue damage
  • ketoacidosis acidosis with an accumulation of ketone bodies; occurs primarily in diabetes mellitus
  • ketonuria excessive amounts of ketone bodies in the urine as in diabetes mellitus or starvation
  • kidney either of two bean shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine
  • killing very funny;   the act of terminating a life;  an event that causes someone to die;  a very large profit
  • klinefelter syndrome syndrome in males that is characterized by small testes and long legs and enlarged breasts and reduced sperm production and mental retardation; a genetic defect in which an extra X chromosome (XXY) is present in the male
  • knock knee an inward slant of the thigh
  • kraurosis vulvae kraurosis of the vulva; often a precancerous lesion
  • kwashiorkor severe malnutrition in children resulting from a diet excessively high in carbohydrates and low in protein
  • l the 12th letter of the Roman alphabet;  a metric unit of capacity equal to the volume of 1 kilogram of pure water at 4 degrees centigrade and 760 mm of mercury (or approximately 1.76 pints);  a cgs unit of illumination equal to the brightness of a perfectly diffusing surface that emits or reflects one lumen per square centimeter
  • landsteiner United States pathologist (born in Austria) who discovered human blood groups (1868 1943)
  • large white Old World form of cabbage butterfly
  • laryngitis inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx; characterized by hoarseness or loss of voice and coughing
  • larynx a cartilaginous structure at the top of the trachea; contains elastic vocal cords that are the source of the vocal tone in speech
  • lavage washing out a hollow organ (especially the stomach) by flushing with water
  • ldl a lipoprotein that transports cholesterol in the blood; composed of moderate amount of protein and a large amount of cholesterol; high levels are thought to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis
  • le a chronic inflammatory collagen disease affecting connective tissue (skin or joints)
  • lead poisoning toxic condition produced by the absorption of excessive lead into the system
  • lecithin a yellow phospholipid essential for the metabolism of fats; found in egg yolk and in many plant and animal cells; used commercially as an emulsifier
  • leeuwenhoek Dutch pioneer microscopist who was among the first to recognize cells in animals and who gave the first accurate descriptions of microbes and spermatozoa and blood corpuscles (1632 1723)
  • legionella the motile aerobic rod shaped Gram negative bacterium that thrives in central heating and air conditioning systems and can cause Legionnaires' disease
  • legionnaire a soldier who is a member of a legion (especially the French Foreign Legion);  a member of the American Legion
  • leiomyoma benign tumor of smooth muscle (usually in the uterus or digestive tract)
  • leiomyosarcoma sarcoma of smooth muscle; occurs most often digestive tract or uterus or bladder or prostate
  • lentigo a small brownish spot (of the pigment melanin) on the skin
  • leonardo da vinci Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect; the most versatile genius of the Italian Renaissance (1452 1519)
  • leprosy chronic granulomatous communicable disease occurring in tropical and subtropical regions; characterized by inflamed nodules beneath the skin and wasting of body parts; caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae
  • leptomeninges the two innermost layers of the meninges; cerebrospinal fluid circulates between these innermost layers
  • leucocytosis an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood as a result of infection (as in leukemia)
  • lgv infectious disease caused by a species of chlamydia bacterium; transmitted by sexual contact; characterized by genital lesions and swelling of lymph nodes in the groin
  • lichen planus an eruption of shiny flat topped purplish (usually itchy) papules on the wrist and forearms and thighs
  • lipid an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents; essential structural component of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates)
  • lipoma a tumor consisting of fatty tissue
  • liposarcoma sarcoma of fat cells
  • lobar pneumonia pneumonia affecting one or more lobes of the lung; commonly due to streptococcal infection
  • lobar of or relating to or affecting a lobe
  • lobular of or relating to or resembling a lobule
  • lobule a small lobe or subdivision of a lobe
  • localised made local or oriented locally;  confined or restricted to a particular location
  • lordosis an abnormal inward (forward) curvature of the vertebral column
  • louis United States prizefighter who was world heavyweight campion for 12 years (1914 1981)
  • lower the lower of two berths;  verb set lower;  cause to drop or sink;  move something or somebody to a lower position;  look angry or sullen, wrinkle one's forehead, as if to signal disapproval; make lower or quieter
  • lumpy having lumps; not smooth and even in texture;  like or containing small sticky lumps
  • lung either of two saclike respiratory organs in the chest of vertebrates; serves to remove carbon dioxide and provide oxygen to the blood
  • lupus erythematosus a chronic inflammatory collagen disease affecting connective tissue (skin or joints)
  • lupus vulgaris tuberculosis of the skin; appears first on the face and heals slowly leaving deep scars
  • lupus a constellation in the southern hemisphere near Centaurus;  any of several forms of ulcerative skin disease
  • luteal of or relating to the corpus luteum
  • lymph node the source of lymph and lymphocytes
  • lymphadenitis inflammation of lymph nodes
  • lymphadenopathy chronic abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes (usually associated with disease)
  • lymphangioma benign angioma consisting of a mass of lymphatic vessels
  • lymphangitis inflammation of a lymph vessel
  • lymphatic of or relating to or produced by lymph
  • lymphoblast an immature lymphocyte
  • lymphocytic of or relating to lymphocytes
  • lymphocytosis an abnormal increase in the number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
  • lymphogranuloma venereum infectious disease caused by a species of chlamydia bacterium; transmitted by sexual contact; characterized by genital lesions and swelling of lymph nodes in the groin
  • lymphoid resembling lymph or lymphatic tissues
  • lymphoma a neoplasm of lymph tissue that is usually malignant; one of the four major types of cancer
  • lymphopenia an abnormally small number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
  • lymphopoiesis the formation of lymphocytes in the bone marrow and lymph nodes and thymus and spleen
  • m the 13th letter of the Roman alphabet;  concentration measured by the number of moles of solute per liter of solution;  the basic unit of length adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites (approximately 1.094 yards)
  • mac a waterproof raincoat made of rubberized fabric
  • macroglossia a congenital disorder characterized by an abnormally large tongue; often seen in cases of Down's syndrome
  • macrophage a large phagocyte; some are fixed and other circulate in the blood stream
  • macular degeneration degeneration of the cells of the macula lutea which results in blurred vision and can cause blindness; usually age related
  • malabsorption syndrome a pattern of symptoms including loss of appetite and bloating and weight loss and muscle pain and steatorrhea; associated with celiac disease and sprue and cystic fibrosis
  • malaria an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito; marked by paroxysms of chills and fever
  • malarial of or infected by or resembling malaria
  • male being the sex (of plant or animal) that produces gametes (spermatozoa) that perform the fertilizing function in generation;  for or pertaining to or composed of men or boys;  characteristic of a man;   an animal that produces gametes (spermatozoa) that can fertilize female gametes (ova);  the capital of Maldives in the center of the islands;  a person who belongs to the sex that cannot have babies
  • malignant melanoma any of several malignant neoplasms (usually of the skin) consisting of melanocytes
  • malignant dangerous to health; characterized by progressive and uncontrolled growth (especially of a tumor)
  • malpighi Italian anatomist who was the first to use a microscope to study anatomy and was among the first to recognize cells in animals (1628 1694)
  • malt a cereal grain that is kiln dried after having been germinated by soaking in water; used especially in brewing and distilling;  a lager of high alcohol content; by law it is considered too alcoholic to be sold as lager or beer;  a milkshake made with malt powder;  verb convert into malt;  convert grain into malt;  turn into malt, become malt;  treat with malt or malt extract
  • mammary of or relating to the milk giving gland of the female
  • mantoux test tuberculin (a derivative of tubercle bacillus) is injected intradermally; a red area appearing 1 3 days later signifies an exposure (past or present) to tubercle bacilli and the need for further testing
  • mapping (genetics) the process of locating genes on a chromosome;  a function such that for every element of one set there is a unique element of another set
  • marasmus extreme malnutrition and emaciation (especially in children); can result from inadequate intake of food or from malabsorption or metabolic disorders
  • massive consisting of great mass; containing a great quantity of matter;  imposing in size or bulk or solidity;  imposing in scale or scope or degree or power;  being the same substance throughout
  • mastitis inflammation of a breast (or udder)
  • matrix mold used in the production of phonograph records, type, or other relief surface;  the formative tissue at the base of a nail;  the body substance in which tissue cells are embedded;  a rectangular array of elements (or entries) set out by rows and columns;  an enclosure within which something originates or develops (from the Latin for womb)
  • mechanism the technical aspects of doing something; device consisting of a piece of machinery; has moving parts that perform some function;  (philosophy) the philosophical theory that all phenomena can be explained in terms of physical or biological causes;  a natural object resembling a machine in structure or function;  the atomic process that occurs during a chemical reaction
  • mediterranean of or relating to or characteristic of or located near the Mediterranean Sea;   the largest inland sea; between Europe and Africa and Asia
  • medulla the inner part of an organ or structure in plant or animal;  lower or hindmost part of the brain; continuous with spinal cord; (`bulb' is an old term for medulla oblongata);  a white fatty substance that forms a medullary sheath around the axis cylinder of some nerve fibers
  • medullary of or relating to the medulla of any body part;  of or relating to the medulla oblongata;  containing or consisting of or resembling bone marrow
  • megacolon an abnormal enlargement of the colon; can be congenital (as in Hirschsprung's disease) or acquired (as when children refuse to defecate)
  • megakaryocyte a large bone marrow cell; regarded as the source of blood platelets
  • megaloblastic of or relating to megaloblasts
  • meissner German physicist (1882 1974);  German anatomist (1829 1905)
  • melaena abnormally dark tarry feces containing blood (usually from gastrointestinal bleeding)
  • melanin insoluble pigments that account for the color of e.g. skin and scales and feathers
  • melanoma any of several malignant neoplasms (usually of the skin) consisting of melanocytes
  • membrane a thin pliable sheet of material;  a pliable sheet of tissue that covers or lines or connects organs or cells of animals
  • membranous characterized by formation of a membrane (or something resembling a membrane);  relating to or made of or similar to a membrane
  • men the force of workers available
  • meninges a membrane (one of 3) that envelops the brain and spinal cord
  • meningioma a tumor arising in the meninges which surround the brain and spinal cord; usually slow growing and sometimes malignant
  • meningitis infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection; symptoms include headache and stiff neck and fever and nausea
  • meningocele a congenital anomaly of the central nervous system in which a sac protruding from the brain or the spinal meninges contains cerebrospinal fluid (but no nerve tissue)
  • mercuric chloride a white poisonous soluble crystalline sublimate of mercury; used as a pesticide or antiseptic or wood preservative
  • mesenteric of or relating to or located in a mesentery
  • mesoblastic relating to or derived from the mesoderm
  • mesothelioma a rare form of carcinoma of the mesothelium lining lungs or abdomen or heart; usually associated with exposure to asbestos dust
  • metabolic undergoing metamorphosis;  of or relating to metabolism
  • metastasis the spreading of a disease to another part of the body;  the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life
  • metastatic relating to or affected by metastasis
  • microbial of or involving or caused by or being microbes
  • microglia neuroglial tissue of mesodermal origin that can become phagocytic
  • microscopy research with the use of microscopes
  • migratory used of animals that move seasonally;  habitually moving from place to place especially in search of seasonal work
  • miliaria obstruction of the sweat ducts during high heat and humidity
  • miscellaneous constituting a grab bag category;  consisting of a haphazard assortment of different kinds (even to the point of incongruity)
  • mitosis cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
  • mitral valve prolapse cardiopathy resulting from the mitral valve not regulating the flow of blood between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart
  • mitral valve valve with two cusps; situated between the left atrium and the left ventricle
  • mitral of or relating to or located in or near the mitral valve; relating to or resembling the miter worn by some clerics
  • mm a metric unit of length equal to one thousandth of a meter
  • molecular genetics the branch of genetics concerned with the structure and activity of genetic material at the molecular level
  • molluscum contagiosum a virus disease of the skin marked by round white swellings; transmitted from person to person (most often in children or in adults with impaired immune function)
  • moniliasis an infection caused by fungi of the genus Monilia or Candida (especially Candida albicans)
  • monoblast a large immature monocyte normally found in bone marrow
  • monocytosis increase in the number of monocytes in the blood; symptom of monocytic leukemia
  • mononuclear phagocyte system a widely distributed system of free and fixed macrophages derived from bone marrow
  • monosomy chromosomal abnormality consisting of the absence of one chromosome from the normal diploid number
  • morbid suggesting an unhealthy mental state;  caused by or altered by or manifesting disease or pathology;  suggesting the horror of death and decay
  • mucinous relating to or containing mucin
  • mucoviscidosis the most common congenital disease; the child's lungs and intestines and pancreas become clogged with thick mucus; caused by defect in a single gene; there is no cure
  • multiple having or involving or consisting of more than one part or entity or individual;   the product of a quantity by an integer
  • mumps an acute contagious viral disease characterized by fever and by swelling of the parotid glands
  • muramidase an enzyme found in saliva and sweat and tears that destroys the cell walls of certain bacteria
  • muscle authority or power or force (especially when used in a coercive way);  animal tissue consisting predominantly of contractile cells;  one of the contractile organs of the body; possessing muscular strength;  a bully employed as a thug or bodyguard;  verb make one's way by force
  • muscular having or suggesting great physical power or force; of or relating to or consisting of muscle;  having a robust muscular body build characterized by predominance of structures (bone and muscle and connective tissue) developed from the embryonic mesodermal layer;  (of a person) possessing physical strength and weight; rugged and powerful
  • mutagenesis an event capable of causing a mutation
  • myasthenia gravis a chronic progressive disease characterized by chronic fatigue and muscular weakness (especially in the face and neck); caused by a deficiency of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions
  • mycobacteria rod shaped bacteria some saprophytic or causing diseases
  • mycobacterium leprae cause of leprosy
  • mycobacterium tuberculosis cause of tuberculosis
  • mycobacterium rod shaped bacteria some saprophytic or causing diseases
  • mycosis an inflammatory condition caused by a fungus
  • mycotoxin a toxin produced by a fungus
  • myeloblast a precursor of leukocytes that normally occurs only in bone marrow
  • myelocyte an immature leukocyte normally found in bone marrow
  • myeloma a tumor of the bone marrow (usually malignant) composed of cells normally found in bone marrow
  • myocardial of or relating to the myocardium
  • myocarditis inflammation of the myocardium (the muscular tissue of the heart)
  • myoglobin a hemoprotein that receives oxygen from hemoglobin and stores it in the tissues until needed
  • myometritis inflammation of the myometrium
  • myometrium the smooth muscle forming the wall of the uterus
  • myxoedema hypothyroidism marked by dry skin and swellings around lips and nose as well as mental deterioration
  • myxoma a benign tumor of connective tissue containing jellylike material
  • myxomatosis a viral disease (usually fatal) of rabbits
  • nap sleeping for a short period of time (usually not in bed);  a soft or fuzzy surface texture;  a card game similar to whist; usually played for stakes;  the yarn (as in a rug or velvet or corduroy) that stands up from the weave;  a period of time spent sleeping;  verb take a siesta
  • nasal sinus any of the paired sinuses in the bones of the face adjacent to the nasal cavity that are lined with mucous membrane that is continuous with the lining of the nasal cavities
  • nasal sounding as if the nose were pinched;  of or in or relating to the nose;   an elongated rectangular bone that forms the bridge of the nose;  a consonant produced through the nose with the mouth closed
  • nash United States writer noted for his droll epigrams (1902 1971)
  • nasopharyngeal of or relating to or located near the nasopharynx
  • neck an opening in a garment for the neck of the wearer; a part of the garment near the wearer's neck;  the part of an organism that connects the head to the rest of the body;  a cut of meat from the neck of an animal;  a narrow elongated projecting strip of land;  verbkiss, embrace, or fondle with sexual passion
  • necrosis the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply)
  • neonatal relating to or affecting the infant during the first month after birth
  • neoplasia the pathological process that results in the formation and growth of a tumor
  • neoplastic of or related to or having the properties of a neoplasm
  • nephritic of or relating to the kidneys;  affected by nephritis
  • nephritis an inflammation of the kidney
  • nephroblastoma malignant renal tumor of young children characterized by hypertension and blood in the urine and the presence of a palpable mass
  • nephrocalcinosis renal lithiasis in which calcium deposits form in the renal parenchyma and result in reduced kidney function and blood in the urine
  • nephrolithiasis the presence of kidney stones (calculi) in the kidney
  • nephron any of the small tubules that are the excretory units of the vertebrate kidney
  • nephrotic syndrome a syndrome characterized by edema and large amounts of protein in the urine and usually increased blood cholesterol; usually associated with glomerulonephritis or with a complication of various systemic diseases
  • nervous system the sensory and control apparatus consisting of a network of nerve cells
  • neuroblastoma malignant tumor containing embryonic nerve cells; usually metastasizes quickly
  • neurofibroma tumor of the fibrous covering of a peripheral nerve
  • neurofibromatosis autosomal dominant disease characterized by numerous neurofibromas and by spots on the skin and often by developmental abnormalities
  • neurogenic arising in or stimulated by nerve tissues
  • neuroglia sustentacular tissue that surrounds and supports neurons in the central nervous system; glial and neural cells together compose the tissue of the central nervous system
  • neurohypophysis the posterior lobe of the pituitary body; primarily glandular in nature
  • neuroma any tumor derived from cells of the nervous system
  • neuronal of or relating to neurons
  • neuropathy any pathology of the peripheral nerves
  • neurosyphilis syphilis of the central nervous system
  • neutropenia leukopenia in which the decrease is primarily in number of neutrophils (the chief phagocytic leukocyte)
  • newborn having just or recently arisen or come into existence; recently borne;   a baby from birth to four weeks
  • nexus a connected series or group;  the means of connection between things linked in series
  • niacin a B vitamin essential for the normal function of the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract
  • night darkness;  the dark part of the diurnal cycle considered a time unit;  the time after sunset and before sunrise while it is dark outside;  the time between sunset and midnight;  the period spent sleeping;  a period of ignorance or backwardness or gloom;  a shortening of nightfall;  Roman goddess of night; daughter of Erebus; counterpart of Greek Nyx
  • nodular having nodules or occurring in the form of nodules; relating to or characterized by or having nodules
  • nodule a small node;  (mineralogy) a small rounded lump of mineral substance (usually harder than the surrounding rock or sediment);  small rounded wartlike protuberance on a plant
  • noma acute ulceration of the mucous membranes of the mouth or genitals; often seen in undernourished children
  • nondisjunction meiosis in which there is a failure of paired homologous chromosomes to separate; results in an abnormal number of chromosomes in the daughter cells
  • northern situated in or coming from regions of the north;  in or characteristic of a region of the United States north of (approximately) the Mason Dixon line;  coming from the north; used especially of wind;  situated in or oriented toward the north;   a dialect of Middle English that developed into Scottish Lallans
  • nutritional of or relating to or providing nutrition
  • o the blood group whose red cells carry neither the A nor B antigens;  the 15th letter of the Roman alphabet;  a nonmetallic bivalent element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless nonflammable diatomic gas; constitutes 21 percent of the atmosphere by volume; the most abundant element in the earth's crust
  • oat cell carcinoma highly malignant carcinoma composed of small round or egg shaped cells with little cytoplasm; lung cancers are frequently oat cell carcinomas
  • obesity more than average fatness
  • obstruction getting in someone's way;  the act of obstructing; any structure that makes progress difficult;  the state or condition of being obstructed;  something immaterial that stands in the way and must be circumvented or surmounted
  • obstructive preventing movement
  • oedema swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
  • oesophagitis inflammation of the esophagus; often caused by gastroesophageal reflux
  • oesophagus the passage between the pharynx and the stomach
  • oestrogen a general term for female steroid sex hormones that are secreted by the ovary and responsible for typical female sexual characteristics
  • olfactory of or relating to olfaction
  • oliguria production of an abnormally small amount of urine; abnormally small production of urine; can be a symptom of kidney disease or obstruction of the urinary tract or edema or an imbalance of fluids and electrolytes in the body
  • oncology the branch of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of tumors
  • ontogenesis (biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically; a purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level
  • opsonisation process whereby opsonins make an invading microorganism more susceptible to phagocytosis
  • oral cavity the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge
  • oral a stage in psychosexual development when the child's interest is concentrated in the mouth; fixation at this stage is said to result in dependence, selfishness, and aggression;  of or involving the mouth or mouth region or the surface on which the mouth is located;  using speech rather than writing;  of or relating to or affecting or for use in the mouth;   an examination conducted by word of mouth
  • orchitis inflammation of one or both testes; characterized by pain and swelling
  • organophosphate an insecticide that interferes with an insect's nervous system
  • osmotic pressure (physical chemistry) the pressure exerted by a solution necessary to prevent osmosis into that solution when it is separated from the pure solvent by a semipermeable membrane
  • osseous composed of or containing bone
  • ossification hardened conventionality;  the developmental process of bone formation;  the process of becoming rigidly fixed in a conventional pattern of thought or behavior;  the calcification of soft tissue into a bonelike material
  • osteitis deformans a disease of bone occurring in the middle aged and elderly; excessive bone destruction sometimes leading to bone pain and fractures and skeletal deformities
  • osteoarthritis chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints; the most common form of arthritis occurring usually after middle age
  • osteoblast a cell from which bone develops
  • osteoblastoma benign tumor of bone and fibrous tissue; occurs in the vertebrae or femur or tibia or arm bones (especially in young adults)
  • osteochondroma benign tumor containing both bone and cartilage; usually occurs near the end of a long bone
  • osteocyte mature bone cell
  • osteodystrophy defective bone development; usually attributable to renal disease or to disturbances in calcium and phosphorus metabolism
  • osteogenesis imperfecta autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue characterized by brittle bones that fracture easily
  • osteoma a slow growing benign tumor of consisting of bone tissue; usually on the skull or mandible
  • osteomalacia abnormal softening of bones caused by deficiencies of phosphorus or calcium or vitamin D
  • osteomyelitis an inflammation of bone and bone marrow (usually caused by bacterial infection)
  • osteopetrosis an inherited disorder characterized by an increase in bone density; in severe forms the bone marrow cavity may be obliterated
  • osteoporosis abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium; most common in postmenopausal women
  • osteosarcoma malignant bone tumor; most common in children and young adults where it tends to affect the femur
  • otitis media inflammation of the middle ear; common in children
  • otosclerosis hereditary disorder in which ossification of the labyrinth of the inner ear causes tinnitus and eventual deafness
  • ovarian of or involving the ovaries
  • ovary (vertebrates) one of usually two organs that produce ova and secrete estrogen and progesterone;  the organ that bears the ovules of a flower
  • ozone a colorless gas (O3) soluble in alkalis and cold water; a strong oxidizing agent; can be produced by electric discharge in oxygen or by the action of ultraviolet radiation on oxygen in the stratosphere (where it acts as a screen for ultraviolet radiation)
  • p the 16th letter of the Roman alphabet;  a multivalent nonmetallic element of the nitrogen family that occurs commonly in inorganic phosphate rocks and as organic phosphates in all living cells; is highly reactive and occurs in several allotropic forms
  • paediatric of or relating to the medical care of children
  • paget English pathologist who discovered the cause of trichinosis (1814 1899)
  • palsy a condition marked by uncontrollable tremor;  loss of the ability to move a body part;  verb affect with palsy
  • pancarditis inflammation of the entire heart (the epicardium and the myocardium and the endocardium)
  • pancreas a large elongated exocrine gland located behind the stomach; secretes pancreatic juice and insulin
  • pancreatic of or involving the pancreas
  • pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas; usually marked by abdominal pain
  • pancytopenia an abnormal deficiency in all blood cells (red blood cells and white blood cells and platelets); usually associated with bone marrow tumor or with aplastic anemia
  • pap smear a sample of secretions and superficial cells of the uterine cervix and uterus; examined with a microscope to detect any abnormal cells
  • pap worthless or oversimplified ideas;  the small projection of a mammary gland;  a diet that does not require chewing; advised for those with intestinal disorders
  • papillary of or relating to or resembling papilla
  • papilloma a benign epithelial tumor forming a rounded mass
  • paradoxical seemingly contradictory but nonetheless possibly true
  • parasitism the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)
  • parathormone hormone synthesized and released into the blood stream by the parathyroid glands; regulates phosphorus and calcium in the body and functions in neuromuscular excitation and blood clotting
  • parathyroid gland any one of four endocrine glands situated above or within the thyroid gland
  • parathyroid any one of four endocrine glands situated above or within the thyroid gland
  • parkinsonism a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by tremor and impaired muscular coordination
  • paronychia low growing annual or perennial herbs or woody plants; whitlowworts;  infection in the tissues adjacent to a nail on a finger or toe
  • passive lacking in energy or will;  expressing that the subject of the sentence is the patient of the action denoted by the verb; peacefully resistant in response to injustice;   the voice used to indicate that the grammatical subject of the verb is the recipient (not the source) of the action denoted by the verb
  • pasteur French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822 1895)
  • patent ductus arteriosus a ductus arteriosus that failed to close at birth; may require surgical correction
  • pathogenesis the origination and development of a disease
  • pathologic caused by or altered by or manifesting disease or pathology;  of or relating to the practice of pathology
  • pathology the branch of medical science that studies the causes and nature and effects of diseases;  any deviation from a healthy or normal condition
  • paul (New Testament) a Christian missionary to the Gentiles; author of several Epistles in the New Testament; even though Paul was not present at the Last Supper he is considered an apostle; United States feminist (1885 1977)
  • pda a lightweight consumer electronic device that looks like a hand held computer but instead performs specific tasks; can serve as a diary or a personal database or a telephone or an alarm clock etc.
  • pellagra a disease caused by deficiency of niacin or tryptophan (or by a defect in the metabolic conversion of tryptophan to niacin); characterized by gastrointestinal disturbances and erythema and nervous or mental disorders; may be caused by malnutrition or alcoholism or other nutritional impairments
  • pelvic inflammatory disease inflammation of the female pelvic organs (especially the Fallopian tubes) caused by infection by any of several microorganisms (chiefly gonococci and chlamydia); symptoms are abdominal pain and fever and foul smelling vaginal discharge
  • pelvic of or relating to the pelvis
  • pelvis a structure shaped like a funnel in the outlet of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter; the structure of the vertebrate skeleton supporting the lower limbs in humans and the hind limbs or corresponding parts in other vertebrates
  • pemphigus a skin disease characterized by large thin walled blisters (bullae) arising from normal skin or mucous membrane
  • penis the male organ of copulation (`member' is a euphemism)
  • pepsin an enzyme produced in the stomach that splits proteins into peptones
  • peptic ulcer an ulcer of the mucous membrane lining of the alimentary tract
  • peptic relating to or promoting digestion
  • pericardial located around the heart or relating to or affecting the pericardium
  • pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium
  • pericardium a serous membrane with two layers that surrounds the heart
  • periodontal disease a disease that attacks the gum and bone and around the teeth
  • peripheral nervous system the section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord
  • peripheral on or near an edge or constituting an outer boundary; the outer area;  related to the key issue but not of central importance;   (computer science) electronic equipment connected by cable to the CPU of a computer
  • peritoneum a transparent membrane that lines the abdominal cavity in mammals and covers most of the viscera
  • peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum
  • permeability the property of something that can be pervaded by a liquid (as by osmosis or diffusion)
  • pernicious working or spreading in a hidden and usually injurious way;  exceedingly harmful
  • persistent never ceasing;  retained; not shed;  continually recurring to the mind
  • pertussis a disease of the respiratory mucous membrane
  • phagocytosis process in which phagocytes engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris; an important defense against infection
  • pharynx the passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone
  • phenomenon any state or process known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoning;  a remarkable development
  • pheochromocytoma a vascular tumor of the adrenal gland; hypersecretion of epinephrine results in intermittent or sustained hypertension
  • phimosis an abnormal tightness of the foreskin preventing retraction over the glans
  • phocomelia an abnormality of development in which the upper part of an arm or leg is missing so the hands or feet are attached to the body like stumps; rare condition that results from taking thalidomide during pregnancy
  • pica magpies;  eating earth or clay or chalk; occurs in some primitive tribes or sometimes in cases of nutritional deficiency;  a linear unit (1/6 inch) used in printing
  • pid inflammation of the female pelvic organs (especially the Fallopian tubes) caused by infection by any of several microorganisms (chiefly gonococci and chlamydia); symptoms are abdominal pain and fever and foul smelling vaginal discharge
  • piecemeal one thing at a time;   a little bit at a time
  • pierre capital of the state of South Dakota; located in central South Dakota on the Missouri river
  • pigment dry coloring matter (especially a powder to be mixed with a liquid to produce paint etc);  verb color or dye with a pigment; acquire pigment; become colored or imbued
  • pilar of or relating to a hair
  • piles a large number or amount;  pain caused by venous swelling at or inside the anal sphincter
  • pinguecula a slightly elevated elastic tissue deposit in the conjunctiva that may extend to the cornea but does not cover it
  • pinocytosis process by which certain cells can engulf and incorporate droplets of fluid
  • pituitary gland the master gland of the endocrine system; located at the base of the brain
  • pituitary of or relating to the pituitary gland;  having abnormal size with overgrown extremities resulting from abnormal pituitary secretion;   the master gland of the endocrine system; located at the base of the brain
  • placenta the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus;  that part of the ovary of a flowering plant where the ovules form
  • plague an annoyance;  any large scale calamity (especially when thought to be sent by God);  any epidemic disease with a high death rate;  a serious (sometimes fatal) infection of rodents caused by Yersinia pestis and accidentally transmitted to humans by the bite of a flea that has bitten an infected animal;  a swarm of insects that attack plants;  verb annoy continually or chronically;  cause to suffer a blight
  • plaque (pathology) a small abnormal patch on or inside the body;  a memorial made of brass
  • plasma cell a cell that develops from a B lymphocyte in reaction to a specific antigen; found in bone marrow and sometimes in the blood
  • plasmacytoma neoplasm of plasma cells (usually in bone marrow)
  • plasmin an enzyme that dissolves the fibrin of blood clots
  • platelet tiny bits of protoplasm found in vertebrate blood; essential for blood clotting
  • pleomorphic relating to or characterized by pleomorphism
  • pleomorphism (biology) the appearance of two or more distinctly different forms in the life cycle of some organisms; (chemistry) the existence of different kinds of crystal of the same chemical compound
  • pleura the thin serous membrane around the lungs and inner walls of the chest
  • pleural of or relating to the pleura or the walls of the thorax
  • pleurisy inflammation of the pleura of the lungs (especially the parietal layer)
  • plexus a network of intersecting blood vessels or intersecting nerves or intersecting lymph vessels
  • pneumoconiosis chronic respiratory disease caused by inhaling metallic or mineral particles
  • pneumonia respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants
  • pneumonitis inflammation of the lungs; caused by a virus or an allergic reaction
  • pneumothorax abnormal presence of air in the pleural cavity resulting in the collapse of the lung; may be spontaneous (due to injury to the chest) or induced (as a treatment for tuberculosis)
  • poisoning the act of giving poison to a person or animal with the intent to kill;  the physiological state produced by a poison or other toxic substance
  • polyarteritis nodosa a progressive disease of connective tissue that is characterized by nodules along arteries; nodules may block the artery and result in inadequate circulation to the particular area
  • polycystic kidney disease kidney disease characterized by enlarged kidneys containing many cysts; often leads to kidney failure
  • polyoma virus a virus the can initiate various kinds of tumors in mice
  • polyploidy the condition of being polyploid
  • porphyria a genetic abnormality of metabolism causing abdominal pains and mental confusion
  • portal hypertension increase in blood pressure in the veins of the portal system caused by obstruction in the liver (often associated with alcoholic cirrhosis), causing enlargement of the spleen and collateral veins
  • portal a grand and imposing entrance (often extended metaphorically);  a short vein that carries blood into the liver;  a site that the owner positions as an entrance to other sites on the internet
  • posterior at or near the hind end in quadrupeds or toward the spine in primates;   a tooth situated at the back of the mouth; the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on
  • postural of or relating to or involving posture
  • pr a promotion intended to create goodwill for a person or institution;  a self governing commonwealth associated with the United States occupying the island of Puerto Rico;  a soft yellowish white trivalent metallic element of the rare earth group; can be recovered from bastnasite or monazite by an ion exchange process
  • precursor a person who goes before or ances the coming of another;  a substance from which another substance is formed (especially by a metabolic reaction);  an indication of the approach of something or someone
  • prematurity the state of being premature
  • primordial having existed from the beginning; in an earliest or original stage or state
  • probe an investigation conducted using a flexible surgical instrument to explore an injury or a body cavity;  an exploratory action or expedition;  a flexible slender surgical instrument used to explore wounds or body cavities;  an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities;  verb question or examine thoroughly and closely;  examine physically with or as if with a probe
  • progeria a rare abnormality marked by premature aging (grey hair and wrinkled skin and stooped posture) in a child
  • prolapse the slipping or falling out of place of an organ (as the uterus);  verb slip or fall out of place, as of body parts
  • prostate relating to the prostate gland;   a firm partly muscular chestnut sized gland in males at the neck of the urethra; produces a viscid secretion that is the fluid part of semen
  • prostatic relating to the prostate gland
  • prostatitis inflammation of the prostate gland characterized by perineal pain and irregular urination and (if severe) chills and fever
  • protease inhibitor an antiviral drug used against HIV; interrupts HIV replication by binding and blocking HIV protease; often used in combination with other drugs
  • protein any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes
  • proteinuria the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
  • protocol code of correct conduct;  forms of ceremony and etiquette observed by diplomats and heads of state;  (computer science) rules determining the format and transmission of data
  • protozoal of or relating to the Protozoa
  • psa a protein manufactured exclusively by the prostate gland; PSA is produced for the ejaculate where it liquifies the semen and allows sperm cells to swim freely; elevated levels of PSA in blood serum are associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer
  • pterygium either of two thickened triangular layers of conjunctiva extending from the nasal edge of the eye to the cornea; it arises from irritation of the pinguecula
  • ptyalism excessive flow of saliva
  • pulmonary embolism blockage of the pulmonary artery by foreign matter or by a blood clot
  • pulmonary tuberculosis involving the lungs with progressive wasting of the body
  • pulmonary valve a semilunar valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery; prevents blood from flowing from the artery back into the heart
  • pulmonary relating to or affecting the lungs
  • pulseless disease disorder characterized by the absence of a pulse in both arms and in the carotid arteries
  • purpura any of several blood diseases causing subcutaneous bleeding
  • pus a fluid product of inflammation;  the tenth month of the Hindu calendar
  • putrefaction a state of decay usually accompanied by an offensive odor;  moral perversion; impairment of virtue and moral principles;  (biology) the process of decay caused by bacterial or fungal action
  • pyaemia septicemia caused by pus forming bacteria being released from an abscess
  • pyaemic of or relating to pyemia
  • pyelitis inflammation of the renal pelvis
  • pyelonephritis inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis caused by bacterial infection
  • pyknosis a degenerative state of the cell nucleus
  • pyloric stenosis narrowing of the pyloric sphincter that blocks the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum
  • pyogenic producing pus
  • pyorrhoea chronic periodontitis; purulent inflammation of the teeth sockets;  discharge of pus
  • pyridoxine a B vitamin that is essential for metabolism of amino acids and starch
  • q the 17th letter of the Roman alphabet
  • quick easily aroused or excited;  accomplished rapidly and without delay;  apprehending and responding with speed and sensitivity;  moving quickly and lightly;  performed with little or no delay;  hurried and brief;   with little or no delay;   any area of the body that is highly sensitive to pain (as the flesh underneath the skin or a fingernail or toenail)
  • quinsy a painful pus filled inflammation of the tonsils and surrounding tissues; usually a complication of tonsillitis
  • r the 18th letter of the Roman alphabet;  the length of a line segment between the center and circumference of a circle or sphere;  (physics) the universal constant in the gas equation: pressure times volume = R times temperature; equal to 8.3143 joules per kelvin per mole;  a unit of radiation exposure; the dose of ionizing radiation that will produce 1 electrostatic unit of electricity in 1 cc of dry air
  • rabies an acute viral disease of the nervous system of warm blooded animals (usually transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal); rabies is fatal if the virus reaches the brain
  • radiolysis molecular disintegration resulting from radiation
  • ranula a cyst on the underside of the tongue
  • rate amount of a charge or payment relative to some basis;  a quantity or amount or measure considered as a proportion of another quantity or amount or measure;  a magnitude or frequency relative to a time unit;  the relative speed of progress or change;  verbassign a rank or rating to;  estimate the value of;  be worthy of or have a certain rating
  • reactive participating readily in reactions;  tending to react to a stimulus
  • rectum the terminal section of the alimentary canal; from the sigmoid flexure to the anus
  • reflux an abnormal backward flow of body fluids;  the outward flow of the tide
  • regeneration the activity of spiritual or physical renewal; (biology) growth anew of lost tissue or destroyed parts or organs; forming again (especially with improvements or removal of defects); renewing and reconstituting;  feedback in phase with (augmenting) the input
  • regional related or limited to a particular region;  characteristic of a region
  • regurgitation recall after rote memorization;  backflow of blood through a defective heart valve;  the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
  • reiter German bacteriologist who described a disease now known as Reiter's syndrome and who identified the spirochete that causes syphilis in humans (1881 1969)
  • relapsing a failure to maintain a higher state
  • renal failure inability of the kidneys to excrete wastes and to help maintain the electrolyte balance
  • renal pelvis a structure shaped like a funnel in the outlet of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter
  • renal of or relating to the kidneys
  • repair the act of putting something in working order again;  a formal way of referring to the condition of something;  a frequently visited place;  verb restore by replacing a part or putting together what is torn or broken;  move, travel, or proceed toward some place; give new life or energy to;  set straight or right;  make amends for; pay compensation for
  • res a widely distributed system consisting of all the cells able to ingest bacteria or colloidal particles etc, except for certain white blood cells
  • respiratory distress syndrome an acute lung disease of the newborn (especially the premature newborn); lungs cannot expand because of a wetting agent is lacking; characterized by rapid shallow breathing and cyanosis and the formation of a glassy hyaline membrane over the alveoli
  • respiratory syncytial virus a paramyxovirus that forms syncytia in tissue culture and that is responsible for severe respiratory diseases such as bronchiolitis and bronchial pneumonia (especially in children)
  • respiratory tract the passages through which air enters and leaves the body
  • respiratory pertaining to respiration
  • reticulocyte an immature red blood cell containing a network of filaments or granules
  • reticuloendothelial system a widely distributed system consisting of all the cells able to ingest bacteria or colloidal particles etc, except for certain white blood cells
  • retina the light sensitive membrane covering the back wall of the eyeball; it is continuous with the optic nerve
  • retinal detachment visual impairment resulting from the retina becoming separated from the choroid in the back of the eye; treated by photocoagulation
  • retinal in or relating to the retina of the eye;   either of two yellow to red retinal pigments formed from rhodopsin by the action of light
  • retinoblastoma malignant ocular tumor of retinal cells; usually occurs before the third year of life; composed of primitive small round retinal cells
  • retinol an unsaturated alcohol that occurs in marine fish liver oils and is synthesized biologically from carotene
  • reversible capable of assuming or producing either of two states;  capable of reversing or being reversed;  capable of being reversed or used with either side out;  capable of being reversed;  a garment (especially a coat) that can be worn inside out (with either side of the cloth showing)
  • revised improved or brought up to date;  altered or revised by rephrasing or by adding or deleting material
  • rhabdomyoma benign rumor of striated muscle
  • rhabdomyosarcoma a highly malignant neoplasm derived from striated muscle
  • rhd a paramilitary group of Protestants in Northern Ireland that tries to prevent any political settlement with the Irish Free State; attacks interests of Catholic civilians in Northern Ireland; responsible for arson and bombing and murder
  • rheumatic fever a severe disease chiefly of children and characterized by painful inflammation of the joints and frequently damage to the heart valves
  • rheumatic of or pertaining to arthritis;   a person suffering with rheumatism
  • rheumatoid arthritis a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities; something (possibly a virus) triggers an attack on the synovium by the immune system, which releases cytokines that stimulate an inflammatory reaction that can lead to the destruction of all components of the joint
  • rheumatoid factor autoantibody that is usually present in the serum of people with rheumatoid arthritis
  • rheumatoid of or pertaining to arthritis
  • rhinosporidiosis fungal infection of the nose; often acquired while swimming
  • riboflavin a B vitamin that prevents skin lesions and weight loss
  • rickets childhood disease caused by deficiency of vitamin D and sunlight associated with impaired metabolism of calcium and phosphorus
  • rna (biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes; it transmits genetic information from DNA to the cytoplasm and controls certain chemical processes in the cell
  • robert United States parliamentary authority and author (in 1876) of Robert's Rules of Order (1837 1923)
  • rodent relatively small gnawing animals having a single pair of constantly growing incisor teeth specialized for gnawing
  • rotor rotating mechanism consisting of an assembly of rotating airfoils;  the rotating armature of a motor or generator;  the revolving bar of a distributor
  • salmonellosis a kind of food poisoning caused by eating foods contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium
  • salpingitis inflammation of a Fallopian tube (usually the result of infection spreading from the vagina or uterus) or of a Eustachian tube
  • saponification a chemical reaction in which an ester is heated with an alkali (especially the alkaline hydrolysis of a fat or oil to make soap)
  • sarcoid of or relating to or resembling flesh
  • sarcoidosis a chronic disease of unknown cause marked by the formation of nodules in the lungs and liver and lymph glands and salivary glands
  • sarcoma a usually malignant tumor arising from connective tissue (bone or muscle etc.); one of the four major types of cancer
  • sars a respiratory disease of unknown etiology that apparently originated in mainland China in 2003; characterized by fever and coughing or difficulty breathing or hypoxia; can be fatal
  • scab the crustlike surface of a healing skin lesion;  someone who works (or provides workers) during a strike;  verb form a scab; take the place of work of someone on strike
  • scaling ascent by or as if by a ladder;  act of measuring or arranging or adjusting according to a scale;  the act of arranging in a graduated series
  • scar a mark left (usually on the skin) by the healing of injured tissue;  an indication of damage;  verb mark with a scar
  • schiller German romantic writer (1759 1805)
  • schistosomiasis an infestation with or a resulting infection caused by a parasite of the genus Schistosoma; common in the tropics and Far East; symptoms depend on the part of the body infected
  • scleroderma genus of poisonous fungi having hard skinned fruiting bodies: false truffles;  an autoimmune disease that affects the blood vessels and connective tissue; fibrous connective tissue is deposited in the skin
  • sclerosis any pathological hardening or thickening of tissue
  • screening testing objects or persons in order to identify those with particular characteristics;  fabric of metal or plastic mesh; the display of a motion picture;  the act of concealing the existence of something by obstructing the view of it
  • scurvy of the most contemptible kind;   a condition caused by deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
  • sebaceous containing an unusual amount of grease or oil
  • seborrheic keratosis a skin condition characterized by circumscribed wartlike lesions that can be itchy and covered with a greasy crust
  • secondary belonging to a lower class or rank;  not of major importance;  being of second rank or importance or value; not direct or immediate;  depending on or incidental to what is original or primary;  inferior in rank or status;   the defensive football players who line up behind the linemen;  coil such that current is induced in it by passing a current through the primary coil
  • secretory of or relating to or producing a secretion
  • segmental divided or organized into speech segments or isolable speech sounds;  having the body divided into successive metameres or segments, as in earthworms or lobsters
  • seminoma malignant tumor of the testis; usually occurring in older men
  • senile mentally or physically infirm with age
  • septal of or relating to a septum
  • septic containing or resulting from disease causing organisms;  of or relating to or caused by putrefaction
  • septicaemia invasion of the bloodstream by virulent microorganisms from a focus of infection
  • sequestration seizing property that belongs to someone else and holding it until profits pay the demand for which it was seized;  a writ that authorizes the seizure of property;  the action of forming a chelate or other stable compound with an ion or atom or molecule so that it is no longer available for reactions;  the act of segregating or sequestering
  • serotonin a neurotransmitter involved in e.g. sleep and depression and memory
  • serum watery fluid of the blood that resembles plasma but contains fibrinogen
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome a respiratory disease of unknown etiology that apparently originated in mainland China in 2003; characterized by fever and coughing or difficulty breathing or hypoxia; can be fatal
  • sex chromatin chromatin found only in female cells
  • sex the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles;  all of the feelings resulting from the urge to gratify sexual impulses;  either of the two categories (male or female) into which most organisms are divided;  activities associated with sexual intercourse;  verb tell the sex (of young chickens);  stimulate sexually
  • sheath a protective covering for a knife or sword;  an enveloping structure or covering enclosing an animal or plant organ or part;  a dress suitable for formal occasions
  • shigella rod shaped Gram negative enterobacteria; some are pathogenic for warm blooded animals; can be used as a bioweapon
  • shingles eruptions along a nerve path often accompanied by severe neuralgia
  • shunt implant consisting of a tube made of plastic or rubber; for draining fluids within the body;  a conductor having low resistance in parallel with another device to divert a fraction of the current;  a passage by which a bodily fluid (especially blood) is diverted from one channel to another;  verb transfer to another track, of trains; provide with or divert by means of an electrical shunt
  • sialadenitis inflammation of the salivary glands
  • siderosis fibrosis of the lung caused by iron dust; occurs among welders and other metal workers
  • significance the quality of being significant;  a meaning that is not expressly stated but can be inferred;  the message that is intended or expressed or signified
  • silicosis a lung disease caused by inhaling particles of silica or quartz or slate
  • sinus any of various air filled cavities especially in the bones of the skull;  a wide channel containing blood; does not have the coating of an ordinary blood vessel;  an abnormal passage leading from a suppurating cavity to the body surface
  • sinusitis inflammation of one of the paranasal sinuses
  • skeletal system the hard structure (bones and cartilages) that provides a frame for the body of an animal
  • skeletal of or relating to or forming or attached to a skeleton; very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold
  • skip a gait in which steps and hops alternate;  a mistake resulting from neglect;  verb bound off one point after another; bypass;  cause to skip over a surface;  jump lightly;  leave suddenly; intentionally fail to attend
  • sle an inflammatory disease of connective tissue with variable features including fever and weakness and fatigability and joint pains and skin lesions on the face or neck or arms
  • sludge the precipitate produced by sewage treatment;  any thick messy substance
  • small intestine the longest part of the alimentary canal; where digestion is completed
  • smog air pollution by a mixture of smoke and fog
  • smoking emitting smoke in great volume;   the act of smoking tobacco or other substances;  a hot vapor containing fine particles of carbon being produced by combustion
  • solar relating to or derived from the sun or utilizing the energies of the sun
  • southern situated in or coming from regions of the south;  in or characteristic of a region of the United States south of (approximately) the Mason Dixon line;  from the south; used especially of wind;  situated in or oriented toward the south
  • spina bifida a not uncommon congenital defect in which a vertebra is malformed; unless several vertebrae are affected or there is myelomeningocele there are few symptoms; can be diagnosed by amniocentesis
  • spine a sharp rigid animal process or appendage; as a porcupine quill or a ridge on a bone or a ray of a fish fin;  the part of a book's cover that encloses the inner side of the book's pages and that faces outward when the book is shelved;  a small sharp pointed tip resembling a spike on a stem or leaf;  the series of vertebrae forming the axis of the skeleton and protecting the spinal cord;  any sharply pointed projection
  • spleen a large dark red oval organ on the left side of the body between the stomach and the diaphragm; produces cells involved in immune responses;  a feeling of resentful anger
  • splenectomy surgical removal of the spleen
  • splenitis inflammation of the spleen
  • splenomegaly an abnormal enlargement of the spleen
  • spondylitis inflammation of a spinal joint; characterized by pain and stiffness
  • sporadic recurring in scattered and irregular or unpredictable instances
  • spots spots before the eyes caused by opaque cell fragments in the vitreous humor and lens
  • sprue a chronic disorder that occurs in tropical and non tropical forms and in both children and adults; nutrients are not absorbed; symptoms include foul smelling diarrhea and emaciation
  • squamous cell carcinoma the most common form of skin cancer
  • squamous cell an epithelial cell that is flat like a plate and form a single layer of epithelial tissue
  • staging getting rid of a stage of a multistage rocket;  travel by stagecoach;  a system of scaffolds;  the production of a drama on the stage
  • staining (histology) the use of a dye to color specimens for microscopic study;  the act of spotting or staining something
  • starling gregarious birds native to the Old World
  • starvation the act of depriving of food or subjecting to famine;  a state of extreme hunger resulting from lack of essential nutrients over a prolonged period
  • stasis inactivity resulting from a static balance between opposing forces;  an abnormal state in which the normal flow of a liquid (such as blood) is slowed or stopped
  • steatorrhea the presence of greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces which are frothy and foul smelling and floating; a symptom of disorders of fat metabolism and malabsorption syndrome
  • stenosis abnormal narrowing of a bodily canal or passageway
  • stitch sewing consisting of a link or loop or knot made by drawing a threaded needle through a fabric;  a sharp spasm of pain in the side resulting from running;  verb fasten by sewing; do needlework
  • stomach an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal; the principal organ of digestion;  an appetite for food;  an inclination or liking for things involving conflict or difficulty or unpleasantness;  the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis;  verb bear to eat;  put up with something or somebody unpleasant
  • stomatitis inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth
  • stout euphemisms for `fat';  dependable;  having rugged physical strength; inured to fatigue or hardships;   a garment size for a large or heavy person;  a strong very dark heavy bodied ale made from pale malt and roasted unmalted barley and (often) caramel malt with hops
  • stress the relative prominence of a syllable or musical note (especially with regard to stress or pitch);  (physics) force that produces strain on a physical body;  difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension;  special emphasis attached to something; (psychology) a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense;  verbput stress on; utter with an accent;  to stress, single out as important; test the limits of
  • sty a pen for swine;  an infection of the sebaceous gland of the eyelid
  • subacute less than acute; relating to a disease present in a person with no symptoms of it
  • subdural below the dura mater but above the arachnoid membrane of the meninges
  • sudden happening without warning or in a short space of time
  • superficial being or affecting or concerned with a surface; not deep or penetrating emotionally or intellectually;  of little substance or significance;  relating to a surface;  involving a surface only
  • suppuration a fluid product of inflammation;  (medicine) the formation of morbific matter in an abscess or a vesicle and the discharge of pus
  • suppurative relating to or characterized by suppuration
  • surfactant a substance capable of reducing the surface tension of a liquid in which it is dissolved
  • surgical performed with great precision;  relating to or requiring or amenable to treatment by surgery especially as opposed to medicine;  of or relating to or involving or used in surgery
  • swine flu an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of swine caused by the orthomyxovirus thought to be the same virus that caused the 1918 influenza pandemic
  • symbiosis the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other
  • syndrome a complex of concurrent things;  a pattern of symptoms indicative of some disease
  • synovitis inflammation of the synovial membrane that lines a synovial joint; results in pain and swelling
  • syphilis a common venereal disease caused by the treponema pallidum spirochete; symptoms change through progressive stages; can be congenital (transmitted through the placenta)
  • syphilitic of or relating to or infected with syphilis;   a person suffering from syphilis
  • syrinx the vocal organ of a bird;  a primitive wind instrument consisting of several parallel pipes bound together
  • systemic lupus erythematosus an inflammatory disease of connective tissue with variable features including fever and weakness and fatigability and joint pains and skin lesions on the face or neck or arms
  • systemic affecting an entire system
  • tabes dorsalis syphilis of the spinal cord characterized by degeneration of sensory neurons and stabbing pains in the trunk and legs and unsteady gait and incontinence and impotence
  • target cell an abnormal red blood cell with the appearance of a dark ring surrounding a dark center; associated with anemia;  any cell that has a specific receptor for an antigen or antibody or hormone or drug, or is the focus of contact by a virus or phagocyte or nerve fiber etc.
  • teeth the kind and number and arrangement of teeth (collectively) in a person or animal
  • telomerase an enzyme in eukaryotic cells that can add telomeres to the ends of chromosomes after they divide
  • telomere either (free) end of a eukaryotic chromosome
  • temporal of this earth or world;  not eternal;  concerned with secular rather than sacred matters;  of the material world;  of or relating to the temples (the sides of the skull behind the orbit);  of or relating to or limited by time;   the semantic role of the phrase that designating the time of the state or action denoted by the verb
  • tenosynovitis inflammation of a tendon and its enveloping sheath
  • teratology the branch of biology concerned with the development of malformations or serious deviations from the normal type of organism
  • teratoma a tumor consisting of a mixture of tissues not normally found at that site
  • tertiary coming next after the second and just before the fourth in position;   from 63 million to 2 million years ago
  • testicular of or involving the testes
  • testis one of the two male reproductive glands that produce spermatozoa and secrete androgens
  • tetanus a sustained muscular contraction resulting from a rapid series of nerve impulses;  an acute and serious infection of the central nervous system caused by bacterial infection of open wounds; spasms of the jaw and laryngeal muscles may occur during the late stages
  • tetralogy of fallot a congenital heart defect producing cyanosis; characterized by four symptoms: pulmonary stenosis and ventricular septal defect and malposition of the aorta over both ventricles and hypertrophy of the right ventricle
  • thiamine a B vitamin that prevents beriberi; maintains appetite and growth
  • thomas the Apostle who would not believe the resurrection of Jesus until he saw Jesus with his own eyes;  Welsh poet (1914 1953);  a radio broadcast journalist during World War I and World War II noted for his nightly new broadcast (1892 1981);  United States socialist who was a candidate for president six times (1884 1968);  United States clockmaker who introduced mass production (1785 1859)
  • thrombasthenia a rare autosomal recessive disease in which the platelets do not produce clots in the normal way and hemorrhage results
  • thrombocytosis increase in the number of platelets in the blood which tends to cause clots to form; associated with many neoplasms and chronic infections and other diseases
  • thromboembolism occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus that has broken away from a thrombus
  • thrombolytic therapy therapy consisting of the administration of a pharmacological agent to cause thrombolysis of an abnormal blood clot
  • thrombophlebitis phlebitis in conjunction with the formation of a blood clot (thrombus)
  • thrombosis the formation or presence of a thrombus (a clot of coagulated blood attached at the site of its formation) in a blood vessel
  • thrombus a blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin
  • thrush songbirds characteristically having brownish upper plumage with a spotted breast;  a woman who sings popular songs; candidiasis of the oral cavity; seen mostly in infants or debilitated adults
  • thymus large genus of Old World mints: thyme;  a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity; atrophies with age
  • thyroid gland located near the base of the neck
  • thyroid suggestive of a thyroid disorder;  of or relating to the thyroid gland;   located near the base of the neck
  • thyroiditis inflammation of the thyroid gland
  • thyrotoxicosis an overactive thyroid gland; pathologically excessive production of thyroid hormones or the condition resulting from excessive production of thyroid hormones
  • tia brief episode in which the brain gets insufficient blood supply; symptoms depend on the site of the blockage
  • tinea type genus of the Tineidae: clothes moths;  infections of the skin or nails caused by fungi and appearing as itching circular patches
  • tnf a proinflammatory cytokine that is produced by white blood cells (monocytes and macrophages); has an antineoplastic effect but causes inflammation (as in rheumatoid arthritis)
  • tolerance the act of tolerating something;  the power or capacity of an organism to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions;  willingness to recognize and respect the beliefs or practices of others;  a disposition to allow freedom of choice and behavior;  a permissible difference; allowing some freedom to move within limits
  • tonsillitis inflammation of the tonsils (especially the palatine tonsils)
  • tooth a means of enforcement;  toothlike structure in invertebrates found in the mouth or alimentary canal or on a shell; something resembling the tooth of an animal;  one of a number of uniform projections on a gear;  hard bonelike structures in the jaws of vertebrates; used for biting and chewing or for attack and defense
  • torticollis an unnatural condition in which the head leans to one side because the neck muscles on that side are contracted
  • toxic shock syndrome resulting from a serious acute (sometimes fatal) infection associated with the presence of staphylococcus; characterized by fever and diarrhea and nausea and diffuse erythema and shock; occurs especially in menstruating women using highly absorbent tampons
  • toxoplasmosis infection caused by parasites transmitted to humans from infected cats; if contracted by a pregnant woman it can result in serious damage to the fetus
  • transferrin a globulin in blood plasma that carries iron
  • transfusion the action of pouring a liquid from one vessel to another;  the introduction of blood or blood plasma into a vein or artery
  • transplantation the act of removing something from one location and introducing it in another location;  an operation moving an organ from one organism (the donor) to another (the recipient)
  • traumatic psychologically painful; "few experiences are more traumatic than losing a child";  of or relating to a physical injury or wound to the body
  • trephine a surgical instrument used to remove sections of bone from the skull;  verb operate on with a trephine
  • treponema spirochete that causes disease in humans (e.g. syphilis and yaws)
  • trichomoniasis infection of the vagina
  • tricuspid having three cusps or points (especially a molar tooth)
  • trier one who tries;  one (as a judge) who examines and settles a case
  • trisomy chrosomal abnormality in which there is one more than the normal number of chromosomes in a cell
  • trousseau the personal outfit of a bride; clothes and accessories and linens
  • tryptophan an amino acid that occurs in proteins; is essential for growth and normal metabolism; a precursor of niacin
  • tubercle bacillus cause of tuberculosis
  • tubercle a swelling that is the characteristic lesion of tuberculosis;  a protuberance on a bone especially for attachment of a muscle or ligament;  small rounded wartlike protuberance on a plant
  • tuberculin test a skin test to determine past or present infection with the tuberculosis bacterium; based on hypersensitivity of the skin to tuberculin
  • tuberculosis infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
  • tuberculous constituting or afflicted with or caused by tuberculosis or the tubercle bacillus
  • tubular constituting a tube; having hollow tubes (as for the passage of fluids)
  • tumour necrosis factor a proinflammatory cytokine that is produced by white blood cells (monocytes and macrophages); has an antineoplastic effect but causes inflammation (as in rheumatoid arthritis)
  • tumour an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose
  • turbulence unstable flow of a liquid or gas;  a state of violent disturbance and disorder (as in politics or social conditions generally);  instability in the atmosphere
  • type a the blood group whose red cells carry the A antigen
  • type ab the blood group whose red cells carry both the A and B antigens
  • type b the blood group whose red cells carry the B antigen
  • typhoid fever serious infection marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration; caused by Salmonella typhosa ingested with food or water
  • typhoid serious infection marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration; caused by Salmonella typhosa ingested with food or water
  • u (chiefly British) of or appropriate to the upper classes especially in language use;   the 21st letter of the Roman alphabet;  a heavy toxic silvery white radioactive metallic element; occurs in many isotopes; used for nuclear fuels and nuclear weapons;  a base containing nitrogen that is found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine; pairs with adenine
  • ulcer a circumscribed inflammatory and often suppurating lesion on the skin or an internal mucous surface resulting in necrosis of tissue
  • ulcerative colitis a serious chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain and fever and chills and profuse diarrhea
  • ulcerative of or relating to or characterized by ulceration
  • ultraviolet light radiation lying in the ultraviolet range; wave lengths shorter than light but longer than X rays
  • undifferentiated not differentiated
  • unicameral composed of one legislative body
  • unstable highly or violently reactive;  disposed to psychological variability;  lacking stability or fixity or firmness;  subject to change; variable;  affording no ease or reassurance;  suffering from severe mental illness
  • uraemia accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine
  • ureter either of a pair of thick walled tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
  • ureterocele prolapse of the end of the ureter into the bladder; may obstruct urine flow
  • urethra duct through which urine is discharged in most mammals and which serves as the male genital duct
  • urethral of or relating to the urethra
  • urethritis inflammation of the urethra; results in painful urination
  • urinary bladder a membranous sac for temporary retention of urine
  • urinary tract infection any infection of any of the organs of the urinary tract
  • urinary tract the organs and tubes involved in the production and excretion of urine
  • urinary of or relating to the function or production or secretion of urine;  of or relating to the urinary system of the body
  • urobilinogen a chromogen formed in the intestine from the breakdown of bilirubin; yields urobilins on oxidation; some is excreted in the feces and some is resorbed and excreted in bile or urine
  • uropathy any pathology of the urinary tract
  • urticaria an itchy skin eruption characterized by weals with pale interiors and well defined red margins; usually the result of an allergic response to insect bites or food or drugs
  • uveal of or relating to the uvea of the eye
  • uveitis inflammation of the uvea of the eye
  • vaccinia a local infection induced in humans by inoculation with the virus causing cowpox in order to confer resistance to smallpox; normally lasts three weeks and leaves a pitted scar;  a viral disease of cattle causing a mild skin disease affecting the udder; formerly used to inoculate humans against smallpox
  • vagina the lower part of the female reproductive tract; a moist canal in female mammals extending from the labia minora to the uterus
  • vaginal smear smear taken from the vaginal mucosa for cytological analysis
  • vaginitis inflammation of the vagina (usually associated with candidiasis)
  • valvular relating to or operating by means of valves
  • valvulitis inflammation of a valve (especially of a cardiac valve as a consequence of rheumatic fever)
  • varicocele dilatation of the veins associated with the spermatic cord in the testes
  • varicose abnormally swollen or knotty
  • variola a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever and weakness and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs that slough off leaving scars
  • vascular of or relating to or having vessels that conduct and circulate fluids
  • vasculitis inflammation of a blood vessel
  • vasopressin hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus; affects blood pressure by stimulating capillary muscles and reduces urine flow by affecting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules
  • venous of or contained in or performing the function of the veins
  • ventricular septal defect a common congenital heart defect; an abnormal opening in the septum dividing the ventricles allows blood to pass directly from the left to the right ventricle; large openings may cause congestive heart failure
  • vesalius a Flemish surgeon who is considered the father of modern anatomy (1514 1564)
  • viral hepatitis hepatitis caused by a virus
  • viral relating to or caused by a virus
  • virchow German pathologist who recognized that all cells come from cells by binary fission and who emphasized cellular abnormalities in disease (1821 1902)
  • virilism the development of male secondary sexual characteristics in a female (or prematurely in a young boy)
  • vitalism (philosophy) a doctrine that life is a vital principle distinct from physics and chemistry
  • vitiligo an acquired skin disease characterized by patches of unpigmented skin (often surrounded by a heavily pigmented border)
  • vldl large lipoproteins rich in triglycerides; VLDLs circulate through the blood giving up their triglycerides to fat and muscle tissue until the VLDL remnants are modified and converted into LDL
  • vocal full of the sound of voices;  having or using the power to produce speech or sound;  relating to or designed for or using the singing voice;  given to expressing yourself freely or insistently;  a short musical composition with words;  music intended to be performed by one or more singers, usually with instrumental accompaniment
  • volvulus abnormal twisting of the intestines (usually in the are of the ileum or sigmoid colon) resulting in intestinal obstruction
  • von willebrand Finnish physician who first described vascular hemophilia (1870 1949)
  • vulva external parts of the female genitalia
  • vulval of or relating to the vulva
  • w the 23rd letter of the Roman alphabet;  a unit of power equal to 1 joule per second; the power dissipated by a current of 1 ampere flowing across a resistance of 1 ohm;  the cardinal compass point that is a 270 degrees;  a heavy grey white metallic element; the pure form is used mainly in electrical applications; it is found in several ores including wolframite and scheelite
  • washing the work of cleansing (usually with soap and water); garments or white goods that can be cleaned by laundering
  • water soluble soluble in water
  • watershed a ridge of land that separates two adjacent river systems;  an event marking a unique or important historical change of course or one on which important developments depend
  • watson United States geneticist who (with Crick in 1953) helped discover the helical structure of DNA (born in 1928);  United States psychologist considered the founder of behavioristic psychology (1878 1958);  United States telephone engineer who assisted Alexander Graham Bell in his experiments (1854 1934)
  • wear and tear decrease in value of an asset due to obsolescence or use
  • wegener German geophysicist who proposed the theory of continental drift (1880 1930)
  • wernicke German neurologist best known for his studies of aphasia (1848 1905)
  • wheal a raised mark on the skin (as produced by the blow of a whip); characteristic of many allergic reactions
  • whooping cough a disease of the respiratory mucous membrane
  • wilmut English geneticist who succeeded in cloning a sheep from a cell from an adult ewe (born in 1944)
  • wound put in a coil;   the act of inflicting a wound;  a casualty to military personnel resulting from combat;  a figurative injury (to your feelings or pride);  any break in the skin or an organ caused by violence or surgical incision;  verb cause injuries or bodily harm to;  hurt the feelings of
  • woven made or constructed by interlacing threads or strips of material or other elements into a whole
  • x chromosome the sex chromosome that is present in both sexes: singly in males and doubly in females
  • x the 24th letter of the Roman alphabet;  street names for methylenedioxymethamphetamine
  • xanthelasma xanthoma of the eyelids; occurs chiefly in the elderly
  • xavier Spanish missionary and Jesuit who establish missionaries in Japan and Ceylon and the East Indies (1506 1552)
  • xenograft tissue from an animal of one species used as a temporary graft (as in cases of severe burns) on an individual of another species
  • xeroderma pigmentosum a rare genetic condition characterized by an eruption of exposed skin occurring in childhood and photosensitivity with severe sunburn; inherited as a recessive autosomal trait in which DNA repair processes are defective so they are more likely to chromosome breaks and cancers when exposed to ultraviolet light
  • xerophthalmia abnormal dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eyes; may be due to a systemic deficiency of vitamin A
  • xerostomia abnormal dryness of the mouth resulting from decreased secretion of saliva
  • y the 25th letter of the Roman alphabet;  a silvery metallic element that is common in rare earth minerals; used in magnesium and aluminum alloys
  • yellow fever caused by a flavivirus transmitted by a mosquito
  • yellow of the color intermediate between green and orange in the color spectrum; of something resembling the color of an egg yolk;  cowardly or treacherous;  changed to a yellowish color by age; easily frightened;  affected by jaundice which causes yellowing of skin etc;  typical of tabloids;   yellow color or pigment; the chromatic color resembling the hue of sunflowers or ripe lemons; verb turn yellow
  • z the 26th letter of the Roman alphabet;  the ending of a series or sequence

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