Drug categories C

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Drug Category Names, Results, and Descriptions

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  • Calcium Channel Blockers  (119) • A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
  • Calcium Ionophores  (2) • Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to CALCIUM ions.
  • Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors  (13) • A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES.
  • Carcinogens  (158) • Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
  • Cardiotonic Agents  (74) • Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).
  • Cardiovascular Agents  (791) • Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.
  • Cariostatic Agents  (10) • Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
  • Catechol O-Methyltransferase Inhibitors  (8) • Compounds and drugs that inhibit or block the activity of CATECHOL O-METHYLTRANSFERASE enzymes. Drugs in this class are used in management of central nervous system disorders such as PARKINSON DISEASE.
  • Cathartics  (25) • Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.
  • Cation Exchange Resins  (2) • High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.
  • Caustics  (4) • Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year.
  • Central Nervous System Agents  (996) • A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
  • Central Nervous System Depressants  (406) • A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants  (71) • A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
  • Chelating Agents  (97) • Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
  • Chemical Warfare Agents  (17) • Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
  • Chemosterilants  (4) • Compounds that cause reproductive sterility in organisms. They are sometimes used to control pest populations by sterilizing males within the population.
  • Cholagogues and Choleretics  (23) • Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic).
  • Cholinergic Agents  (187) • Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
  • Cholinergic Antagonists  (84) • Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
  • Cholinesterase Inhibitors  (69) • Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
  • Cholinesterase Reactivators  (9) • Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.
  • Chromogenic Compounds  (17) • Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).
  • Coagulants  (52) • Agents that cause clotting.
  • Coccidiostats  (23) • Agents useful in the treatment or prevention of COCCIDIOSIS in man or animals.
  • Coloring Agents  (295) • Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
  • Complement Inactivating Agents  (5) • Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host.
  • Contraceptive Agents  (77) • Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
  • Contraceptive Agents, Female  (63) • Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
  • Contraceptive Agents, Male  (11) • Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
  • Contraceptives, Oral  (42) • Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.
  • Contraceptives, Postcoital  (8) • Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS.
  • Contrast Media  (86) • Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
  • Convulsants  (25) • Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.
  • Cosmetics  (25) • Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
  • Cross-Linking Reagents  (46) • Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.
  • Cryoprotective Agents  (3) • Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
  • Culture Media  (1) • Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
  • Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors  (60) • Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.

Drug Category Names, Results, and Descriptions

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Comprehensive list of medications or pharmaceutical drugs used in the United States with their NDC or national drug code, brand name, dosage, forms of administration etc. sorted alphabetically.

See also

External links

The following is the collection of detailed information and links to the National Institute of Health (NIH) comprehensive drug information portal and other reliable sources of information. Select the drug name below to show drug description, drug classification, other common drug names, and information on the reasons why prescribed, how medication should be used, and what possible side effects could occur.

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