Glossary of cardiology

From WikiMD


  • ACE  - adj. of the highest quality  noun a serve that the receiver is unable to reach  one of four playing cards in a deck having a single pip on its face  someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field  a major strategic headquarters of NATO; safeguards an area extending from Norway to Turkey  verb serve an ace against (someone)  play (a hole) in one stroke  score an ace against succeed at easily
  • AGENT -  an active and efficient cause; capable of producing a certain effect; a businessman who buys or sells for another in exchange for a commission; a representative who acts on behalf of other persons or organizations; any agent or representative of a federal agency or bureau; a substance that exerts some force or effect; the semantic role of the animate entity that instigates or causes the happening denoted by the verb in the clause
  • AV  - noun the eleventh month of the civil year; the fifth month of the ecclesiastical year in the Jewish calendar (in July and August)
  • Abdomen  - noun the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis  the cavity containing the major viscera; in mammals it is separated from the thorax by the diaphragm
  • Abdominal aorta  - noun a branch of the descending aorta
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm -  an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta associated with old age and hypertension
  • Ablation  - noun surgical removal of a body part or tissue  the erosive process that reduces the size of glaciers
  • Acebutolol -  an oral beta blocker (trade name Sectral) used in treating hypertension
  • Acetylcholine  - noun a neurotransmitter that is a derivative of choline; released at the ends of nerve fibers in the somatic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  • Acetylsalicylic acid  - noun the acetylated derivative of salicylic acid; used as an analgesic anti-inflammatory drug (trade names Bayer and Empirin) usually taken in tablet form; used as an antipyretic; slows clotting of the blood by poisoning platelets
  • Acquired-heart-disease -   Heart disease that arises after birth, usually from infection or through the build-up of fatty deposits in the arteries that feed the heart muscle.
  • Acromegaly -  enlargement of bones of hands and feet and face; often accompanied by headache and muscle pain and emotional disturbances; caused by overproduction of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary gland (due to a tumor)
  • Action potential -  the local voltage change across the cell wall as a nerve impulse is transmitted
  • Adenoma -  a benign epithelial tumor of glandular origin
  • Adrenaline -  a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin); stimulates autonomic nerve action
  • Aerobic exercise -  exercise that increases the need for oxygen
  • Aesculus hippocastanum -  tree having palmate leaves and large clusters of white to red flowers followed by brown shiny inedible seeds
  • Alcohol -  a liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent; any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation
  • Aldactone -  a synthetic corticosteroid (trade name Aldactone) used to treat hypertension
  • Amiodarone  - noun an antiarrhythmic drug (trade name Cordarone) that has potentially fatal side effects and is used to control serious heart rhythm problems only when safer agents have been ineffective
  • Amiodarone -  an antiarrhythmic drug (trade name Cordarone) that has potentially fatal side effects and is used to control serious heart rhythm problems only when safer agents have been ineffective
  • Anemia -  genus of terrestrial or lithophytic ferns having pinnatifid fronds; chiefly of tropical America; a deficiency of red blood cells; a lack of vitality
  • Aneurysm  - noun a cardiovascular disease characterized by a saclike widening of an artery resulting from weakening of the artery wall
  • Angina pectoris -  a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
  • Angina Angina (an-JI-nuh or AN-juh-nuh) is chest pain or discomfort that occurs if an area of your heart muscle doesn't get enough oxygen-rich blood. It may feel like pressure or squeezing in your chest. The pain also can occur in your shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back. Angina pain may even feel like indigestion.
  • Angiography  - noun roentgenographic examination of blood vessels after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium; produces an angiogram
  • Angioplasty  - noun an operation to repair a damaged blood vessel or unblock a coronary artery
  • Angiotensin-II-receptor-blocker A medicine that lowers blood pressure by blocking the action of angiotensin II, a chemical in the body that causes the blood vessels to tighten
  • Ankylosing spondylitis -  a chronic form of spondylitis primarily in males and marked by impaired mobility of the spine; sometimes leads to ankylosis
  • Annulus  - noun (Fungi) remnant of the partial veil that in mature mushrooms surrounds the lower part of the stem  a toroidal shape
  • Antiarrhythmics Medicines used to treat patients who have irregular heart rhythms.
  • Anticoagulant  - noun medicine that prevents or retards the clotting of blood
  • Antidepressant -  any of a class of drugs used to treat depression; often have undesirable side effects
  • Antihistamine -  a medicine used to treat allergies and hypersensitive reactions and colds; works by counteracting the effects of histamine on a receptor site
  • Antihypertensive  - noun a drug that reduces high blood pressure
  • Antihypertensive -  a drug that reduces high blood pressure
  • Antiplatelet-therapy Medicines that stop platelets from sticking together and forming a blood clot.
  • Anxiety -  a vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some (usually ill-defined) misfortune; a relatively permanent state of anxiety occurring in a variety of mental disorders
  • Aorta  - noun the large trunk artery that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to branch arteries
  • Aortic stenosis -  abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve
  • Aortic valve  - noun a semilunar valve between the left ventricle and the aorta; prevents blood from flowing from the aorta back into the heart
  • Aphasia  - noun inability to use or understand language (spoken or written) because of a brain lesion
  • Arginine -  a bitter tasting amino acid found in proteins and necessary for nutrition; its absence from the diet leads to a reduced production of spermatozoa
  • Arrhythmia An arrhythmia (ah-RITH-me-ah) is a problem with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat. During an arrhythmia, the heart can beat too fast, too slow, or with an irregular rhythm.
  • Arrhythmia  - noun an abnormal rate of muscle contractions in the heart
  • Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD)  – ARVD is a type of cardiomyopathy with no known cause. It appears to be a genetic condition (passed down through a family’s genes). ARVD causes ventricular arrhythmias.
  • Arteriography  – A test that is combined with cardiac catheterization to visualize an artery or the arterial system after injection of a contrast dye.
  • Arterioles  – Small, muscular branches of arteries. When they contract, they raise resistance to blood flow, and blood pressure in the arteries increases.
  • Arteriosclerosis Arteriosclerosis (ahr-teer-ee-o-skluh-roh-sis) is when the large arteries become stiffer and less elastic as you get older. These changes are caused by deposits of collagen and scar tissue as well as a decrease in the molecules that make the arterial wall flexible and elastic. These changes result in high blood pressure, which increases the risk of coronary heart disease, heart attacks, heart failure, stroke, and disease of the kidneys, brain, and eyes.
  • Arteriosclerosis  - noun sclerosis of the arterial walls
  • Arteritis  - noun inflammation of an artery
  • Artery  - noun a major thoroughfare that bears important traffic  a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body
  • Artificial heart  - noun a pump that replaces the natural heart
  • Artificial heart -  a pump that replaces the natural heart
  • Ascending aorta  - noun the ascending part of the aorta as it emerges from the left ventricle
  • Aspirin  - noun the acetylated derivative of salicylic acid; used as an analgesic anti-inflammatory drug (trade names Bayer and Empirin) usually taken in tablet form; used as an antipyretic; slows clotting of the blood by poisoning platelets
  • Atenolol -  an oral beta blocker (trade name Tenormin) used in treating hypertension and angina; has adverse side effects (depression and exacerbation of congestive heart failure etc.)
  • Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis (ath-uh-roh-skluh-roh-sis), which is a type of arteriosclerosis, describes the buildup of plaque within the arterial wall. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your heart and other parts of your body. While aging changes, such as arteriosclerosis (or increased arterial stiffness), increase the risk of atherosclerosis, aging changes do not directly cause atherosclerosis.
  • Atherosclerosis  - noun a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
  • Atorvastatin -  an oral drug (trade name Lipitor) that is effective in lowering triglycerides; potent in reducing LDL cholesterol because higher doses can be given
  • Atrioventricular block  - noun recurrent sudden attacks of unconsciousness caused by impaired conduction of the impulse that regulates the heartbeat
  • Atrioventricular node -  a node of specialized heart muscle located in the septal wall of the right atrium; receives impulses from the sinoatrial node and transmits them to atrioventricular bundle
  • Atrioventricular  - adj. relating to or affecting the atria and ventricles of the heart
  • Atrium  - noun the central area in a building; open to the sky  any chamber that is connected to other chambers or passageways (especially one of the two upper chambers of the heart)
  • Atropine -  a poisonous crystalline alkaloid extracted from the nightshade family; used as an antispasmodic and to dilate the eye pupil; also administered in large amounts as an antidote for organophosphate nerve agents or organophosphate insecticides
  • Autologous  - adj. derived from organisms of the selfsame individual
  • Autoregulation  - noun (physiology) processes that maintain a generally constant physiological state in a cell or organism
  • BARI -  capital city of the Apulia region on the Adriatic coast
  • Bacteria  - noun (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants
  • Bacteria  – Germs that can lead to disease.
  • Bacterial endocarditis  – A bacterial infection of the lining of the heart’s chambers (called the endocardium) or of the heart’s valves.
  • Balloon catheter   *  A long tube-like device with a small balloon on the end that can be threaded through an artery. Used in angioplasty or valvuloplasty.
  • Balloon valvuloplasty  – A procedure to repair a heart valve. A balloon-tipped catheter is threaded through an artery and into the heart. The balloon is inflated to open and separate any narrowed or stiffened flaps (called leaflets) of a valve.
  • Behavior -  manner of acting or controlling yourself; (psychology) the aggregate of the responses or reactions or movements made by an organism in any situation; the action or reaction of something (as a machine or substance) under specified circumstances; (behavioral attributes) the way a person behaves toward other people
  • Belladonna -  an alkaloidal extract or tincture of the poisonous belladonna plant that is used medicinally; perennial Eurasian herb with reddish bell-shaped flowers and shining black berries; extensively grown in United States; roots and leaves yield atropine
  • Beta-blocker  – An antihypertensive medicine that limits the activity of epinephrine, a hormone that increases blood pressure.
  • Beta -  preliminary or testing stage of a software or hardware product; second in order of importance;  the 2nd letter of the Greek alphabet; beets
  • Biopsy  – The process by which a small sample of tissue is taken for examination.
  • Black tea -  fermented tea leaves
  • Blalock-Taussig procedure  – A shunt between the subclavian and pulmonary arteries used to increase the supply of oxygen-rich blood in “blue babies” (see below).
  • Blood clot  – A jelly-like mass of blood tissue formed by clotting factors in the blood. Clots stop the flow of blood from an injury. Clots can also form inside an artery when the artery’s walls are damaged by atherosclerotic buildup, possibly causing a heart attack or stroke.
  • Blood pressure  – The force or pressure exerted by the heart in pumping blood; the pressure of blood in the arteries.
  • Blood pressure -  the pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels; results from the systole of the left ventricle of the heart; sometimes measured for a quick evaluation of a person's health
  • Blue babies  – Babies who have a blue tinge to their skin (cyanosis) resulting from insufficient oxygen in the arterial blood. This condition often indicates a heart defect.
  • Body mass index (BMI)  – A number that indicates an increased risk of cardiovascular disease from a person being overweight. BMI is calculated using a formula of weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (BMI =W [kg]/H [m2]).
  • Body temperature -  temperature of the body; normally 98.6 F or 37 C in humans; usually measured to obtain a quick evaluation of a person's health
  • Bradycardia  – Abnormally slow heartbeat.
  • Breathing -  passing or able to pass air in and out of the lungs normally; sometimes used in combination;  the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation; the process of taking in oxygen from inhaled air and releasing carbon dioxide by exhalation
  • Bridge to transplant  – Use of mechanical circulatory support to keep heart failure patients alive until a donor heart becomes available.
  • Bronchitis -  inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes
  • Bruit  – A sound made in the blood vessels resulting from turbulence, perhaps because of a buildup of plaque or damage to the vessels.
  • Bundle branch block  – A condition in which parts of the heart’s conduction system are defective and unable to conduct the electrical signal normally, causing an irregular heart rhythm (arrhythmia).
  • Bypass  – Surgery that can improve blood flow to the heart (or other organs and tissues) by providing a new route, or “bypass” around a section of clogged or diseased artery.
  • CABG -  open-heart surgery in which the rib cage is opened and a section of a blood vessel is grafted from the aorta to the coronary artery to bypass the blocked section of the coronary artery and improve the blood supply to the heart
  • CAD -  someone who is morally reprehensible; software used in art and architecture and engineering and manufacturing to assist in precision drawing
  • CARET -  a mark used by an author or editor to indicate where something is to be inserted into a text
  • CARE -  activity involved in maintaining something in good working order; the work of providing treatment for or attending to someone or something; attention and management implying responsibility for safety; a cause for feeling concern; judiciousness in avoiding harm or danger; an anxious feeling; verb feel concern or interest; provide care for; be concerned with; prefer or wish to do something; be in charge of, act on, or dispose of
  • CHAOS -  (physics) a dynamical system that is extremely sensitive to its initial conditions; (Greek mythology) the most ancient of gods; the personification of the infinity of space preceding creation of the universe; the formless and disordered state of matter before the creation of the cosmos; a state of extreme confusion and disorder
  • CREATE - verb create by artistic means; pursue a creative activity; be engaged in a creative activity; bring into existence; invest with a new title, office, or rank; make or cause to be or to become; create or manufacture a man-made product
  • Caffeine -  a bitter alkaloid found in coffee and tea that is responsible for their stimulating effects
  • Calcification -  a process that impregnates something with calcium (or calcium salts); an inflexible and unchanging state; tissue hardened by deposition of lime salts
  • Calcium channel blocker (or calcium blocker)  – A medicine that lowers blood pressure by regulating calcium-related electrical activity in the heart.
  • Capillaries  – Microscopically small blood vessels between arteries and veins that distribute oxygen-rich blood to the body’s tissues.
  • Capoten -  a drug (trade name Capoten) that blocks the formation of angiotensin in the kidneys resulting in vasodilation; used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure
  • Captopril -  a drug (trade name Capoten) that blocks the formation of angiotensin in the kidneys resulting in vasodilation; used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure
  • Carbon monoxide -  an odorless very poisonous gas that is a product of incomplete combustion of carbon
  • Cardiac amyloidosis  – A disorder caused by deposits of an abnormal protein (amyloid) in the heart tissue, which make it hard for the heart to work properly. Also called “stiff heart syndrome.”
  • Cardiac arrest  – The stopping of the heartbeat, usually because of interference with the electrical signal (often associated with coronary heart disease).
  • Cardiac cachexia  – A term for the muscle and weight loss caused by severe heart disease. It is often related to the depressed cardiac output associated with end-stage heart failure, but it can also occur with severe coronary artery disease.
  • Cardiac catheterization  – A procedure that involves inserting a fine, hollow tube (catheter) into an artery, usually in the groin area, and passing the tube into the heart. Often used along with angiography and other procedures, cardiac catheterization has become a primary tool for visualizing the heart and blood vessels and diagnosing and treating heart disease.
  • Cardiac enzymes  – Complex substances capable of speeding up certain biochemical processes in the heart muscle. Abnormal levels of these enzymes signal heart attack.
  • Cardiac output  – The amount of blood the heart pumps through the circulatory system in one minute.
  • Cardiac output -  the amount of blood pumped out by the ventricles in a given period of time
  • Cardiac tamponade -  mechanical compression of the heart resulting from large amounts of fluid collecting in the pericardial space and limiting the heart's normal range of motion
  • Cardiac  – Pertaining to the heart.
  • Cardiogenic shock -  shock caused by cardiac arrest
  • Cardiologist  – A doctor who specializes in the study of the heart and its function in health and disease.
  • Cardiology  – The study of the heart and its function in health and disease.
  • Cardiomegaly  – An enlarged heart. It is usually a sign of an underlying problem, such as high blood pressure, heart valve problems, or cardiomyopathy.
  • Cardiomyopathy  – A disease of the heart muscle that leads to generalized deterioration of the muscle and its pumping ability.
  • Cardiopulmonary bypass  – The process by which a machine is used to do the work of the heart and lungs so the heart can be stopped during surgery.
  • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)  – An emergency measure that can maintain a person’s breathing and heartbeat. The person who performs CPR actually helps the patient’s circulatory system by breathing into the patient’s mouth to give them oxygen and by giving chest compressions to circulate the patient’s blood. Hands-only CPR involves only chest compressions.
  • Cardiovascular (CV)  – Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels that make up the circulatory system.
  • Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)  – A general term referring to conditions affecting the heart (cardio) and blood vessels (vascular system). May also simply be called heart disease. Examples include coronary artery disease, valve disease, arrhythmia, peripheral vascular disease, congenital heart defects, hypertension, and cardiomyopathy. Refer to specific conditions for detailed explanations.
  • Cardiovascular Disease -  a disease of the heart or blood vessels
  • Cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease is the term for all types of diseases that affect the heart or blood vessels, including coronary heart disease (plaque accumulation in arteries), which can cause heart attacks, stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease.
  • Cardiovascular system -  the organs and tissues involved in circulating blood and lymph through the body
  • Cardioversion  – A technique of applying an electrical shock to the chest to convert an abnormal heartbeat to a normal rhythm.
  • Cardizem -  a calcium blocker (trade name Cardizem) used in treating hypertension or angina or heart failure
  • Carotene -  yellow or orange-red fat-soluble pigments in plants; an orange isomer of an unsaturated hydrocarbon found in many plants; is converted into vitamin A in the liver
  • Carotid artery  – A major artery (right and left) in the neck supplying blood to the brain.
  • Carvedilol -  beta blocker that can reduce the progression of heart failure in individuals whose disease is not advanced
  • Cerebral embolism  – A blood clot formed in one part of the body and then carried by the bloodstream to the brain, where it blocks an artery.
  • Cerebral hemorrhage  – Bleeding within the brain resulting from a ruptured blood vessel, aneurysm, or head injury.
  • Cerebral thrombosis  – Formation of a blood clot in an artery that supplies part of the brain.
  • Cerebrovascular accident –  Also called cerebral vascular accident, apoplexy, or stroke. Blood supply to some part of the brain is slowed or stopped, resulting in injury to brain tissue.
  • Cerebrovascular accident -  a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain
  • Cerebrovascular occlusion  – The blocking or closing of a blood vessel in the brain.
  • Cerebrovascular  – Pertaining to the blood vessels of the brain.
  • Chelation -  the process of forming a ring by forming one or more hydrogen bonds; (medicine) the process of removing a heavy metal from the bloodstream by means of a chelate as in treating lead or mercury poisoning
  • Chest pain -  pain in the chest
  • Cholesterol  – An oily substance that occurs naturally in the body, in animal fats and in dairy products, and that is transported in the blood. Limited amounts are essential for the normal development of cell membranes. Excess amounts can lead to coronary artery disease.
  • Cholesterol -  an animal sterol that is normally synthesized by the liver; the most abundant steroid in animal tissues
  • Chronic bronchitis -  a form of bronchitis characterized by excess production of sputum leading to a chronic cough and obstruction of air flow
  • Cineangiography  – The technique of using moving pictures to show how a special dye passes through blood vessels, allowing doctors to diagnose diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
  • Circulatory system  – Pertaining to circulation of blood through the heart and blood vessels.
  • Claudication  – A tiredness or pain in the arms and legs caused by an inadequate supply of oxygen to the muscles, usually due to narrowed arteries or peripheral arterial disease (PAD).
  • Clonidine -  an antihypertensive (trade name Catapres) that can be administered orally or via transdermal patches
  • Cocaine -  a narcotic (alkaloid) extracted from coca leaves; used as a surface anesthetic or taken for pleasure; can become powerfully addictive
  • Coenzyme Q -  any of several quinones found in living cells and that function as coenzymes that transfer electrons from one molecule to another in cell respiration
  • Coffee -  a beverage consisting of an infusion of ground coffee beans; any of several small trees and shrubs native to the tropical Old World yielding coffee beans; a medium brown to dark-brown color; a seed of the coffee tree; ground to make coffee
  • Collagen -  a fibrous scleroprotein in bone and cartilage and tendon and other connective tissue; yields gelatin on boiling
  • Collateral circulation  – Blood flow through small, nearby vessels in response to blockage of a main blood vessel.
  • Commissurotomy  -A procedure used to widen the opening of a heart valve that has been narrowed by scar tissue.
  • Computed tomography (CT or CAT scan)  – An x-ray technique that uses a computer to create cross-sectional images of the body.
  • Computed tomography -  a method of examining body organs by scanning them with X rays and using a computer to construct a series of cross-sectional scans along a single axis
  • Conduction system  – Special muscle fibers that conduct electrical impulses throughout the heart muscle.
  • Congenital heart defects  – Malformation of the heart or of its major blood vessels present at birth.
  • Congenital  – Refers to conditions existing at birth.
  • Congestive heart failure  – A condition in which the heart cannot pump all the blood returning to it, leading to a backup of blood in the vessels and an accumulation of fluid in the body’s tissues, including the lungs.
  • Conn's syndrome -  disturbances in saltwater balance and symptoms of weakness and muscular cramps and twitching and convulsions and sometimes paralysis; usually caused by a benign tumor of the cortex of the adrenal gland that leads to excess secretion of aldosterone
  • Connective tissue -  tissue of mesodermal origin consisting of e.g. collagen fibroblasts and fatty cells; supports organs and fills spaces between them and forms tendons and ligaments
  • Corgard -  a beta-adrenergic blocking agent (trade name Corgard) that is used to treat hypertension and angina
  • Coronary arteries  – Two arteries arising from the aorta that arch down over the top of the heart and divide into branches. They provide blood to the heart muscle.
  • Coronary artery anomaly (CAA)  – A congenital defect in one or more of the coronary arteries of the heart.
  • Coronary artery bypass (CAB)  – Surgical rerouting of blood around a diseased vessel that supplies blood to the heart. Done by grafting either a piece of vein from the leg or a piece of the artery from under the breastbone.
  • Coronary artery disease (CAD)  – A narrowing of the arteries that supply blood to the heart. The condition results from a buildup of plaque and greatly increases the risk of a heart attack.
  • Coronary heart disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) (also known as coronary artery disease or heart disease) is a disease in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up inside the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart muscle.
  • Coronary heart disease  – Disease of the heart caused by a buildup of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries that can lead to angina pectoris or heart attack.
  • Coronary occlusion  – An obstruction of one of the coronary arteries that hinders blood flow to the heart muscle.
  • Coronary thrombosis  – Formation of a clot in one of the arteries carrying blood to the heart muscle. Also called coronary occlusion.
  • Coronary thrombosis -  obstruction of blood flow in a coronary artery by a blood clot (thrombus)
  • Cough -  the act of exhaling air suddenly with a noise; sudden expulsion of air from the lungs that clears the air passages; a common symptom of upper respiratory infection or bronchitis or pneumonia or tuberculosis; verb exhale abruptly, as when one has a chest cold or congestion
  • Coumadin -  an anticoagulant (trade name Coumadin) use to prevent and treat a thrombus or embolus
  • Creatine -  an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates both in the free form and as phosphocreatine; supplies energy for muscle contraction
  • Cryoablation  – The removal of tissue using an instrument called a cold probe.
  • Cushing's syndrome -  a glandular disorder caused by excessive cortisol
  • Cyanosis  – Blueness of the skin caused by a lack of oxygen in the blood.
  • Cyanotic heart disease  – A birth defect of the heart that causes oxygen-poor (blue) blood to circulate to the body without first passing through the lungs.
  • Cyclooxygenase -  either of two related enzymes that control the production of prostaglandins and are blocked by aspirin
  • Cytomegalovirus -  any of a group of herpes viruses that enlarge epithelial cells and can cause birth defects; can affect humans with impaired immunological systems
  • Dacron -  a kind of polyester fabric
  • Death rate (age-adjusted)  – A death rate that has been standardized for age so different populations can be compared or the same population can be compared over time.
  • Deep vein thrombosis  – A blood clot in a deep vein in the calf (DVT).
  • Defibrillator  – A device that helps restore a normal heart rhythm by delivering an electric shock.
  • Dextrocardia -  abnormal condition where the heart is located toward the right side of the chest
  • Diabetes (diabetes mellitus)  – A disease in which the body doesn’t produce or properly use insulin. Insulin is needed to convert sugar and starch into the energy used in daily life.
  • Diabetes mellitus -  diabetes caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and characterized by polyuria
  • Diastolic blood pressure  – The lowest blood pressure measured in the arteries. It occurs when the heart muscle is relaxed between beats.
  • Diet -  the act of restricting your food intake (or your intake of particular foods); the usual food and drink consumed by an organism (person or animal); a prescribed selection of foods; a legislative assembly in certain countries (e.g., Japan); verb eat sparingly, for health reasons or to lose weight; follow a regimen or a diet, as for health reasons
  • Digitalis  – A medicine made from the leaves of the foxglove plant. Digitalis is used to treat congestive heart failure (CHF) and heart rhythm problems (arrhythmias).
  • Digitalis -  a powerful cardiac stimulant obtained from foxglove; any of several plants of the genus Digitalis
  • Digitoxin -  digitalis preparation used to treat congestive heart failure or cardiac arrhythmia
  • Diltiazem -  a calcium blocker (trade name Cardizem) used in treating hypertension or angina or heart failure
  • Dissecting aneurysm  – A condition in which the layers of an artery separate or are torn, causing blood to flow between the layers. Dissecting aneurysms usually happen in the aorta, the large vessel that carries blood from the heart to other parts of the body and can cause sudden death.
  • Diuretic  – A drug that lowers blood pressure by causing fluid loss. Diuretics promote urine production.
  • Dizziness -  a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall
  • Doppler ultrasound  – A technology that uses sound waves to assess blood flow within the heart and blood vessels and to identify leaking valves.
  • Down syndrome -  a congenital disorder caused by having an extra 21st chromosome; results in a flat face and short stature and mental retardation
  • Dysarthria  – A speech disorder resulting from muscular problems caused by damage to the brain or nervous system.
  • Dyspnea  – Shortness of breath.
  • ELISA -  an assay that relies on an enzymatic conversion reaction and is used to detect the presence of specific substances (such as enzymes or viruses or antibodies or bacteria)
  • EPHESUS -  the third ecumenical council in 431 which declared Mary as mother of God and condemned Pelagius; an ancient Greek city on the western shore of Asia Minor in what is now Turkey; site of the Temple of Artemis; was a major trading center and played an important role in early Christianity
  • Echocardiography  – A method of studying the heart’s structure and function by analyzing sound waves bounced off the heart and recorded by an electronic sensor placed on the chest. A computer processes the information to produce a one-, two- or three-dimensional moving picture that shows how the heart and heart valves are functioning.
  • Edema  – Swelling caused by fluid accumulation in body tissues.
  • Efficacy -  capacity or power to produce a desired effect
  • Ejection fraction  – A measurement of the rate at which blood is pumped out of a filled ventricle. The normal rate is 50% or more.
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)  – A test in which several electronic sensors are placed on the body to monitor electrical activity associated with the heartbeat.
  • Electrocardiogram An electrocardiogram, also called an ECG or EKG, is a simple, painless test that detects and records your heart's electrical activity. This test helps to diagnose a heart attack or arrhythmia.
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)  – A test that can detect and record the brain’s electrical activity. The test is done by pasting metal disks, called electrodes, to the scalp.
  • Electrophysiological study (EPS)  – A test that uses cardiac catheterization to study patients who have arrhythmias (abnormal heartbeats). An electrical current stimulates the heart in an effort to provoke an arrhythmia, determine its origin, and test the effectiveness of medicines to treat the arrhythmias.
  • Embolus  – Also called embolism; a blood clot that forms in a blood vessel in one part of the body and travels to another part.
  • Emotional state -  the state of a person's emotions (especially with regard to pleasure or dejection)
  • Emphysema -  an abnormal condition of the lungs marked by decreased respiratory function; associated with smoking or chronic bronchitis or old age
  • Enalapril -  an ACE inhibitor (trade name Vasotec) that blocks the formation of angiotensin in the kidney and so results in vasodilation; administered after heart attacks
  • Endarterectomy  – Surgical removal of plaque deposits or blood clots in an artery.
  • Endocarditis  – A bacterial infection of the heart’s inner lining (endothelium).
  • Endocardium  – The smooth membrane covering the inside of the heart. The innermost lining of the heart.
  • Endothelium  – The smooth inner lining of many body structures, including the heart (endocardium) and blood vessels.
  • Enlarged heart  – A state in which the heart is larger than normal because of heredity, long-term heavy exercise, or diseases and disorders such as obesity, high blood pressure, and coronary artery disease.
  • Enzyme  – A complex chemical capable of speeding up specific biochemical processes in the body.
  • Ephedra sinica -  Chinese ephedra yielding ephedrine
  • Epicardium  – The thin membrane covering the outside surface of the heart muscle.
  • Epilepsy -  a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of consciousness and convulsions
  • Epinephrine -  a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin); stimulates autonomic nerve action
  • Estrogen (or hormone) replacement therapy (ERT or HRT)  – Hormones that some women may take to offset the effects of menopause.
  • Estrogen  – A female hormone produced by the ovaries that may protect premenopausal women against heart disease. Estrogen production stops after menopause.
  • Estrogen -  a general term for female steroid sex hormones that are secreted by the ovary and responsible for typical female sexual characteristics
  • Exercise stress test  – A common test to help doctors assess blood flow through coronary arteries in response to exercise, usually walking, at varied speeds and for various lengths of time on a treadmill. A stress test may include use of electrocardiography, echocardiography, and injected radioactive substances. Also called exercise test, stress test, nuclear stress test, or treadmill test.
  • Eyes -  opinion or judgment
  • Factor VIII -  a coagulation factor (trade name Hemofil) whose absence is associated with hemophilia A
  • Factor V -  a coagulation factor
  • Familial hypercholesterolemia  – A genetic predisposition to dangerously high cholesterol levels.
  • Fatty acids (fats)  – Substances that occur in several forms in foods; different fatty acids have different effects on lipid profiles.
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome -  a medical condition in which body deformation or facial development or mental ability of a fetus is impaired because the mother drank alcohol while pregnant
  • Fever -  intense nervous anticipation; a rise in the temperature of the body; frequently a symptom of infection
  • Fibrillation  – Rapid, uncoordinated contractions of individual heart muscle fibers. The heart chamber involved can’t contract all at once and pumps blood ineffectively, if at all.
  • Fibrinolysis -  a normal ongoing process that dissolves fibrin and results in the removal of small blood clots
  • Fibrosis -  development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ
  • Fibrous tissue -  tissue consisting of or containing fibers in both animals and plants
  • First-degree heart block  – Occurs when an electrical impulse from the heart’s upper chambers (the atria) is slowed as it moves through the atria and atrioventricular (AV) node.
  • Flutter  – The rapid, ineffective contractions of any heart chamber. A flutter is considered to be more coordinated than fibrillation.
  • Fluvastatin -  least expensive statin drug (trade name Lescol); usually taken orally at bedtime
  • Folate -  a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction
  • Folic acid -  a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction
  • Food -  any substance that can be metabolized by an organism to give energy and build tissue; anything that provides mental stimulus for thinking; any solid substance (as opposed to liquid) that is used as a source of nourishment
  • Free radical -  an atom or group of atoms with at least one unpaired electron; in the body it is usually an oxygen molecule than has lost an electron and will stabilize itself by stealing an electron from a nearby molecule
  • Furosemide -  commonly used diuretic (trade name Lasix) used to treat hypertension and edema
  • Fusiform aneurysm  – A tube-shaped aneurysm that causes the artery to bulge outward. Involves the entire circumference (outside wall) of the artery.
  • GLOSSARY -  an alphabetical list of technical terms in some specialized field of knowledge; usually published as an appendix to a text on that field
  • GUSTO -  vigorous and enthusiastic enjoyment
  • Gated blood pool scan  – An x-ray analysis of how blood pools in the heart during rest and exercise. The test uses a radioactive substance to tag red blood cells to allow doctors to estimate the heart’s overall ability to pump and its ability to compensate for one or more blocked arteries. Also called MUGA (multiple gated acquisition scan) or nuclear ventriculography.
  • Gemfibrozil -  medication (trade name Lopid) used to lower the levels of triglyceride in the blood
  • Genetic testing  – Blood tests that study a person’s genes to find out if he or she is at risk for certain diseases that are passed down through family members.
  • Glyceryl trinitrate -  a heavy yellow poisonous oily explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol; used in making explosives and medically as a vasodilator (trade names Nitrospan and Nitrostat)
  • Grapefruit -  large yellow fruit with somewhat acid juicy pulp; usual serving consists of a half; citrus tree bearing large round edible fruit having a thick yellow rind and juicy somewhat acid pulp
  • Guidewire   *  A small, bendable wire that is threaded through an artery; it helps doctors position a catheter so they can perform angioplasty or stent procedures.
  • Heart assist device  – A mechanical device that is surgically implanted to ease the workload of the heart.
  • Heart attack A heart attack (also known as myocardial infarction) happens when the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a section of heart muscle suddenly becomes blocked and the heart muscle can't get enough oxygen. If blood flow isn't restored quickly, the section of heart muscle begins to die.
  • Heart attack  – Death of, or damage to, part of the heart muscle caused by a lack of oxygen-rich blood flowing to the heart.
  • Heart block  – General term for conditions in which the electrical impulse that activates the heart muscle cells is delayed or interrupted somewhere along its path.
  • Heart block -  recurrent sudden attacks of unconsciousness caused by impaired conduction of the impulse that regulates the heartbeat
  • Heart failure  – See congestive heart failure.
  • Heart failure Heart failure (also known as congestive heart failure) is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. In some cases, the heart can't fill with enough blood. In other cases, the heart can't pump blood to the rest of the body with enough force. Some people have both problems.
  • Heart murmur  -An abnormal heart sound caused by turbulent blood flow. The sound may indicate that blood is flowing through a damaged or overworked heart valve, that there may be a hole in one of the heart’s walls, or that there is a narrowing in one of the heart’s vessels. Some heart murmurs are a harmless type called innocent heart murmurs.
  • Heart muscle -  the muscle tissue of the heart; adapted to continued rhythmic contraction
  • Heart rate -  the rate at which the heart beats; usually measured to obtain a quick evaluation of a person's health
  • Heart-lung machine  – An apparatus that oxygenates and pumps blood to the body during open heart surgery; see cardiopulmonary bypass.
  • Heimlich Maneuver -  an emergency procedure to help someone who is choking because food is lodged in the trachea
  • Hematocrit  – A measure of the percentage of red blood cells in a given amount (or volume) of whole blood.
  • Hemochromatosis  – A disease in which too much iron builds up in your body (iron overload). Too much iron in the heart can cause irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) and heart failure. Too much iron in the pancreas can lead to diabetes.
  • Heredity  – The genetic transmission of a particular quality or trait from parent to child.
  • Hiatus hernia -  hernia resulting from the protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm
  • High blood pressure High blood pressure (also known as hypertension) is a common disease in which blood flows through blood vessels (arteries) at higher-than-normal pressures.
  • High blood pressure  – A chronic increase in blood pressure above its normal range.
  • High density lipoprotein (HDL)  – A component of cholesterol, HDL helps protect against heart disease by promoting cholesterol breakdown and removal from the blood; hence, its nickname “good cholesterol.”
  • Hippocrates -  medical practitioner who is regarded as the father of medicine; author of the Hippocratic oath (circa 460-377 BC)
  • Holter monitor  – A portable device for recording heartbeats over a period of 24 hours or more.
  • Homocysteine  – An amino acid (one of the building blocks that makes up a protein) normally found in small amounts in the blood. Too much homocysteine in the blood may promote the buildup of fatty plaque in the arteries. For some people, high homocysteine levels are genetic. For others, it is because they do not get enough of certain B vitamins in their diet. (Common misspelling: homocystine)
  • Hormones  – Chemicals released into the bloodstream that control different functions in the body, including metabolism, growth, sexual development, and responses to stress or illness.
  • Horse chestnut -  tree having palmate leaves and large clusters of white to red flowers followed by brown shiny inedible seeds; the inedible nutlike seed of the horse chestnut
  • Hydralazine -  an antihypertensive drug (trade name Apresoline) that dilates blood vessels; used (often with a diuretic) to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure
  • Hydrochlorothiazide -  a diuretic drug (trade name Esidrix and HydroDIURIL) used in the treatment of hypertension
  • Hyperaldosteronism -  a condition caused by overproduction of aldosterone
  • Hypertension  – High blood pressure.
  • Hyperthyroidism -  an overactive thyroid gland; pathologically excessive production of thyroid hormones or the condition resulting from excessive production of thyroid hormones
  • Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM)  – An overgrown heart muscle that creates a bulge into the ventricle and impedes blood flow.
  • Hypertrophy  – Enlargement of tissues or organs because of increased workload.
  • Hyperventilation  – Rapid breathing usually caused by anxiety. People feel like they can’t get enough air, so they breathe heavily and rapidly, which can lead to numb or tingly arms and legs, or fainting.
  • Hypoglycemia  – Low levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood.
  • Hypokinesia  – Decreased muscle movement. In relation to the heart, hypokinesia refers to decreased heart wall motion during each heartbeat. It is associated with cardiomyopathy, heart failure, or heart attack. Also called hypokinesis.
  • Hypotension  – Abnormally low blood pressure.
  • Hypoxia  – Less than normal content of oxygen in the organs and tissues of the body.
  • INDEX -  the finger next to the thumb; an alphabetical listing of names and topics along with page numbers where they are discussed; a number or ratio (a value on a scale of measurement) derived from a series of observed facts; can reveal relative changes as a function of time; a numerical scale used to compare variables with one another or with some reference number; a mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself; verb adjust through indexation; provide with an index; list in an index
  • ISIS -  Egyptian goddess of fertility; daughter of Geb; sister and wife of Osiris
  • Iatrogenic -  induced by a physician's words or therapy (used especially of a complication resulting from treatment)
  • Idiopathic  – No known cause.
  • Immobilization -  the act of limiting movement or making incapable of movement; fixation (as by a plaster cast) of a body part in order to promote proper healing
  • Immunosuppressants  – Any medicine that suppresses the body’s immune system. These medicines are used to minimize the chances that the body will reject a newly transplanted organ, such as a heart.
  • Impedance plethysmography  – A noninvasive diagnostic test used to evaluate blood flow through the leg.
  • Impotence -  an inability (usually of the male animal) to copulate; the quality of lacking strength or power; being weak and feeble
  • Incompetent valve  – Also called insufficiency; a valve that is not working properly, causing it to leak blood back in the wrong direction.
  • Inderal -  the first beta blocker (trade name Inderal) used in treating hypertension and angina pectoris and essential tremor
  • Indigestion -  a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea
  • Infarct  – The area of heart tissue permanently damaged by an inadequate supply of oxygen.
  • Infective endocarditis  – An infection of the heart valves and the innermost lining of the heart (the endocardium), caused by bacteria in the bloodstream.
  • Inferior vena cava  – The large vein returning blood from the legs and abdomen to the heart.
  • Injury -  an act that injures someone; an accident that results in physical damage or hurt; any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.; a casualty to military personnel resulting from combat
  • Inotropes  – Positive inotropes: Any medicine that increases the strength of the heart’s contraction.  Negative inotropes: Any medicine that decreases the strength of the heart’s contraction and the blood pressure in the vessels.
  • Insulin -  hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; regulates storage of glycogen in the liver and accelerates oxidation of sugar in cells
  • Internal mammary artery  – A durable artery in the chest wall often used as a bypass graft in coronary artery bypass surgery.
  • Intervention -  (law) a proceeding that permits a person to enter into a lawsuit already in progress; admission of person not an original party to the suit so that person can protect some right or interest that is allegedly affected by the proceedings; the act of intervening (as to mediate a dispute); a policy of intervening in the affairs of other countries
  • Intravascular echocardiography  – A combination of echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. A miniature echo device on the tip of a catheter is used to generate images inside the heart and blood vessels.
  • Introducer sheath  – A catheter-like tube that is placed inside a patient’s vessel during an interventional procedure to help the doctor with insertion and proper placement of the actual catheter.
  • Iron -  extremely robust;  home appliance consisting of a flat metal base that is heated and used to smooth cloth; a golf club that has a relatively narrow metal head; implement used to brand live stock; a heavy ductile magnetic metallic element; is silver-white in pure form but readily rusts; used in construction and tools and armament; plays a role in the transport of oxygen by the blood; verb press and smooth with a heated iron
  • Ischemia  – Decreased blood flow to an organ, usually due to constriction or obstruction of an artery.
  • Ischemic heart disease  – Also called coronary artery disease and coronary heart disease, this term is applied to heart problems caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries, thereby causing a decreased blood supply to the heart.
  • Ischemic stroke  – A type of stroke that is caused by blockage in a blood vessel.
  • Ischemic stroke -  the most common kind of stroke; caused by an interruption in the flow of blood to the brain (as from a clot blocking a blood vessel)
  • Isometric exercise -  muscle-building exercises (or a system of musclebuilding exercises) involving muscular contractions against resistance without movement (the muscles contracts but the length of the muscle does not change)
  • Isoptin -  a drug (trade names Calan and Isoptin) used as an oral or parenteral calcium blocker in cases of hypertension or congestive heart failure or angina or migraine
  • Isordil -  drug (trade name Isordil) used to treat angina pectoris and congestive heart failure
  • Jogging -  running at a jog trot as a form of cardiopulmonary exercise
  • Jugular veins  – The veins that carry blood back from the head to the heart.
  • Kidney disease -  a disease affecting the kidneys
  • Lanoxin -  digitalis preparation (trade name Lanoxin) used to treat congestive heart failure or cardiac arrhythmia; helps the heart beat more forcefully
  • Lasix -  commonly used diuretic (trade name Lasix) used to treat hypertension and edema
  • Left ventricular assist device (LVAD)  – A mechanical device that can be placed outside the body or implanted inside the body. An LVAD does not replace the heart—it “assists” or “helps” it pump oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body.
  • Lesion  – An injury or wound. An atherosclerotic lesion is an injury to an artery due to hardening of the arteries.
  • Levitra -  virility drug (trade name Levitra) used to treat erectile dysfunction in men
  • Lifestyle -  a manner of living that reflects the person's values and attitudes
  • Lipid  – A fatty substance that is insoluble (cannot be dissolved) in the blood.
  • Lipoprotein  – A lipid surrounded by a protein; the protein makes the lipid soluble (can be dissolved) in the blood.
  • Lisinopril -  an ACE inhibiting drug (trade names Prinival or Zestril) administered as an antihypertensive and after heart attacks
  • Liver disease -  a disease affecting the liver
  • Lopressor -  beta blocker (trade name Lopressor) used in treating hypertension and angina and arrhythmia and acute myocardial infarction; has adverse side effects (depression and exacerbation of congestive heart failure etc.)
  • Lovastatin -  an oral drug (trade name Mevacor) to reduce blood cholesterol levels; used when dietary changes have proved inadequate
  • Low density lipoprotein (LDL)  – The body’s primary cholesterol-carrying molecule. High blood levels of LDL increase a person’s risk of heart disease by promoting cholesterol attachment and accumulation in blood vessels; hence, the popular nickname “bad cholesterol.”
  • Lumen – The hollow area within a tube, such as a blood vessel.
  • Lupus -  a constellation in the southern hemisphere near Centaurus; any of several forms of ulcerative skin disease
  • Magnesium sulfate -  a salt of magnesium
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  – A technique that produces images of the heart and other body structures by measuring the response of certain elements (such as hydrogen) in the body to a magnetic field. MRI can produce detailed pictures of the heart and its various structures without the need to inject a dye.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging -  the use of nuclear magnetic resonance of protons to produce proton density images
  • Malignant tumor -  a tumor that is malignant and tends to spread to other parts of the body
  • Maze surgery  – A type of heart surgery that is used to treat chronic atrial fibrillation by creating a surgical “maze” of new electrical pathways to let electrical impulses travel easily through the heart. Also called the Maze procedure.
  • Menopause -  the time in a woman's life in which the menstrual cycle ends
  • Methyldopa -  antihypertensive drug (trade name Aldomet) used in the treatment of high blood pressure
  • Metoprolol -  beta blocker (trade name Lopressor) used in treating hypertension and angina and arrhythmia and acute myocardial infarction; has adverse side effects (depression and exacerbation of congestive heart failure etc.)
  • Mitral stenosis  – A narrowing of the mitral valve, which controls blood flow from the heart’s upper left chamber to its lower left chamber. May result from an inherited (congenital) problem or from rheumatic fever.
  • Mitral valve prolapse  – A condition that occurs when the leaflets of the mitral valve between the left atrium and left ventricle  bulge into the atrium and permit backflow of blood. The condition can be associated with progressive mitral regurgitation.
  • Mitral valve regurgitation  – Failure of the mitral valve to close properly, causing blood to flow back into the heart’s upper left chamber (the left atrium) instead of moving forward into the lower left chamber (the left ventricle).
  • Mitral valve  – The structure that controls blood flow between the heart’s left atrium (upper chamber) and left ventricle (lower chamber).
  • Monounsaturated fats  – A type of fat found in many foods but mainly in avocados and in canola, olive, and peanut oils. Monounsaturated fat tends to lower LDL cholesterol levels, and some studies suggest that it may do so without also lowering HDL cholesterol levels.
  • Morbidity -  an abnormally gloomy or unhealthy state of mind; the relative incidence of a particular disease; the quality of being unhealthful and generally bad for you
  • Morphine -  an alkaloid narcotic drug extracted from opium; a powerful, habit-forming narcotic used to relieve pain
  • Mortality  – The total number of deaths from a given disease in a population during an interval of time, usually a year.
  • Mortality -  the quality or state of being mortal; the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year
  • Murmur  – Noises superimposed on normal heart sounds. They are caused by congenital defects or damaged heart valves that do not close properly and allow blood to leak back into the chamber from which it has come.
  • Myocardial infarction  – A heart attack. The damage or death of an area of the heart muscle (myocardium) resulting from a blocked blood supply to the area. The affected tissue dies, injuring the heart. Symptoms include prolonged, intensive chest pain and a decrease in blood pressure that often causes shock.
  • Myocardial ischemia  – Occurs when a part of the heart muscle does not receive enough oxygen.
  • Myocarditis  – A rare condition in which the heart muscle becomes inflamed as a result of infection, toxic drug poisoning, or diseases like rheumatic fever, diphtheria, or tuberculosis.
  • Myocardium  – The muscular wall of the heart. It contracts to pump blood out of the heart and then relaxes as the heart refills with returning blood.
  • Myosin -  the commonest protein in muscle; a globulin that combines with actin to form actomyosin
  • Myotonic muscular dystrophy -  a severe form of muscular dystrophy marked by generalized weakness and muscular wasting that affects the face and feet and hands and neck; difficult speech and difficulty with the hands that spreads to the arms and shoulders and legs and hips; the onset can be any time from birth to middle age and the progression is slow; inheritance is autosomal dominant
  • Myxedema -  hypothyroidism marked by dry skin and swellings around lips and nose as well as mental deterioration
  • Myxomatous degeneration  – A connective tissue disorder that causes the heart valve tissue to weaken and lose elasticity.
  • NREM -  a recurring sleep state during which rapid eye movements do not occur and dreaming does not occur; accounts for about 75% of normal sleep time
  • NSTEMI  – Non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. The milder form of the 2 types of heart attack, an NSTEMI does not produce an ST-segment elevation on an electrocardiogram. See also STEMI.
  • Nadolol -  a beta-adrenergic blocking agent (trade name Corgard) that is used to treat hypertension and angina
  • Nausea -  disgust so strong it makes you feel sick; the state that precedes vomiting
  • Necrosis  – Refers to the death of tissue within a certain area.
  • Nervous system -  the sensory and control apparatus consisting of a network of nerve cells
  • Neurologic -  of or relating to or used in or practicing neurology
  • Niacin -  a B vitamin essential for the normal function of the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract
  • Nicotinic acid -  a B vitamin essential for the normal function of the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract
  • Nitric oxide -  a poisonous red-brown gas (NO)
  • Nitroglycerin  – A medicine that helps relax and dilate arteries; often used to treat cardiac chest pain (angina).
  • Noninvasive procedures  – Any diagnostic or treatment procedure in which no instrument enters the body.
  • Nonrapid eye movement -  a recurring sleep state during which rapid eye movements do not occur and dreaming does not occur; accounts for about 75% of normal sleep time
  • Noradrenaline -  a catecholamine precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and also released at synapses
  • Norepinephrine -  a catecholamine precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and also released at synapses
  • Norvasc -  a vasodilator (trade name Norvasc) taken in tablet form; prescribed for hypertension and angina pectoris
  • Note -  a characteristic emotional quality; a brief written record; a short personal letter; a comment or instruction (usually added); a notation representing the pitch and duration of a musical sound; a tone of voice that shows what the speaker is feeling; a promise to pay a specified amount on demand or at a certain time; a piece of paper money (especially one issued by a central bank); high status importance owing to marked superiority; verb make mention of; make a written note of; observe with care or pay close attention to; notice or perceive
  • Numbness -  partial or total lack of sensation in a part of the body; a symptom of nerve damage or dysfunction; the trait of lacking enthusiasm for or interest in things generally
  • Obesity  – The condition of being significantly overweight. It usually applies when a person is 30% or more over ideal body weight. Obesity puts a strain on the heart and can increase the risk of developing high blood pressure and diabetes.
  • Occluded artery  – An artery in which the blood flow has been impaired by a blockage.
  • Open heart surgery  – An operation in which the chest and heart are opened surgically while the bloodstream is diverted through a heart-lung (cardiopulmonary bypass) machine.
  • Orthostatic hypotension -  low blood pressure occurring in some people when they stand up
  • Pacemaker  – A surgically implanted electronic device that helps regulate the heartbeat.
  • Paget's disease -  a disease of bone occurring in the middle aged and elderly; excessive bone destruction sometimes leading to bone pain and fractures and skeletal deformities
  • Palpitation  – An uncomfortable feeling within the chest caused by an irregular heartbeat.
  • Panax ginseng -  Chinese herb with palmately compound leaves and small greenish flowers and forked aromatic roots believed to have medicinal powers
  • Pancreas  – The organ behind the stomach that helps control blood sugar levels.
  • Pancreatitis  – Swelling (inflammation) of the pancreas.
  • Paralysis  -Loss of the ability to move muscles and feel in part of the body or the whole body. Paralysis may be temporary or permanent.
  • Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT)  – An occasional rapid heart rate (150-250 beats per minute) that is caused by events triggered in areas above the heart’s lower chambers (the ventricles). See also supraventricular tachycardia (SVT).
  • Patent ductus arteriosus  – A congenital defect in which the opening between the aorta and the pulmonary artery does not close after birth.
  • Patent foramen ovale  – An opening between the left and right atria (the upper chambers) of the heart. Everyone has a PFO before birth, but in 1 out of every 3 or 4 people, the opening does not close naturally, as it should, after birth.
  • Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) – Any of the noninvasive procedures usually performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Angioplasty is an example of a percutaneous coronary intervention. Also called a transcatheter intervention.
  • Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)  – See angioplasty.
  • Pericardiocentesis  – A diagnostic procedure that uses a needle to withdraw fluid from the sac or membrane surrounding the heart (pericardium).
  • Pericarditis  – Inflammation of the outer membrane surrounding the heart. When pericarditis occurs, the amount of fluid between the two layers of the pericardium increases. This increased fluid presses on the heart and restricts its pumping action.
  • Pericardium  – The outer fibrous sac that surrounds the heart.
  • Pindolol -  an oral beta blocker (trade name Visken) used in treating hypertension
  • Plaque  – A deposit of fatty (and other) substances in the inner lining of the artery wall characteristic of atherosclerosis.
  • Platelets  – One of the three types of cells found in blood; they aid in the clotting of blood.
  • Polyunsaturated fat  – The major fat in most vegetable oils, including corn, safflower, sunflower, and soybean oils. These oils are liquid at room temperature. Polyunsaturated fat actually tends to lower LDL cholesterol levels but may reduce HDL cholesterol levels as well.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)  – A test that uses information about the energy of certain elements in your body to show whether parts of the heart muscle are alive and working. A PET scan can also show if your heart is getting enough blood to keep the muscle healthy.
  • Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS)  – A disorder that causes an increased heart rate when a person stands upright.
  • Prague -  the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic in the western part of the country; a cultural and commercial center since the 14th century
  • Pravastatin -  an oral drug (trade name Pravachol) administered to reduce blood cholesterol levels; recommended after nonfatal heart attacks
  • Prazosin -  antihypertensive drug (trade name Minipress)
  • Prednisone -  a dehydrogenated analogue of cortisol (trade names Orasone or Deltasone or Liquid Pred or Meticorten); used as an anti-inflammatory drug in the treatment of arthritis and as an immunosuppressant
  • Premature ventricular contraction (PVC)  – An early or extra heartbeat that happens when the heart’s lower chambers (the ventricles) contract too soon, out of sequence with the normal heartbeat.
  • Prevalence  – The total number of cases of a given disease that exist in a population at a specific time.
  • Procardia -  calcium blocker (trade name Procardia); appears to increase the risk of recurrent heart attacks
  • Psychotherapy -  the treatment of mental or emotional problems by psychological means; the branch of psychiatry concerned with psychological methods
  • Pulmonary embolism  – A condition in which a blood clot that has formed elsewhere in the body travels to the lungs.
  • Pulmonary valve  – The heart valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery that controls blood flow from the heart into the lungs.
  • Pulmonary vein  – The blood vessel that carries newly oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the left atrium of the heart.
  • Pulmonary  – Refers to the lungs and respiratory system.
  • Pulmonary -  relating to or affecting the lungs
  • Pulse -  the rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries with each beat of the heart; edible seeds of various pod-bearing plants (peas or beans or lentils etc.); the rate at which the heart beats; usually measured to obtain a quick evaluation of a person's health; (electronics) a sharp transient wave in the normal electrical state (or a series of such transients); verb produce or modulate (as electromagnetic waves) in the form of short bursts or pulses or cause an apparatus to produce pulses; drive by or as if by pulsation; expand and contract rhythmically; beat rhythmically
  • Purkinje -  Bohemian physiologist remembered for his discovery of Purkinje cells and the Purkinje network (1787-1869)
  • RAVE -  an extravagantly enthusiastic review; a dance party that lasts all night and electronically synthesized music is played; verb praise enthusiastically; participate in an all-night techno dance party; talk in a noisy, excited, or declamatory manner
  • REVERSAL -  a change from one state to the opposite state; a judgment by a higher court that the judgment of a lower court was incorrect and should be set aside; a decision to reverse an earlier decision; turning in an opposite direction or position; a major change in attitude or principle or point of view; the act of reversing the order or place of; turning in the opposite direction; an unfortunate happening that hinders or impedes; something that is thwarting or frustrating
  • Race -  a contest of speed; any competition; people who are believed to belong to the same genetic stock; a canal for a current of water; (biology) a taxonomic group that is a division of a species; usually arises as a consequence of geographical isolation within a species; the flow of air that is driven backwards by an aircraft propeller; verb compete in a race; cause to move fast or to rush or race; to work as fast as possible towards a goal, sometimes in competition with others; step on it
  • Radial artery access  – Using the radial artery in the wrist as the entry point for the catheter in an angioplasty or stent procedure. Also called transradial access, the transradial approach, or transradial angioplasty.
  • Radionuclide imaging  – A test in which a harmless radioactive substance is injected into the bloodstream to show information about blood flow through the arteries. Damaged or dead heart muscle can often be identified, as can serious narrowing in an artery.
  • Radionuclide studies  – Any of the diagnostic tests in which a small amount of radioactive material is injected into the bloodstream. The material makes it possible for a special camera to take pictures of the heart.
  • Radionuclide ventriculography  – A diagnostic test used to determine the size and shape of the heart’s pumping chambers (the ventricles).
  • Red wine -  wine having a red color derived from skins of dark-colored grapes
  • Regurgitation  – Backward flow of blood through a defective heart valve.
  • Renal  – Pertains to the kidneys.
  • Responsiveness -  the quality of being responsive; reacting quickly; as a quality of people, it involves responding with emotion to people and events; responsive to stimulation
  • Restenosis – The re-closing or re-narrowing of an artery after an interventional procedure such as angioplasty or stent placement.
  • Restlessness -  inability to rest or relax or be still; the quality of being ceaselessly moving or active; a lack of patience; irritation with anything that causes delay; a feeling of agitation expressed in continual motion
  • Revascularization  – A procedure to restore blood flow to the tissues. Coronary artery bypass surgery is an example of a revascularization procedure.
  • Rheumatic fever  – A disease, usually occurring in childhood, that may follow a streptococcal infection. Symptoms may include fever, sore or swollen joints, skin rash, involuntary muscle twitching, and development of nodules under the skin. If the infection involves the heart, scars may form on heart valves, and the heart’s outer lining may be damaged.
  • Rheumatic fever -  a severe disease chiefly of children and characterized by painful inflammation of the joints and frequently damage to the heart valves
  • Rheumatic heart disease  – A disease of the heart (mainly affecting the heart valves) caused by rheumatic fever.
  • Right ventricular assist device (RVAD)  – A mechanical device that can be placed outside the body or implanted inside the body. An RVAD does not replace the heart—it “assists” or “helps” it pump oxygen-poor blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.
  • Risk factor  – An element or condition involving a certain hazard or danger. When referring to heart and blood vessels, a risk factor is associated with an increased chance of developing cardiovascular disease, including stroke.
  • Rubella  – Commonly known as German measles.
  • SA node -  a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat
  • STEMI  – ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. The more severe form of the 2 types of heart attack. See also NSTEMI. A STEMI produces a characteristic elevation in the ST segment on an electrocardiogram.
  • Saccular aneurysm  – A round aneurysm that bulges out from an artery; involves only part of the circumference (outside wall) of the artery.
  • Saphenous vein -  either of two chief superficial veins of the leg that drain blood from the foot
  • Sarcoidosis  – An inflammatory disease that starts as tiny, grain-like lumps called granulomas, which most often appear in your lungs or lymph nodes. The granulomas can clump together and form larger lumps that attack other organs. Sarcoidosis often affects your skin, eyes, or liver, but it can lead to heart problems, such as irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) or restrictive cardiomyopathy.
  • Sarcoidosis -  a chronic disease of unknown cause marked by the formation of nodules in the lungs and liver and lymph glands and salivary glands
  • Saturated fat  – Type of fat found in foods of animal origin and a few of vegetable origin; they are usually solid at room temperature. Abundant in meat and dairy products, saturated fat tends to increase LDL cholesterol levels, and it may raise the risk of certain types of cancer.
  • Second-degree heart block  – Impulses traveling through the heart’s upper chambers (the atria) are delayed in the area between the upper and lower chambers (the AV node) and fail to make the ventricles beat at the right moment.
  • Sectral -  an oral beta blocker (trade name Sectral) used in treating hypertension
  • Seizure -  the taking possession of something by legal process; a sudden occurrence (or recurrence) of a disease; the act of forcibly dispossessing an owner of property; the act of taking of a person by force
  • Septal defect  – A hole in the wall of the heart separating the atria or in the wall of the heart separating the ventricles.
  • Septum  – The muscular wall dividing a chamber on the left side of the heart from the chamber on the right.
  • Sexual activity -  activities associated with sexual intercourse
  • Sheath  – A catheter-like tube that is placed inside a patient’s vessel during an interventional procedure to help the doctor with insertion and proper placement of the actual catheter. Also called an introducer sheath.
  • Shock  – A condition in which body function is impaired because the volume of fluid circulating through the body is insufficient to maintain normal metabolism. This may be caused by blood loss or by a disturbance in the function of the circulatory system.
  • Shortness of breath -  a dyspneic condition
  • Shunt  – A connector that allows blood to flow between two locations.
  • Sick sinus syndrome  – The failure of the sinus node to regulate the heart’s rhythm.
  • Sildenafil -  virility drug (trade name Viagra) used to treat erectile dysfunction in men
  • Silent ischemia  – Episodes of cardiac ischemia that are not accompanied by chest pain.
  • Simvastatin -  an oral lipid-lowering medicine (trade name Zocor) administered to reduce blood cholesterol levels; recommended after heart attacks
  • Sinoatrial node -  a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat
  • Sinus (SA) node  – The “natural” pacemaker of the heart. The node is a group of specialized cells in the top of the right atrium which produces the electrical impulses that travel down to eventually reach the ventricular muscle, causing the heart to contract.
  • Skeleton -  the internal supporting structure that gives an artifact its shape; a scandal that is kept secret; something reduced to its minimal form; the hard structure (bones and cartilages) that provides a frame for the body of an animal
  • Sodium bicarbonate -  a white soluble compound (NaHCO3) used in effervescent drinks and in baking powders and as an antacid
  • Sodium  – A mineral essential to life found in nearly all plant and animal tissue. Table salt (sodium chloride) is nearly half sodium.
  • Sphygmomanometer  – An instrument used to measure blood pressure.
  • Spironolactone -  a synthetic corticosteroid (trade name Aldactone) used to treat hypertension
  • Stem cells  – Special cells in the body that are able to transform into other cells. It is possible for stem cells to transform into heart cells, nerve cells, or other cells of the body, possibly helping to improve the function of failing organs, including the heart.
  • Stenosis  – The narrowing or constriction of an opening, such as a blood vessel or heart valve.
  • Stent  – A device made of expandable, metal mesh that is placed (by using a balloon catheter) at the site of a narrowing artery. The stent is then expanded and left in place to keep the artery open.
  • Sternum  - noun the flat bone that articulates with the clavicles and the first seven pairs of ribs
  • Stethoscope  – An instrument for listening to sounds within the body.
  • Stokes-Adams disease  – Also called third-degree heart block; a condition that happens when the impulses that pace your heartbeat do not reach the lower chambers of your heart (the ventricles). To make up for this, the ventricles use their own “backup” pacemaker with its slower rate. This rhythm can cause severe dizziness or fainting and can lead to heart failure or death.
  • Streptococcal infection (“strep” infection)  – An infection, usually in the throat, resulting from the presence of streptococcus bacteria.
  • Streptokinase  - noun an enzyme produced by some strains of streptococcus that can liquefy blood clots by converting plasminogen to plasmin; used medicinally in some cases of myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism
  • Streptokinase -  an enzyme produced by some strains of streptococcus that can liquefy blood clots by converting plasminogen to plasmin; used medicinally in some cases of myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism
  • Stress  - noun the relative prominence of a syllable or musical note (especially with regard to stress or pitch)  (physics) force that produces strain on a physical body  difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension  special emphasis attached to something (psychology) a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense  verbput stress on; utter with an accent  to stress, single out as important test the limits of
  • Stroke A stroke occurs if the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a portion of the brain is blocked. Without oxygen, brain cells start to die after a few minutes. Sudden bleeding in the brain also can cause a stroke if it damages brain cells.
  • Stroke  - noun a light touch with the hands  a single complete movement  (sports) the act of swinging or striking at a ball with a club or racket or bat or cue or hand  any one of the repeated movements of the limbs and body used for locomotion in swimming or rowing  a mark made by a writing implement (as in cursive writing)  a light touch  the oarsman nearest the stern of the shell who sets the pace for the rest of the crew  a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain  a punctuation mark (/) used to separate related items of information  the maximum movement available to a pivoted or reciprocating piece by a cam  verb treat gingerly or carefully  strike a ball with a smooth blow  row at a particular rate  touch lightly and with affection, with brushing motions
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage  – Bleeding from a blood vessel on the surface of the brain into the space between the brain and the skull.
  • Subclavian arteries  – Two major arteries (right and left) that receive blood from the aortic arch and supply it to the arms.
  • Sudden cardiac arrest
  • Sudden cardiac arrest Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) (also known as cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death) is a condition in which the heart suddenly and unexpectedly stops beating. If this happens, blood stops flowing to the brain and other vital organs. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) should be started immediately if SCA is witnessed. The heart rhythm can be restored by an automated external defibrillator (AED).
  • Sudden death  – Death that occurs unexpectedly and instantaneously or shortly after the onset of symptoms. The most common underlying reason for patients dying suddenly is cardiovascular disease, in particular coronary heart disease.
  • Superior vena cava  – The large vein that returns blood from the head and arms to the heart.
  • Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)  – A regular rapid heart rate (150-250 beats per minute) that is caused by events triggered in areas above the heart’s lower chambers (the ventricles); see also paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT).
  • Sweating -  being wet with perspiration;  the process of the sweat glands of the skin secreting a salty fluid
  • Syncope  – A temporary, insufficient blood supply to the brain which causes a loss of consciousness. Usually caused by a serious arrhythmia.
  • Syphilis -  a common venereal disease caused by the treponema pallidum spirochete; symptoms change through progressive stages; can be congenital (transmitted through the placenta)
  • Systolic blood pressure  – The highest blood pressure measured in the arteries. It occurs when the heart contracts with each heartbeat.
  • TIA  - noun brief episode in which the brain gets insufficient blood supply; symptoms depend on the site of the blockage
  • Tachycardia  – Accelerated beating of the heart. Paroxysmal tachycardia is a particular form of rapid heart action, occurring in seizures that may last from a few seconds to several days.
  • Tachypnea  – Rapid breathing.
  • Tadalafil -  virility drug (trade name Cialis) used to treat erectile dysfunction in men
  • Tamponade  – Also called cardiac tamponade. A condition in which the heart is compressed or constricted because of a large amount of fluid or blood in the space between the heart muscle and the sac that surrounds the heart (the pericardium).
  • Tanacetum parthenium -  bushy aromatic European perennial herb having clusters of buttonlike white-rayed flower heads; valued traditionally for medicinal uses; sometimes placed in genus Chrysanthemum
  • Tenormin -  an oral beta blocker (trade name Tenormin) used in treating hypertension and angina; has adverse side effects (depression and exacerbation of congestive heart failure etc.)
  • Terazosin -  antihypertensive drug (trade name Hytrin) used to treat high blood pressure
  • Tetralogy of Fallot -  a congenital heart defect producing cyanosis; characterized by four symptoms: pulmonary stenosis and ventricular septal defect and malposition of the aorta over both ventricles and hypertrophy of the right ventricle
  • Thallium-201 stress test  – An x-ray study that follows the path of radioactive potassium carried by the blood into heart muscle. Damaged or dead muscle can be defined, as can the extent of narrowing in an artery.
  • Third-degree heart block  – A serious condition also called Stokes-Adams disease; impulses from the heart’s upper chambers (the atria) are completely blocked from reaching the heart’s lower chambers (the ventricles). To make up for this, the ventricles use their own “backup” pacemaker with its slower rate.
  • Thrombolysis  - noun the process of breaking up and dissolving blood clots
  • Thrombolytic therapy  - noun therapy consisting of the administration of a pharmacological agent to cause thrombolysis of an abnormal blood clot
  • Thrombolytic therapy -  therapy consisting of the administration of a pharmacological agent to cause thrombolysis of an abnormal blood clot
  • Thrombosis  - noun the formation or presence of a thrombus (a clot of coagulated blood attached at the site of its formation) in a blood vessel
  • Thrombus  - noun a blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin
  • Thyroid  - adj. suggestive of a thyroid disorder  of or relating to the thyroid gland  noun located near the base of the neck
  • Timolol -  a beta blocker (trade name Blocadren) administered after heart attacks
  • Tingling -  exciting by touching lightly so as to cause laughter or twitching movements; causing or experiencing a painful shivering feeling as from many tiny pricks;  a somatic sensation as from many tiny prickles
  • Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)  – A clot-dissolving medicine that is used to treat heart attack and stroke patients.
  • Tissue plasminogen activator  - noun a thrombolytic agent (trade name Activase) that causes fibrinolysis at the site of a blood clot; used in treating acute myocardial infarction
  • Trans fat  – Created when hydrogen is forced through an ordinary vegetable oil (hydrogenation), converting some polyunsaturates to monounsaturates, and some monounsaturates to saturates. Trans fat, like saturated fat, tends to raise LDL cholesterol levels, and, unlike saturated fat, trans fat also lowers HDL cholesterol levels.
  • Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)  – A minimally invasive procedure to repair a damaged or diseased aortic valve. A catheter is inserted into an artery in the groin and threaded to the heart. A balloon at the end of the catheter, with a replacement valve folded around it, delivers the new valve to take the place of the old. Also called TAVR (Transcatheter aortic valve replacement).
  • Transcatheter intervention  – Any of the noninvasive procedures usually performed in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Angioplasty is an example of a transcatheter intervention. Also called a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
  • Transesophageal echocardiography  – A diagnostic test that analyzes sound waves bounced off the heart. The sound waves are sent through a tube-like device inserted in the mouth and passed down the esophagus (food pipe), which ends near the heart. This technique is useful in studying patients whose heart and vessels, for various reasons, are difficult to assess with standard echocardiography.
  • Transient ischemic attack  - noun brief episode in which the brain gets insufficient blood supply; symptoms depend on the site of the blockage
  • Transient ischemic attack -  brief episode in which the brain gets insufficient blood supply; symptoms depend on the site of the blockage
  • Transplantation  - noun the act of removing something from one location and introducing it in another location  an operation moving an organ from one organism (the donor) to another (the recipient)
  • Tricuspid valve  - noun valve with three cusps; situated between the right atrium and the right ventricle; allows blood to pass from atrium to ventricle and closes to prevent backflow when the ventricle contracts
  • Triglyceride  - noun glyceride occurring naturally in animal and vegetable tissues; it consists of three individual fatty acids bound together in a single large molecule; an important energy source forming much of the fat stored by the body
  • Ubiquinone -  any of several quinones found in living cells and that function as coenzymes that transfer electrons from one molecule to another in cell respiration
  • Ultrasonography -  using the reflections of high-frequency sound waves to construct an image of a body organ (a sonogram); commonly used to observe fetal growth or study bodily organs
  • Ultrasound  - noun very high frequency sound; used in ultrasonography  using the reflections of high-frequency sound waves to construct an image of a body organ (a sonogram); commonly used to observe fetal growth or study bodily organs
  • VLDL -  large lipoproteins rich in triglycerides; VLDLs circulate through the blood giving up their triglycerides to fat and muscle tissue until the VLDL remnants are modified and converted into LDL
  • Vagus nerve -  a mixed nerve that supplies the pharynx and larynx and lungs and heart and esophagus and stomach and most of the abdominal viscera
  • Valve replacement  – An operation to replace a heart valve that is either blocking normal blood flow or causing blood to leak backward into the heart (regurgitation).
  • Valvotomy -  incision into a stenosed cardiac valve to relieve the obstruction
  • Valvuloplasty  – Reshaping of a heart valve with surgical or catheter techniques.
  • Vardenafil -  virility drug (trade name Levitra) used to treat erectile dysfunction in men
  • Varicose vein  - noun a vein that is permanently dilated; most common in the legs
  • Vascular system -  the vessels and tissue that carry or circulate fluids such as blood or lymph or sap through the body of an animal or plant
  • Vascular  - adj. of or relating to or having vessels that conduct and circulate fluids
  • Vasodilation -  dilation of blood vessels (especially the arteries)
  • Vasodilators  – Any medicine that dilates (widens) the arteries.
  • Vasopressin -  hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus; affects blood pressure by stimulating capillary muscles and reduces urine flow by affecting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules
  • Vasopressors  – Any medicine that elevates blood pressure.
  • Vasotec -  an ACE inhibitor (trade name Vasotec) that blocks the formation of angiotensin in the kidney and so results in vasodilation; administered after heart attacks
  • Vein  - noun one of the horny ribs that stiffen and support the wing of an insect  a blood vessel that carries blood from the capillaries toward the heart  a distinctive style or manner  a layer of ore between layers of rock  any of the vascular bundles or ribs that form the branching framework of conducting and supporting tissues in a leaf or other plant organ  verb make a veinlike pattern
  • Venography -  roentgenographic examination of veins
  • Ventricle  - noun a chamber of the heart that receives blood from an atrium and pumps it to the arteries  one of four connected cavities in the brain; is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid
  • Ventricular fibrillation  - noun fibrillation of heart muscles resulting in interference with rhythmic contractions of the ventricles and possibly leading to cardiac arrest
  • Verapamil -  a drug (trade names Calan and Isoptin) used as an oral or parenteral calcium blocker in cases of hypertension or congestive heart failure or angina or migraine
  • Veratrum -  a genus of coarse poisonous perennial herbs; sometimes placed in subfamily Melanthiaceae
  • Vertigo  - noun a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall
  • Vomiting -  the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
  • Warfarin -  an anticoagulant (trade name Coumadin) use to prevent and treat a thrombus or embolus
  • White wine -  pale yellowish wine made from white grapes or red grapes with skins removed before fermentation
  • Wine -  a red as dark as red wine; fermented juice (of grapes especially); verb treat to wine; drink wine
  • Wolff-Parkinson-White-syndrome A condition in which an extra electrical pathway connects the atria (two upper chambers) and the ventricles (two lower chambers). It may cause a rapid heartbeat.
  • X-ray  - noun a radiogram made by exposing photographic film to X rays; used in medical diagnosis  electromagnetic radiation of short wavelength produced when high-speed electrons strike a solid target  verb take an x-ray of something or somebody  examine by taking x-rays.
  • X-ray -  a radiogram made by exposing photographic film to X rays; used in medical diagnosis; electromagnetic radiation of short wavelength produced when high-speed electrons strike a solid target; verb take an x-ray of something or somebody; examine by taking x-rays
  • York -  the English royal house (a branch of the Plantagenet line) that reigned from 1461 to 1485; its emblem was a white rose
  • Zestril -  an ACE inhibiting drug (trade names Prinival or Zestril) administered as an antihypertensive and after heart attacks
  • Zingiber officinale -  tropical Asian plant widely cultivated for its pungent root; source of gingerroot and powdered ginger
  • abdomen -  the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis; the cavity containing the major viscera; in mammals it is separated from the thorax by the diaphragm
  • abdominal -  of or relating to or near the abdomen;  the muscles of the abdomen
  • ability -  the quality of being able to perform; a quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplishment; possession of the qualities (especially mental qualities) required to do something or get something done
  • ablation -  surgical removal of a body part or tissue; the erosive process that reduces the size of glaciers
  • abnormal -  much greater than the normal; not normal; not typical or usual or regular or conforming to a norm; departing from the normal in e.g. intelligence and development
  • above -  appearing earlier in the same text;  at an earlier place; in or to a place that is higher;  an earlier section of a written text
  • accident -  anything that happens by chance without an apparent cause; a mishap; especially one causing injury or death
  • accompanied -  having accompaniment or companions or escort
  • accumulation -  the act of accumulating; (finance) profits that are not paid out as dividends but are added to the capital base of the corporation; several things grouped together or considered as a whole; an increase by natural growth or addition
  • achieve - verb to gain with effort
  • across -  transversely; to the opposite side
  • acting -  serving temporarily especially as a substitute;  the performance of a part or role in a drama
  • activated -  set up and placed on active assignment; rendered active; e.g. rendered radioactive or luminescent or photosensitive or conductive; (of e.g. a molecule) made reactive or more reactive; (of sewage) treated with aeration and bacteria to aid decomposition
  • activity -  any specific behavior; (chemistry) the capacity of a substance to take part in a chemical reaction; the trait of being active; moving or acting rapidly and energetically; an organic process that takes place in the body; a process existing in or produced by nature (rather than by the intent of human beings); the state of being active
  • acute -  having or experiencing a rapid onset and short but severe course; of critical importance and consequence; extremely sharp or intense; having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions; of an angle; less than 90 degrees; ending in a sharp point;  a mark (') placed above a vowel to indicate pronunciation
  • adiposity -  having the property of containing fat
  • adjacent -  near or close to but not necessarily touching; nearest in space or position; immediately adjoining without intervening space; having a common boundary or edge; touching
  • adrenal -  of or pertaining to the adrenal glands or their secretions; near the kidneys;  either of a pair of complex endocrine glands situated near the kidney
  • adrenergic -  relating to epinephrine (its release or action);  drug that has the effects of epinephrine
  • adventitia -  an enveloping or covering membrane or layer of body tissue
  • advice -  a proposal for an appropriate course of action
  • aerobic -  depending on free oxygen or air; based on or using the principles of aerobics; enhancing respiratory and circulatory efficiency
  • after -  located farther aft;  behind or in the rear; happening at a time subsequent to a reference time
  • aggregation -  the act of gathering something together; several things grouped together or considered as a whole
  • airflow -  the flow of air
  • albuminuria -  the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
  • aldosterone -  a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland; regulates salt (sodium and potassium) and water balance
  • allograft -  tissue or organ transplanted from a donor of the same species but different genetic makeup; recipient's immune system must be suppressed to prevent rejection of the graft
  • along -  with a forward motion; in accompaniment or as a companion; in addition (usually followed by `with'); to a more advanced state; in line with a length or direction (often followed by `by' or `beside')
  • alongside -  side by side
  • amelioration -  the act of relieving ills and changing for the better
  • amniotic -  of or related to the amnion or characterized by developing an amnion
  • amount -  how much of something is available; how much there is of something that you can quantify; a quantity obtained by the addition of a group of numbers; a quantity of money; verb be tantamount or equivalent to; develop into; add up in number or quantity
  • anatomy -  a detailed analysis; the branch of morphology that deals with the structure of animals; alternative names for the body of a human being
  • aneurysm -  a cardiovascular disease characterized by a saclike widening of an artery resulting from weakening of the artery wall
  • angina -  any disease of the throat or fauces marked by spasmodic attacks of intense suffocative pain; a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
  • angiogenesis -  the formation of new blood vessels
  • angioplasty -  an operation to repair a damaged blood vessel or unblock a coronary artery
  • angiotensin converting enzyme  - noun proteolytic enzyme that converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II
  • animal -  of the nature of or characteristic of or derived from an animal or animals; marked by the appetites and passions of the body;  a living organism characterized by voluntary movement
  • anomalous -  deviating from the general or common order or type
  • anomaly -  (astronomy) position of a planet as defined by its angular distance from its perihelion (as observed from the sun); a person who is unusual; deviation from the normal or common order or form or rule
  • another -  any of various alternatives; some other
  • antiarrhythmic -  a drug used to treat an abnormal heart rhythm
  • anticoagulation -  the administration of an anticoagulant drug to retard coagulation of the blood
  • anything -  a thing of any kind
  • aorta -  the large trunk artery that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to branch arteries
  • aortic -  of or relating to the aorta
  • apart -  remote and separate physically or socially; having characteristics not shared by others; not living together as man and wife;  not taken into account or excluded from consideration; into parts or pieces; separated or at a distance in place or position or time; one from the other; away from another or others; placed or kept separate and distinct as for a purpose
  • apex -  the point on the celestial sphere toward which the sun and solar system appear to be moving relative to the fixed stars; the highest point (of something)
  • apnea -  transient cessation of respiration
  • area -  a part of a structure having some specific characteristic or function; the extent of a 2-dimensional surface enclosed within a boundary; a part of an animal that has a special function or is supplied by a given artery or nerve; a subject of study; a particular geographical region of indefinite boundary (usually serving some special purpose or distinguished by its people or culture or geography); a particular environment or walk of life
  • around -  in circumference; by a circular or circuitous route; in a circle or circular motion; to a particular destination either specified or understood; (of quantities) imprecise but fairly close to correct; in the area or vicinity; from beginning to end; throughout; all around or on all sides; in or to a reversed position or direction; to or among many different places or in no particular direction
  • arrangement -  the act of arranging and adapting a piece of music; an organized structure for arranging or classifying; an orderly grouping (of things or persons) considered as a unit; the result of arranging; the spatial property of the way in which something is placed; the thing arranged or agreed to; a piece of music that has been adapted for performance by a particular set of voices or instruments
  • arrest -  the state of inactivity following an interruption; the act of apprehending (especially apprehending a criminal); verb hold back, as of a danger or an enemy; check the expansion or influence of; take into custody; attract and fix; cause to stop
  • arrhythmia -  an abnormal rate of muscle contractions in the heart
  • arterial -  of or involving or contained in the arteries
  • arteriosclerosis -  sclerosis of the arterial walls
  • artery -  a major thoroughfare that bears important traffic; a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body
  • ascites -  accumulation of serous fluid in peritoneal cavity
  • aspirin -  the acetylated derivative of salicylic acid; used as an analgesic anti-inflammatory drug (trade names Bayer and Empirin) usually taken in tablet form; used as an antipyretic; slows clotting of the blood by poisoning platelets
  • assess - verb estimate the value of (property) for taxation; charge (a person or a property) with a payment, such as a tax or a fine; place a value on; judge the worth of something; set or determine the amount of (a payment such as a fine)
  • assist -  (sports) the act of enabling another player to make a good play; the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose; verb act as an assistant in a subordinate or supportive function; work for or be a servant to; give help or assistance; be of service
  • associated -  related to or accompanying; joined in some kind of relationship (as a colleague or ally or companion etc.)
  • atheroma -  a fatty deposit in the intima (inner lining) of an artery; can obstruct blood flow
  • atheromatous -  of or relating to or resembling atheroma
  • atherosclerosis -  a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
  • atherosclerotic -  of or relating to atherosclerosis
  • atom -  (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything; (physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
  • atrial fibrillation -  fibrillation of the muscles of the atria of the heart
  • atrial septal defect -  an abnormal opening between the left and right atria of the heart
  • atrial -  of or relating to a cavity or chamber in the body (especially one of the upper chambers of the heart)
  • atrium -  the central area in a building; open to the sky; any chamber that is connected to other chambers or passageways (especially one of the two upper chambers of the heart)
  • autograft -  tissue that is taken from one site and grafted to another site on the same person
  • autoimmune -  of or relating to the immune response of the body against substance normally present in the body
  • away -  (of a baseball pitch) on the far side of home plate from the batter; used of an opponent's ground; not present; having left;  from a particular thing or place or position (`forth' is obsolete); from one's possession; out of existence; indicating continuing action; continuously or steadily; in a different direction; in or into a proper place (especially for storage or safekeeping); so as to be removed or gotten rid of; freely or at will; in reserve; not for immediate use; out of the way (especially away from one's thoughts); at a distance in space or time
  • backwards -  at or to or toward the back or rear; in a manner or order or direction the reverse of normal
  • bacterial -  relating to or caused by bacteria
  • balloon -  large tough nonrigid bag filled with gas or heated air; small thin inflatable rubber bag with narrow neck; verb become inflated; ride in a hot-air balloon
  • ballooning -  flying in a balloon
  • band aid -  hurried repair; trade name for an adhesive bandage to cover small cuts or blisters
  • beats -  a United States youth subculture of the 1950s; rejected possessions or regular work or traditional dress; for communal living and psychedelic drugs and anarchism; favored modern forms of jazz (e.g., bebop)
  • become - verb enter or assume a certain state or condition; come into existence; undergo a change or development; enhance the appearance of
  • below -  at a later place; in or to a place that is lower; (in writing) see below; on a floor below; further down
  • beta blocker -  any of various drugs used in treating hypertension or arrhythmia; decreases force and rate of heart contractions by blocking beta-adrenergic receptors of the autonomic nervous system
  • beta-carotene -  an isomer of carotene that is found in dark green and dark yellow fruits and vegetables
  • between -  in between; in the interval
  • biochemical -  of or relating to biochemistry; involving chemical processes in living organisms
  • blastocele -  the fluid-filled cavity inside a blastula
  • blastoderm -  a layer of cells on the inside of the blastula
  • blastula -  early stage of an embryo produced by cleavage of an ovum; a liquid-filled sphere whose wall is composed of a single layer of cells; during this stage (about eight days after fertilization) implantation in the wall of the uterus occurs
  • bleeding -  flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels
  • blockage -  the act of blocking; an obstruction in a pipe or tube; the state or condition of being obstructed
  • blocking -  the act of obstructing or deflecting someone's movements
  • blood -  temperament or disposition; the fluid (red in vertebrates) that is pumped by the heart; people viewed as members of a group; the descendants of one individual; a dissolute man in fashionable society; verb smear with blood, as in a hunting initiation rite, where the face of a person is smeared with the blood of the kill
  • bloodstream -  the blood flowing through the circulatory system
  • blowing -  processing that involves blowing a gas
  • both -  (used with count s) two considered together; the two
  • brachial -  of or relating to an arm
  • bradycardia -  abnormally slow heartbeat
  • brain -  that part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers; enclosed within the skull; continuous with the spinal cord; mental ability; the brain of certain animals used as meat; that which is responsible for one's thoughts and feelings; the seat of the faculty of reason; someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality; verb kill by smashing someone's skull; hit on the head
  • branch -  an administrative division of some larger or more complex organization; a stream or river connected to a larger one; a division of a stem, or secondary stem arising from the main stem of a plant; a part of a forked or branching shape; any projection that is thought to resemble a human arm; a natural consequence of development; verb divide into two or more branches so as to form a fork; grow and send out branches or branch-like structures
  • breakdown -  an analysis into mutually exclusive categories; a cessation of normal operation; a mental or physical breakdown; the act of disrupting an established order so it fails to continue
  • breast -  the front part of the trunk from the neck to the abdomen; either of two soft fleshy milk-secreting glandular organs on the chest of a woman; meat carved from the breast of a fowl; verb reach the summit; meet at breast level; confront bodily
  • breastbone -  the flat bone that articulates with the clavicles and the first seven pairs of ribs
  • breath -  the process of taking in and expelling air during breathing; a slight movement of the air; the air that is inhaled and exhaled in respiration; a short respite; an indirect suggestion
  • bypass -  a road that takes traffic around the edge of a town; a surgically created shunt (usually around a damaged part); a conductor having low resistance in parallel with another device to divert a fraction of the current; verb avoid something unpleasant or laborious
  • calcium -  a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light; the fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust; an important component of most plants and animals
  • called -  known or spoken of as; given or having a specified name
  • calorie -  unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure; a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree at one atmosphere pressure; used by nutritionists to characterize the energy-producing potential in food
  • cancer -  type genus of the family Cancridae; the fourth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about June 21 to July 22; a small zodiacal constellation in the northern hemisphere; between Leo and Gemini; (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Cancer; any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream
  • capable -  (usually followed by `of') having capacity or ability; (followed by `of') having the temperament or inclination for; possibly accepting or permitting; having the requisite qualities for; have the skills and qualifications to do things well
  • carbon -  a copy made with carbon paper; an abundant nonmetallic tetravalent element occurring in three allotropic forms: amorphous carbon and graphite and diamond; occurs in all organic compounds; a thin paper coated on one side with a dark waxy substance (often containing carbon); used to transfer characters from the original to an under sheet of paper
  • cardiac arrest -  absence of systole; failure of the ventricles of the heart to contract (usually caused by ventricular fibrillation) with consequent absence of the heart beat leading to oxygen lack and eventually to death
  • cardiac -  of or relating to the heart
  • cardiomyopathy -  a disorder (usually of unknown origin) of the heart muscle (myocardium)
  • cardiovascular disease -  a disease of the heart or blood vessels
  • cardiovascular -  of or pertaining to or involving the heart and blood vessels
  • catecholamine -  any of a group of chemicals including epinephrine and norepinephrine that are produced in the medulla of the adrenal gland
  • catheter -  a thin flexible tube inserted into the body to permit introduction or withdrawal of fluids or to keep the passageway open
  • catheterization -  the operation of introducing a catheter into the body
  • caudal -  situated in or directed toward the part of the body from which the tail arises; resembling a tail; constituting or relating to a tail;  toward the posterior end of the body
  • causation -  the act of causing something to happen
  • cause -  a justification for something existing or happening; events that provide the generative force that is the origin of something; any entity that produces an effect or is responsible for events or results; a series of actions advancing a principle or tending toward a particular end; a comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy; verb give rise to; cause to happen or occur, not always intentionally; cause to do; cause to act in a specified manner
  • causing -  the act of causing something to happen
  • cavity -  (anatomy) a natural hollow or sinus within the body; soft decayed area in a tooth; progressive decay can lead to the death of a tooth; space that is surrounded by something; a sizeable hole (usually in the ground)
  • cellular -  characterized by or divided into or containing cells or compartments (the smallest organizational or structural unit of an organism or organization); relating to cells
  • cephalic -  of or relating to the head
  • cerebrovascular -  of or relating to the brain and the blood vessels that supply it
  • certain -  exercising or taking care great enough to bring assurance; established beyond doubt or question; definitely known; having or feeling no doubt or uncertainty; confident and assured; certain to occur; destined or inevitable; definite but not specified or identified; reliable in operation or effect; established irrevocably
  • cessation -  a stopping
  • chamber -  a natural or artificial enclosed space; a room where a judge transacts business; an enclosed volume in the body; a deliberative or legislative or administrative or judicial assembly; a room used primarily for sleeping; verb place in a chamber
  • chambers -  English architect (1723-1796)
  • channels -  official routes of communication
  • characterized -  of the meaning of words or concepts; stated precisely
  • chemical -  relating to or used in chemistry; of or made from or using substances produced by or used in reactions involving atomic or molecular changes;  produced by or used in a reaction involving changes in atoms or molecules
  • chemically -  with respect to chemistry; by the use of chemicals
  • chest -  box with a lid; used for storage; usually large and sturdy; furniture with drawers for keeping clothes; the part of the human torso between the neck and the diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates
  • cholesterol -  an animal sterol that is normally synthesized by the liver; the most abundant steroid in animal tissues
  • chromosomal -  of or relating to a chromosome
  • circulate - verb cause to become widely known; move around freely; move through a space, circuit or system, returning to the starting point; cause to move in a circuit or system; cause to be distributed; cause to move around; become widely known and passed on; move in circles
  • circulating -  passing from one to another
  • circulation -  the spread or transmission of something (as news or money) to a wider group or area; the dissemination of copies of periodicals (as newspapers or magazines); free movement or passage through a series of vessels (as of water through pipes or sap through a plant); movement through a circuit; especially the movement of blood through the heart and blood vessels; number of copies of a newspaper or magazine that are sold; (library science) the count of books that are loaned by a library over a specified period
  • circumferential -  lying around or just outside the edges or outskirts;  a road that takes traffic around the edge of a town
  • citric -  of or related to citric acid
  • class -  elegance in dress or behavior; people having the same social or economic status; a collection of things sharing a common attribute; (biology) a taxonomic group containing one or more orders; a body of students who are taught together; a body of students who graduate together; a league ranked by quality; education imparted in a series of lessons or meetings; verb arrange or order by classes or categories
  • classification -  restriction imposed by the government on documents or weapons that are available only to certain authorized people; the basic cognitive process of arranging into classes or categories; a group of people or things arranged by class or category; the act of distributing things into classes or categories of the same type
  • cleavage -  the act of cleaving or splitting; the line formed by a groove between two parts (especially the separation between a woman's breasts); (embryology) the repeated division of a fertilised ovum; the breaking of a chemical bond in a molecule resulting in smaller molecules; the state of being split or cleft
  • closed -  not open or affording passage or access; used especially of mouth or eyes; blocked against entry; (set theory) of an interval that contains both its endpoints; not having an open mind; not open to the general public; with shutters closed; requiring union membership; not open
  • closure -  termination of operations; a Gestalt principle of organization holding that there is an innate tendency to perceive incomplete objects as complete and to close or fill gaps and to perceive asymmetric stimuli as symmetric; a rule for limiting or ending debate in a deliberative body; approaching a particular destination; a coming closer; a narrowing of a gap; the act of blocking; an obstruction in a pipe or tube; something settled or resolved; the outcome of decision making; verb terminate debate by calling for a vote
  • clot -  a lump of material formed from the content of a liquid; verb change from a liquid to a thickened or solid state; cause to change from a liquid to a solid or thickened state; coalesce or unite in a mass; turn into curds
  • clotting -  the process of forming semisolid lumps in a liquid
  • clump -  a heavy dull sound (as made by impact of heavy objects); a grouping of a number of similar things; a compact mass; verb walk clumsily; gather or cause to gather into a cluster; come together as in a cluster or flock; make or move along with a sound as of a horse's hooves striking the ground
  • clumping -  the sound of a horse's hoofs hitting on a hard surface
  • coarctation -  (biology) a narrowing or constriction of a vessel or canal; especially a congenital narrowing of the aorta; tight or narrow compression
  • coffee -  a beverage consisting of an infusion of ground coffee beans; any of several small trees and shrubs native to the tropical Old World yielding coffee beans; a medium brown to dark-brown color; a seed of the coffee tree; ground to make coffee
  • common -  having no special distinction or quality; widely known or commonly encountered; average or ordinary or usual; belonging to or participated in by a community as a whole; public; commonly encountered; being or characteristic of or appropriate to everyday language; of or associated with the great masses of people; to be expected; standard; common to or shared by two or more parties; lacking refinement or cultivation or taste; of low or inferior quality or value;  a piece of open land for recreational use in an urban area
  • commonly -  under normal conditions
  • complete -  having every necessary or normal part or component or step; having come or been brought to a conclusion; perfect and complete in every respect; having all necessary qualities; without qualification; used informally as (often pejorative) intensifiers; highly skilled; verb bring to a whole, with all the necessary parts or elements; come or bring to a finish or an end; write all the required information onto a form; complete a pass; complete or carry out
  • completely -  so as to be complete; with everything necessary; to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole' is often used informally for `wholly')
  • composition -  something that is created by arranging several things to form a unified whole; the spatial property resulting from the arrangement of parts in relation to each other and to the whole; an essay (especially one written as an assignment); a mixture of ingredients; the act of creating written works; musical creation; the way in which someone or something is composed; art and technique of printing with movable type; a musical work that has been created
  • compression -  applying pressure; encoding information while reducing the bandwidth or bits required; the process or result of becoming smaller or pressed together; an increase in the density of something
  • compromise -  a middle way between two extremes; an accommodation in which both sides make concessions; verb settle by concession; make a compromise; arrive at a compromise; expose or make liable to danger, suspicion, or disrepute
  • concentric -  having a common center
  • conception -  the act of becoming pregnant; fertilization of an ovum by a spermatozoon; the creation of something in the mind; an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances; the event that occurred at the beginning of something
  • concomitant -  following as a consequence;  an event or situation that happens at the same time as or in connection with another
  • conducting -  the direction of an orchestra or choir; the way of administering a business
  • conduction -  the transmission of heat or electricity or sound
  • congenital -  present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development
  • congested -  overfull as with blood
  • conical -  relating to or resembling a cone
  • connect - verb join for the purpose of communication; join by means of communication equipment; land on or hit solidly; connect, fasten, or put together two or more pieces; hit or play a ball successfully; establish a rapport or relationship; be or become joined or united or linked; be scheduled so as to provide continuing service, as in transportation; make a logical or causal connection; plug into an outlet; establish communication with someone
  • consciousness -  an alert cognitive state in which you are aware of yourself and your situation; having knowledge of
  • constant -  steadfast in purpose or devotion or affection; continually recurring or continuing without interruption; uninterrupted in time and indefinitely long continuing; persistent in occurrence and unvarying in nature;  a quantity that does not vary; a number representing a quantity assumed to have a fixed value in a specified mathematical context
  • consumption -  the act of consuming something; the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating); (economics) the utilization of economic goods to satisfy needs or in manufacturing; involving the lungs with progressive wasting of the body
  • contain - verb be capable of holding or containing; be divisible by; hold back, as of a danger or an enemy; check the expansion or influence of; lessen the intensity of; temper; hold in restraint; hold or keep within limits; include or contain; have as a component; contain or hold; have within
  • contents -  a list of divisions (chapters or articles) and the pages on which they start
  • continued -  without stop or interruption
  • continuous -  continuing in time or space without interruption; of a function or curve; extending without break or irregularity
  • contractile -  capable of contracting or being contracted
  • contractility -  the capability or quality of shrinking or contracting, especially by muscle fibers and even some other forms of living matter
  • contraction -  the act of decreasing (something) in size or volume or quantity or scope; (physiology) a shortening or tensing of a part or organ (especially of a muscle or muscle fiber); a word formed from two or more words by omitting or combining some sounds; the process or result of becoming smaller or pressed together
  • controlled -  restrained or managed or kept within certain bounds; curbed or regulated
  • coordination -  the regulation of diverse elements into an integrated and harmonious operation; the skillful and effective interaction of movements; the grammatical relation of two constituents having the same grammatical form
  • cor pulmonale -  enlargement of the right ventricle of the heart due to disease of the lungs or of the pulmonary blood vessels
  • coronary artery disease -  a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
  • coronary artery -  the artery that branches from the aorta to supply blood to the heart
  • coronary bypass surgery -  open-heart surgery in which the rib cage is opened and a section of a blood vessel is grafted from the aorta to the coronary artery to bypass the blocked section of the coronary artery and improve the blood supply to the heart
  • coronary care unit -  a hospital unit specially staffed and equipped to treat patients with serious cardiac problems
  • coronary -  surrounding like a crown (especially of the blood vessels surrounding the heart);  obstruction of blood flow in a coronary artery by a blood clot (thrombus)
  • corrected -  having something undesirable neutralized; punished for misbehavior
  • corresponding -  agreeing in amount, magnitude, or degree; accompanying; similar especially in position or purpose; conforming in every respect
  • crystalline -  consisting of or containing or of the nature of crystals; transmitting light; able to be seen through with clarity; distinctly or sharply outlined
  • current -  occurring in or belonging to the present time;  a steady flow (usually from natural causes); a flow of electricity through a conductor; dominant course (suggestive of running water) of successive events or ideas
  • cyanosis -  a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes; a sign that oxygen in the blood is dangerously diminished (as in carbon monoxide poisoning)
  • cycle -  a single complete execution of a periodically repeated phenomenon; a periodically repeated sequence of events; a series of poems or songs on the same theme; an interval during which a recurring sequence of events occurs; a wheeled vehicle that has two wheels and is moved by foot pedals; the unit of frequency; one hertz has a periodic interval of one second; verb recur in repeating sequences; pass through a cycle; cause to go through a recurring sequence; ride a bicycle; ride a motorcycle
  • cytoplasmic -  of or relating to cytoplasm
  • damage -  the act of damaging something or someone; loss of military equipment; the occurrence of a change for the worse; any harm or injury resulting from a violation of a legal right; the amount of money needed to purchase something; verb inflict damage upon
  • damaged -  harmed or injured or spoiled; especially of reputation; being unjustly brought into disrepute
  • dangle - verb cause to dangle or hang freely; hang freely
  • days -  the time during which someone's life continues
  • daytime -  the time after sunrise and before sunset while it is light outside
  • death -  the act of killing; the event of dying or departure from life; the personification of death; the permanent end of all life functions in an organism or part of an organism; the absence of life or state of being dead; the time at which life ends; continuing until dead; the time when something ends; a final state
  • decrease -  the act of decreasing or reducing something; the amount by which something decreases; a change downward; a process of becoming smaller or shorter; verb decrease in size, extent, or range; make smaller
  • decreased -  made less in size or amount or degree
  • defect -  a failing or deficiency; an imperfection in a bodily system; an imperfection in a device or machine; a mark or flaw that spoils the appearance of something (especially on a person's body); verb desert (a cause, a country or an army), often in order to join the opposing cause, country, or army
  • defibrillation -  treatment by stopping fibrillation of heart muscles (usually by electric shock delivered by a defibrillator)
  • deficiency -  lack of an adequate quantity or number; the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable
  • deficit -  the property of being an amount by which something is less than expected or required; an excess of liabilities over assets (usually over a certain period); (sports) the score by which a team or individual is losing; a deficiency or failure in neurological or mental functioning
  • definition -  clarity of outline; a concise explanation of the meaning of a word or phrase or symbol
  • deformed -  so badly formed or out of shape as to be ugly
  • degree -  a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality; the seriousness of something (e.g., a burn or crime); the highest power of a term or variable; a measure for arcs and angles; a unit of temperature on a specified scale; a specific identifiable position in a continuum or series or especially in a process; an award conferred by a college or university signifying that the recipient has satisfactorily completed a course of study
  • delimited -  showing or determining a boundary; having the limits or boundaries established
  • demand -  the act of demanding; an urgent or peremptory request; the ability and desire to purchase goods and services; required activity; a condition requiring relief; verb request urgently and forcefully; claim as due or just; ask to be informed of; summon to court; lay legal claim to; require as useful, just, or proper
  • density -  the amount per unit size; the spatial property of being crowded together
  • depth -  degree of psychological or intellectual profundity; extent downward or backward or inward; (usually plural) the deepest and most remote part; (usually plural) a low moral state; the intellectual ability to penetrate deeply into ideas
  • derange - verb throw into great confusion or disorder; derange mentally, throw out of mental balance; make insane
  • described -  represented in words especially with sharpness and detail
  • destruction -  the termination of something by causing so much damage to it that it cannot be repaired or no longer exists; an event (or the result of an event) that completely destroys something; a final state
  • determinant -  having the power or quality of deciding;  a determining or causal element or factor; a square matrix used to solve simultaneous equations; the site on the surface of an antigen molecule to which an antibody attaches itself
  • developing -  relating to societies in which capital needed to industrialize is in short supply; gradually unfolding or growing (especially as of something latent); making or becoming visible through or as if through the action of a chemical agent;  processing a photosensitive material in order to make an image visible
  • deviation -  deviate behavior; the error of a compass due to local magnetic disturbances; the difference between an observed value and the expected value of a variable or function; a variation that deviates from the standard or norm; a turning aside (of your course or attention or concern)
  • device -  any clever maneuver; an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose; an emblematic design (especially in heraldry); any ornamental pattern or design (as in embroidery); something in an artistic work designed to achieve a particular effect
  • diabetes -  any of several metabolic disorders marked by excessive urination and persistent thirst
  • diagnose - verb determine or distinguish the nature of a problem or an illness through a diagnostic analysis; subject to a medical analysis
  • diagnosis -  identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon
  • diameter -  the length of a straight line passing through the center of a circle and connecting two points on the circumference; a straight line connecting the center of a circle with two points on its perimeter (or the center of a sphere with two points on its surface)
  • diaphragm -  a mechanical device in a camera that controls size of aperture of the lens; electro-acoustic transducer that vibrates to receive or produce sound waves; a contraceptive device consisting of a flexible dome-shaped cup made of rubber or plastic; it is filled with spermicide and fitted over the uterine cervix; (anatomy) a muscular partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities; functions in respiration
  • diastolic -  of or relating to a diastole or happening during a diastole
  • different -  differing from all others; not ordinary; unlike in nature or quality or form or degree; distinctly separate from the first; distinct or separate; marked by dissimilarity
  • diffuse -  spread out; not concentrated in one place; lacking conciseness; (of light) transmitted from a broad light source or reflected; verb move outward; cause to become widely known; spread or diffuse through
  • digoxin -  digitalis preparation (trade name Lanoxin) used to treat congestive heart failure or cardiac arrhythmia; helps the heart beat more forcefully
  • dilatation -  the state of being stretched beyond normal dimensions; the act of expanding an aperture
  • dilation -  the act of expanding an aperture; a lengthy discussion (spoken or written) on a particular topic
  • dioxide -  an oxide containing two atoms of oxygen in the molecule
  • direction -  a general course along which something has a tendency to develop; a message describing how something is to be done; a line leading to a place or point; the spatial relation between something and the course along which it points or moves; the act of setting and holding a course; the act of managing something; the concentration of attention or energy on something; something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action; a formal statement of a command or injunction to do something
  • directly -  without deviation; in a forthright manner; candidly or frankly; without anyone or anything intervening; without delay or hesitation; with no time intervening
  • discoloration -  the act of changing the natural color of something by making it duller or dingier or unnatural or faded; a soiled or discolored appearance
  • disease -  an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
  • disintegration -  total destruction; the spontaneous disintegration of a radioactive substance along with the emission of ionizing radiation; separation into component parts; in a decomposed state
  • dislodge - verb remove or force from a position of dwelling previously occupied; remove or force out from a position; change place or direction
  • dislodgment -  forced removal from a position of advantage
  • disruption -  the act of causing disorder; an act of delaying or interrupting the continuity; an event that results in a displacement or discontinuity; a disorderly outburst or tumult
  • distal -  situated farthest from point of attachment or origin, as of a limb or bone; directed away from the midline or mesial plane of the body
  • distant -  apart in space; separate or apart in time; separated in space or coming from or going to a distance; far apart in relevance or relationship; remote in manner
  • diuretic -  any substance that tends to increase the flow of urine
  • donor -  person who makes a gift of property; (medicine) someone who gives blood or tissue or an organ to be used in another person (the host)
  • doom -  an unpleasant or disastrous destiny; verb make certain of the failure or destruction of; decree or designate beforehand; proce a sentence on (somebody) in a court of law
  • dose -  a measured portion of medicine taken at any one time; the quantity of an active agent (substance or radiation) taken in or absorbed at any one time; street name for lysergic acid diethylamide; a communicable infection transmitted by sexual intercourse or genital contact; verb treat with an agent; add (an agent) to; administer a drug to
  • doubtful -  fraught with uncertainty or doubt; open to doubt or suspicion; unsettled in mind or opinion
  • downward -  extending or moving from a higher to a lower place;  spatially or metaphorically from a higher to a lower level or position
  • drainage -  emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it
  • drug -  a substance that is used as a medicine or narcotic; verb administer a drug to; use recreational drugs
  • duration -  continuance in time; the property of enduring or continuing in time; the period of time during which something continues
  • dysfunction -  (medicine) any disturbance in the function of an organ or body part
  • dyspnea -  difficult or labored respiration
  • easily -  without question; with ease (`easy' is sometimes used informally for `easily'); indicating high probability; in all likelihood
  • eccentric -  not having a common center; not concentric; conspicuously or grossly unconventional or unusual;  a person with an unusual or odd personality; a person of a specified kind (usually with many eccentricities)
  • echocardiography -  a noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses ultrasound to study to structure and motions of the heart
  • edema -  swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
  • edge -  a sharp side formed by the intersection of two surfaces of an object; a strip near the boundary of an object; a slight competitive advantage; the attribute of urgency; the boundary of a surface; a line determining the limits of an area; verb provide with an edge; advance slowly, as if by inches; lie adjacent to another or share a boundary; provide with a border or edge
  • effect -  (of a law) having legal validity; an impression (especially one that is artificial or contrived); the central meaning or theme of a speech or literary work; a symptom caused by an illness or a drug; an outward appearance; a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon; verb produce; act so as to bring into existence
  • effective -  existing in fact; not theoretical; real; able to accomplish a purpose; functioning effectively; exerting force or influence; producing or capable of producing an intended result or having a striking effect; works well as a means or remedy; ready for service
  • effects -  property of a personal character that is portable but not used in business
  • effusion -  flow under pressure; an unrestrained expression of emotion
  • eject - verb leave an aircraft rapidly, using an ejection seat or capsule; eliminate (substances) from the body; cause to come out in a squirt; put out or expel from a place
  • ejection -  the act of forcing out someone or something; the act of expelling or projecting or ejecting
  • elasticity -  the tendency of a body to return to its original shape after it has been stretched or compressed
  • elderly -  advanced in years; (`aged' is proced as two syllables);  people who are old collectively
  • electrical -  relating to or concerned with electricity; using or providing or producing or transmitting or operated by electricity
  • electrocardiogram -  a graphical recording of the cardiac cycle produced by an electrocardiograph
  • electrocardiographic -  of or relating to an electrocardiograph
  • electrocardiography -  diagnostic procedure consisting of recording the activity of the heart electronically with a cardiograph (and producing a cardiogram)
  • electron -  an elementary particle with negative charge
  • elevated -  raised above the ground; raised above ground level; on elevated rails;  a railway that is powered by electricity and that runs on a track that is raised above the street level
  • embolism -  occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus (a loose clot or air bubble or other particle); an insertion into a calendar
  • embolus -  an abnormal particle (e.g. an air bubble or part of a clot) circulating in the blood
  • embryo -  an animal organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that in higher forms merge into fetal stages but in lower forms terminate in commencement of larval life; (botany) a minute rudimentary plant contained within a seed or an archegonium
  • encrusted -  having a hardened crust as a covering
  • endocarditis -  inflammation of the endocardium and heart valves
  • endocardium -  the membrane that lines the cavities of the heart and forms part of the heart valves
  • endothelial -  of or relating to or located in the endothelium
  • endothelium -  an epithelium of mesoblastic origin; a thin layer of flattened cells that lines the inside of some body cavities
  • energy -  an imaginative lively style (especially style of writing); enterprising or ambitious drive; forceful exertion; (physics) the capacity of a physical system to do work; the units of energy are joules or ergs; a healthy capacity for vigorous activity; the federal department responsible for maintaining a national energy policy of the United States; created in 1977
  • enlargement -  a photographic print that has been enlarged; the state of being enlarged; the act of increasing (something) in size or volume or quantity or scope; a discussion that provides additional information
  • environmental -  concerned with the ecological effects of altering the environment; of or relating to the external conditions or surroundings
  • enzyme -  any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
  • epidemiology -  the branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of disease
  • epistaxis -  bleeding from the nose
  • epithelial -  of or belonging to the epithelium
  • erectile dysfunction -  impotence resulting from a man's inability to have or maintain an erection of his penis
  • especially -  to a distinctly greater extent or degree than is common; in a special manner
  • essential -  basic and fundamental; absolutely required and not to be used up or sacrificed; absolutely necessary; vitally necessary; being or relating to or containing the essence of a plant etc; defining rights and duties as opposed to giving the rules by which rights and duties are established; of the greatest importance;  anything indispensable
  • evaluation -  act of ascertaining or fixing the value or worth of; an appraisal of the value of something
  • event -  something that happens at a given place and time; a phenomenon located at a single point in space-time; the fundamental observational entity in relativity theory; a special set of circumstances; a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon
  • example -  an item of information that is representative of a type; punishment intended as a warning to others; a task performed or problem solved in order to develop skill or understanding; something to be imitated; a representative form or pattern; an occurrence of something
  • exceeding -  far beyond what is usual in magnitude or degree
  • excess -  more than is needed, desired, or required;  immoderation as a consequence of going beyond sufficient or permitted limits; a quantity much larger than is needed; excessive indulgence; the state of being more than full
  • excitation -  something that agitates and arouses; the neural or electrical arousal of an organ or muscle or gland; the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up
  • excretion -  the bodily process of discharging waste matter; waste matter (as urine or sweat but especially feces) discharged from the body
  • exercise -  the activity of exerting your muscles in various ways to keep fit; a task performed or problem solved in order to develop skill or understanding; systematic training by multiple repetitions; (usually plural) a ceremony that involves processions and speeches; the act of using; verb do physical exercise; give a workout to; learn by repetition; put to use; carry out or practice; as of jobs and professions
  • exertion -  use of physical or mental energy; hard work
  • expressed -  communicated in words; precisely and clearly expressed or readily observable; leaving nothing to implication
  • extremely -  to an extreme degree; to a high degree or extent; favorably or with much respect; to an extreme degree or extent; to an extreme degree
  • failure -  an unexpected omission; an act that fails; an event that does not accomplish its intended purpose; a person with a record of failing; someone who loses consistently; loss of ability to function normally; lack of success; inability to discharge all your debts as they come due
  • falls -  the petals or sepals of a flower that bend downward (especially the outer perianth of an iris); a steep descent of the water of a river
  • faster -  more quickly
  • fatigue -  (always used with a modifier) boredom resulting from overexposure to something; temporary loss of strength and energy resulting from hard physical or mental work; used of materials (especially metals) in a weakened state caused by long stress; labor of a nonmilitary kind done by soldiers (cleaning or digging or draining or so on); verb exhaust or get tired through overuse or great strain or stress; get tired of something or somebody
  • fatty -  containing or composed of fat;  a rotund individual
  • feed -  food for domestic livestock; verb introduce continuously; give food to; take in food; used of animals only; serve as food for; be the food for; feed into; supply; provide as food; gratify; support or promote; provide with fertilizers or add nutrients to; profit from in an exploitatory manner; move along, of liquids
  • feelings -  emotional or moral sensitivity (especially in relation to personal principles or dignity)
  • feverfew -  bushy aromatic European perennial herb having clusters of buttonlike white-rayed flower heads; valued traditionally for medicinal uses; sometimes placed in genus Chrysanthemum
  • fibrillation -  act or process of forming fibrils; muscular twitching involving individual muscle fibers acting without coordination
  • fibrin -  a white insoluble fibrous protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen when blood clots; it forms a network that traps red cells and platelets
  • fibrinogen -  a protein present in blood plasma; converts to fibrin when blood clots
  • filled -  (usually followed by `with' or used as a combining form) generously supplied with; (of time) taken up; of purchase orders that have been filled
  • fine -  characterized by elegance or refinement or accomplishment; minutely precise especially in differences in meaning; free from impurities; having a high or specified degree of purity; of textures that are smooth to the touch or substances consisting of relatively small particles; thin in thickness or diameter; being satisfactory or in satisfactory condition;  an expression of agreement normally occurring at the beginning of a sentence; in a delicate manner;  money extracted as a penalty; verb issue a ticket or a fine to as a penalty
  • fist -  a hand with the fingers clenched in the palm (as for hitting)
  • fitness -  the condition of being suitable; the quality of being qualified; good physical condition; being in shape or in condition; fitness to traverse the seas
  • fixed -  incapable of being changed or moved or undone; e.g. "frozen prices"; (of a number) having a fixed and unchanging value; securely placed or fastened or set; fixed and unmoving; (of taxes) not increasing as the amount taxed increases
  • flexibility -  the quality of being adaptable or variable; the property of being flexible; easily bent or shaped; the trait of being easily persuaded
  • flexible -  bending and snapping back readily without breaking; able to flex; able to bend easily; capable of being changed; making or willing to make concessions; able to adjust readily to different conditions
  • flowing -  moving smoothly and continuously; (of water) rising to the surface under internal hydrostatic pressure; designed or arranged to offer the least resistant to fluid flow;  the motion characteristic of fluids (liquids or gases)
  • fluid -  subject to change; variable; affording change (especially in social status); in cash or easily convertible to cash; characteristic of a fluid; capable of flowing and easily changing shape; smooth and unconstrained in movement;  a continuous amorphous substance that tends to flow and to conform to the outline of its container: a liquid or a gas; a substance that is fluid at room temperature and pressure
  • fluoroscope -  an X-ray machine that combines an X-ray source and a fluorescent screen to enable direct observation
  • fluorouracil -  an antimetabolite used to treat certain cancers
  • following -  about to be mentioned or specified; immediately following in time or order; going or proceeding or coming after in the same direction; in the desired direction;  a group of followers or enthusiasts; the act of pursuing in an effort to overtake or capture
  • foreign -  relating to or originating in or characteristic of another place or part of the world; of concern to or concerning the affairs of other nations (other than your own); not contained in or deriving from the essential nature of something; not belonging to that in which it is contained; introduced from an outside source
  • formation -  the fabrication of something in a particular shape; creation by mental activity; a particular spatial arrangement; an arrangement of people or things acting as a unit; natural process that causes something to form; the act of forming something; (geology) the geological features of the earth
  • formed -  fully developed as by discipline or training; having taken on a definite arrangement; having or given a form or shape; clearly defined; formed in the mind
  • fortify - verb add nutrients to; enclose by or as if by a fortification; make strong or stronger; add alcohol to (beverages); prepare oneself for a military confrontation
  • found -  come upon unexpectedly or after searching;  food and lodging provided in addition to money; verb use as a basis for; found on; set up or lay the groundwork for; set up or found
  • fraction -  a small part or item forming a piece of a whole; the quotient of two rational numbers; a component of a mixture that has been separated by a fractional process; verb perform a division
  • frequently -  many times at short intervals
  • function -  the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group; what something is used for; a formal or official social gathering or ceremony; a relation such that one thing is dependent on another; a mathematical relation such that each element of one set is associated with at least one element of another set; a set sequence of steps, part of larger computer program; a vaguely specified social event; verb perform as expected when applied; perform duties attached to a particular office or place or function; serve a purpose, role, or function
  • functional -  designed for or capable of a particular function or use; involving or affecting function rather than physiology; designed for or adapted to a function or use; fit or ready for use or service; relating to or based on function especially as opposed to structure; (of e.g. a machine) performing or capable of performing
  • further -  more distant in especially degree;  to or at a greater extent or degree or a more advanced stage (`further' is used more often than `farther' in this abstract sense); in addition or furthermore; to or at a greater distance in time or space (`farther' is used more frequently than `further' in this physical sense); verb promote the growth of; contribute to the progress or growth of
  • garlic -  aromatic bulb used as seasoning; bulbous herb of southern Europe widely naturalized; bulb breaks up into separate strong-flavored cloves
  • gene -  (genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it can include regions preceding and following the coding DNA as well as introns between the exons; it is considered a unit of heredity
  • general -  prevailing among and common to the general public; not specialized or limited to one class of things; applying to all or most members of a category or group; of national scope; affecting the entire body; somewhat indefinite; of worldwide scope or applicability;  a fact about the whole (as opposed to particular); a general officer of the highest rank; the head of a religious order or congregation; verb command as a general
  • generalized -  spread throughout a body or system; not biologically differentiated or adapted to a specific function or environment
  • generate - verb bring into existence; produce (energy); make children; give or supply
  • genesis -  the first book of the Old Testament: tells of creation; Adam and Eve; the Fall of Man; Cain and Abel; Noah and the flood; God's covenant with Abraham; Abraham and Isaac; Jacob and Esau; Joseph and his brothers; a coming into being
  • genetic -  of or relating to the science of genetics; pertaining to or referring to origin; tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity; of or relating to or produced by or being a gene
  • genetics -  the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
  • genotype -  the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism; a group of organisms sharing a specific genetic constitution
  • ginger -  (used especially of hair or fur) having a bright orange-brown color;  pungent rhizome of the common ginger plant; used fresh as a seasoning especially in Oriental cookery; dried ground gingerroot; perennial plants having thick branching aromatic rhizomes and leafy reedlike stems; liveliness and energy; verb add ginger to in order to add flavor
  • ginkgo biloba -  deciduous dioecious Chinese tree having fan-shaped leaves and fleshy yellow seeds; exists almost exclusively in cultivation especially as an ornamental street tree
  • ginseng -  Chinese herb with palmately compound leaves and small greenish flowers and forked aromatic roots believed to have medicinal powers; aromatic root of ginseng plants
  • globin -  a colorless protein obtained by removing heme from hemoglobin; the oxygen carrying compound in red blood cells
  • glucose -  a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms; an important source of physiological energy
  • gradient -  the property possessed by a line or surface that departs from the horizontal; a graded change in the magnitude of some physical quantity or dimension
  • graft -  the act of grafting something onto something else; (surgery) tissue or organ transplanted from a donor to a recipient; in some cases the patient can be both donor and recipient; the practice of offering something (usually money) in order to gain an illicit advantage; verb cause to grow together parts from different plants; place the organ of a donor into the body of a recipient
  • group -  any number of entities (members) considered as a unit; a set that is closed, associative, has an identity element and every element has an inverse; (chemistry) two or more atoms bound together as a single unit and forming part of a molecule; verb arrange into a group or groups; form a group or group together
  • growth factor -  a protein that is involved in cell differentiation and growth
  • growth -  vegetation that has grown; something grown or growing; (biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically; a purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level; a progression from simpler to more complex forms; (pathology) an abnormal proliferation of tissue (as in a tumor); the gradual beginning or coming forth; a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important
  • gynecomastia -  excessive development of the breasts in males; usually the result of hormonal imbalance or treatment with certain drugs (including some antihypertensives)
  • habituation -  a general accommodation to unchanging environmental conditions; being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming (especially alcohol or narcotic drugs)
  • handbook -  a concise reference book providing specific information about a subject or location
  • hands -  (with `in') guardianship over; in divorce cases it is the right to house and care for and discipline a child; the force of workers available
  • hardening -  the act of making something harder (firmer or tighter or more compact); the process of becoming hard or solid by cooling or drying or crystallization; abnormal hardening or thickening of tissue
  • hawthorn -  a spring-flowering shrub or small tree of the genus Crataegus
  • heard -  detected or perceived by the sense of hearing
  • heart attack -  a sudden severe instance of abnormal heart function
  • heart disease -  a disease of the heart
  • heart failure -  inability of the heart to pump enough blood to sustain normal bodily functions
  • heartbeat -  an animating or vital unifying force; the rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries with each beat of the heart; a very short time (as the time it takes the eye blink or the heart to beat)
  • heat -  the trait of being intensely emotional; the sensation caused by heat energy; a preliminary race in which the winner advances to a more important race; a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature; utility to warm a building; the presence of heat; applies to nonhuman mammals: a state or period of heightened sexual arousal and activity; verb make hot or hotter; gain heat or get hot; provide with heat; arouse or excite feelings and passions
  • hellebore -  any plant of the Eurasian genus Helleborus; perennial herbs of the lily family having thick toxic rhizomes
  • help -  the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose; a means of serving; a resource; a person who contributes to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose; verb improve the condition of; improve; change for the better; give help or assistance; be of service; contribute to the furtherance of; be of use; help to some food; help with food or drink; take or use; abstain from doing; always used with a negative
  • heme -  a complex red organic pigment containing iron and other atoms to which oxygen binds
  • hemochromatosis -  pathology in which iron accumulates in the tissues; characterized by bronzed skin and enlarged liver and diabetes mellitus and abnormalities of the pancreas and the joints
  • hemodynamic -  or of relating to or involved in hemodynamics
  • hemodynamics -  the branch of physiology that studies the circulation of the blood and the forces involved
  • hemoglobin -  a hemoprotein composed of globin and heme that gives red blood cells their characteristic color; function primarily to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues
  • hemorrhage -  flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels; verb lose blood from one's body
  • hence -  from this time; from this place; (used to introduce a logical conclusion) from that fact or reason or as a result
  • hereditary -  inherited or inheritable by established rules (usually legal rules) of descent; tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity
  • heterograft -  tissue from an animal of one species used as a temporary graft (as in cases of severe burns) on an individual of another species
  • high-altitude -  occurring at or from a relative high altitude
  • highly -  in a high position or level or rank; to a high degree or extent; favorably or with much respect; at a high rate or wage
  • historical -  having once lived or existed or taken place in the real world as distinct from being legendary; of or relating to the study of history; belonging to the past; of what is important or famous in the past; used of the study of a phenomenon (especially language) as it changes through time
  • history -  the discipline that records and interprets past events involving human beings; all that is remembered of the past as preserved in writing; a body of knowledge; a record or narrative description of past events; the aggregate of past events; the continuum of events occurring in succession leading from the past to the present and even into the future
  • hole -  an opening deliberately made in or through something; one playing period (from tee to green) on a golf course; an opening into or through something; a depression hollowed out of solid matter; an unoccupied space; a fault; informal terms for the mouth; informal terms for a difficult situation; verb make holes in; hit the ball into the hole
  • homograft -  tissue or organ transplanted from a donor of the same species but different genetic makeup; recipient's immune system must be suppressed to prevent rejection of the graft
  • hormone -  the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
  • hospital -  a health facility where patients receive treatment; a medical institution where sick or injured people are given medical or surgical care
  • hour -  distance measured by the time taken to cover it; a period of time equal to 1/24th of a day; clock time; a special and memorable period
  • human -  having human form or attributes as opposed to those of animals or divine beings; characteristic of humanity; relating to a person;  any living or extinct member of the family Hominidae characterized by superior intelligence, articulate speech, and erect carriage
  • hydrodynamics -  study of fluids in motion
  • hypercholesterolemia -  the presence of an abnormal amount of cholesterol in the cells and plasma of the blood; associated with the risk of atherosclerosis
  • hyperglycemia -  abnormally high blood sugar usually associated with diabetes
  • hyperkalemia -  higher than normal levels of potassium in the circulating blood; associated with kidney failure or sometimes with the use of diuretic drugs
  • hyperlipidemia -  presence of excess lipids in the blood
  • hyperplasia -  abnormal increase in number of cells
  • hypersensitivity -  extreme sensitivity; pathological sensitivity
  • hypertension -  a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
  • hypertrophic cardiomyopathy -  a disorder in which the heart muscle is so strong that it does not relax enough to fill with the heart with blood and so has reduced pumping ability
  • hypertrophy -  abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ; verb undergo hypertrophy
  • hypocapnia -  a state in which the level of carbon dioxide in the blood is lower than normal; can result from deep or rapid breathing
  • hypoglycemia -  abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet
  • hypopnea -  slow or shallow breathing
  • hypotension -  abnormally low blood pressure
  • hypothyroidism -  an underactive thyroid gland; a glandular disorder resulting from insufficient production of thyroid hormones
  • hypoxia -  a very strong drive resulting from a deficiency of available oxygen in the blood and bodily tissues (short of anoxia)
  • immediately -  without delay or hesitation; with no time intervening; near or close by; bearing an immediate relation
  • impedance -  a material's opposition to the flow of electric current; measured in ohms
  • impending -  close in time; about to occur
  • inadequate -  (sometimes followed by `to') not meeting the requirements especially of a task; not sufficient to meet a need
  • incidence -  the striking of a light beam on a surface; the relative frequency of occurrence of something
  • include - verb add as part of something else; put in as part of a set, group, or category; consider as part of something; have as a part, be made up out of; allow participation in or the right to be part of; permit to exercise the rights, functions, and responsibilities of
  • increase -  the act of increasing something; the amount by which something increases; a change resulting in an increase; a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important; a quantity that is added; verb make bigger or more; become bigger or greater in amount
  • increased -  made greater in size or amount or degree
  • independent -  not dependent on or conditioned by or relative to anything else; not contingent; free from external control and constraint; (of a clause) capable of standing syntactically alone as a complete sentence; not controlled by a party or interest group; (of political bodies) not controlled by outside forces;  a writer or artist who sells services to different employers without a long-term contract with any of them; a neutral or uncommitted person (especially in politics)
  • independently -  on your own; without outside help; apart from others
  • individual -  being or characteristic of a single thing or person; separate and distinct from others of the same kind; concerning one person exclusively; characteristic of or meant for a single person or thing;  a single organism; a human being
  • infarct -  localized necrosis resulting from obstruction of the blood supply
  • infarction -  localized necrosis resulting from obstruction of the blood supply
  • infective -  able to cause disease; caused by infection or capable of causing infection
  • inflammation -  arousal to violent emotion; a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat; the act of setting something on fire; the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up
  • inhibited -  held back or restrained or prevented
  • inhibitor  - noun a substance that retards or stops an activity
  • inhibitor -  a substance that retards or stops an activity
  • injured -  usually used of physical or mental injury to persons
  • inner -  inside or closer to the inside of the body; located or occurring within or closer to a center; located inward; innermost or essential; exclusive to a center; especially a center of influence; confined to an exclusive group
  • innermost -  situated or occurring farthest within; being deepest within the self
  • inside -  away from the outer edge; being or applying to the inside of a building; relating to or being on the side closer to the center or within a defined space; confined to an exclusive group;  within a building; on the inside; in reality; with respect to private feelings;  the inner or enclosed surface of something; the region that is inside of something
  • insoluble -  without hope of solution; (of a substance) incapable of being dissolved; admitting of no solution or explanation
  • instantaneously -  without any delay
  • instrumentation -  the act of providing or using the instruments needed for some implementation; the instruments called for in a musical score or arrangement for a band or orchestra; the act of arranging a piece of music for an orchestra and assigning parts to the different musical instruments; an artifact (or system of artifacts) that is instrumental in accomplishing some end
  • intact -  undamaged in any way; whole; not impaired or diminished in any way; (of a woman) having the hymen unbroken; constituting the undiminished entirety; lacking nothing essential especially not damaged; (used of domestic animals) sexually competent
  • interior -  of or coming from the middle of a region or country; inside and toward a center; situated within or suitable for inside a building; located inward; inside the country;  the United States federal department charged with conservation and the development of natural resources; created in 1849; the inner or enclosed surface of something; the region that is inside of something
  • internal -  happening or arising or located within some limits or especially surface; occurring within an institution or community; located inward; inside the country; innermost or essential
  • intervention -  (law) a proceeding that permits a person to enter into a lawsuit already in progress; admission of person not an original party to the suit so that person can protect some right or interest that is allegedly affected by the proceedings; the act of intervening (as to mediate a dispute); a policy of intervening in the affairs of other countries
  • intima -  the innermost membrane of an organ (especially the inner lining of an artery or vein or lymphatic vessel)
  • involved -  emotionally involved; entangled or hindered as if e.g. in mire; connected by participation or association or use; enveloped; highly complex or intricate
  • inward -  relating to or existing in the mind or thoughts; directed or moving inward or toward a center;  toward the center or interior; to or toward the inside of
  • iron overload -  pathology in which iron accumulates in the tissues; characterized by bronzed skin and enlarged liver and diabetes mellitus and abnormalities of the pancreas and the joints
  • irregularity -  not characterized by a fixed principle or rate; at irregular intervals; an irregular asymmetry in shape; an irregular spatial pattern; behavior that breaches the rule or etiquette or custom or morality; irregular and infrequent or difficult evacuation of the bowels; can be a symptom of intestinal obstruction or diverticulitis
  • ischemia -  local anemia in a given body part sometimes resulting from vasoconstriction or thrombosis or embolism
  • ischemic -  relating to or affected by ischemia
  • junction -  an act of joining or adjoining things; the place where two or more things come together; something that joins or connects; the state of being joined together; the shape or manner in which things come together and a connection is made
  • karyotype -  the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)
  • kava -  an alcoholic drink made from the aromatic roots of the kava shrub
  • kidney -  either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine
  • kilogram -  one thousand grams; the basic unit of mass adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites
  • known -  apprehended with certainty
  • lack -  the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable; verb be without
  • large -  having broad power and range and scope; above average in size or number or quantity or magnitude or extent; fairly large or important in effect; influential; in an advanced stage of pregnancy; conspicuous in position or importance; generous and understanding and tolerant; ostentatiously lofty in style;  with the wind abaft the beam; at a distance, wide of something (as of a mark); in a boastful manner;  a garment size for a large person
  • latent -  not presently active; potentially existing but not presently evident or realized
  • layer -  thin structure composed of a single thickness of cells; a hen that lays eggs; single thickness of usually some homogeneous substance; a relatively thin sheetlike expanse or region lying over or under another; an abstract place usually conceived as having depth; verb make or form a layer
  • leading -  going or proceeding or going in advance; showing the way; indicating the most important performer or role; greatest in importance or degree or significance or achievement; having the leading position or higher score in a contest;  the activity of leading; thin strip of metal used to separate lines of type in printing
  • leak -  unauthorized (especially deliberate) disclosure of confidential information; an accidental hole that allows something (fluid or light etc.) to enter or escape; a euphemism for urination; soft watery rot in fruits and vegetables caused by fungi; the unwanted discharge of a fluid from some container; verb have an opening that allows light or substances to enter or go out; enter or escape as through a hole or crack or fissure; be leaked; tell anonymously
  • least -  the superlative of `little' that can be used with mass s and is usually preceded by `the'; a quantifier meaning smallest in amount or extent or degree;  used to form the superlative;  something that is of no importance
  • length -  a section of something that is long and narrow; the linear extent in space from one end to the other; the longest horizontal dimension of something that is fixed in place; the property of being the extent of something from beginning to end; continuance in time; size of the gap between two places
  • less -  (comparative of `little' usually used with mass s) a quantifier meaning not as great in amount or degree; (nonstandard in some uses but often idiomatic with measure phrases) fewer; (usually preceded by `no') lower in quality;  used to form the comparative of some adjectives and adverbs; comparative of little
  • licorice -  a black candy flavored with the dried root of the licorice plant; deep-rooted coarse-textured plant native to the Mediterranean region having blue flowers and pinnately compound leaves; widely cultivated in Europe for its long thick sweet roots
  • lidocaine -  a local anesthetic (trade names Lidocaine and Xylocaine) used topically on the skin and mucous membranes
  • life-threatening -  causing fear or anxiety by threatening great harm
  • limb -  the graduated arc that is attached to an instrument for measuring angles; either of the two halves of a bow from handle to tip; one of the jointed appendages of an animal used for locomotion or grasping: arm; leg; wing; flipper; (astronomy) the circumferential edge of the apparent disc of the sun or the moon or a planet; any of the main branches arising from the trunk or a bough of a tree; any projection that is thought to resemble a human arm
  • lining -  the act of attaching an inside lining (to a garment or curtain etc.); providing something with a surface of a different material; a protective covering that protects an inside surface; a piece of cloth that is used as the inside surface of a garment
  • linoleic acid -  a liquid polyunsaturated fatty acid abundant in plant fats and oils; a fatty acid essential for nutrition; used to make soap
  • linolenic acid -  a liquid polyunsaturated fatty acid that occurs in some plant oils; an essential fatty acid
  • lipid -  an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents; essential structural component of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates)
  • little -  small in a way that arouses feelings (of tenderness or its opposite depending on the context); (of a voice) faint; lowercase; (quantifier used with mass s) small in quantity or degree; not much or almost none or (with `a') at least some; (of children and animals) young, immature; (informal) small and of little importance; limited or below average in number or quantity or magnitude or extent; of short duration or distance;  not much;  a small amount or duration
  • location -  a point or extent in space; a workplace away from a studio at which some or all of a movie may be made; a determination of the place where something is; the act of putting something in a certain place
  • lodgement -  the state or quality of being lodged or fixed even temporarily; bringing a charge or accusation against someone
  • longer -  for more time;  a person with a strong desire for something
  • loss of consciousness -  the occurrence of a loss of the ability to perceive and respond
  • loss -  the act of losing; the disadvantage that results from losing something; the experience of losing a loved one; the amount by which the cost of a business exceeds its revenue; something that is lost; gradual decline in amount or activity; euphemistic expressions for death; military personnel lost by death or capture
  • low-density -  having low concentration; having low relative density or specific gravity
  • lower -  the lower of two berths; verb set lower; cause to drop or sink; move something or somebody to a lower position; look angry or sullen, wrinkle one's forehead, as if to signal disapproval; make lower or quieter
  • lowering -  darkened by clouds;  the act of causing something to move to a lower level; the act of causing to become less
  • lumen -  a cavity or passage in a tubular organ; a unit of luminous flux equal to the amount of light given out through a solid angle of 1 steradian by a point source of 1 candela intensity radiating uniformly in all directions
  • luminal -  a long-acting barbiturate used as a sedative
  • mRNA -  the template for protein synthesis; the form of RNA that carries information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome sites of protein synthesis in the cell
  • machine -  any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of human tasks; a device for overcoming resistance at one point by applying force at some other point; a group that controls the activities of a political party; an intricate organization that accomplishes its goals efficiently; an efficient person; a motor vehicle with four wheels; usually propelled by an internal combustion engine; verb make by machinery; turn, shape, mold, or otherwise finish by machinery
  • macula -  a yellowish central area of the retina that is rich in cones and that mediates clear detailed vision; a patch of skin that is discolored but not usually elevated; caused by various diseases; a cooler darker spot appearing periodically on the sun's photosphere; associated with a strong magnetic field
  • made -  produced by a manufacturing process; (of a bed) having the sheets and blankets set in order; successful or assured of success
  • main -  of force; of the greatest possible intensity; (of a clause) capable of standing syntactically alone as a complete sentence; most important element;  a principal pipe in a system that distributes water or gas or electricity or that collects sewage; any very large body of (salt) water
  • malfunction -  a failure to function normally; verb fail to function or function improperly
  • malignant hypertension -  severe hypertension that runs a rapid course and damages the inner linings of the blood vessels and the heart and spleen and kidneys and brain
  • malignant -  dangerous to health; characterized by progressive and uncontrolled growth (especially of a tumor)
  • management -  the act of managing something; those in charge of running a business
  • many -  a quantifier that can be used with count s and is often preceded by `as' or `too' or `so' or `that'; amounting to a large but indefinite number
  • marked -  singled out for notice or especially for a dire fate; strongly marked; easily noticeable; having or as if having an identifying mark or a mark as specified; often used in combination
  • marker -  some conspicuous object used to distinguish or mark something; a writing implement for making a mark; a distinguishing symbol
  • maximal -  the greatest or most complete or best possible
  • mechanical -  using (or as if using) mechanisms or tools or devices; relating to or governed by or in accordance with mechanics; relating to or concerned with machinery or tools
  • mechanics -  the branch of physics concerned with the motion of bodies in a frame of reference; the technical aspects of doing something
  • mechanism -  the technical aspects of doing something; device consisting of a piece of machinery; has moving parts that perform some function; (philosophy) the philosophical theory that all phenomena can be explained in terms of physical or biological causes; a natural object resembling a machine in structure or function; the atomic process that occurs during a chemical reaction
  • medical -  requiring or amenable to treatment by medicine especially as opposed to surgery; relating to the study or practice of medicine; of or belonging to Aesculapius or the healing art;  a thorough physical examination; includes a variety of tests depending on the age and sex and health of the person
  • membrane -  a thin pliable sheet of material; a pliable sheet of tissue that covers or lines or connects organs or cells of animals
  • metabolism -  the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life; the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals
  • mexiletine -  antiarrhythmic drug (trade name Mexitil) used to treat ventricular arrhythmias
  • middle -  between an earlier and a later period of time; of a stage in the development of a language or literature between earlier and later stages; equally distant from the extremes; being neither at the beginning nor at the end in a series;  the middle area of the human torso (usually in front); an intermediate part or section; time between the beginning and the end of a temporal period; an area that is approximately central within some larger region; verb put in the middle
  • migrate - verb move from one country or region to another and settle there; move periodically or seasonally
  • mild -  moderate in type or degree or effect or force; far from extreme; mild and pleasant; humble in spirit or manner; suggesting retiring mildness or even cowed submissiveness
  • mimic -  constituting an imitation;  someone who mimics (especially an actor or actress); verb imitate (a person or manner), especially for satirical effect
  • minor -  limited in size or scope; inferior in number or size or amount; lesser in scope or effect; not of legal age; of a scale or mode; of your secondary field of academic concentration or specialization; of lesser importance or stature or rank; of lesser seriousness or danger; warranting only temporal punishment;  a young person of either sex
  • minute -  characterized by painstaking care and detailed examination; infinitely or immeasurably small; immeasurably small;  a short note; a unit of angular distance equal to a 60th of a degree; a unit of time equal to 60 seconds or 1/60th of an hour; distance measured by the time taken to cover it; a particular point in time; an indefinitely short time
  • minutes -  a written account of what transpired at a meeting
  • mitral stenosis -  obstruction or narrowing of the mitral valve (as by scarring from rheumatic fever)
  • mitral valve prolapse -  cardiopathy resulting from the mitral valve not regulating the flow of blood between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart
  • mitral -  of or relating to or located in or near the mitral valve; relating to or resembling the miter worn by some clerics
  • mm Hg  – An abbreviation for millimeters of mercury. Blood pressure is measured in units of mm Hg—how high the pressure inside the arteries would be able to raise a column of mercury.
  • monitoring -  the act of observing something (and sometimes keeping a record of it)
  • morbid -  suggesting an unhealthy mental state; caused by or altered by or manifesting disease or pathology; suggesting the horror of death and decay
  • mortality -  the quality or state of being mortal; the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year
  • most -  the superlative of `much' that can be used with mass s and is usually preceded by `the'; a quantifier meaning the greatest in amount or extent or degree; (superlative of `many' used with count s and often preceded by `the') quantifier meaning the greatest in number;  used to form the superlative; very; (of actions or states) slightly short of or not quite accomplished
  • mucous -  of or secreting or covered with or resembling mucus
  • multiplied -  greatly increased as by multiplication
  • murmur -  a schwa that is incidental to the pronunciation of a consonant; a complaint uttered in a low and indistinct tone; a low continuous indistinct sound; often accompanied by movement of the lips without the production of articulate speech; an abnormal sound of the heart; sometimes a sign of abnormal function of the heart valves; verb make complaining remarks or noises under one's breath; speak softly or indistinctly
  • muscle -  authority or power or force (especially when used in a coercive way); animal tissue consisting predominantly of contractile cells; one of the contractile organs of the body; possessing muscular strength; a bully employed as a thug or bodyguard; verb make one's way by force
  • muscular -  having or suggesting great physical power or force; of or relating to or consisting of muscle; having a robust muscular body-build characterized by predominance of structures (bone and muscle and connective tissue) developed from the embryonic mesodermal layer; (of a person) possessing physical strength and weight; rugged and powerful
  • must -  highly recommended;  grape juice before or during fermentation; a necessary or essential thing; the quality of smelling or tasting old or stale or mouldy
  • myocardial infarction -  destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle
  • myocardial -  of or relating to the myocardium
  • myocarditis -  inflammation of the myocardium (the muscular tissue of the heart)
  • myocardium -  the middle muscular layer of the heart wall
  • myofibril -  one of many contractile filaments that make up a striated muscle fiber
  • myoglobin -  a hemoprotein that receives oxygen from hemoglobin and stores it in the tissues until needed
  • myopathy -  any pathology of the muscles that is not attributable to nerve dysfunction
  • narrowing -  (of circumstances) tending to constrict freedom; becoming gradually narrower;  the act of making something narrower; an instance of becoming narrow; a decrease in width
  • near -  not far distant in time or space or degree or circumstances; closely resembling the genuine article; being on the left side; very close in resemblance; with or in a close or intimate relationship; giving or spending with reluctance;  near in time or place or relationship; (of actions or states) slightly short of or not quite accomplished; verb move towards
  • nearly -  (of actions or states) slightly short of or not quite accomplished; in a close manner
  • necessary -  unavoidably determined by prior circumstances; absolutely essential;  anything indispensable
  • neck -  an opening in a garment for the neck of the wearer; a part of the garment near the wearer's neck; the part of an organism that connects the head to the rest of the body; a cut of meat from the neck of an animal; a narrow elongated projecting strip of land; verb kiss, embrace, or fondle with sexual passion
  • necrosis -  the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply)
  • necrotic -  relating to or affected by necrosis
  • nephropathy -  a disease affecting the kidneys
  • nerve -  any bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body; impudent aggressiveness; the courage to carry on; verb get ready for something difficult or unpleasant
  • nervous -  easily agitated; of or relating to the nervous system; unpredictably excitable (especially of horses); excited in anticipation; causing or fraught with or showing anxiety
  • network -  (broadcasting) a communication system consisting of a group of broadcasting stations that all transmit the same programs; (electronics) a system of interconnected electronic components or circuits; a system of intersecting lines or channels; an interconnected system of things or people; an open fabric of string or rope or wire woven together at regular intervals; verb communicate with and within a group
  • nicotine -  an alkaloid poison that occurs in tobacco; used in medicine and as an insecticide
  • nifedipine -  calcium blocker (trade name Procardia); appears to increase the risk of recurrent heart attacks
  • night -  darkness; the dark part of the diurnal cycle considered a time unit; the time after sunset and before sunrise while it is dark outside; the time between sunset and midnight; the period spent sleeping; a period of ignorance or backwardness or gloom; a shortening of nightfall; Roman goddess of night; daughter of Erebus; counterpart of Greek Nyx
  • nitroglycerin -  a heavy yellow poisonous oily explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol; used in making explosives and medically as a vasodilator (trade names Nitrospan and Nitrostat)
  • nocturnal -  belonging to or active during the night; of or relating to or occurring in the night
  • node  - noun (computer science) any computer that is hooked up to a computer network  any bulge or swelling of an anatomical structure or part  (astronomy) a point where an orbit crosses a plane  (physics) the point of minimum displacement in a periodic system  any thickened enlargement  a connecting point at which several lines come together  the source of lymph and lymphocytes
  • noninflammatory -  not inflammatory
  • nonspecific -  not caused by a specific agent; used also of staining in making microscope slides
  • normal -  conforming with or constituting a norm or standard or level or type or social norm; not abnormal; being approximately average or within certain limits in e.g. intelligence and development; in accordance with scientific laws; forming a right angle;  something regarded as a normative example
  • normally -  under normal conditions
  • nosocomial -  taking place or originating in a hospital
  • nuts -  informal or slang terms for mentally irregular
  • obesity -  more than average fatness
  • obscure -  not clearly understood or expressed; not drawing attention; not famous or acclaimed; marked by difficulty of style or expression; remote and separate physically or socially; difficult to find; verb make obscure or unclear; make difficult to perceive by sight; make undecipherable or imperceptible by obscuring or concealing; make less visible or unclear; make unclear, indistinct, or blurred
  • obstruct - verb block passage through; shut out from view or get in the way so as to hide from sight; hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of
  • obstruction -  getting in someone's way; the act of obstructing; any structure that makes progress difficult; the state or condition of being obstructed; something immaterial that stands in the way and must be circumvented or surmounted
  • obstructive -  preventing movement
  • occlusion -  (dentistry) the normal spatial relation of the teeth when the jaws are closed; closure or blockage (as of a blood vessel); the act of blocking; an obstruction in a pipe or tube; (meteorology) a composite front when colder air surrounds a mass of warm air and forces it aloft
  • occur - verb come to one's mind; suggest itself; to be found to exist; come to pass
  • often -  many times at short intervals; frequently or in great quantities
  • only -  exclusive of anyone or anything else; being the only one; single and isolated from others;  with nevertheless the final result; in the final outcome; as recently as; except that; never except when; and nothing more; without any others being included or involved
  • onset -  the beginning or early stages; (military) an offensive against an enemy (using weapons)
  • opposed -  being in opposition or having an opponent; in opposition to (a policy or attitude etc.)
  • organ -  wind instrument whose sound is produced by means of pipes arranged in sets supplied with air from a bellows and controlled from a large complex musical keyboard; a fully differentiated structural and functional unit in an animal that is specialized for some particular function; a periodical that is published by a special interest group; a government agency or instrument devoted to the performance of some specific function; (music) an electronic simulation of a pipe organ; a free-reed instrument in which air is forced through the reeds by bellows
  • organs -  edible viscera of a butchered animal
  • origin -  properties attributable to your ancestry; the point of intersection of coordinate axes; where the values of the coordinates are all zero; an event that is a beginning; a first part or stage of subsequent events; the descendants of one individual; the place where something begins, where it springs into being
  • other -  very unusual; different in character or quality from the normal or expected; recently past; not the same one or ones already mentioned or implied; belonging to the distant past
  • outcome -  something that results; a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon
  • outer -  being on or toward the outside of the body; being on the outside or further from a center; located outside
  • outflow -  the process of flowing out; the unwanted discharge of a fluid from some container; a natural flow of ground water
  • output -  production of a certain amount; what is produced in a given time period; the quantity of something (as a commodity) that is created (usually within a given period of time); final product; the things produced; signal that comes out of an electronic system; verb to create or manufacture a specific amount
  • outward -  relating to physical reality rather than with thoughts or the mind; that is going out or leaving;  toward the outside
  • overload -  an excessive burden; an electrical load that exceeds the available electrical power; verb place too much a load on; become overloaded; fill to excess so that function is impaired
  • overview -  a general summary of a subject
  • ovum -  the female reproductive cell; the female gamete
  • oxidation -  the process of oxidizing; the addition of oxygen to a compound with a loss of electrons; always occurs accompanied by reduction
  • oxidative -  taking place in the presence of oxygen
  • oxygen -  a nonmetallic bivalent element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless nonflammable diatomic gas; constitutes 21 percent of the atmosphere by volume; the most abundant element in the earth's crust
  • pacemaker -  an implanted electronic device that takes over the function of the natural cardiac pacemaker; a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat; a horse used to set the pace in racing; a leading instance in its field
  • pain -  a somatic sensation of acute discomfort; emotional distress; a fundamental feeling that people try to avoid; a bothersome annoying person; a symptom of some physical hurt or disorder; something or someone that causes trouble; a source of unhappiness; verb cause emotional anguish or make miserable; cause bodily suffering to and make sick or indisposed
  • paralysis -  loss of the ability to move a body part
  • paroxysmal -  accompanied by or of the nature of paroxysms
  • particularly -  to a distinctly greater extent or degree than is common; specifically or especially distinguished from others; uniquely or characteristically
  • parts -  the local environment
  • passage -  the act of passing from one state or place to the next; a journey usually by ship; the act of passing something to another person; a bodily reaction of changing from one place or stage to another; a way through or along which someone or something may pass; a path or channel or duct through or along which something may pass; a section of text; particularly a section of medium length; a short section of a musical composition; the passing of a law by a legislative body; the motion of one object relative to another
  • patent ductus arteriosus -  a ductus arteriosus that failed to close at birth; may require surgical correction
  • pathogenesis -  the origination and development of a disease
  • pathologic -  caused by or altered by or manifesting disease or pathology; of or relating to the practice of pathology
  • patient -  enduring without protest or complaint; enduring trying circumstances with even temper or characterized by such endurance;  a person who requires medical care; the semantic role of an entity that is not the agent but is directly involved in or affected by the happening denoted by the verb in the clause
  • pelvis -  a structure shaped like a funnel in the outlet of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter; the structure of the vertebrate skeleton supporting the lower limbs in humans and the hind limbs or corresponding parts in other vertebrates
  • percutaneous -  through the unbroken skin; refers to medications applied directly to the skin (creams or ointments) or in time-release forms (skin patches)
  • perform - verb carry out or perform an action; give a performance (of something); perform a function; get (something) done
  • pericardial -  located around the heart or relating to or affecting the pericardium
  • pericarditis -  inflammation of the pericardium
  • pericardium -  a serous membrane with two layers that surrounds the heart
  • period -  a punctuation mark (.) placed at the end of a declarative sentence to indicate a full stop or after abbreviations; the end or completion of something; a unit of geological time during which a system of rocks formed; one of three periods of play in hockey games; the interval taken to complete one cycle of a regularly repeating phenomenon; a stage in the history of a culture having a definable place in space and time; the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus of nonpregnant women from puberty to menopause; an amount of time
  • permanent -  continuing or enduring without marked change in status or condition or place; not capable of being reversed or returned to the original condition;  a series of waves in the hair made by applying heat and chemicals
  • persistent -  never-ceasing; retained; not shed; continually recurring to the mind
  • pheochromocytoma -  a vascular tumor of the adrenal gland; hypersecretion of epinephrine results in intermittent or sustained hypertension
  • phlebitis -  inflammation of a vein (usually in the legs)
  • physical -  having substance or material existence; perceptible to the senses; concerned with material things; characterized by energetic bodily activity; according with material things or natural laws (other than those peculiar to living matter); involving the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit; relating to the sciences dealing with matter and energy; especially physics; impelled by physical force especially against resistance
  • plaque -  (pathology) a small abnormal patch on or inside the body; a memorial made of brass
  • platelet -  tiny bits of protoplasm found in vertebrate blood; essential for blood clotting
  • plus -  involving advantage or good; on the positive side or higher end of a scale;  the arithmetic operation of summing; calculating the sum of two or more numbers; a useful or valuable quality
  • pollutant -  waste matter that contaminates the water or air or soil
  • poor -  unsatisfactory; having little money or few possessions; lacking in specific resources, qualities or substances; characterized by or indicating poverty; deserving or inciting pity; not sufficient to meet a need;  people without possessions or wealth (considered as a group)
  • possess - verb have as an attribute, knowledge, or skill; enter into and control, as of emotions or ideas; have ownership or possession of
  • potassium -  a light soft silver-white metallic element of the alkali metal group; oxidizes rapidly in air and reacts violently with water; is abundant in nature in combined forms occurring in sea water and in carnallite and kainite and sylvite
  • potential -  existing in possibility; expected to become or be; in prospect;  the inherent capacity for coming into being; the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts
  • practice -  a customary way of operation or behavior; translating an idea into action; the exercise of a profession; knowledge of how something is usually done; systematic training by multiple repetitions; verb avail oneself to; carry out or practice; as of jobs and professions; learn by repetition; engage in a rehearsal (of)
  • precipitate -  done with very great haste and without due deliberation;  a precipitated solid substance in suspension or after settling or filtering; verb separate as a fine suspension of solid particles; hurl or throw violently; bring about abruptly; fall vertically, sharply, or headlong; fall from clouds
  • precipitation -  an unexpected acceleration or hastening; the act of casting down or falling headlong from a height; the falling to earth of any form of water (rain or snow or hail or sleet or mist); the process of forming a chemical precipitate; the quantity of water falling to earth at a specific place within a specified period of time; overly eager speed (and possible carelessness)
  • predominant -  having superior power and influence; most frequent or common
  • pregnancy -  the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus
  • pregnant -  carrying developing offspring within the body or being about to produce new life; filled with or attended with; rich in significance or implication
  • premature -  uncommonly early or before the expected time; born after a gestation period of less than the normal time; too soon or too hasty
  • preset -  set in advance
  • pressure -  a force that compels; the somatic sensation that results from applying force to an area of skin; the force applied to a unit area of surface; measured in pascals (SI unit) or in dynes (cgs unit); an oppressive condition of physical or mental or social or economic distress; the act of pressing; the exertion of pressure; the state of demanding notice or attention; verb to cause to do through pressure or necessity, by physical, moral or intellectual means :"She forced him to take a job in the city"; exert pressure on someone through threats
  • prevent - verb prevent from doing something or being in a certain state; keep from happening or arising; make impossible
  • prevention -  the act of preventing
  • preventive -  preventing or contributing to the prevention of disease; tending to prevent or hinder; tending to ward off;  remedy that prevents or slows the course of an illness or disease; an agent or device intended to prevent conception; any obstruction that impedes or is burdensome
  • principal -  most important element;  the major party to a financial transaction at a stock exchange; buys and sells for his own account; the educator who has executive authority for a school; capital as contrasted with the income derived from it; the original amount of a debt on which interest is calculated; an actor who plays a principal role
  • procedure -  a mode of conducting legal and parliamentary proceedings; a particular course of action intended to achieve a result; a process or series of acts especially of a practical or mechanical nature involved in a particular form of work; a set sequence of steps, part of larger computer program
  • produced -  that is caused by
  • progress -  the act of moving forward toward a goal; a movement forward; gradual improvement or growth or development; verb develop in a positive way; form or accumulate steadily; move forward, also in the metaphorical sense
  • prophylaxis -  the prevention of disease
  • protection -  payment extorted by gangsters on threat of violence; the activity of protecting someone or something; the imposition of duties or quotas on imports in order to protect domestic industry against foreign competition; the condition of being protected; kindly endorsement and guidance; a covering that is intend to protect from damage or injury; defense against financial failure; financial independence
  • protein -  any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes
  • proteinuria -  the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
  • proximal -  situated nearest to point of attachment or origin
  • pulmonary circulation -  circulation of blood between the heart and the lungs
  • pulmonary embolism -  blockage of the pulmonary artery by foreign matter or by a blood clot
  • pump -  a mechanical device that moves fluid or gas by pressure or suction; a low-cut shoe without fastenings; the hollow muscular organ located behind the sternum and between the lungs; its rhythmic contractions move the blood through the body; verb question persistently; deliver forth; operate like a pump; move up and down, like a handle or a pedal; raise (gases or fluids) with a pump; move up and down; draw or pour with a pump; flow intermittently; supply in great quantities
  • pumped -  tense with excitement and enthusiasm as from a rush of adrenaline
  • purplish-blue -  of blue tinged with purple
  • quinidine -  cardiac drug (trade names Quinidex and Quinora) used to treat certain heart arrhythmias
  • radius -  the length of a line segment between the center and circumference of a circle or sphere; the outer and slightly shorter of the two bones of the human forearm; a circular region whose area is indicated by the length of its radius; a straight line from the center to the perimeter of a circle (or from the center to the surface of a sphere); support consisting of a radial member of a wheel joining the hub to the rim
  • raised -  increased especially to abnormal levels; above the surround or above the normal position; embellished with a raised pattern created by pressure or embroidery
  • rapid -  done or occurring in a brief period of time; characterized by speed; moving with or capable of moving with high speed;  a part of a river where the current is very fast
  • rapidity -  a rate that is rapid
  • rapidly -  with rapid movements
  • rate -  amount of a charge or payment relative to some basis; a quantity or amount or measure considered as a proportion of another quantity or amount or measure; a magnitude or frequency relative to a time unit; the relative speed of progress or change; verb assign a rank or rating to; estimate the value of; be worthy of or have a certain rating
  • rates -  a local tax on property (usually used in the plural)
  • reactive -  participating readily in reactions; tending to react to a stimulus
  • recipient -  a person who gets something; the semantic role of the animate entity that is passively involved in the happening denoted by the verb in the clause
  • recognition -  designation by the chair granting a person the right to speak in a deliberative body; the process of recognizing something or someone by remembering; an acceptance (as of a claim) as true and valid; approval; the explicit and formal acknowledgement of a government or of the national independence of a country; (biology) the ability of one molecule to attach to another molecule that has a complementary shape; the state or quality of being recognized or acknowledged; coming to understand something clearly and distinctly
  • recording -  the act of making a record (especially an audio record); signal encoding something (e.g., picture or sound) that has been recorded; a storage device on which information (sounds or images) have been recorded
  • recover - verb regain a former condition after a financial loss; cover anew; get or find back; recover the use of; regain or make up for; get over an illness or shock; reuse (materials from waste products)
  • recurrent -  recurring again and again
  • reduced -  well below normal (especially in price); made less in size or amount or degree
  • reduction -  the act of reducing complexity; any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen); always occurs accompanied by oxidation of the reducing agent; the act of decreasing or reducing something
  • regulation -  prescribed by or according to regulation;  the act of controlling or directing according to rule; the act of bringing to uniformity; making regular; an authoritative rule; (embryology) the ability of an early embryo to continue normal development after its structure has been somehow damaged or altered; the state of being controlled or governed; a principle or condition that customarily governs behavior
  • regurgitation -  recall after rote memorization; backflow of blood through a defective heart valve; the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
  • rehabilitation -  the restoration of someone to a useful place in society; the treatment of physical disabilities by massage and electrotherapy and exercises; vindication of a person's character and the re-establishment of that person's reputation; the conversion of wasteland into land suitable for use of habitation or cultivation
  • relatively -  in a relative manner; by comparison to something else
  • remains -  any object that is left unused or still extant; the dead body of a human being
  • repeating -  the act of doing or performing again
  • replace - verb substitute a person or thing for (another that is broken or inefficient or lost or no longer working or yielding what is expected); put something back where it belongs; put in the place of another; switch seemingly equivalent items; take the place or move into the position of
  • replicate - verb reproduce or make an exact copy of; make or do or perform again; bend or turn backward
  • required -  required by rule; necessary for relief or supply
  • research -  systematic investigation to establish facts; a search for knowledge; verb inquire into; attempt to find out in a systematically and scientific manner
  • respiration -  the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic molecules; processes that take place in the cells and tissues during which energy is released and carbon dioxide is produced and absorbed by the blood to be transported to the lungs; a single complete act of breathing in and out; the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation; the process of taking in oxygen from inhaled air and releasing carbon dioxide by exhalation
  • respiratory -  pertaining to respiration
  • restriction -  the act of keeping something within specified bounds (by force if necessary); a principle that limits the extent of something; an act of limiting or restricting (as by regulation)
  • result -  something that results; the semantic role of the phrase whose referent exists only by virtue of the activity denoted by the verb in the clause; a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem; a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon; verb issue or terminate (in a specified way, state, etc.); end; have as a result or residue
  • retina -  the light-sensitive membrane covering the back wall of the eyeball; it is continuous with the optic nerve
  • retirement -  withdrawal for prayer and study and meditation; withdrawal from your position or occupation; the state of being retired from one's business or occupation
  • rhythm -  recurring at regular intervals; the arrangement of spoken words alternating stressed and unstressed elements; the basic rhythmic unit in a piece of music; natural family planning in which ovulation is assumed to occur 14 days before the onset of a period (the fertile period would be assumed to extend from day 10 through day 18 of her cycle); an interval during which a recurring sequence of events occurs
  • rigidity -  the physical property of being stiff and resisting bending; the quality of being rigid and rigorously severe
  • risk -  a venture undertaken without regard to possible loss or injury; the probability of being exposed to an infectious agent; the probability of becoming infected given that exposure to an infectious agent has occurred; a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune; verb expose to a chance of loss or damage; take a risk in the hope of a favorable outcome
  • rupture -  the act of making a sudden noisy break; a personal or social separation (as between opposing factions); state of being torn or burst open; verb separate or cause to separate abruptly
  • same -  unchanged in character or nature; closely similar or comparable in kind or quality or quantity or degree; same in identity; equal in amount or value;  the language of nomadic Lapps in northern Scandinavia and the Kola Peninsula; a member of an indigenous nomadic people living in northern Scandinavia and herding reindeer
  • sarcomere -  one of the segments into which a myofibril is divided
  • scavenger -  any animal that feeds on refuse and other decaying organic matter; a chemical agent that is added to a chemical mixture to counteract the effects of impurities; someone who collects things that have been discarded by others
  • science -  a particular branch of scientific knowledge; ability to produce solutions in some problem domain
  • sclerosis -  any pathological hardening or thickening of tissue
  • screening -  testing objects or persons in order to identify those with particular characteristics; fabric of metal or plastic mesh; the display of a motion picture; the act of concealing the existence of something by obstructing the view of it
  • secondary hypertension -  hypertension that is secondary to another disease
  • secretion -  a functionally specialized substance (especially one that is not a waste) released from a gland or cell; the organic process of synthesizing and releasing some substance
  • segment -  one of the parts into which something naturally divides; one of several parts or pieces that fit with others to constitute a whole object; verb divide or split up; divide into segments
  • sensing -  becoming aware of something via the senses; the perception that something has occurred or some state exists
  • septal -  of or relating to a septum
  • septum -  (anatomy) a dividing partition between two tissues or cavities; a partition or wall especially in an ovary
  • serious -  requiring effort or concentration; complex and not easy to answer or solve; of great consequence; concerned with work or important matters rather than play or trivialities; causing fear or anxiety by threatening great harm; appealing to the mind; completely lacking in playfulness
  • serous -  of or producing or containing serum
  • serum -  watery fluid of the blood that resembles plasma but contains fibrinogen
  • several -  distinct and individual; (used with count s) of an indefinite number more than 2 or 3 but not many; considered individually
  • severe -  very bad in degree or extent; unsparing and uncompromising in discipline or judgment; intensely or extremely bad or unpleasant in degree or quality; causing fear or anxiety by threatening great harm; severely simple; very strong or vigorous
  • severely -  to a severe or serious degree; causing great damage or hardship; with sternness; in a severe manner
  • severity -  excessive sternness; extreme plainness; something hard to endure; used of the degree of something undesirable e.g. pain or weather
  • shortness -  the property of being shorter than average stature; the property of being of short temporal extent; the property of being of short spatial extent; the property of being truncated or short; the condition of being short of something; an abrupt discourteous manner
  • shut -  not open; used especially of mouth or eyes; verb move so that an opening or passage is obstructed; make shut; become closed; prevent from entering; shut out
  • silky -  having a smooth, gleaming surface
  • simple -  unornamented; (botany) of leaf shapes; of leaves having no divisions or subdivisions; having few parts; not complex or complicated or involved; easy and not involved or complicated; apart from anything else; without additions or modifications; lacking mental capacity and devoid of subtlety; exhibiting childlike simplicity and credulity;  any herbaceous plant having medicinal properties; a person lacking intelligence or common sense
  • single -  not divided among or brought to bear on more than one object or objective; having uniform application; existing alone or consisting of one entity or part or aspect or individual; used of flowers having usually only one row or whorl of petals; being or characteristic of a single thing or person; not married or related to the unmarried state; characteristic of or meant for a single person or thing;  a base hit on which the batter stops safely at first base; verb hit a single
  • sinus -  any of various air-filled cavities especially in the bones of the skull; a wide channel containing blood; does not have the coating of an ordinary blood vessel; an abnormal passage leading from a suppurating cavity to the body surface
  • site -  physical position in relation to the surroundings; the piece of land on which something is located (or is to be located); a computer connected to the internet that maintains a series of web pages on the World Wide Web; verb assign a location to
  • size -  (used in combination) sized;  the property resulting from being one of a series of graduated measurements (as of clothing); the physical magnitude of something (how big it is); a large magnitude; the actual state of affairs; any glutinous material used to fill pores in surfaces or to stiffen fabrics; verb make to a size; bring to a suitable size; sort according to size; cover or stiffen or glaze a porous material with size or sizing (a glutinous substance)
  • sleep apnea -  apnea that occurs during sleep
  • sleep -  a natural and periodic state of rest during which consciousness of the world is suspended; a torpid state resembling deep sleep; a period of time spent sleeping; euphemisms for death (based on an analogy between lying in a bed and in a tomb); verb be asleep; be able to accommodate for sleeping
  • small -  limited or below average in number or quantity or magnitude or extent; slight or limited; especially in degree or intensity or scope; have fine or very small constituent particles; made to seem smaller or less (especially in worth); limited in size or scope; (of a voice) faint; lowercase; not large but sufficient in size or amount; (of children and animals) young, immature; low or inferior in station or quality;  on a small scale;  a garment size for a small person; the slender part of the back
  • smoking -  emitting smoke in great volume;  the act of smoking tobacco or other substances; a hot vapor containing fine particles of carbon being produced by combustion
  • sodium -  a silvery soft waxy metallic element of the alkali metal group; occurs abundantly in natural compounds (especially in salt water); burns with a yellow flame and reacts violently in water; occurs in sea water and in the mineral halite (rock salt)
  • some -  relatively many but unspecified in number; relatively much but unspecified in amount or extent; remarkable; quantifier; used with either mass s or plural count s to indicate an unspecified number or quantity;  (of quantities) imprecise but fairly close to correct
  • spasm -  (pathology) sudden constriction of a hollow organ (as a blood vessel); a painful and involuntary muscular contraction
  • special -  for a special service or occasion; adapted to or reserved for a particular purpose; surpassing what is common or usual or expected; having a specific function or scope; unique or specific to a person or thing or category; first and most important; added to a regular schedule;  a television production that features a particular person or work or topic; a special offering (usually temporary and at a reduced price) that is featured in advertising; a dish or meal given prominence in e.g. a restaurant
  • specialized -  marked by or characteristic of specialization in a mechanical or scientific subject; developed or designed for a special activity or function
  • species -  a specific kind of something; (biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
  • specific -  stated explicitly or in detail; (sometimes followed by `to') applying to or characterized by or distinguishing something particular or special or unique; being or affecting a disease produced by a particular microorganism or condition; used also of stains or dyes used in making microscope slides; relating to or distinguishing or constituting a taxonomic species;  a medicine that has a mitigating effect on a specific disease; a fact about some part (as opposed to general)
  • speech -  (language) communication by word of mouth; the exchange of spoken words; something spoken; the mental faculty or power of vocal communication; a lengthy rebuke; words making up the dialogue of a play; your characteristic style or manner of expressing yourself orally; the act of delivering a formal spoken communication to an audience
  • spherical -  of or relating to spheres or resembling a sphere; having the shape of a sphere or ball
  • spontaneous -  happening or arising without apparent external cause; said or done without having been planned or written in advance
  • starting -  appropriate to the beginning or start of an event; (especially of eyes) bulging or protruding as with fear;  a turn to be a starter (in a game at the beginning)
  • stenosis -  abnormal narrowing of a bodily canal or passageway
  • steps -  the course along which a person has walked or is walking in; a flight of stairs or a flight of steps
  • sternum -  the flat bone that articulates with the clavicles and the first seven pairs of ribs
  • stethoscope -  a medical instrument for listening to the sounds generated inside the body
  • strength -  the property of being physically or mentally strong; the condition of financial success; capacity to produce strong physiological or chemical effects; physical energy or intensity; permanence by virtue of the power to resist stress or force; the amount of energy transmitted (as by acoustic or electromagnetic radiation); an asset of special worth or utility; the power to induce the taking of a course of action or the embracing of a point of view by means of argument or entreaty; capability in terms of personnel and materiel that affect the capacity to fight a war
  • strengthen - verb gain strength; make strong or stronger; give a healthy elasticity to
  • stress test -  a test measuring how a system functions when subjected to controlled amounts of stress
  • stress -  the relative prominence of a syllable or musical note (especially with regard to stress or pitch); (physics) force that produces strain on a physical body; difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension; special emphasis attached to something; (psychology) a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense; verb put stress on; utter with an accent; to stress, single out as important; test the limits of
  • strong -  freshly made or left; not faint or feeble; of verbs not having standard (or regular) inflection; having strength or power greater than average or expected; strong and sure; being distilled rather than fermented; having a high alcoholic content; having a strong physiological or chemical effect; having or wielding force or authority; of good quality and condition; solidly built; able to withstand attack
  • subsequent -  following in time or order
  • substance -  that which has mass and occupies space; the stuff of which an object consists; the idea that is intended; the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience; what a communication that is about something is about; considerable capital (wealth or income)
  • such -  of so extreme a degree or extent;  to so extreme a degree
  • sudden death -  (sports) overtime in which play is stopped as soon as one contestant scores; e.g. football and golf
  • sudden -  happening without warning or in a short space of time
  • sufficient -  of a quantity that can fulfill a need or requirement but without being abundant
  • suffocation -  killing by depriving of oxygen; the condition of being deprived of oxygen (as by having breathing stopped)
  • supply -  offering goods and services for sale; an amount of something available for use; the activity of supplying or providing something; verb provide or furnish with; state or say further; provide what is desired or needed, especially support, food or sustenance; circulate or distribute or equip with
  • supplying -  the activity of supplying or providing something
  • surgery -  a room where a doctor or dentist can be consulted; the branch of medical science that treats disease or injury by operative procedures; a medical procedure involving an incision with instruments; performed to repair damage or arrest disease in a living body; a room in a hospital equipped for the performance of surgical operations
  • surrounding -  closely encircling
  • survival -  something that survives; a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment; a state of surviving; remaining alive
  • swiftly -  in a swift manner
  • sympathetic -  expressing or feeling or resulting from sympathy or compassion or friendly fellow feelings; disposed toward; (of characters in literature or drama) evoking empathic or sympathetic feelings; of or relating to the sympathetic nervous system; having similar disposition and tastes; relating to vibrations that occur as a result of vibrations in a nearby body; showing or motivated by sympathy and understanding and generosity
  • sympathomimetic -  relating to epinephrine (its release or action)
  • symptomatic -  relating to or according to or affecting a symptom or symptoms; characteristic or indicative of e.g. a disease
  • syncope -  (phonology) the loss of sounds in the interior of a word (as in `fo'c'sle' for `forecastle'); a spontaneous loss of consciousness caused by insufficient blood to the brain
  • syndrome -  a complex of concurrent things; a pattern of symptoms indicative of some disease
  • synonymous -  (of words) meaning the same or nearly the same
  • synthesis -  the combination of ideas into a complex whole; the process of producing a chemical compound (usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds); reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)
  • synthesize - verb combine so as to form a more complex, product; combine and form a synthesis
  • systemic -  affecting an entire system
  • systole -  the contraction of the chambers of the heart (especially the ventricles) to drive blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery
  • systolic -  of or relating to a systole or happing during a systole
  • tachycardia -  abnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)
  • taken -  be affected with an indisposition; having possession gained especially by force or effort; understood in a certain way; made sense of
  • tamponade -  blockage or closure (as of a wound or body cavity) by (or as if by) a tampon (especially to stop bleeding)
  • technique -  a practical method or art applied to some particular task; skillfulness in the command of fundamentals deriving from practice and familiarity
  • temperature -  the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity); the somatic sensation of cold or heat
  • temporary -  lacking continuity or regularity; not permanent; not lasting;  a worker (especially in an office) hired on a temporary basis
  • tendency -  a characteristic likelihood of or natural disposition toward a certain condition or character or effect; a general direction in which something tends to move; an attitude of mind especially one that favors one alternative over others; an inclination to do something
  • tension -  the action of stretching something tight; (physics) a stress that produces an elongation of an elastic physical body; a balance between and interplay of opposing elements or tendencies (especially in art or literature); (psychology) a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense; the physical condition of being stretched or strained; feelings of hostility that are not manifest
  • term -  any distinct quantity contained in a polynomial; a word or expression used for some particular thing; one of the substantive phrases in a logical proposition; a limited period of time; the end of gestation or point at which birth is imminent; (architecture) a statue or a human bust or an animal carved out of the top of a square pillar; originally used as a boundary marker in ancient Rome; (usually plural) a statement of what is required as part of an agreement; verb name formally or designate with a term
  • terminal -  causing or ending in or approaching death; relating to or occurring in a term or fixed period of time; of or relating to or situated at the ends of a delivery route; occurring at or forming an end or termination; being or situated at an end;  station where transport vehicles load or unload passengers or goods; a contact on an electrical device (such as a battery) at which electric current enters or leaves; electronic equipment consisting of a device providing access to a computer; has a keyboard and display
  • terminology -  a system of words used to name things in a particular discipline
  • testing -  the act of subjecting to experimental test in order to determine how well something works; an examination of the characteristics of something; the act of giving students or candidates a test (as by questions) to determine what they know or have learned
  • therapy -  (medicine) the act of caring for someone (as by medication or remedial training etc.)
  • there -  in or at that place; to or toward that place; away from the speaker; in that matter;  a location other than here; that place
  • therefore -  (used to introduce a logical conclusion) from that fact or reason or as a result; as a consequence
  • thickening -  becoming more intricate or complex; accumulating and becoming more intense;  the act of thickening; any material used to thicken; any thickened enlargement
  • thickness -  resistance to flow; the dimension through an object as opposed to its length or width; used of a line or mark; indistinct articulation
  • thigh -  the part of the leg between the hip and the knee; the upper joint of the leg of a fowl
  • thin -  lacking excess flesh; (of sound) lacking resonance or volume; lacking spirit or sincere effort; of relatively small extent from one surface to the opposite or in cross section; relatively thin in consistency or low in density; not viscous; not dense; having little substance or significance; very narrow;  without viscosity; verb make thin or thinner; lose thickness; become thin or thinner; take off weight; lessen the strength or flavor of a solution or mixture
  • thrombin -  an enzyme that acts on fibrinogen in blood causing it to clot
  • thrombocytopenia -  a blood disease characterized by an abnormally small number of platelets in the blood
  • thromboembolism -  occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus that has broken away from a thrombus
  • thrombosis -  the formation or presence of a thrombus (a clot of coagulated blood attached at the site of its formation) in a blood vessel
  • thrombus -  a blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin
  • through -  (of a route or journey etc.) continuing without requiring stops or changes; having finished or arrived at completion;  throughout the entire extent; over the whole distance; in diameter; from beginning to end; to completion
  • throughout -  from first to last; used to refer to cited works
  • thus -  in the way indicated; (used to introduce a logical conclusion) from that fact or reason or as a result;  an aromatic gum resin obtained from various Arabian or East African trees; formerly valued for worship and for embalming and fumigation
  • thyrotoxicosis -  an overactive thyroid gland; pathologically excessive production of thyroid hormones or the condition resulting from excessive production of thyroid hormones
  • tissue -  part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function; a soft thin (usually translucent) paper; verb create a piece of cloth by interlacing strands of fabric, such as wool or cotton
  • together -  mentally and emotionally stable;  at the same time; with cooperation and interchange; in contact with each other; assembled in one place; in each other's company; with a common plan; in conjunction with; combined
  • tomography -  (medicine) obtaining pictures of the interior of the body
  • tongue -  the flap of material under the laces of a shoe or boot; a mobile mass of muscular tissue covered with mucous membrane and located in the oral cavity; a manner of speaking; the tongue of certain animals used as meat; any long thin projection that is transient; metal striker that hangs inside a bell and makes a sound by hitting the side; a human written or spoken language used by a community; opposed to e.g. a computer language; a narrow strip of land that juts out into the sea; verb lick or explore with the tongue; articulate by tonguing, as when playing wind instruments
  • total -  constituting the full quantity or extent; complete; complete in extent or degree and in every particular; without conditions or limitations; including everything;  the whole amount; a quantity obtained by the addition of a group of numbers; verb damage beyond the point of repair; determine the sum of; add up in number or quantity
  • tough -  resistant to cutting or chewing; physically toughened; not given to gentleness or sentimentality; feeling physical discomfort or pain (`tough' is occasionally used colloquially for `bad'); substantially made or constructed; making great mental demands; hard to comprehend or solve or believe; very difficult; severely testing stamina or resolution; unfortunate or hard to bear; violent and lawless;  a cruel and brutal fellow; an aggressive and violent young criminal; someone who learned to fight in the streets rather than being formally trained in the sport of boxing
  • tracing -  the act of drawing a plan or diagram or outline; a drawing created by superimposing a semitransparent sheet of paper on the original image and copying on it the lines of the original image
  • tract -  a system of body parts that together serve some particular purpose; a brief treatise on a subject of interest; published in the form of a booklet; an extended area of land; a bundle of myelinated nerve fibers following a path through the brain
  • transient -  of a mental act; causing effects outside the mind; lasting a very short time;  (physics) a short-lived oscillation in a system caused by a sudden change of voltage or current or load; one who stays for only a short time
  • transmissible -  (of disease) capable of being transmitted by infection; inherited or inheritable by established rules (usually legal rules) of descent; tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity
  • transmission -  the act of sending a message; causing a message to be transmitted; the gears that transmit power from an automobile engine via the driveshaft to the live axle; communication by means of transmitted signals; an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted; the fraction of radiant energy that passes through a substance
  • transplantation -  the act of removing something from one location and introducing it in another location; an operation moving an organ from one organism (the donor) to another (the recipient)
  • trauma -  an emotional wound or shock often having long-lasting effects; any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.
  • travel -  the act of going from one place to another; self-propelled movement; a movement through space that changes the location of something; verb change location; move, travel, or proceed; undergo transportation as in a vehicle; make a trip for pleasure; undertake a journey or trip; travel upon or across; travel from place to place, as for the purpose of finding work, preaching, or acting as a judge
  • treat -  an occurrence that causes special pleasure or delight; something considered choice to eat; verb provide treatment for; regard or consider in a specific way; engage in negotiations in order to reach an agreement; provide with a gift or entertainment; interact in a certain way; subject to a process or treatment, with the aim of readying for some purpose, improving, or remedying a condition; deal with verbally or in some form of artistic expression; provide with choice or abundant food or drink
  • treatment -  care by procedures or applications that are intended to relieve illness or injury; the management of someone or something; a manner of dealing with something artistically; an extended communication (often interactive) dealing with some particular topic
  • trial -  (law) legal proceedings consisting of the judicial examination of issues by a competent tribunal; (law) the determination of a person's innocence or guilt by due process of law; trying something to find out about it; an annoying or frustrating or catastrophic event; (sports) a preliminary competition to determine qualifications; the act of testing something; the act of undergoing testing
  • tricuspid -  having three cusps or points (especially a molar tooth)
  • triglyceride -  glyceride occurring naturally in animal and vegetable tissues; it consists of three individual fatty acids bound together in a single large molecule; an important energy source forming much of the fat stored by the body
  • tube -  conduit consisting of a long hollow object (usually cylindrical) used to hold and conduct objects or liquids or gases; electronic device consisting of a system of electrodes arranged in an evacuated glass or metal envelope; (anatomy) any hollow cylindrical body structure; an electric railway operating below the surface of the ground (usually in a city); a hollow cylindrical shape; verb place or enclose in a tube; ride or float on an inflated tube; convey in a tube; provide with a tube or insert a tube into
  • tumor -  an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose
  • type A -  the blood group whose red cells carry the A antigen
  • type -  a small metal block bearing a raised character on one end; produces a printed character when inked and pressed on paper; a subdivision of a particular kind of thing; all of the tokens of the same symbol; printed characters; (biology) the taxonomic group whose characteristics are used to define the next higher taxon; a person of a specified kind (usually with many eccentricities); verb identify as belonging to a certain type; write by means of a keyboard with types
  • undefined -  not precisely limited, determined, or distinguished
  • under -  lower in rank, power, or authority; located below or beneath something else;  further down; down below; below the horizon; below some quantity or limit; in or into a state of subordination or subjugation; down to defeat, death, or ruin; into unconsciousness; through a range downward
  • undertake - verb promise to do or accomplish; enter upon an activity or enterprise; accept as a charge; accept as a challenge; enter into a contractual arrangement
  • undue -  not yet payable; not appropriate or proper (or even legal) in the circumstances; lacking justification or authorization; beyond normal limits
  • unit -  a single undivided whole; an organization regarded as part of a larger social group; a single undivided natural thing occurring in the composition of something else; an individual or group or structure or other entity regarded as a structural or functional constituent of a whole; an assemblage of parts that is regarded as a single entity; any division of quantity accepted as a standard of measurement or exchange
  • unpaid -  not paid; without payment; engaged in as a pastime
  • unstable -  highly or violently reactive; disposed to psychological variability; lacking stability or fixity or firmness; subject to change; variable; affording no ease or reassurance; suffering from severe mental illness
  • upper -  higher in place or position; superior in rank or accomplishment; the topmost one of two;  piece of leather or synthetic material that forms the part of a shoe or boot above the sole that encases the foot; a central nervous system stimulant that increases energy and decreases appetite; used to treat narcolepsy and some forms of depression; the higher of two berths
  • urine -  liquid excretory product
  • used -  employed in accomplishing something; previously used or owned by another; of persons; taken advantage of
  • using -  an act that exploits or victimizes someone (treats them unfairly)
  • usually -  under normal conditions
  • valve -  control consisting of a mechanical device for controlling the flow of a fluid; device in a brass wind instrument for varying the length of the air column to alter the pitch of a tone; a structure in a hollow organ (like the heart) with a flap to insure one-way flow of fluid through it
  • valvular heart disease -  heart disease caused by stenosis of the cardiac valves and obstructed blood flow or caused by degeneration and blood regurgitation
  • valvular -  relating to or operating by means of valves
  • variety -  a difference that is usually pleasant; (biology) a taxonomic category consisting of members of a species that differ from others of the same species in minor but heritable characteristics; noticeable heterogeneity; a category of things distinguished by some common characteristic or quality; a show consisting of a series of short unrelated performances; a collection containing a variety of sorts of things
  • various -  considered individually; of many different kinds purposefully arranged but lacking any uniformity; distinctly dissimilar or unlike; having great diversity or variety
  • vasculitis -  inflammation of a blood vessel
  • vasoconstriction -  decrease in the diameter of blood vessels
  • vegetation -  inactivity that is passive and monotonous, comparable to the inactivity of plant life; an abnormal growth or excrescence (especially a warty excrescence on the valves of the heart); all the plant life in a particular region or period; the process of growth in plants
  • vein -  one of the horny ribs that stiffen and support the wing of an insect; a blood vessel that carries blood from the capillaries toward the heart; a distinctive style or manner; a layer of ore between layers of rock; any of the vascular bundles or ribs that form the branching framework of conducting and supporting tissues in a leaf or other plant organ; verb make a veinlike pattern
  • ventricle -  a chamber of the heart that receives blood from an atrium and pumps it to the arteries; one of four connected cavities in the brain; is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord and contains cerebrospinal fluid
  • ventricular fibrillation -  fibrillation of heart muscles resulting in interference with rhythmic contractions of the ventricles and possibly leading to cardiac arrest
  • ventricular -  of or relating to a ventricle (of the heart or brain)
  • very -  precisely as stated; being the exact same one; not any other:;  used as intensifiers; `real' is sometimes used informally for `really'; `rattling' is informal; precisely so
  • vessel -  a craft designed for water transportation; an object used as a container (especially for liquids); a tube in which a body fluid circulates
  • visceral -  relating to or affecting the viscera; obtained through intuition rather than from reasoning or observation
  • visualization -  a mental image that is similar to a visual perception
  • voltage -  the rate at which energy is drawn from a source that produces a flow of electricity in a circuit; expressed in volts; the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts
  • volume -  the magnitude of sound (usually in a specified direction); a publication that is one of a set of several similar publications; the amount of 3-dimensional space occupied by an object; a relative amount; physical objects consisting of a number of pages bound together; the property of something that is great in magnitude
  • waistline -  the narrowing of the body between the ribs and hips
  • walk -  the act of traveling by foot; the act of walking somewhere; a slow gait of a horse in which two feet are always on the ground; a path set aside for walking; manner of walking; (baseball) an advance to first base by a batter who receives four balls; careers in general; verb obtain a base on balls; give a base on balls to; take a walk; go for a walk; walk for pleasure; use one's feet to advance; advance by steps; make walk; accompany or escort; traverse or cover by walking; walk at a pace; be or act in association with; live or behave in a specified manner
  • weakening -  moderating by making pain or sorrow weaker; causing debilitation;  the act of reducing the strength of something; becoming weaker
  • weakness -  the property of lacking physical or mental strength; liability to failure under pressure or stress or strain; a penchant for something even though it might not be good for you; the condition of being financially weak; powerlessness revealed by an inability to act; a flaw or weak point
  • weather -  towards the side exposed to wind;  the meteorological conditions: temperature and wind and clouds and precipitation; verb change under the action or influence of the weather; sail to the windward of; cause to slope; face or endure with courage
  • week -  a period of seven consecutive days starting on Sunday; any period of seven consecutive days; hours or days of work in a calendar week
  • within -  on the inside
  • worst -  (superlative of `bad') most wanting in quality or value or condition;  to the highest degree of inferiority or badness;  the weakest effort or poorest achievement one is capable of; the greatest damage or wickedness of which one is capable; the least favorable outcome; verb defeat thoroughly
  • xenograft -  tissue from an animal of one species used as a temporary graft (as in cases of severe burns) on an individual of another species
Medical dictionary
Medical dictionary

Comprehensive dictionary of medicine | Encyclopedia of medicine | List of medicines A-Z | List of medical terms | Cancer terms | Cancer drugs | Health topics | Rare diseases | List of lists

Glossaries, dictionaries and lists in WikiMD

Popular

Dictionaries

Lists & Glossaries

Topics

W8MD weight loss logo

Ad. Tired of being overweight?. W8MD's insurance Weight loss program can HELP*

Quick links: Medicine Portal | Encyclopedia‏‎‏‎ | Gray's Anatomy‏‎ | Topics‏‎ |‏‎ Diseases‏‎ | Drugs | Wellness | Obesity‏‎ | Metabolic syndrome | Weight loss*
Disclaimer: The entire contents of WIKIMD.ORG are for informational purposes only and do not render medical advice or professional services. If you have a medical emergency, you should CALL 911 immediately! Given the nature of the wiki, the information provided may not be accurate, misleading and or incorrect. Use the information on this wiki at your own risk! See full Disclaimer.
Link to this page: <a href="http://www.wikimd.org/wiki/Glossary_of_cardiology">Glossary of cardiology</a>

  • Individual results may vary for weight loss from our sponsors.