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Glossary of health and medicine

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  • abdomen -  the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis; the cavity containing the major viscera; in mammals it is separated from the thorax by the diaphragm
  • abducens nerve -  a small motor nerve supplying the lateral rectus muscle of the eye
  • abortion -  termination of pregnancy; failure of a plan
  • abscess -  symptom consisting of a localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue
  • abstinence -  act or practice of refraining from indulging an appetite; the trait of abstaining (especially from alcohol)
  • ACE -  of the highest quality;  a serve that the receiver is unable to reach; one of four playing cards in a deck having a single pip on its face; someone who is dazzlingly skilled in any field; a major strategic headquarters of NATO; safeguards an area extending from Norway to Turkey; verb serve an ace against (someone); play (a hole) in one stroke; score an ace against; succeed at easily
  • ACE inhibitor -  antihypertensive drug that blocks the formation of angiotensin in the kidney, leading to relaxation of the arteries; promotes the excretion of salt and water by inhibiting the activity of the angiotensin converting enzyme; also used to treat congestive heart failure
  • acetaminophen -  an analgesic for mild pain; also used as an antipyretic; (Datril, Tylenol, Panadol, Phenaphen, Tempra, and Anacin III are trademarks of brands of acetaminophen tablets)
  • acetylcholine -  a neurotransmitter that is a derivative of choline; released at the ends of nerve fibers in the somatic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  • achondroplasia -  an inherited skeletal disorder beginning before birth; cartilage is converted to bone resulting in dwarfism
  • acne -  an inflammatory disease involving the sebaceous glands of the skin; characterized by papules or pustules or comedones
  • acromegaly -  enlargement of bones of hands and feet and face; often accompanied by headache and muscle pain and emotional disturbances; caused by overproduction of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary gland (due to a tumor)
  • ACTH -  a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex
  • actinic keratosis -  an overgrowth of skin layers resulting from extended exposure to the sun
  • active immunity -  a form of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease-causing antigens
  • acupuncture -  treatment of pain or disease by inserting the tips of needles at specific points on the skin
  • acute lymphocytic leukemia -  acute leukemia characterized by proliferation of immature lymphoblast-like cells in bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and blood; most common in children
  • addiction -  (Roman law) a formal award by a magistrate of a thing or person to another person (as the award of a debtor to his creditor); a surrender to a master; an abnormally strong craving; being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming (especially alcohol or narcotic drugs)
  • Addison's disease -  a glandular disorder caused by failure of function of the cortex of the adrenal gland and marked by anemia and prostration with brownish skin
  • adenocarcinoma -  malignant tumor originating in glandular epithelium
  • adenoma -  a benign epithelial tumor of glandular origin
  • adenomyosis -  the presence of endometrium elsewhere than in the lining of the uterus; causes premenstrual pain and dysmenorrhea
  • adenosine -  (biochemistry) a nucleoside that is a structural component of nucleic acids; it is present in all living cells in a combined form as a constituent of DNA and RNA and ADP and ATP and AMP
  • adenosine triphosphate -  a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the major source of energy for cellular reactions
  • adenovirus -  any of a group of viruses including those that in humans cause upper respiratory infections or infectious pinkeye
  • ADH -  hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus; affects blood pressure by stimulating capillary muscles and reduces urine flow by affecting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules
  • ADHD -  a condition (mostly in boys) characterized by behavioral and learning disorders
  • adipose tissue -  a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy; it also cushions and insulates vital organs
  • Administration -  the act of administering medication; a method of tending to (especially business) matters; the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something; the tenure of a president
  • Administration -  the act of administering medication; a method of tending to (especially business) matters; the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something; the tenure of a president
  • adolescence -  in the state that someone is in between puberty and adulthood; the time period between the beginning of puberty and adulthood
  • adoption -  the act of accepting with approval; favorable reception; a legal proceeding that creates a parent-child relation between persons not related by blood; the adopted child is entitled to all privileges belonging to a natural child of the adoptive parents (including the right to inherit); the appropriation (of ideas or words etc) from another source
  • adrenal cortex -  the cortex of the adrenal gland; secretes corticosterone and sex hormones
  • adult -  (of animals) fully developed;  any mature animal; a fully developed person from maturity onward
  • Advil -  a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicine (trade names Advil and Motrin and Nuprin) used to relieve the pain of arthritis and as an analgesic and antipyretic
  • AFP -  an abnormally large amount of this fetoprotein in the fetus can signal an abnormality of the neural tube (as spina bifida or anencephaly)
  • age -  how long something has existed; a time in life (usually defined in years) at which some particular qualification or power arises; a late time of life; a prolonged period of time; an era of history having some distinctive feature; verb begin to seem older; get older; make older; grow old or older
  • age-related -  changing (increasing or decreasing) as an individual's age increases
  • Agency -  a business that serves other businesses; an administrative unit of government; the state of being in action or exerting power; how a result is obtained or an end is achieved; the state of serving as an official and authorized delegate or agent
  • aging -  growing old;  the organic process of growing older and showing the effects of increasing age; acquiring desirable qualities by being left undisturbed for some time
  • AIDS -  a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
  • albinism -  the congenital absence of pigmentation in the eyes and skin and hair
  • albumin -  a simple water-soluble protein found in many animal tissues and liquids
  • albuminuria -  the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
  • alcohol -  a liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent; any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation
  • alcoholism -  habitual intoxication; prolonged and excessive intake of alcoholic drinks leading to a breakdown in health and an addiction to alcohol such that abrupt deprivation leads to severe withdrawal symptoms; an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess
  • aldosterone -  a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland; regulates salt (sodium and potassium) and water balance
  • aldosteronism -  a condition caused by overproduction of aldosterone
  • ALL -  completely given to or absorbed by; quantifier; used with either mass or count s to indicate the whole number or amount of or every one of a class; adv. to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole' is often used informally for `wholly')
  • allele -  either of a pair (or series) of alternative forms of a gene that can occupy the same locus on a particular chromosome and that control the same character
  • allergen -  any substance that can cause an allergy
  • allergic reaction -  hypersensitivity reaction to a particular allergen; symptoms can vary greatly in intensity
  • allergy -  hypersensitivity reaction to a particular allergen; symptoms can vary greatly in intensity
  • alopecia -  loss of hair (especially on the head) or loss of wool or feathers; in humans it can result from heredity or hormonal imbalance or certain diseases or drugs and treatments (chemotherapy for cancer)
  • ALP -  any high mountain
  • alpha -  early testing stage of a software or hardware product; first in order of importance;  the 1st letter of the Greek alphabet; the beginning of a series or sequence
  • alpha fetoprotein -  an abnormally large amount of this fetoprotein in the fetus can signal an abnormality of the neural tube (as spina bifida or anencephaly)
  • ALS -  thickening of tissue in the motor tracts of the lateral columns and anterior horns of the spinal cord; results in progressive muscle atrophy that starts in the limbs
  • altitude sickness -  effects (as nosebleed or nausea) of oxygen deficiency in the blood and tissues at high altitudes
  • alveolus -  a tiny sac for holding air in the lungs; formed by the terminal dilation of tiny air passageways; a bony socket in the alveolar ridge that holds a tooth
  • Alzheimer's disease -  a progressive form of presenile dementia that is similar to senile dementia except that it usually starts in the 40s or 50s; first symptoms are impaired memory which is followed by impaired thought and speech and finally complete helplessness
  • amblyopia -  visual impairment without apparent organic pathology
  • amebiasis -  infection by a disease-causing ameba
  • amenorrhea -  absence or suppression of normal menstrual flow
  • amino acid -  organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
  • amnesia -  partial or total loss of memory
  • amniocentesis -  (pregnancy) extraction by centesis of amniotic fluid from a pregnant woman (after the 15th week of pregnancy) to aid in the diagnosis of fetal abnormalities
  • amniotic fluid -  the serous fluid in which the embryo is suspended inside the amnion
  • ampicillin -  semisynthetic penicillin (trade names Principen and Polycillin and SK-Ampicillin)
  • amputation -  a surgical removal of all or part of a limb; a condition of disability resulting from the loss of one or more limbs
  • amygdala -  an almond-shaped neural structure in the anterior part of the temporal lobe of the cerebrum; intimately connected with the hypothalamus and the hippocampus and the cingulate gyrus; as part of the limbic system it plays an important role in motivation and emotional behavior
  • amyloidosis -  a disorder characterized by deposit of amyloid in organs or tissues; often secondary to chronic rheumatoid arthritis or tuberculosis or multiple myeloma
  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis -  thickening of tissue in the motor tracts of the lateral columns and anterior horns of the spinal cord; results in progressive muscle atrophy that starts in the limbs
  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis -  thickening of tissue in the motor tracts of the lateral columns and anterior horns of the spinal cord; results in progressive muscle atrophy that starts in the limbs
  • analgesia -  absence of the sense of pain without loss of consciousness
  • analgesic -  capable of relieving pain;  a medicine used to relieve pain
  • anaphylaxis -  hypersensitivity reaction to the ingestion or injection of a substance (a protein or drug) resulting from prior contact with a substance
  • ancient -  very old; belonging to times long past especially of the historical period before the fall of the Western Roman Empire;  a person who lived in ancient times; a very old person
  • anemia -  genus of terrestrial or lithophytic ferns having pinnatifid fronds; chiefly of tropical America; a deficiency of red blood cells; a lack of vitality
  • anesthesia -  loss of bodily sensation with or without loss of consciousness
  • aneurysm -  a cardiovascular disease characterized by a saclike widening of an artery resulting from weakening of the artery wall
  • angina pectoris -  a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
  • angiogram -  an X-ray representation of blood vessels made after the injection of a radiopaque substance
  • angioma -  a tumor consisting of a mass of blood or lymphatic vessels
  • angioplasty -  an operation to repair a damaged blood vessel or unblock a coronary artery
  • angiotensin II -  a potent vasopressor agent formed from angiotensin I
  • ankylosing spondylitis -  a chronic form of spondylitis primarily in males and marked by impaired mobility of the spine; sometimes leads to ankylosis
  • anomaly -  (astronomy) position of a planet as defined by its angular distance from its perihelion (as observed from the sun); a person who is unusual; deviation from the normal or common order or form or rule
  • anorexia nervosa -  (psychiatry) a psychological disorder characterized by somatic delusions that you are too fat despite being emaciated
  • antagonist -  a drug that neutralizes or counteracts the effects of another drug; a muscle that relaxes while another contracts; someone who offers opposition
  • anthracosis -  lung disease caused by inhaling coal dust
  • anthrax -  a disease of humans that is not communicable; caused by infection with Bacillus anthracis followed by septicemia; a highly infectious animal disease (especially cattle and sheep); it can be transmitted to people
  • antibody -  any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response
  • antidiuretic hormone -  hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus; affects blood pressure by stimulating capillary muscles and reduces urine flow by affecting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules
  • antigen -  any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates an immune response in the body (especially the production of antibodies)
  • antioxidant -  substance that inhibits oxidation or inhibits reactions promoted by oxygen or peroxides
  • antitoxin -  an antibody that can neutralize a specific toxin
  • antivenin -  an antitoxin that counteracts the effects of venom from the bite of a snake or insect or other animal
  • anuria -  inability to urinate
  • anus -  excretory opening at the end of the alimentary canal
  • anxiety -  a vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some (usually ill-defined) misfortune; a relatively permanent state of anxiety occurring in a variety of mental disorders
  • aorta -  the large trunk artery that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to branch arteries
  • Apgar score -  an assessment of the physical condition of a newborn infant; involves heart rate and muscle tone and respiratory effort and color and reflex responsiveness
  • aphasia -  inability to use or understand language (spoken or written) because of a brain lesion
  • aphrodisiac -  exciting sexual desire;  a drug or other agent that stimulates sexual desire
  • aplastic anemia -  anemia characterized by pancytopenia resulting from failure of the bone marrow; can be caused by neoplasm or by toxic exposure
  • apnea -  transient cessation of respiration
  • apoptosis -  a type of cell death in which the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself; a cell suicide mechanism that enables metazoans to control cell number and eliminate cells that threaten the animal's survival
  • appearance -  the act of appearing in public view; pretending that something is the case in order to make a good impression; formal attendance (in court or at a hearing) of a party in an action; outward or visible aspect of a person or thing; a mental representation; the event of coming into sight
  • appendicular skeleton -  the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs
  • appendix -  a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch; supplementary material that is collected and appended at the back of a book
  • appetite -  a feeling of craving something
  • apraxia -  inability to make purposeful movements
  • aqueous humor -  the limpid fluid within the eyeball between the cornea and the lens
  • ARDS -  acute lung injury characterized by coughing and rales; inflammation of the lungs which become stiff and fibrous and cannot exchange oxygen; occurs among persons exposed to irritants such as corrosive chemical vapors or ammonia or chlorine etc.
  • arrhythmia -  an abnormal rate of muscle contractions in the heart
  • ART -  the creation of beautiful or significant things; the products of human creativity; works of art collectively; a superior skill that you can learn by study and practice and observation; photographs or other visual representations in a printed publication
  • arterial plaque -  a fatty deposit inside an arterial wall; characteristic of atherosclerosis
  • artery -  a major thoroughfare that bears important traffic; a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body
  • arthritis -  inflammation of a joint or joints
  • arthroscopy -  a minimally invasive operation to repair a damaged joint; the surgeon examines the joint with an arthroscope while making repairs through a small incision
  • asbestosis -  lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos particles
  • ascites -  accumulation of serous fluid in peritoneal cavity
  • aspergillosis -  disease especially in agricultural workers caused by inhalation of Aspergillus spores causing lumps in skin and ears and respiratory organs; an opportunistic infection by a fungus of the genus Aspergillus; characterized by inflammation and lesions of the ear and other organs; severe respiratory disease of birds that takes the form of an acute rapidly fatal pneumonia in young chickens and turkeys
  • Aspergillus -  genus of common molds causing food spoilage and some pathogenic to plants and animals
  • asphyxia -  a condition in which insufficient or no oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged on a ventilatory basis; caused by choking or drowning or electric shock or poison gas
  • aspiration -  a will to succeed; a manner of articulation involving an audible release of breath; the act of inhaling; the drawing in of air (or other gases) as in breathing; a cherished desire
  • aspirin -  the acetylated derivative of salicylic acid; used as an analgesic anti-inflammatory drug (trade names Bayer and Empirin) usually taken in tablet form; used as an antipyretic; slows clotting of the blood by poisoning platelets
  • asthma -  respiratory disorder characterized by wheezing; usually of allergic origin
  • astigmatism -  (optics) defect in an optical system in which light rays from a single point fail to converge in a single focal point; (ophthalmology) impaired eyesight resulting usually from irregular conformation of the cornea
  • ataxia -  inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements; unsteady movements and staggering gait
  • atelectasis -  collapse of an expanded lung (especially in infants); also failure of pulmonary alveoli to expand at birth
  • atheroma -  a fatty deposit in the intima (inner lining) of an artery; can obstruct blood flow
  • atherosclerosis -  a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
  • athetosis -  a continuous succession of slow, writhing, involuntary movements of the hands and feet and other body parts
  • atopy -  an allergic reaction that becomes apparent in a sensitized person only minutes after contact
  • ATP -  a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the major source of energy for cellular reactions
  • atrioventricular -  relating to or affecting the atria and ventricles of the heart
  • atrophic -  relating to or characterized by atrophy
  • attack -  a decisive manner of beginning a musical tone or phrase; an offensive move in a sport or game; the act of attacking; (military) an offensive against an enemy (using weapons); strong criticism; the onset of a corrosive or destructive process (as by a chemical agent); a sudden occurrence of an uncontrollable condition; ideas or actions intended to deal with a problem or situation; intense adverse criticism; verb begin to injure; set to work upon; turn one's energies vigorously to a task; attack in speech or writing; take the initiative and go on the offensive; launch an attack or assault on; begin hostilities or start warfare with; attack someone physically or emotionally
  • auditory canal -  either of the passages in the outer ear from the auricle to the tympanic membrane
  • auricle -  the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear; a small conical pouch projecting from the upper anterior part of each atrium of the heart
  • auscultation -  listening to sounds within the body (usually with a stethoscope)
  • autism -  (psychiatry) an abnormal absorption with the self; marked by communication disorders and short attention span and inability to treat others as people
  • autoantibody -  an antibody acting against tissues of the organism that produces it
  • autograft -  tissue that is taken from one site and grafted to another site on the same person
  • autonomic nervous system -  the part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands
  • autosome -  any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome; appear in pairs in body cells but as single chromosomes in spermatozoa
  • avulsion -  a forcible tearing or surgical separation of one body part from another; an abrupt change in the course of a stream that forms the boundary between two parcels of land resulting in the loss of part of the land of one landowner and a consequent increase in the land of another
  • axial skeleton -  the part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs
  • axon -  long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron
  • Ayurveda -  (Sanskrit) an ancient medical treatise summarizing the Hindu art of healing and prolonging life; sometimes regarded as a 5th Veda
  • bacteria -  (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants
  • balance -  a scale for weighing; depends on pull of gravity; equality between the totals of the credit and debit sides of an account; the difference between the totals of the credit and debit sides of an account; equality of distribution; a state of equilibrium; a wheel that regulates the rate of movement in a machine; especially a wheel oscillating against the hairspring of a timepiece to regulate its beat; a weight that balances another weight; (mathematics) an attribute of a shape or relation; exact reflection of form on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane; harmonious arrangement or relation of parts or elements within a whole (as in a design); the seventh sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about September 23 to October 22; (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Libra; something left after other parts have been taken away; verb compute credits and debits of an account; bring into balance or equilibrium; be in equilibrium; hold or carry in equilibrium
  • balanitis -  inflammation of the head of the penis
  • barium enema -  contrast medium is injected into the rectum and x-rays are taken to search for lesions
  • Bartholin's gland -  either of the two posterior vestibular glands that secrete a lubricating mucus; homologous to Cowper's gland in the male
  • basophil -  a leukocyte with basophilic granules easily stained by basic stains
  • bedsore -  a chronic ulcer of the skin caused by prolonged pressure on it (as in bedridden patients)
  • Benadryl -  antihistamine (trade name Benadryl) used to treat allergic reactions involving the nasal passages (hay fever) and also to treat motion sickness
  • benign -  pleasant and beneficial in nature or influence; kindness of disposition or manner; not dangerous to health; not recurrent or progressive (especially of a tumor)
  • beriberi -  avitaminosis caused by lack of thiamine (vitamin B1)
  • beta blocker -  any of various drugs used in treating hypertension or arrhythmia; decreases force and rate of heart contractions by blocking beta-adrenergic receptors of the autonomic nervous system
  • bilberry -  blue-black berries similar to American blueberries; erect blueberry of western United States having solitary flowers and somewhat sour berries; erect European blueberry having solitary flowers and blue-black berries
  • bile -  a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; aids in the digestion of fats
  • bilirubin -  an orange-yellow pigment in the bile that forms as a product of hemoglobin; excess amounts in the blood produce the yellow appearance observed in jaundice
  • biofeedback -  a training program in which a person is given information about physiological processes (heart rate or blood pressure) that is not normally available with the goal of gaining conscious control of them
  • biotechnology -  the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments; the branch of molecular biology that studies the use of microorganisms to perform specific industrial processes
  • bioterrorism -  terrorism using the weapons of biological warfare
  • bipolar disorder -  a mental disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression
  • birthmark -  a blemish on the skin that is formed before birth
  • black cohosh -  North American bugbane found from Maine and Ontario to Wisconsin and south to Georgia
  • black eye -  a bad reputation; an unfortunate happening that hinders or impedes; something that is thwarting or frustrating; a swollen bruise caused by a blow to the eye
  • bladder -  a bag that fills with air; a distensible membranous sac (usually containing liquid or gas)
  • blastoma -  a tumor composed of immature undifferentiated cells
  • bleeding -  flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels
  • blepharitis -  inflammation of the eyelids characterized by redness and swelling and dried crusts
  • blepharospasm -  spasm of the eyelid muscle resulting in closure of the eye
  • blind spot -  the point where the optic nerve enters the retina; not sensitive to light; a subject about which you are ignorant or prejudiced and fail to exercise good judgment
  • blister -  (pathology) an elevation of the skin filled with serous fluid; verb get blistered; cause blisters to from on; subject to harsh criticism
  • blocker -  a class of drugs that inhibit (block) some biological process; a football player whose responsibility is to block players attempting to stop an offensive play
  • blood -  temperament or disposition; the fluid (red in vertebrates) that is pumped by the heart; people viewed as members of a group; the descendants of one individual; a dissolute man in fashionable society; verb smear with blood, as in a hunting initiation rite, where the face of a person is smeared with the blood of the kill
  • blood pressure -  the pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels; results from the systole of the left ventricle of the heart; sometimes measured for a quick evaluation of a person's health
  • blood transfusion -  the introduction of blood or blood plasma into a vein or artery
  • blood type -  human blood cells (usually just the red blood cells) that have the same antigens
  • bloodletting -  formerly used as a treatment to reduce excess blood (one of the four humors of medieval medicine); indiscriminate slaughter
  • blunt trauma -  injury incurred when the human body hits or is hit by a large outside object (as a car)
  • BMR -  the rate at which heat is produced by an individual in a resting state
  • boil -  a painful sore with a hard core filled with pus; the temperature at which a liquid boils at sea level; verb cook in boiling liquid; bring to, or maintain at, the boiling point; come to the boiling point and change from a liquid to vapor; be in an agitated emotional state; be agitated
  • bone -  consisting of or made up of bone;  a shade of white the color of bleached bones; rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates; the porous calcified substance from which bones are made; verb remove the bones from; study intensively, as before an exam
  • bone marrow -  the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones; very tender and very nutritious tissue from marrowbones
  • boswellia -  genus of trees of North Africa and India that yield incense
  • botulism -  food poisoning from ingesting botulin; not infectious; affects the CNS; can be fatal if not treated promptly
  • Bowman's capsule -  thin double membrane surrounding the glomerulus of a nephron
  • BPH -  enlarged prostate; appears to be part of the natural aging process
  • braille -  a point system of writing in which patterns of raised dots represent letters and numerals; French educator who lost his sight at the age of three and who invented a system of writing and printing for sightless people (1809-1852); verb transcribe in Braille
  • brain -  that part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers; enclosed within the skull; continuous with the spinal cord; mental ability; the brain of certain animals used as meat; that which is responsible for one's thoughts and feelings; the seat of the faculty of reason; someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality; verb kill by smashing someone's skull; hit on the head
  • brain death -  death when respiration and other reflexes are absent; consciousness is gone; organs can be removed for transplantation before the heartbeat stops
  • brainstem -  the part of the brain continuous with the spinal cord and comprising the medulla oblongata and pons and midbrain and parts of the hypothalamus
  • breast -  the front part of the trunk from the neck to the abdomen; either of two soft fleshy milk-secreting glandular organs on the chest of a woman; meat carved from the breast of a fowl; verb reach the summit; meet at breast level; confront bodily
  • breast cancer -  cancer of the breast; one of the most common malignancies in women in the US
  • breathing -  passing or able to pass air in and out of the lungs normally; sometimes used in combination;  the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation; the process of taking in oxygen from inhaled air and releasing carbon dioxide by exhalation
  • bronchitis -  inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes
  • bronchus -  either of the two main branches of the trachea
  • bruise -  an injury that doesn't break the skin but results in some discoloration; verb damage (plant tissue) by abrasion of pressure; break up into small pieces for food preparation; injure the underlying soft tissue of bone of; hurt the feelings of
  • BSE -  a fatal disease of cattle that affects the central nervous system; causes staggering and agitation
  • bulla -  the round leaden seal affixed to a papal bull; (pathology) an elevation of the skin filled with serous fluid
  • bundle of His -  a bundle of modified heart muscle that transmits the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contract
  • burns -  celebrated Scottish poet (1759-1796); United States comedian and film actor (1896-1996)
  • bursa -  a small fluid-filled sac located between movable parts of the body especially at joints; a city in northwestern Turkey
  • bursitis -  inflammation of a bursa; frequently in the shoulder
  • buspirone -  a drug (trade name BuSpar) designed specifically for anxiety
  • c-section -  the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)
  • CABG -  open-heart surgery in which the rib cage is opened and a section of a blood vessel is grafted from the aorta to the coronary artery to bypass the blocked section of the coronary artery and improve the blood supply to the heart
  • CAD -  someone who is morally reprehensible; software used in art and architecture and engineering and manufacturing to assist in precision drawing
  • caffeine -  a bitter alkaloid found in coffee and tea that is responsible for their stimulating effects
  • calcitonin -  thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bone
  • calcium -  a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light; the fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust; an important component of most plants and animals
  • callus -  (botany) an isolated thickening of tissue, especially a stiff protuberance on the lip of an orchid; bony tissue formed during the healing of a fractured bone; an area of skin that is thick or hard from continual pressure or friction (as the sole of the foot); verb form a callus or calluses; cause a callus to form on
  • calorie -  unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure; a unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree at one atmosphere pressure; used by nutritionists to characterize the energy-producing potential in food
  • cancellous -  having an open or latticed or porous structure
  • cancer -  type genus of the family Cancridae; the fourth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about June 21 to July 22; a small zodiacal constellation in the northern hemisphere; between Leo and Gemini; (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Cancer; any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream
  • cancer -  type genus of the family Cancridae; the fourth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about June 21 to July 22; a small zodiacal constellation in the northern hemisphere; between Leo and Gemini; (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Cancer; any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream
  • cancerous -  like a cancer; an evil that grows and spreads; relating to or affected with cancer
  • Candida albicans -  a parasitic fungus that can infect the mouth or the skin or the intestines or the vagina
  • candidiasis -  an infection caused by fungi of the genus Monilia or Candida (especially Candida albicans)
  • canker sore -  an ulceration (especially of the lips or lining of the mouth)
  • cannabis -  the most commonly used illicit drug; considered a soft drug, it consists of the dried leaves of the hemp plant; smoked or chewed for euphoric effect; any plant of the genus Cannabis; a coarse bushy annual with palmate leaves and clusters of small green flowers; yields tough fibers and narcotic drugs
  • Cannabis sativa -  a strong-smelling plant from whose dried leaves a number of euphoriant and hallucinogenic drugs are prepared
  • carbohydrate loading -  a diet of foods high in starch that increases carbohydrate reserves in muscles
  • carbon dioxide -  a heavy odorless colorless gas formed during respiration and by the decomposition of organic substances; absorbed from the air by plants in photosynthesis
  • carbon monoxide -  an odorless very poisonous gas that is a product of incomplete combustion of carbon
  • carbuncle -  an infection larger than a boil and with several openings for discharge of pus; deep-red cabochon garnet cut without facets
  • carcinoma -  any malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue; one of the four major types of cancer
  • cardiac -  of or relating to the heart
  • cardiac arrest -  absence of systole; failure of the ventricles of the heart to contract (usually caused by ventricular fibrillation) with consequent absence of the heart beat leading to oxygen lack and eventually to death
  • cardiac cycle -  the complete cycle of events in the heart from the beginning of one heart beat to the beginning of the next; an electrical impulse conducted through the heart muscle that constricts the atria which is followed by constriction of the ventricles
  • cardiac output -  the amount of blood pumped out by the ventricles in a given period of time
  • cardiac tamponade -  mechanical compression of the heart resulting from large amounts of fluid collecting in the pericardial space and limiting the heart's normal range of motion
  • cardiomyopathy -  a disorder (usually of unknown origin) of the heart muscle (myocardium)
  • cardiopulmonary resuscitation -  an emergency procedure consisting of external cardiac massage and artificial respiration; the first treatment for a person who has collapsed and has no pulse and has stopped breathing; attempts to restore circulation of the blood and prevent death or brain damage due to lack of oxygen
  • cardiovascular system -  the organs and tissues involved in circulating blood and lymph through the body
  • carpal tunnel syndrome -  a painful disorder caused by compression of a nerve in the carpal tunnel; characterized by discomfort and weakness in the hands and fingers and by sensations of tingling, burning or numbness
  • carrier -  (genetics) an organism that possesses a recessive gene whose effect is masked by a dominant allele; the associated trait is not apparent but can be passed on to offspring; a rack attached to a vehicle; for carrying luggage or skis or the like; a self-propelled wheeled vehicle designed specifically to carry something; a person or firm in the business of transporting people or goods or messages; (medicine) a person (or animal) who has some pathogen to which he is immune but who can pass it on to others; a boy who delivers newspapers; someone whose employment involves carrying something; an inactive substance that is a vehicle for a radioactive tracer of the same substance and that assists in its recovery after some chemical reaction; a large warship that carries planes and has a long flat deck for takeoffs and landings; a man who delivers the mail; a radio wave that can be modulated in order to transmit a signal
  • cartilage -  tough elastic tissue; mostly converted to bone in adults
  • cascade -  a succession of stages or operations or processes or units; a small waterfall or series of small waterfalls; a sudden downpour (as of tears or sparks etc) likened to a rain shower; verb arrange (open windows) on a computer desktop so that they overlap each other, with the title bars visible; rush down in big quantities, like a cascade
  • catabolism -  breakdown in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones together with release of energy
  • cataract -  a large waterfall; violent rush of water over a precipice; clouding of the natural lens of the eye
  • catheter -  a thin flexible tube inserted into the body to permit introduction or withdrawal of fluids or to keep the passageway open
  • CDC -  a federal agency in the Department of Health and Human Services; located in Atlanta; investigates and diagnoses and tries to control or prevent diseases (especially new and unusual diseases)
  • cecum -  the cavity in which the large intestine begins and into which the ileum opens
  • celiac disease -  a disorder in children and adults; inability to tolerate wheat protein (gluten); symptoms include foul-smelling diarrhea and emaciation; often accompanied by lactose intolerance
  • cell -  (biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms; they may exist as independent units of life (as in monads) or may form colonies or tissues as in higher plants and animals; a device that delivers an electric current as the result of a chemical reaction; a room where a prisoner is kept; small room is which a monk or nun lives; any small compartment; a small unit serving as part of or as the nucleus of a larger political movement; a hand-held mobile radiotelephone for use in an area divided into small sections, each with its own short-range transmitter/receiver
  • cell -  (biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms; they may exist as independent units of life (as in monads) or may form colonies or tissues as in higher plants and animals; a device that delivers an electric current as the result of a chemical reaction; a room where a prisoner is kept; small room is which a monk or nun lives; any small compartment; a small unit serving as part of or as the nucleus of a larger political movement; a hand-held mobile radiotelephone for use in an area divided into small sections, each with its own short-range transmitter/receiver
  • cell division -  the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells
  • cellulitis -  an inflammation of body tissue (especially that below the skin) characterized by fever and swelling and redness and pain
  • central nervous system -  the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
  • centromere -  a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
  • cerebellum -  a major division of the vertebrate brain; situated above the medulla oblongata and beneath the cerebrum in humans
  • cerebral cortex -  the layer of unmyelinated neurons (the grey matter) forming the cortex of the cerebrum
  • cerebral palsy -  a loss or deficiency of motor control with involuntary spasms caused by permanent brain damage present at birth
  • cerebrospinal fluid -  clear liquid produced in the ventricles of the brain; fills and protects cavities in the brain and spinal cord
  • cerumen -  a soft yellow wax secreted by glands in the ear canal
  • cervix -  necklike opening to the uterus; the part of an organism that connects the head to the rest of the body
  • cesarean section -  the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)
  • chafing -  soreness or irritation of the skin caused by friction
  • chalazion -  a small sebaceous cyst of the eyelid resulting when a Meibomian gland is blocked
  • chambers -  English architect (1723-1796)
  • chamomile -  Eurasian plant apple-scented foliage and white-rayed flowers and feathery leaves used medicinally; in some classification systems placed in genus Anthemis
  • chemotherapy -  the use of chemical agents to treat or control disease (or mental illness)
  • chi -  the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet; the circulating life energy that in Chinese philosophy is thought to be inherent in all things; in traditional Chinese medicine the balance of negative and positive forms in the body is believed to be essential for good health
  • chickenpox -  an acute contagious disease caused by herpes varicella zoster virus; causes a rash of vesicles on the face and body
  • child abuse -  the physical or emotional or sexual mistreatment of children
  • childbirth -  the parturition process in human beings; having a baby; the process of giving birth to a child
  • China -  high quality porcelain originally made only in China; a communist nation that covers a vast territory in eastern Asia; the most populous country in the world; dishware made of high quality porcelain; a government on the island of Taiwan established in 1949 by Chiang Kai-shek after the conquest of mainland China by the communists led by Mao Zedong
  • chiropractic -  a method of treatment that manipulates body structures (especially the spine) to relieve low back pain or even headache or high blood pressure
  • chlamydia -  coccoid rickettsia infesting birds and mammals; cause infections of eyes and lungs and genitourinary tract; a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria of the genus Chlamydia
  • chloasma -  a tan discoloration of a woman's face that is associated with pregnancy or with the use of oral contraceptives
  • chloral hydrate -  a colorless crystalline drug used as a sedative; irritates the stomach and can be addictive
  • chlordiazepoxide -  a tranquilizer (trade names Librium and Libritabs) used in the treatment of alcoholism
  • cholecystectomy -  surgical removal of the gall bladder (usually for relief of gallstone pain)
  • cholera -  an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
  • cholestasis -  a condition in which little or no bile is secreted or the flow of bile into the digestive tract is obstructed
  • cholesterol -  an animal sterol that is normally synthesized by the liver; the most abundant steroid in animal tissues
  • chorea -  any of several degenerative nervous disorders characterized by spasmodic movements of the body and limbs; chorea in dogs
  • choroid -  a highly vascular membrane in the eye between the retina and the sclera
  • chromatid -  one of two identical strands into which a chromosome splits during mitosis
  • chromosome -  a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
  • chyme -  a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum
  • cigar -  a roll of tobacco for smoking
  • ciprofloxacin -  an oral antibiotic (trade name Cipro) used against serious bacterial infections of the skin or respiratory tract or urinary tract or bones or joints
  • circulation -  the spread or transmission of something (as news or money) to a wider group or area; the dissemination of copies of periodicals (as newspapers or magazines); free movement or passage through a series of vessels (as of water through pipes or sap through a plant); movement through a circuit; especially the movement of blood through the heart and blood vessels; number of copies of a newspaper or magazine that are sold; (library science) the count of books that are loaned by a library over a specified period
  • circumcision -  the act of circumcising; surgical removal of the foreskin of males; the act of circumcising performed on males eight days after birth as a Jewish and Muslim religious rite; (Roman Catholic Church and Anglican Church) feast day celebrating the circumcision of Jesus; celebrated on January 1st
  • cirrhosis -  a chronic disease interfering with the normal functioning of the liver; the major cause is chronic alcoholism
  • CJD -  rare (usually fatal) brain disease (usually in middle age) caused by an unidentified slow virus; characterized by progressive dementia and gradual loss of muscle control
  • class -  elegance in dress or behavior; people having the same social or economic status; a collection of things sharing a common attribute; (biology) a taxonomic group containing one or more orders; a body of students who are taught together; a body of students who graduate together; a league ranked by quality; education imparted in a series of lessons or meetings; verb arrange or order by classes or categories
  • cleaning -  the act of making something clean
  • clitoris -  a female sexual organ homologous to the penis
  • cloning -  a general term for the research activity that creates a copy of some biological entity (a gene or organism or cell)
  • closed fracture -  an uncomplicated fracture in which the broken bones to not pierce the skin
  • clozapine -  an antipsychotic drug (trade name Clozaril) used as a sedative and for treatment-resistant schizophrenia; know to have few side effects
  • clubfoot -  congenital deformity of the foot usually marked by a curled shape or twisted position of the ankle and heel and toes
  • cluster headache -  a painful recurring headache associated with the release of histamine from cells
  • CMV -  any of a group of herpes viruses that enlarge epithelial cells and can cause birth defects; can affect humans with impaired immunological systems
  • coagulation -  the process of forming semisolid lumps in a liquid
  • coagulation -  the process of forming semisolid lumps in a liquid
  • cocaine -  a narcotic (alkaloid) extracted from coca leaves; used as a surface anesthetic or taken for pleasure; can become powerfully addictive
  • coccidioidomycosis -  an infection of the lungs and skin characterized by excessive sputum and nodules
  • cochlea -  the snail-shaped tube (in the inner ear coiled around the modiolus) where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses by the organ of Corti
  • codeine -  derivative of opium; used as an antitussive (to relieve coughing) and an analgesic (to relive pain)
  • coenzyme Q -  any of several quinones found in living cells and that function as coenzymes that transfer electrons from one molecule to another in cell respiration
  • cold sore -  caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)
  • colitis -  inflammation of the colon
  • collagen -  a fibrous scleroprotein in bone and cartilage and tendon and other connective tissue; yields gelatin on boiling
  • colon -  the part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum; it extracts moisture from food residues before they are excreted; a punctuation mark (:) used after a word introducing a series or an example or an explanation (or after the salutation of a business letter); a port city at the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal; the basic unit of money in Costa Rica; equal to 100 centimos; the basic unit of money in El Salvador; equal to 100 centavos
  • colonoscopy -  visual examination of the colon (with a colonoscope) from the cecum to the rectum; requires sedation
  • colostomy -  a surgical operation that creates an opening from the colon to the surface of the body to function as an anus
  • coma -  a state of deep and often prolonged unconsciousness; usually the result of disease or injury; (astronomy) the luminous cloud of particles surrounding the frozen nucleus of a comet; forms as the comet approaches the sun and is warmed; a usually terminal tuft of hairs especially on a seed
  • complement -  something added to complete or make perfect; either of two parts that mutually complete each other; a word or phrase used to complete a grammatical construction; number needed to make up a whole force; a complete number or quantity; one of a series of enzymes in the blood serum that are part of the immune response; verb make complete or perfect; supply what is wanting or form the complement to
  • complex -  complicated in structure; consisting of interconnected parts;  a conceptual whole made up of complicated and related parts; (psychoanalysis) a combination of emotions and impulses that have been rejected from awareness but still influence a person's behavior; a compound described in terms of the central atom to which other atoms are bound or coordinated; a whole structure (as a building) made up of interconnected or related structures
  • compression -  applying pressure; encoding information while reducing the bandwidth or bits required; the process or result of becoming smaller or pressed together; an increase in the density of something
  • computed tomography -  a method of examining body organs by scanning them with X rays and using a computer to construct a series of cross-sectional scans along a single axis
  • conception -  the act of becoming pregnant; fertilization of an ovum by a spermatozoon; the creation of something in the mind; an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances; the event that occurred at the beginning of something
  • concussion -  any violent blow; injury to the brain caused by a blow; usually resulting in loss of consciousness
  • conditioning -  a learning process in which an organism's behavior becomes dependent on the occurrence of a stimulus in its environment
  • confidentiality -  discretion in keeping secret information; the state of being secret
  • conjunctiva -  a transparent membrane covering the eyeball and under surface of the eyelid
  • connective tissue -  tissue of mesodermal origin consisting of e.g. collagen fibroblasts and fatty cells; supports organs and fills spaces between them and forms tendons and ligaments
  • consciousness -  an alert cognitive state in which you are aware of yourself and your situation; having knowledge of
  • constipation -  irregular and infrequent or difficult evacuation of the bowels; can be a symptom of intestinal obstruction or diverticulitis; the act of making something futile and useless (as by routine)
  • consumption -  the act of consuming something; the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating); (economics) the utilization of economic goods to satisfy needs or in manufacturing; involving the lungs with progressive wasting of the body
  • contact dermatitis -  a delayed type of allergic reaction of the skin resulting from skin contact with a specific allergen (such as poison ivy)
  • contact lens -  a thin curved glass or plastic lens designed to fit over the cornea in order to correct vision or to deliver medication
  • contraception -  birth control by the use of devices (diaphragm or intrauterine device or condom) or drugs or surgery
  • contraction -  the act of decreasing (something) in size or volume or quantity or scope; (physiology) a shortening or tensing of a part or organ (especially of a muscle or muscle fiber); a word formed from two or more words by omitting or combining some sounds; the process or result of becoming smaller or pressed together
  • contracture -  an abnormal and usually permanent contraction of a muscle
  • conversion disorder -  a mental disorder characterized by the conversion of mental conflict into somatic forms (into paralysis or anesthesia having no apparent cause)
  • cool -  marked by calm self-control (especially in trying circumstances); unemotional; fashionable and attractive at the time; often skilled or socially adept; (used of a number or sum) without exaggeration or qualification; neither warm nor very cold; giving relief from heat; psychologically cool and unenthusiastic; unfriendly or unresponsive or showing dislike; (color) inducing the impression of coolness; used especially of greens and blues and violets;  the quality of being at a refreshingly low temperature; great coolness and composure under strain; verb loose heat; lose intensity; make cool or cooler
  • copper -  any of various small butterflies of the family Lycaenidae having coppery wings; a reddish-brown color resembling the color of polished copper; a copper penny; a ductile malleable reddish-brown corrosion-resistant diamagnetic metallic element; occurs in various minerals but is the only metal that occurs abundantly in large masses; used as an electrical and thermal conductor; uncomplimentary terms for a policeman; verb coat with a layer of copper
  • cornea -  transparent anterior portion of the outer covering of the eye; it covers the lens and iris and is continuous with the sclera
  • coronary artery bypass graft -  open-heart surgery in which the rib cage is opened and a section of a blood vessel is grafted from the aorta to the coronary artery to bypass the blocked section of the coronary artery and improve the blood supply to the heart
  • coronary artery disease -  a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
  • corpus luteum -  yellow endocrine tissue that forms in a ruptured Graafian follicle following the release of an ovum
  • cortex -  the tissue forming the outer layer of an organ or structure in plant or animal; the layer of unmyelinated neurons (the grey matter) forming the cortex of the cerebrum
  • cortisol -  an adrenal-cortex hormone (trade names Hydrocortone or Cortef) that is active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism
  • cosmetic surgery -  plastic surgery to remove wrinkles and other signs of aging from your face; an incision is made near the hair line and skin is pulled back and excess tissue is excised
  • cough -  the act of exhaling air suddenly with a noise; sudden expulsion of air from the lungs that clears the air passages; a common symptom of upper respiratory infection or bronchitis or pneumonia or tuberculosis; verb exhale abruptly, as when one has a chest cold or congestion
  • Coumadin -  an anticoagulant (trade name Coumadin) use to prevent and treat a thrombus or embolus
  • COX -  the helmsman of a ship's boat or a racing crew; either of two related enzymes that control the production of prostaglandins and are blocked by aspirin; verb act as the coxswain, in a boat race
  • coxsackievirus -  enterovirus causing a disease resembling poliomyelitis but without paralysis
  • CPR -  an emergency procedure consisting of external cardiac massage and artificial respiration; the first treatment for a person who has collapsed and has no pulse and has stopped breathing; attempts to restore circulation of the blood and prevent death or brain damage due to lack of oxygen
  • cradle cap -  a dermatitis of the scalp that is common in infants
  • cramp -  a strip of metal with ends bent at right angles; used to hold masonry together; a clamp for holding pieces of wood together while they are glued; a painful and involuntary muscular contraction; verb secure with a cramp; prevent the progress or free movement of
  • cranium -  the part of the skull that encloses the brain
  • Crick -  English biochemist who (with Watson in 1953) helped discover the helical structure of DNA (1916-2004); a painful muscle spasm especially in the neck or back (`rick' and `wrick' are British); verb twist (a body part) into a strained position
  • croup -  a disease of infants and young children; harsh coughing and hoarseness and fever and difficult breathing; the part of a quadruped that corresponds to the human buttocks
  • CRT -  a vacuum tube in which a hot cathode emits a beam of electrons that pass through a high voltage anode and are focused or deflected before hitting a phosphorescent screen
  • cryptococcosis -  a fungal infection characterized by nodular lesions--first in the lungs and spreading to the nervous system
  • cryptorchidism -  failure of one or both testes to move into the scrotum as the male fetus develops
  • cyanosis -  a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes; a sign that oxygen in the blood is dangerously diminished (as in carbon monoxide poisoning)
  • cyclooxygenase -  either of two related enzymes that control the production of prostaglandins and are blocked by aspirin
  • cyst -  a closed sac that develops abnormally in some body structure; a small anatomically normal sac or bladderlike structure (especially one containing fluid)
  • cystic fibrosis -  the most common congenital disease; the child's lungs and intestines and pancreas become clogged with thick mucus; caused by defect in a single gene; there is no cure
  • cystitis -  inflammation of the urinary bladder and ureters
  • cystocele -  hernia in which the urinary bladder protrudes through the wall of the vagina; sometimes occurs after childbirth
  • cytomegalovirus -  any of a group of herpes viruses that enlarge epithelial cells and can cause birth defects; can affect humans with impaired immunological systems
  • dacryocystitis -  inflammation of the lacrimal sac causing obstruction of the tube draining tears into the nose
  • dandruff -  loose scales shed from the scalp; a condition in which white scales of dead skin are shed by the scalp
  • date rape -  rape in which the rapist is known to the victim (as when they are on a date together)
  • death -  the act of killing; the event of dying or departure from life; the personification of death; the permanent end of all life functions in an organism or part of an organism; the absence of life or state of being dead; the time at which life ends; continuing until dead; the time when something ends; a final state
  • debridement -  surgical removal of foreign material and dead tissue from a wound in order to prevent infection and promote healing
  • decubitus ulcer -  a chronic ulcer of the skin caused by prolonged pressure on it (as in bedridden patients)
  • defibrillation -  treatment by stopping fibrillation of heart muscles (usually by electric shock delivered by a defibrillator)
  • defibrillator -  an electronic device that administers an electric shock of preset voltage to the heart through the chest wall in an attempt to restore the normal rhythm of the heart during ventricular fibrillation
  • defibrillator -  an electronic device that administers an electric shock of preset voltage to the heart through the chest wall in an attempt to restore the normal rhythm of the heart during ventricular fibrillation
  • deficiency -  lack of an adequate quantity or number; the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable
  • deformity -  an affliction in which some part of the body is misshapen or malformed; an appearance that has been spoiled or is misshapen
  • degeneration -  passing from a more complex to a simpler biological form; the process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality; the state of being degenerate in mental or moral qualities
  • dehydration -  the process of extracting moisture; depletion of bodily fluids; dryness resulting from the removal of water
  • delayed -  caused to be slower or later; not as far along as normal in development
  • delirium -  a usually brief state of excitement and mental confusion often accompanied by hallucinations; state of violent mental agitation
  • delusion -  the act of deluding; deception by creating illusory ideas; a mistaken or unfounded opinion or idea; (psychology) an erroneous belief that is held in the face of evidence to the contrary
  • dementia -  mental deterioration of organic or functional origin
  • dendrite -  short fiber that conducts toward the cell body of the neuron
  • dental -  of or relating to the teeth; of or relating to dentistry;  a consonant articulated with the tip of the tongue near the gum ridge
  • dental caries -  soft decayed area in a tooth; progressive decay can lead to the death of a tooth
  • deoxyribonucleic acid -  (biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix; associated with the transmission of genetic information
  • dependence -  lack of independence or self-sufficiency; being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming (especially alcohol or narcotic drugs)
  • depression -  pushing down; sad feelings of gloom and inadequacy; angular distance below the horizon (especially of a celestial object); a concavity in a surface produced by pressing; a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity; a long-term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment; a period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment; a sunken or depressed geological formation; a state of depression and anhedonia so severe as to require clinical intervention; an air mass of lower pressure; often brings precipitation
  • dermabrasion -  removal of scars or tattoos by anesthetizing the skin surface and then sanding or scraping off some of the outer skin layer
  • dermatitis -  inflammation of the skin; skin becomes itchy and may develop blisters
  • dermatome -  a surgical instrument used to cut very thin slices of skin
  • dermis -  the deep vascular inner layer of the skin
  • detoxification -  treatment for poisoning by neutralizing the toxic properties (normally a function of the liver); a treatment for addiction to drugs or alcohol intended to remove the physiological effects of the addictive substances
  • diabetes -  any of several metabolic disorders marked by excessive urination and persistent thirst
  • diabetes insipidus -  a rare form of diabetes resulting from a deficiency of vasopressin (the pituitary hormone that regulates the kidneys); characterized by the chronic excretion of large amounts of pale dilute urine which results in dehydration and extreme thirst
  • diabetes mellitus -  diabetes caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and characterized by polyuria
  • diaper rash -  dermatitis of the thighs and buttocks of infants; supposedly caused by ammonia in the urine in the child's diapers
  • diaphragm -  a mechanical device in a camera that controls size of aperture of the lens; electro-acoustic transducer that vibrates to receive or produce sound waves; a contraceptive device consisting of a flexible dome-shaped cup made of rubber or plastic; it is filled with spermicide and fitted over the uterine cervix; (anatomy) a muscular partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities; functions in respiration
  • diarrhea -  frequent and watery bowel movements; can be a symptom of infection or food poisoning or colitis or a gastrointestinal tumor
  • diastole -  the widening of the chambers of the heart between two contractions when the chambers fill with blood
  • diazepam -  a tranquilizer (trade name Valium) used to relieve anxiety and relax muscles; acts by enhancing the inhibitory actions of the neurotransmitter GABA; can also be used as an anticonvulsant drug in cases of nerve agent poisoning
  • diet -  the act of restricting your food intake (or your intake of particular foods); the usual food and drink consumed by an organism (person or animal); a prescribed selection of foods; a legislative assembly in certain countries (e.g., Japan); verb eat sparingly, for health reasons or to lose weight; follow a regimen or a diet, as for health reasons
  • dietary -  of or relating to the diet;  a regulated daily food allowance
  • dieting -  the act of restricting your food intake (or your intake of particular foods)
  • digestion -  learning and coming to understand ideas and information; the organic process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed into the body; the process of decomposing organic matter (as in sewage) by bacteria or by chemical action or heat
  • digitalis -  a powerful cardiac stimulant obtained from foxglove; any of several plants of the genus Digitalis
  • digoxin -  digitalis preparation (trade name Lanoxin) used to treat congestive heart failure or cardiac arrhythmia; helps the heart beat more forcefully
  • dilation and curettage -  a surgical procedure usually performed under local anesthesia in which the cervix is dilated and the endometrial lining of the uterus is scraped with a curet; performed to obtain tissue samples or to stop prolonged bleeding or to remove small tumors or to remove fragments of placenta after childbirth or as a method of abortion
  • diphenhydramine -  antihistamine (trade name Benadryl) used to treat allergic reactions involving the nasal passages (hay fever) and also to treat motion sickness
  • diphtheria -  acute contagious infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae; marked by the formation of a false membrane in the throat and other air passages causing difficulty in breathing
  • diplopia -  visual impairment in which an object is seen as two objects
  • disaccharide -  any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield two monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
  • discoid lupus erythematosus -  a chronic skin disease occurring primarily in women between the ages of 20 and 40; characterized by an eruption of red lesions over the cheeks and bridge of the nose
  • discoid lupus erythematosus -  a chronic skin disease occurring primarily in women between the ages of 20 and 40; characterized by an eruption of red lesions over the cheeks and bridge of the nose
  • disease -  an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
  • disease -  an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
  • disk -  a flat circular plate; something with a round shape like a flat circular plate; (computer science) a memory device consisting of a flat disk covered with a magnetic coating on which information is stored; sound recording consisting of a disk with a continuous groove; used to reproduce music by rotating while a phonograph needle tracks in the groove; verb draw a harrow over (land)
  • disorder -  a disturbance of the peace or of public order; condition in which there is a disturbance of normal functioning; a condition in which things are not in their expected places; verb bring disorder to; disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be worried or alarmed
  • disorder -  a disturbance of the peace or of public order; condition in which there is a disturbance of normal functioning; a condition in which things are not in their expected places; verb bring disorder to; disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be worried or alarmed
  • dissociative disorder -  dissociation so severe that the usually integrated functions of consciousness and perception of self break down
  • disulfiram -  a drug (trade name Antabuse) used in the treatment of alcoholism; causes nausea and vomiting if alcohol is ingested
  • diuretic -  any substance that tends to increase the flow of urine
  • DLE -  a chronic skin disease occurring primarily in women between the ages of 20 and 40; characterized by an eruption of red lesions over the cheeks and bridge of the nose
  • DNA -  (biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix; associated with the transmission of genetic information
  • DNA -  (biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix; associated with the transmission of genetic information
  • domestic violence -  violence or physical abuse directed toward your spouse or domestic partner; usually violence by men against women
  • dopamine -  a monoamine neurotransmitter found in the brain and essential for the normal functioning of the central nervous system; as a drug (trade names Dopastat and Intropin) it is used to treat shock and hypotension
  • dosage -  the quantity of an active agent (substance or radiation) taken in or absorbed at any one time
  • dose -  a measured portion of medicine taken at any one time; the quantity of an active agent (substance or radiation) taken in or absorbed at any one time; street name for lysergic acid diethylamide; a communicable infection transmitted by sexual intercourse or genital contact; verb treat with an agent; add (an agent) to; administer a drug to
  • double vision -  visual impairment in which an object is seen as two objects
  • Down syndrome -  a congenital disorder caused by having an extra 21st chromosome; results in a flat face and short stature and mental retardation
  • doxycycline -  an antibiotic derived from tetracycline that is effective against many infections
  • drainage -  emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it
  • drug -  a substance that is used as a medicine or narcotic; verb administer a drug to; use recreational drugs
  • dry -  practicing complete abstinence from alcoholic beverages; lacking warmth or emotional involvement; having a large proportion of strong liquor; without a mucous or watery discharge; humorously sarcastic or mocking; (of food) eaten without a spread or sauce or other garnish; having no adornment or coloration; unproductive especially of the expected results; used of solid substances in contrast with liquid ones; lacking interest or stimulation; dull and lifeless; (of liquor) having a low residual sugar content because of decomposition of sugar during fermentation; not shedding tears; free from liquid or moisture; lacking natural or normal moisture or depleted of water; or no longer wet; not producing milk; opposed to or prohibiting the production and sale of alcoholic beverages; lacking moisture or volatile components;  a reformer who opposes the use of intoxicating beverages; verb remove the moisture from and make dry; become dry or drier
  • DUB - verb provide (movies) with a soundtrack of a foreign language; give a nickname to; raise (someone) to knighthood
  • Duchenne's muscular dystrophy -  the most common form of muscular dystrophy; inheritance is X-linked recessive (carried by females but affecting only males)
  • ductus arteriosus -  a blood vessel in a fetus that bypasses pulmonary circulation by connecting the pulmonary artery directly to the ascending aorta; normally closes at birth
  • duodenum -  the part of the small intestine between the stomach and the jejunum
  • dura mater -  the outermost (and toughest) of the 3 meninges
  • dwarfism -  a genetic abnormality resulting in short stature
  • dysfunction -  (medicine) any disturbance in the function of an organ or body part
  • dyskinesia -  abnormality in performing voluntary muscle movements
  • dyspepsia -  a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea
  • dysphagia -  condition in which swallowing is difficult or painful
  • dysplasia -  abnormal development (of organs or cells) or an abnormal structure resulting from such growth
  • dyspnea -  difficult or labored respiration
  • dystrophy -  any degenerative disorder resulting from inadequate or faulty nutrition; any of several hereditary diseases of the muscular system characterized by weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles
  • dysuria -  painful or difficult urination
  • ear -  the sense organ for hearing and equilibrium; good hearing; attention to what is said; fruiting spike of a cereal plant especially corn; the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear
  • earache -  an ache localized in the middle or inner ear
  • eardrum -  the membrane in the ear that vibrates to sound
  • ecchymosis -  the escape of blood from ruptured blood vessels into the surrounding tissue to form a purple or black-and-blue spot on the skin; the purple or black-and-blue area resulting from a bruise
  • ECG -  a graphical recording of the cardiac cycle produced by an electrocardiograph
  • echinacea -  small genus of North American coarse perennial herbs
  • echocardiogram -  a graphical image of the heart produced by an echocardiograph
  • eclampsia -  a toxic condition characterized by convulsions and possibly coma during or immediately after pregnancy
  • ecstasy -  a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion; a state of elated bliss; street names for methylenedioxymethamphetamine
  • ECT -  the administration of a strong electric current that passes through the brain to induce convulsions and coma
  • ectopic pregnancy -  pregnancy resulting from gestation elsewhere than in the uterus
  • edema -  swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
  • EEG -  a graphical record of electrical activity of the brain; produced by an electroencephalograph
  • efficacy -  capacity or power to produce a desired effect
  • eggs -  oval reproductive body of a fowl (especially a hen) used as food
  • Egypt -  a republic in northeastern Africa known as the United Arab Republic until 1971; site of an ancient civilization that flourished from 2600 to 30 BC; an ancient empire west of Israel; centered on the Nile River and ruled by a Pharaoh; figured in many events described in the Old Testament
  • ejaculation -  an abrupt emphatic exclamation expressing emotion; the discharge of semen in males
  • elastin -  a fibrous scleroprotein found in elastic tissues such as the walls of arteries
  • elderly -  advanced in years; (`aged' is proced as two syllables);  people who are old collectively
  • electrocardiogram -  a graphical recording of the cardiac cycle produced by an electrocardiograph
  • electroconvulsive therapy -  the administration of a strong electric current that passes through the brain to induce convulsions and coma
  • electrocution -  killing by electric shock; execution by electricity
  • electroencephalogram -  a graphical record of electrical activity of the brain; produced by an electroencephalograph
  • elevation -  drawing of an exterior of a structure; (ballet) the height of a dancer's leap or jump; distance of something above a reference point (such as sea level); the event of something being raised upward; angular distance above the horizon (especially of a celestial object); the act of increasing the wealth or prestige or power or scope of something; a raised or elevated geological formation; the highest level or degree attainable; the highest stage of development
  • embryo -  an animal organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that in higher forms merge into fetal stages but in lower forms terminate in commencement of larval life; (botany) a minute rudimentary plant contained within a seed or an archegonium
  • emesis -  the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
  • emphysema -  an abnormal condition of the lungs marked by decreased respiratory function; associated with smoking or chronic bronchitis or old age
  • enamel -  any smooth glossy coating that resembles ceramic glaze; a paint that dries to a hard glossy finish; hard white substance covering the crown of a tooth; a colored glassy compound (opaque or partially opaque) that is fused to the surface of metal or glass or pottery for decoration or protection; verb coat, inlay, or surface with enamel
  • encephalitis -  inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus; symptoms include headache and neck pain and drowsiness and nausea and fever (`phrenitis' is no longer in scientific use)
  • endarterectomy -  surgical removal of the inner lining of an artery that is clogged with atherosclerosis
  • endocarditis -  inflammation of the endocardium and heart valves
  • endocardium -  the membrane that lines the cavities of the heart and forms part of the heart valves
  • endocrine gland -  any of the glands of the endocrine system that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
  • endocrine system -  the system of glands that produce endocrine secretions that help to control bodily metabolic activity
  • endogenous -  derived or originating internally; of or resembling an endogen
  • endometriosis -  the presence of endometrium elsewhere than in the lining of the uterus; causes premenstrual pain and dysmenorrhea
  • endometrium -  (pregnancy) the mucous membrane that lines the uterus; thickens under hormonal control and (if pregnancy does not occur) is shed in menstruation; if pregnancy occurs it is shed along with the placenta at parturition
  • endorphin -  a neurochemical occurring naturally in the brain and having analgesic properties
  • endoscopy -  visual examination of the interior of a hollow body organ by use of an endoscope
  • endotracheal tube -  a catheter that is inserted into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to maintain an open air passage or to deliver oxygen or to permit the suctioning of mucus or to prevent aspiration of the stomach contents
  • endurance -  the power to withstand hardship or stress; a state of surviving; remaining alive
  • enema -  injection of a liquid through the anus to stimulate evacuation; sometimes used for diagnostic purposes
  • enkephalin -  an endorphin having opiate qualities that occurs in the brain and spinal cord and elsewhere
  • enucleation -  surgical removal of something without cutting into it
  • enuresis -  inability to control the flow of urine and involuntary urination
  • eosinophil -  a leukocyte readily stained with eosin
  • EPA -  an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
  • ephedra -  jointed and nearly leafless desert shrub having reduced scalelike leaves and reddish fleshy seeds
  • epicondylitis -  painful inflammation of the muscles and soft tissues around an epicondyle
  • epidermis -  the outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates
  • epididymis -  a convoluted tubule in each testis; carries sperm to vas deferens
  • epidural -  on or outside the dura mater;  regional anesthesia resulting from injection of an anesthetic into the epidural space of the spinal cord; sensation is lost in the abdominal and genital and pelvic areas; used in childbirth and gynecological surgery
  • epiglottis -  a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe while swallowing
  • epiglottitis -  inflammation of the epiglottis; characterized by fever and a severe sore throat and difficulty in swallowing
  • epilepsy -  a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of consciousness and convulsions
  • epinephrine -  a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin); stimulates autonomic nerve action
  • epiphysis -  the end of a long bone; initially separated from the main bone by a layer of cartilage that eventually ossifies so the parts become fused; a small endocrine gland in the brain; situated beneath the back part of the corpus callosum; secretes melatonin
  • episiotomy -  surgical incision of the perineum to enlarge the vagina and so facilitate delivery during childbirth
  • epispadias -  a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethra is on the upper surface of the penis
  • epithelium -  membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body
  • erectile dysfunction -  impotence resulting from a man's inability to have or maintain an erection of his penis
  • erection -  a structure that has been erected; an erect penis; the act of building or putting up
  • ergonomics -  the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments
  • erysipelas -  an acute streptococcal infection characterized by deep-red inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes
  • erythema multiforme -  a red rash caused by hypersensitivity to a drug or disease or other allergen
  • erythema nodosum -  skin condition characterized by tender red nodules on the shins and legs
  • erythrocyte -  a mature blood cell that contains hemoglobin to carry oxygen to the bodily tissues; a biconcave disc that has no nucleus
  • erythromycin -  an antibiotic (trade name Erythrocin or E-Mycin or Ethril or Ilosone or Pediamycin) obtained from the actinomycete Streptomyces erythreus; effective against many Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negative
  • erythropoiesis -  the process of producing red blood cells by the stem cells in the bone marrow
  • erythropoietin -  a glycoprotein secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells
  • erythropoietin -  a glycoprotein secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells
  • Escherichia coli -  a species of bacterium normally present in intestinal tract of humans and other animals; sometimes pathogenic; can be a threat to food safety
  • esophagitis -  inflammation of the esophagus; often caused by gastroesophageal reflux
  • esophagus -  the passage between the pharynx and the stomach
  • ethchlorvynol -  a mild sedative-hypnotic drug (trade name Placidyl)
  • eustachian tube -  either of the paired tubes connecting the middle ears to the nasopharynx; equalizes air pressure on the two sides of the eardrum
  • exchange -  (chess) the capture by both players (usually on consecutive moves) of pieces of equal value; (chess) gaining (or losing) a rook in return for a knight or bishop; reciprocal transfer of equivalent sums of money especially the currencies of different countries; the act of giving something in return for something received; the act of changing one thing for another thing; a workplace for buying and selling; open only to members; a mutual expression of views (especially an unpleasant one); chemical process in which one atom or ion or group changes places with another; the act of putting one thing or person in the place of another: "he sent Smith in for Jones but the substitution came too late to help"; (sports) an unbroken sequence of several successive strokes; a workplace that serves as a telecommunications facility where lines from telephones can be connected together to permit communication; verb give to, and receive from, one another; hand over one and receive another, approximately equivalent; change over, change around, as to a new order or sequence; exchange or replace with another, usually of the same kind or category; exchange a penalty for a less severe one
  • eye -  a small hole or loop (as in a needle); the organ of sight; good discernment (either visually or as if visually); attention to what is seen; an area that is approximately central within some larger region; verb look at
  • eyeglasses -  optical instrument consisting of a pair of lenses for correcting defective vision
  • eyes -  opinion or judgment
  • facelift -  a renovation that improves the outward appearance (as of a building) but usually does not involve major changes; plastic surgery to remove wrinkles and other signs of aging from your face; an incision is made near the hair line and skin is pulled back and excess tissue is excised
  • farsightedness -  seeing ahead; knowing in advance; foreseeing; abnormal condition in which vision for distant objects is better than for near objects
  • fascia -  a sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue separating or binding together muscles and organs etc
  • fat -  a chubby body; having much flesh (especially fat); marked by great fruitfulness; lucrative; having a relatively large diameter; containing or composed of fat;  a soft greasy substance occurring in organic tissue and consisting of a mixture of lipids (mostly triglycerides); excess bodily weight; a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy; it also cushions and insulates vital organs; verb make fat or plump
  • fatigue -  (always used with a modifier) boredom resulting from overexposure to something; temporary loss of strength and energy resulting from hard physical or mental work; used of materials (especially metals) in a weakened state caused by long stress; labor of a nonmilitary kind done by soldiers (cleaning or digging or draining or so on); verb exhaust or get tired through overuse or great strain or stress; get tired of something or somebody
  • FDA -  a federal agency in the Department of Health and Human Services established to regulate the release of new foods and health-related products
  • fecal impaction -  accumulation of hardened feces in the rectum or lower colon which the person cannot move
  • feces -  solid excretory product evacuated from the bowels
  • fentanyl -  trade names of a narcotic analgesic that can be inhaled and that acts on the central nervous system and may become addictive; used as a veterinary anesthetic and with other drugs before, during, and after surgery; also used as a nonlethal gas to incapacitate people in hostage situations; also abused as a recreational drug
  • fertility -  the state of being fertile; capable of producing offspring; the property of producing abundantly and sustaining vigorous and luxuriant growth; the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 population per year
  • fertilization -  making fertile as by applying fertilizer or manure; creation by the physical union of male and female gametes; of sperm and ova in an animal or pollen and ovule in a plant
  • fetal alcohol syndrome -  a medical condition in which body deformation or facial development or mental ability of a fetus is impaired because the mother drank alcohol while pregnant
  • fetus -  an unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal
  • fever -  intense nervous anticipation; a rise in the temperature of the body; frequently a symptom of infection
  • feverfew -  bushy aromatic European perennial herb having clusters of buttonlike white-rayed flower heads; valued traditionally for medicinal uses; sometimes placed in genus Chrysanthemum
  • fibrillation -  act or process of forming fibrils; muscular twitching involving individual muscle fibers acting without coordination
  • fibrin -  a white insoluble fibrous protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen when blood clots; it forms a network that traps red cells and platelets
  • fibroadenoma -  benign and movable and firm and not tender tumor of the breast; common in young women and caused by high levels of estrogen
  • fibrosis -  development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ
  • fibula -  the outer and thinner of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and ankle
  • filtrate -  the product of filtration; a gas or liquid that has been passed through a filter; verb remove by passing through a filter
  • finger -  one of the parts of a glove that provides covering for a finger or thumb; any of the terminal members of the hand (sometimes excepting the thumb); the length of breadth of a finger used as a linear measure; verb indicate the fingering for the playing of musical scores for keyboard instruments; feel or handle with the fingers; search for on the computer; examine by touch
  • fitness -  the condition of being suitable; the quality of being qualified; good physical condition; being in shape or in condition; fitness to traverse the seas
  • flashback -  a transition (in literary or theatrical works or films) to an earlier event or scene that interrupts the normal chronological development of the story; an unexpected but vivid recurrence of a past experience (especially a recurrence of the effects of an hallucinogenic drug taken much earlier)
  • flatulence -  a state of excessive gas in the alimentary canal; pompously embellished language
  • flexibility -  the quality of being adaptable or variable; the property of being flexible; easily bent or shaped; the trait of being easily persuaded
  • flu -  an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease
  • fluoridation -  the addition of a fluoride to the water supply (to prevent dental decay)
  • fluoroscopy -  examination of body structures using a fluoroscope
  • folic acid -  a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction
  • food pyramid -  (ecology) a hierarchy of food chains with the principal predator at the top; each level preys on the level below
  • foot -  travel by walking; any of various organs of locomotion or attachment in invertebrates; a support resembling a pedal extremity; the part of the leg of a human being below the ankle joint; the lower part of anything; a member of a surveillance team who works on foot or rides as a passenger; a linear unit of length equal to 12 inches or a third of a yard; the pedal extremity of vertebrates other than human beings; lowest support of a structure; (prosody) a group of 2 or 3 syllables forming the basic unit of poetic rhythm; an army unit consisting of soldiers who fight on foot; verb add a column of numbers; walk; pay for something
  • forebrain -  the anterior portion of the brain; the part of the brain that develops from the anterior part of the neural tube
  • foreskin -  a fold of skin covering the tip of the penis; a fold of skin covering the tip of the clitoris
  • formaldehyde -  a colorless poisonous gas; made by the oxidation of methanol
  • formulary -  of or relating to or of the nature of a formula;  (pharmacology) a book containing a compilation of pharmaceutical products with their formulas and methods of preparation
  • foxglove -  any of several plants of the genus Digitalis
  • fraction -  a small part or item forming a piece of a whole; the quotient of two rational numbers; a component of a mixture that has been separated by a fractional process; verb perform a division
  • fracture -  the act of cracking something; breaking of hard tissue such as bone; (geology) a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other; verb fracture a bone of; break (a bone); become fractured; violate or abuse; break into pieces; interrupt, break, or destroy
  • frontal lobe -  that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying directly behind the forehead
  • frostbite -  destruction of tissue by freezing and characterized by tingling, blistering and possibly gangrene
  • FSH -  a gonadotropic hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary and stimulates growth of Graafian follicles in female mammals, and activates the cells in male mammals that form sperm
  • fungus -  a parasitic plant lacking chlorophyll and leaves and true stems and roots and reproducing by spores
  • furuncle -  a painful sore with a hard core filled with pus
  • GABA -  an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter
  • GAD -  a sharp prod fixed to a rider's heel and used to urge a horse onward; an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic free-floating anxiety and such symptoms as tension or sweating or trembling of lightheadedness or irritability etc that has lasted for more than six months; verb wander aimlessly in search of pleasure
  • gag reflex -  normal reflex consisting of retching; may be produced by touching the soft palate in the back of the mouth
  • Galen -  Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance (circa 130-200)
  • gallbladder -  a muscular sac attached to the liver that secretes bile and stores it until needed for digestion
  • gallop -  a fast gait of a horse; a two-beat stride during which all four legs are off the ground simultaneously; verb ride at a galloping pace; cause to move at full gallop; go at galloping speed
  • gamete -  a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
  • gamma aminobutyric acid -  an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter
  • gamma hydroxybutyrate -  a club drug available in liquid or powder form is taken orally (frequently combined with alcohol); used to incapacitate individuals for the commission of sexual assault and rape
  • gangrene -  necrotic tissue; a mortified or gangrenous part or mass; the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply); verb undergo necrosis
  • garlic -  aromatic bulb used as seasoning; bulbous herb of southern Europe widely naturalized; bulb breaks up into separate strong-flavored cloves
  • gastrectomy -  surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
  • gastrin -  polypeptide hormone secreted by the mucous lining of the stomach; induces the secretion of gastric juice
  • gastritis -  inflammation of the lining of the stomach; nausea and loss of appetite and discomfort after eating
  • gastroenteritis -  inflammation of the stomach and intestines; can be caused by Salmonella enteritidis
  • gastrointestinal tract -  tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination
  • gene -  (genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it can include regions preceding and following the coding DNA as well as introns between the exons; it is considered a unit of heredity
  • gene mutation -  a mutation due to an intramolecular reorganization of a gene
  • generalized anxiety disorder -  an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic free-floating anxiety and such symptoms as tension or sweating or trembling of lightheadedness or irritability etc that has lasted for more than six months
  • generic drug -  when the patent protection for a brand-name drug expires generic versions of the drug can be offered for sale if the FDA agrees
  • genetic code -  the ordering of nucleotides in DNA molecules that carries the genetic information in living cells
  • genetic counseling -  guidance for prospective parents on the likelihood of genetic disorders in their future children
  • genetic screening -  analyzing a group of people to determine genetic susceptibility to a particular disease
  • genital -  of or relating to the external sex organs
  • genital herpes -  an infection caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) that is usually transmitted by sexual contact; marked by recurrent attacks of painful eruptions on the skin and mucous membranes of the genital area
  • genome -  the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism; the full DNA sequence of an organism
  • genotype -  the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism; a group of organisms sharing a specific genetic constitution
  • German measles -  a contagious viral disease that is a milder form of measles lasting three or four days; can be damaging to a fetus during the first trimester
  • gestation -  the conception and development of an idea or plan; the period during which an embryo develops (about 266 days in humans); the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus
  • GHB -  a club drug available in liquid or powder form is taken orally (frequently combined with alcohol); used to incapacitate individuals for the commission of sexual assault and rape
  • giardiasis -  infection of the intestines with protozoa found in contaminated food and water; characterized by diarrhea and nausea and flatulence and abdominal discomfort
  • ginger -  (used especially of hair or fur) having a bright orange-brown color;  pungent rhizome of the common ginger plant; used fresh as a seasoning especially in Oriental cookery; dried ground gingerroot; perennial plants having thick branching aromatic rhizomes and leafy reedlike stems; liveliness and energy; verb add ginger to in order to add flavor
  • ginkgo biloba -  deciduous dioecious Chinese tree having fan-shaped leaves and fleshy yellow seeds; exists almost exclusively in cultivation especially as an ornamental street tree
  • ginseng -  Chinese herb with palmately compound leaves and small greenish flowers and forked aromatic roots believed to have medicinal powers; aromatic root of ginseng plants
  • glaucoma -  increased pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor; damages the optic disc and impairs vision (sometimes progressing to blindness)
  • glomerulonephritis -  nephritis marked by inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney; characterized by decreased production of urine and by the presence of blood and protein in the urine and by edema
  • glomerulus -  a small intertwined group of capillaries in the malpighian body; it filters the blood during urine formation
  • glossopharyngeal nerve -  sensory nerve to the pharynx and back of the tongue; motor fibers innervate muscles that elevate the pharynx and larynx; includes parasympathetic fibers to the otic ganglion
  • glucagon -  a hormone secreted by the pancreas; stimulates increases in blood sugar levels in the blood (thus opposing the action of insulin)
  • glucose -  a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms; an important source of physiological energy
  • glutamate -  a salt or ester of glutamic acid
  • glutethimide -  sedative (trade name Doriden) used to treat some sleep disorders
  • glycogen -  one form in which body fuel is stored; stored primarily in the liver and broken down into glucose when needed by the body
  • goiter -  abnormally enlarged thyroid gland; can result from underproduction or overproduction of hormone or from a deficiency of iodine in the diet
  • goldenseal -  perennial herb of northeastern United States having a thick knotted yellow rootstock and large rounded leaves
  • gonorrhea -  a common venereal disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae; symptoms are painful urination and pain around the urethra
  • gout -  a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism resulting in deposits of the acid and its salts in the blood and joints
  • grading -  changing the ground level to a smooth horizontal or gently sloping surface; evaluation of performance by assigning a grade or score; the act of arranging in a graduated series
  • graft -  the act of grafting something onto something else; (surgery) tissue or organ transplanted from a donor to a recipient; in some cases the patient can be both donor and recipient; the practice of offering something (usually money) in order to gain an illicit advantage; verb cause to grow together parts from different plants; place the organ of a donor into the body of a recipient
  • granulocyte -  a leukocyte that has granules in its cytoplasm
  • granuloma -  a tumor composed of granulation tissue resulting from injury or inflammation or infection
  • Graves' disease -  exophthalmos occurring in association with goiter; hyperthyroidism with protrusion of the eyeballs
  • gray matter -  greyish nervous tissue containing cell bodies as well as fibers; forms the cerebral cortex consisting of unmyelinated neurons
  • Greece -  a republic in southeastern Europe on the southern part of the Balkan peninsula; known for grapes and olives and olive oil
  • green tea -  tea leaves that have been steamed and dried without fermenting
  • grief -  something that causes great unhappiness; intense sorrow caused by loss of a loved one (especially by death)
  • growth hormone -  a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland; promotes growth in humans
  • gynecomastia -  excessive development of the breasts in males; usually the result of hormonal imbalance or treatment with certain drugs (including some antihypertensives)
  • hair -  a filamentous projection or process on an organism; any of the cylindrical filaments characteristically growing from the epidermis of a mammal; a covering for the body (or parts of it) consisting of a dense growth of threadlike structures (as on the human head); helps to prevent heat loss; filamentous hairlike growth on a plant; cloth woven from horsehair or camelhair; used for upholstery or stiffening in garments; a very small distance or space
  • hair cell -  a sensory epithelial cell present in the organ of Corti
  • hairy tongue -  a benign side effect of some antibiotics; dark overgrowth of the papillae of the tongue
  • half-life -  the time required for something to fall to half its initial value (in particular, the time for half the atoms in a radioactive substance to disintegrate)
  • hallucination -  an object perceived during a hallucinatory episode; illusory perception; a common symptom of severe mental disorder; a mistaken or unfounded opinion or idea
  • hangover -  something that has survived from the past; disagreeable aftereffects from the use of drugs (especially alcohol); an official who remains in office after his term
  • Harvey -  English physician and scientist who described the circulation of the blood; he later proposed that all animals originate from an ovum produced by the female of the species (1578-1657)
  • hashish -  purified resinous extract of the hemp plant; used as a hallucinogen
  • hay fever -  a seasonal rhinitis resulting from an allergic reaction to pollen
  • hCG -  hormone produced early in pregnancy by the placenta; detection in the urine and serum is the basis for one kind of pregnancy test
  • headache -  pain in the head caused by dilation of cerebral arteries or muscle contractions or a reaction to drugs; something or someone that causes anxiety; a source of unhappiness
  • healing -  tending to cure or restore to health;  the natural process by which the body repairs itself
  • health -  the general condition of body and mind; a healthy state of wellbeing free from disease
  • hearing aid -  a conical acoustic device formerly used to direct sound to the ear of a hearing-impaired person; an electronic device that amplifies sound and is worn to compensate for poor hearing
  • heart -  a playing card in the major suit that has one or more red hearts on it; an inclination or tendency of a certain kind; the courage to carry on; the hollow muscular organ located behind the sternum and between the lungs; its rhythmic contractions move the blood through the body; the locus of feelings and intuitions; a firm rather dry variety meat (usually beef or veal); a plane figure with rounded sides curving inward at the top and intersecting at the bottom; conventionally used on playing cards and valentines; the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience; a positive feeling of liking; an area that is approximately central within some larger region
  • heart attack -  a sudden severe instance of abnormal heart function
  • heart failure -  inability of the heart to pump enough blood to sustain normal bodily functions
  • heart murmur -  an abnormal sound of the heart; sometimes a sign of abnormal function of the heart valves
  • heart rate -  the rate at which the heart beats; usually measured to obtain a quick evaluation of a person's health
  • heartbeat -  an animating or vital unifying force; the rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries with each beat of the heart; a very short time (as the time it takes the eye blink or the heart to beat)
  • heat exhaustion -  a condition marked by dizziness and nausea and weakness caused by depletion of body fluids and electrolytes
  • heat rash -  obstruction of the sweat ducts during high heat and humidity
  • Heimlich maneuver -  an emergency procedure to help someone who is choking because food is lodged in the trachea
  • helper T cell -  T cell with CD4 receptor that recognizes antigens on the surface of a virus-infected cell and secretes lymphokines that stimulate B cells and killer T cells; helper T cells are infected and killed by the AIDS virus
  • helper T cell -  T cell with CD4 receptor that recognizes antigens on the surface of a virus-infected cell and secretes lymphokines that stimulate B cells and killer T cells; helper T cells are infected and killed by the AIDS virus
  • hematoma -  a localized swelling filled with blood
  • hematopoiesis -  the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)
  • hematuria -  the presence of blood in the urine; often a symptom of urinary tract disease
  • hemochromatosis -  pathology in which iron accumulates in the tissues; characterized by bronzed skin and enlarged liver and diabetes mellitus and abnormalities of the pancreas and the joints
  • hemodialysis -  dialysis of the blood to remove toxic substances or metabolic wastes from the bloodstream; used in the case of kidney failure
  • hemoglobin -  a hemoprotein composed of globin and heme that gives red blood cells their characteristic color; function primarily to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues
  • hemolysis -  lysis of erythrocytes with the release of hemoglobin
  • hemophilia -  congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding; usually affects males and is transmitted from mother to son
  • hemoptysis -  coughing up blood from the respiratory tract; usually indicates a severe infection of the bronchi or lungs
  • hemorrhage -  flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels; verb lose blood from one's body
  • heparin -  a polysaccharide produced in basophils (especially in the lung and liver) and that inhibits the activity of thrombin in coagulation of the blood; it (trade names Lipo-Hepin and Liquaemin) is used as an anticoagulant in the treatment of thrombosis and in heart surgery
  • hepatitis -  inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or a toxin
  • hepatitis B -  an acute (sometimes fatal) form of viral hepatitis caused by a DNA virus that tends to persist in the blood serum and is transmitted by sexual contact or by transfusion or by ingestion of contaminated blood or other bodily fluids
  • hepatitis C -  a viral hepatitis clinically indistinguishable from hepatitis B but caused by a single-stranded RNA virus; usually transmitted by parenteral means (as injection of an illicit drug or blood transfusion or exposure to blood or blood products)
  • hernia -  rupture in smooth muscle tissue through which a bodily structure protrudes
  • heroin -  a narcotic that is considered a hard drug; a highly addictive morphine derivative; intravenous injection provides the fastest and most intense rush
  • herpes -  any of the animal viruses that cause painful blisters on the skin; viral diseases causing eruptions of the skin or mucous membrane
  • herpes simplex -  a herpes virus that affects the skin and nervous system; an infection caused by the herpes simples virus; affects the skin and nervous system; produces small temporary (but sometimes painful) blisters on the skin and mucous membranes
  • herpes zoster -  a herpes virus that causes shingles; eruptions along a nerve path often accompanied by severe neuralgia
  • hiatal hernia -  hernia resulting from the protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm
  • hiccup -  (usually plural) the state of having reflex spasms of the diaphragm accompanied by a rapid closure of the glottis producing an audible sound; sometimes a symptom of indigestion; verb breathe spasmodically, and make a sound
  • hindbrain -  the posterior portion of the brain including cerebellum and brainstem
  • hippocampus -  seahorses; a complex neural structure (shaped like a sea horse) consisting of grey matter and located on the floor of each lateral ventricle; intimately involved in motivation and emotion as part of the limbic system; has a central role in the formation of memories
  • Hirschsprung's disease -  congenital condition in which the colon does not have the normal network of nerves; there is little urge to defecate so the feces accumulate and cause megacolon
  • histamine -  amine formed from histidine that stimulates gastric secretions and dilates blood vessels; released by the human immune system during allergic reactions
  • HIV -  infection by the human immunodeficiency virus; the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); it replicates in and kills the helper T cells
  • hives -  an itchy skin eruption characterized by weals with pale interiors and well-defined red margins; usually the result of an allergic response to insect bites or food or drugs
  • homeopathy -  a method of treating disease with small amounts of remedies that, in large amounts in healthy people, produce symptoms similar to those being treated
  • honey -  of something having the color of honey;  a sweet yellow liquid produced by bees; a beloved person; used as terms of endearment; verb sweeten with honey
  • hordeolum -  an infection of the sebaceous gland of the eyelid
  • hormone -  the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
  • hormone -  the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
  • hormone replacement therapy -  hormones (estrogen and progestin) are given to postmenopausal women; believed to protect them from heart disease and osteoporosis
  • HRT -  hormones (estrogen and progestin) are given to postmenopausal women; believed to protect them from heart disease and osteoporosis
  • human chorionic gonadotrophin -  hormone produced early in pregnancy by the placenta; detection in the urine and serum is the basis for one kind of pregnancy test
  • human growth hormone -  a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland; promotes growth in humans
  • human immunodeficiency virus -  the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); it replicates in and kills the helper T cells
  • hunger -  strong desire for something (not food or drink); a physiological need for food; the consequence of food deprivation; verb feel the need to eat; be hungry; go without food; have a craving, appetite, or great desire for
  • HUS -  Czechoslovakian religious reformer who anticipated the Reformation; he questioned the infallibility of the Catholic Church was excommunicated (1409) for attacking the corruption of the clergy; he was burned at the stake (1372-1415)
  • hyaline cartilage -  translucent cartilage that is common in joints and the respiratory passages; forms most of the fetal skeleton
  • hydration -  the process of combining with water; usually reversible
  • hydrocele -  disorder in which serous fluid accumulates in a body sac (especially in the scrotum)
  • hydrocephaly -  an abnormal condition in which cerebrospinal fluid collects in the ventricles of the brain; in infants it can cause abnormally rapid growth of the head and bulging fontanelles and a small face; in adults the symptoms are primarily neurological
  • hydrocortisone -  an adrenal-cortex hormone (trade names Hydrocortone or Cortef) that is active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism
  • hydronephrosis -  accumulation of urine in the kidney because of an obstruction in the ureter
  • hygiene -  the science concerned with the prevention of illness and maintenance of health; a condition promoting sanitary practices
  • hypercalcemia -  the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; usually the result of excessive bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism or Paget's disease
  • hypercalciuria -  the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the urine; usually the result of excessive bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism or osteoporosis
  • hypericum -  large almost cosmopolitan genus of evergreen or deciduous shrubs and herbs with often showy yellow flowers; cosmopolitan except tropical lowlands and arctic or high altitudes and desert regions
  • hyperkalemia -  higher than normal levels of potassium in the circulating blood; associated with kidney failure or sometimes with the use of diuretic drugs
  • hypernatremia -  excessive amounts of sodium in the blood; possibly indicating diabetes insipidus
  • hyperopia -  abnormal condition in which vision for distant objects is better than for near objects
  • hyperparathyroidism -  excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; can affect many systems of the body (especially causing bone resorption and osteoporosis)
  • hypersensitivity reaction -  an inappropriate and excessive reaction to an allergen (as pollen or dust or animal hair or certain foods); severity ranges from mild allergy to severe systemic reactions leading to anaphylactic shock
  • hypertension -  a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
  • hyperthyroidism -  an overactive thyroid gland; pathologically excessive production of thyroid hormones or the condition resulting from excessive production of thyroid hormones
  • hypertrophic cardiomyopathy -  a disorder in which the heart muscle is so strong that it does not relax enough to fill with the heart with blood and so has reduced pumping ability
  • hyperventilation -  an increased depth and rate of breathing greater than demanded by the body needs; can cause dizziness and tingling of the fingers and toes and chest pain if continued
  • hypnosis -  a state that resembles sleep but that is induced by suggestion
  • hypocalcemia -  abnormally low level of calcium in the blood; associated with hypoparathyroidism or kidney malfunction or vitamin D deficiency
  • hypochondriasis -  chronic and abnormal anxiety about imaginary symptoms and ailments
  • hypoglossal nerve -  supplies intrinsic muscles of the tongue and other tongue muscles
  • hypoglycemia -  abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet
  • hypogonadism -  incompetence of the gonads (especially in the male with low testosterone); results in deficient development of secondary sex characteristics and (in prepubertal males) a body with long legs and a short trunk
  • hypokalemia -  abnormally low level of potassium in the circulating blood leading to weakness and heart abnormalities; associated with adrenal tumors or starvation or taking diuretics
  • hyponatremia -  abnormally low level of sodium in the blood; associated with dehydration
  • hypoparathyroidism -  inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood
  • hypospadias -  an abnormal condition in males in which the urethra opens on the under surface of the penis
  • hypothalamus -  a basal part of the diencephalon governing autonomic nervous system
  • hypothyroidism -  an underactive thyroid gland; a glandular disorder resulting from insufficient production of thyroid hormones
  • hypoxia -  a very strong drive resulting from a deficiency of available oxygen in the blood and bodily tissues (short of anoxia)
  • hysteroscopy -  visual examination of the uterus and uterine lining using an endoscope inserted through the vagina
  • ibuprofen -  a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicine (trade names Advil and Motrin and Nuprin) used to relieve the pain of arthritis and as an analgesic and antipyretic
  • ice -  a frozen dessert with fruit flavoring (especially one containing no milk); the frozen part of a body of water; diamonds; water frozen in the solid state; a rink with a floor of ice for ice hockey or ice skating; a heat engine in which combustion occurs inside the engine rather than in a separate furnace; heat expands a gas that either moves a piston or turns a gas turbine; an amphetamine derivative (trade name Methedrine) used in the form of a crystalline hydrochloride; used as a stimulant to the nervous system and as an appetite suppressant; a flavored sugar topping used to coat and decorate cakes; verb put ice on or put on ice; decorate with frosting
  • ichthyosis -  any of several congenital diseases in which the skin is fishlike (dry and scaly)
  • IgA -  one of the most common of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; the chief antibody in the membranes of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts
  • IgE -  one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; present primarily in the skin and mucous membranes
  • IgG -  one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; the main antibody defense against bacteria
  • IgM -  one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; involved in fighting blood infections and in triggering production of immunoglobulin G
  • ileostomy -  surgical procedure that creates an opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall to function as an anus; performed in cases of cancer of the colon or ulcerative colitis
  • ileum -  the part of the small intestine between the jejunum and the cecum
  • ileus -  blockage of the intestine (especially the ileum) that prevents the contents of the intestine from passing to the lower bowel
  • immune response -  a bodily defense reaction that recognizes an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus or fungus or bacteria or transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specific against that antigen
  • immune system -  a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response
  • immunity -  the quality of being unaffected by something; (medicine) the condition in which an organism can resist disease; an act exempting someone; the state of not being susceptible
  • immunization -  the act of making immune (especially by inoculation)
  • immunocompromised -  unable to develop a normal immune response usually because of malnutrition or immunodeficiency or immunosuppressive therapy
  • immunodeficiency -  immunological disorder in which some part of the body's immune system is inadequate and resistance to infectious diseases is reduced
  • immunodeficiency -  immunological disorder in which some part of the body's immune system is inadequate and resistance to infectious diseases is reduced
  • immunoglobulin -  a class of proteins produced in lymph tissue in vertebrates and that function as antibodies in the immune response
  • immunoglobulin A -  one of the most common of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; the chief antibody in the membranes of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts
  • immunoglobulin E -  one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; present primarily in the skin and mucous membranes
  • immunoglobulin G -  one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; the main antibody defense against bacteria
  • immunoglobulin M -  one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; involved in fighting blood infections and in triggering production of immunoglobulin G
  • immunosuppression -  lowering the body's normal immune response to invasion by foreign substances; can be deliberate (as in lowering the immune response to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ) or incidental (as a side effect of radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer)
  • immunotherapy -  therapy designed to produce immunity to a disease or to enhance resistance by the immune system
  • impairment -  damage that results in a reduction of strength or quality; the act of making something futile and useless (as by routine); the occurrence of a change for the worse; the condition of being unable to perform as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness; a symptom of reduced quality or strength
  • impalement -  the act of piercing with a sharpened stake as a form of punishment or torture
  • impetigo -  a very contagious infection of the skin; common in children; localized redness develops into small blisters that gradually crust and erode
  • inactivity -  being inactive; being less active; a disposition to remain inactive or inert; the state of being inactive
  • incubation period -  the period between infection and the appearance of symptoms of the disease
  • Index -  the finger next to the thumb; an alphabetical listing of names and topics along with page numbers where they are discussed; a number or ratio (a value on a scale of measurement) derived from a series of observed facts; can reveal relative changes as a function of time; a numerical scale used to compare variables with one another or with some reference number; a mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself; verb adjust through indexation; provide with an index; list in an index
  • infarction -  localized necrosis resulting from obstruction of the blood supply
  • infection -  (international law) illegality that taints or contaminates a ship or cargo rendering it liable to seizure; moral corruption or contamination; an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted; (medicine) the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease; (phonetics) the alteration of a speech sound under the influence of a neighboring sound; the pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms; the communication of an attitude or emotional state among a number of people
  • infectious -  easily spread; caused by infection or capable of causing infection; of or relating to infection
  • infectious mononucleosis -  an acute disease characterized by fever and swollen lymph nodes and an abnormal increase of mononuclear leucocytes or monocytes in the bloodstream; not highly contagious; some believe it can be transmitted by kissing
  • inferior vena cava -  receives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heart; formed from the union of the two iliac veins
  • infertility -  the state of being unable to produce offspring; in a woman it is an inability to conceive; in a man it is an inability to impregnate
  • inflammation -  arousal to violent emotion; a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat; the act of setting something on fire; the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up
  • influenza -  an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease
  • ingrown hair -  a hair that does not emerge from the follicle but remains embedded in the skin (usually causing inflammation)
  • inhibitor -  a substance that retards or stops an activity
  • innate immunity -  immunity to disease that occurs as part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • inner ear -  a complex system of interconnecting cavities; concerned with hearing and equilibrium
  • insanity -  relatively permanent disorder of the mind
  • insulin -  hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; regulates storage of glycogen in the liver and accelerates oxidation of sugar in cells
  • interaction -  a mutual or reciprocal action; interacting; (physics) the transfer of energy between elementary particles or between an elementary particle and a field or between fields; mediated by gauge bosons
  • intermittent claudication -  lameness due to pain in leg muscles because the blood supply is inadequate; pain subsides with rest
  • intima -  the innermost membrane of an organ (especially the inner lining of an artery or vein or lymphatic vessel)
  • intoxication -  excitement and elation beyond the bounds of sobriety; a temporary state resulting from excessive consumption of alcohol; the physiological state produced by a poison or other toxic substance
  • intraocular pressure -  pressure inside the eyeball; regulated by resistance to the outward flow of aqueous humor
  • intussusception -  (biology) growth in the surface area of a cell by the deposit of new particles between existing particles in the cell wall; the folding in of an outer layer so as to form a pocket in the surface
  • iodine -  a nonmetallic element belonging to the halogens; used especially in medicine and photography and in dyes; occurs naturally only in combination in small quantities (as in sea water or rocks); a tincture consisting of a solution of iodine in ethyl alcohol; applied topically to wounds as an antiseptic
  • iris -  diaphragm consisting of thin overlapping plates that can be adjusted to change the diameter of a central opening; muscular diaphragm that controls the size of the pupil; it forms the colored portion of the eye; plants with sword-shaped leaves and erect stalks bearing bright-colored flowers composed of three petals and three drooping sepals
  • iritis -  inflammation of the iris
  • iron -  extremely robust;  home appliance consisting of a flat metal base that is heated and used to smooth cloth; a golf club that has a relatively narrow metal head; implement used to brand live stock; a heavy ductile magnetic metallic element; is silver-white in pure form but readily rusts; used in construction and tools and armament; plays a role in the transport of oxygen by the blood; verb press and smooth with a heated iron
  • irritable bowel syndrome -  recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhea (often alternating with periods of constipation); often associated with emotional stress
  • ischemic stroke -  the most common kind of stroke; caused by an interruption in the flow of blood to the brain (as from a clot blocking a blood vessel)
  • islets of Langerhans -  cell clusters in the pancreas that form the endocrine part of that organ; secrete insulin and other hormones
  • itching -  an irritating cutaneous sensation that produces a desire to scratch
  • IVP -  performing pyelography with intravenous injection of a contrast medium; X-ray picture of the kidneys and ureters after injection of a radiopaque dye
  • James -  a river that rises in North Dakota and flows southward across South Dakota to the Missouri; a river in Virginia that flows east into Chesapeake Bay at Hampton Roads; (New Testament) disciple of Jesus; brother of John; author of the Epistle of James in the New Testament; writer who was born in the United States but lived in England (1843-1916); United States pragmatic philosopher and psychologist (1842-1910); United States outlaw who fought as a Confederate soldier and later led a band of outlaws that robbed trains and banks in the West until he was murdered by a member of his own gang (1847-1882); the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings (1566-1625); the last Stuart to be king of England and Ireland and Scotland; overthrown in 1688 (1633-1701); a Stuart king of Scotland who married a daughter of Henry VII; when England and France went to war in 1513 he invaded England and died in defeat at Flodden (1473-1513); a New Testament book attributed to Saint James the Apostle
  • jaundice -  yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood; can be a symptom of gallstones or liver infection or anemia; a rough and bitter manner; verb affect with, or as if with, jaundice; distort adversely
  • jaw -  holding device consisting of one or both of the opposing parts of a tool that close to hold an object; the part of the skull of a vertebrate that frames the mouth and holds the teeth; the bones of the skull that frame the mouth and serve to open it; the bones that hold the teeth; verb censure severely or angrily; talk incessantly and tiresomely; talk socially without exchanging too much information; chew (food)
  • jejunum -  the part of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum
  • jock itch -  fungal infection of the groin (most common in men)
  • joint -  involving both houses of a legislature; united or combined; affecting or involving two or more;  marijuana leaves rolled into a cigarette for smoking; junction by which parts or objects are joined together; a disreputable place of entertainment; (anatomy) the point of connection between two bones or elements of a skeleton (especially if it allows motion); a piece of meat roasted or for roasting and of a size for slicing into more than one portion; the shape or manner in which things come together and a connection is made; verb separate (meat) at the joint; fasten with a joint; provide with a joint; fit as if by joints
  • Joseph -  (New Testament) husband of Mary and (in Christian belief) the foster father of Jesus; (Old Testament) the 11th son of Jacob and one of the 12 patriarchs of Israel; Jacob gave Joseph a coat of many colors, which made his brothers jealous and they sold him into slavery in Egypt; leader of the Nez Perce in their retreat from United States troops (1840-1904)
  • Kaposi's sarcoma -  a sarcoma that starts with purplish spots on the feet and legs and spreads from the skin to lymph nodes and internal organs; a common manifestation of AIDS
  • karyotype -  the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)
  • Kawasaki disease -  an acute disease of young children characterized by a rash and swollen lymph nodes and fever; of unknown cause
  • Kegel exercises -  exercises for women designed to improve the ability to hold urine
  • keloid -  raised pinkish scar tissue at the site of an injury; results from excessive tissue repair
  • keratin -  a fibrous scleroprotein that occurs in the outer layer of the skin and in horny tissues such as hair feathers nails and hooves
  • keratitis -  inflammation of the cornea causing watery painful eyes and blurred vision
  • keratoacanthoma -  skin tumor that grows rapidly (especially in older people) and resembles a carcinoma but does not spread; it usually disappears spontaneously, often leaving a scar
  • keratoconus -  abnormal cone-shaped protrusion of the cornea of the eye; can be treated by epikeratophakia
  • keratosis pilaris -  keratosis characterized by hard conical elevations in the openings of sebaceous glands (especially of arms and thighs)
  • ketamine -  a general anesthetic and tranquilizer (not a barbiturate) that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly; used mainly by veterinarians or for minor surgery with geriatric or pediatric patients; taken in large doses it causes hallucinations similar to those associated with the use of PCP
  • kidney -  either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine
  • killer T cell -  T cell with CD8 receptor that recognizes antigens on the surface of a virus-infected cell and binds to the infected cell and kill it
  • Klinefelter's syndrome -  syndrome in males that is characterized by small testes and long legs and enlarged breasts and reduced sperm production and mental retardation; a genetic defect in which an extra X chromosome (XXY) is present in the male
  • kyphosis -  an abnormal backward curve to the vertebral column
  • labyrinth -  complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost; a complex system of interconnecting cavities; concerned with hearing and equilibrium
  • labyrinthitis -  inflammation of the inner ear; can cause vertigo and vomiting
  • lacrimal -  relating to or located near the organ that produces tears; of or relating to tears
  • lactase -  any of a group of enzymes (trade name Lactaid) that hydrolyze lactose to glucose and galactose
  • lactation -  the production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands; the period following birth during which milk is secreted; feeding an infant by giving suck at the breast
  • lactose intolerance -  congenital disorder consisting of an inability to digest milk and milk products; absence or deficiency of lactase results in an inability to hydrolyze lactose
  • LAD -  a male child (a familiar term of address to a boy); a boy or man
  • laminectomy -  surgical removal of the bony arches on one or more vertebrae
  • Landsteiner -  United States pathologist (born in Austria) who discovered human blood groups (1868-1943)
  • laryngectomy -  surgical removal of part or all of the larynx (usually to treat cancer of the larynx)
  • laryngitis -  inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx; characterized by hoarseness or loss of voice and coughing
  • larynx -  a cartilaginous structure at the top of the trachea; contains elastic vocal cords that are the source of the vocal tone in speech
  • laser -  an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; an optical device that produces an intense monochromatic beam of coherent light
  • LDL -  a lipoprotein that transports cholesterol in the blood; composed of moderate amount of protein and a large amount of cholesterol; high levels are thought to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis
  • left atrium -  the left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins
  • left ventricle -  the chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta
  • Legionnaires' disease -  acute (sometimes fatal) lobar pneumonia caused by bacteria of a kind first recognized after an outbreak of the disease at an American Legion convention in Philadelphia in 1976; characterized by fever and muscle and chest pain and headache and chills and a dry cough
  • legs -  staying power
  • lens -  a transparent optical device used to converge or diverge transmitted light and to form images; electronic equipment that uses a magnetic or electric field in order to focus a beam of electrons; biconvex transparent body situated behind the iris in the eye; it focuses light waves on the retina; (metaphor) a channel through which something can be seen or understood; genus of small erect or climbing herbs with pinnate leaves and small inconspicuous white flowers and small flattened pods: lentils
  • lesion -  any visible abnormal structural change in a bodily part; any break in the skin or an organ caused by violence or surgical incision
  • leukemia -  malignant neoplasm of blood-forming tissues; characterized by abnormal proliferation of leukocytes; one of the four major types of cancer
  • leukocyte -  blood cells that engulf and digest bacteria and fungi; an important part of the body's defense system
  • leukopenia -  an abnormal lowering of the white blood cell count
  • libido -  (psychoanalysis) a Freudian term for sexual urge or desire
  • Librium -  a tranquilizer (trade names Librium and Libritabs) used in the treatment of alcoholism
  • lichen planus -  an eruption of shiny flat-topped purplish (usually itchy) papules on the wrist and forearms and thighs
  • life expectancy -  an expected time to live as calculated on the basis of statistical probabilities
  • life-support -  of or pertaining to equipment or methods used to sustain life
  • ligament -  any connection or unifying bond; a sheet or band of tough fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages or supporting muscles or organs
  • light -  characterized by or emitting light; (used of color) having a relatively small amount of coloring agent; (of sleep) easily disturbed; demanding little effort; not burdensome; having relatively few calories; easily assimilated in the alimentary canal; not rich or heavily seasoned; of comparatively little physical weight or density; designed for ease of movement or to carry little weight; psychologically light; especially free from sadness or troubles; not great in degree or quantity or number; (physics, chemistry) not having atomic weight greater than average; of little intensity or power or force; moving easily and quickly; nimble; of the military or industry; using (or being) relatively small or light arms or equipment; intended primarily as entertainment; not serious or profound; having little importance; less than the correct or legal or full amount often deliberately so; casual and unrestrained in sexual behavior; (used of soil) loose and large-grained in consistency; (of sound or color) free from anything that dulls or dims; silly or trivial; used of vowels or syllables; proced with little or no stress; marked by temperance in indulgence; very thin and insubstantial; weak and likely to lose consciousness; adv. with few burdens;  any device serving as a source of illumination; the visual effect of illumination on objects or scenes as created in pictures; public awareness; mental understanding as an enlightening experience; a particular perspective or aspect of a situation; a visual warning signal; an illuminated area; a person regarded very fondly; (physics) electromagnetic radiation that can produce a visual sensation; having abundant light or illumination; a condition of spiritual awareness; divine illumination; a device for lighting or igniting fuel or charges or fires; merriment expressed by a brightness or gleam or animation of countenance; the quality of being luminous; emitting or reflecting light; a divine presence believed by Quakers to enlighten and guide the soul; verb make lighter or brighter; begin to smoke; get off (a horse); to come to rest, settle; fall to somebody by assignment or lot; cause to start burning; subject to fire or great heat
  • limbic system -  a system of functionally related neural structures in the brain that are involved in emotional behavior
  • lipoma -  a tumor consisting of fatty tissue
  • lipoprotein -  a conjugated protein having a lipid component; the principal means for transporting lipids in the blood
  • Lister -  moldboard plow with a double moldboard designed to move dirt to either side of a central furrow; assessor who makes out the tax lists; English surgeon who was the first to use antiseptics (1827-1912)
  • listeriosis -  an infectious disease of animals and humans (especially newborn or immunosuppressed persons) caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes; in sheep and cattle the infection frequently involves the central nervous system and causes various neurological symptoms
  • lithium -  a soft silver-white univalent element of the alkali metal group; the lightest metal known; occurs in several minerals
  • liver -  having a reddish-brown color;  large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity; secretes bile and functions in metabolism of protein and carbohydrate and fat; synthesizes substances involved in the clotting of the blood; synthesizes vitamin A; detoxifies poisonous substances and breaks down worn-out erythrocytes; liver of an animal used as meat; someone who lives in a place; a person who has a special life style
  • liver cancer -  malignant neoplastic disease of the liver usually occurring as a metastasis from another cancer; symptoms include loss of appetite and weakness and bloating and jaundice and upper abdominal discomfort
  • livestock -  not used technically; any animals kept for use or profit
  • location -  a point or extent in space; a workplace away from a studio at which some or all of a movie may be made; a determination of the place where something is; the act of putting something in a certain place
  • locus -  the set of all points or lines that satisfy or are determined by specific conditions; the specific site of a particular gene on its chromosome; the scene of any event or action (especially the place of a meeting)
  • lordosis -  an abnormal inward (forward) curvature of the vertebral column
  • Lou Gehrig's disease -  thickening of tissue in the motor tracts of the lateral columns and anterior horns of the spinal cord; results in progressive muscle atrophy that starts in the limbs
  • Louis -  United States prizefighter who was world heavyweight campion for 12 years (1914-1981)
  • LSD -  a powerful hallucinogenic drug manufactured from lysergic acid
  • lumbar puncture -  removal by centesis of fluid from the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region of the spinal cord for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes
  • lung cancer -  carcinoma of the lungs; one of the commonest forms of cancer
  • lutein -  yellow carotenoid pigments in plants and animal fats and egg yolks
  • luteinizing hormone -  a gonadotropic hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary; stimulates ovulation in female mammals and stimulates androgen release in male mammals
  • lycopene -  carotenoid that makes tomatoes red; may lower the risk of prostate cancer
  • Lyme disease -  an acute inflammatory disease characterized by a rash with joint swelling and fever; caused by bacteria carried by the bite of a deer tick
  • lymph -  a thin coagulable fluid (similar to plasma but) containing white blood cells (lymphocytes) and chyle; is conveyed to the blood stream by lymphatic vessels
  • lymph node -  the source of lymph and lymphocytes
  • lymphadenopathy -  chronic abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes (usually associated with disease)
  • lymphangioma -  benign angioma consisting of a mass of lymphatic vessels
  • lymphatic system -  the interconnected system of spaces and vessels between body tissues and organs by which lymph circulates throughout the body
  • lymphedema -  swelling (usually in the legs) caused by lymph accumulating in the tissues
  • lymphocyte -  an agranulocytic leukocyte that normally makes up a quarter of the white blood cell count but increases in the presence of infection
  • lymphocytopenia -  an abnormally small number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
  • lymphoma -  a neoplasm of lymph tissue that is usually malignant; one of the four major types of cancer
  • macrophage -  a large phagocyte; some are fixed and other circulate in the blood stream
  • macula -  a yellowish central area of the retina that is rich in cones and that mediates clear detailed vision; a patch of skin that is discolored but not usually elevated; caused by various diseases; a cooler darker spot appearing periodically on the sun's photosphere; associated with a strong magnetic field
  • macular degeneration -  degeneration of the cells of the macula lutea which results in blurred vision and can cause blindness; usually age-related
  • macule -  a patch of skin that is discolored but not usually elevated; caused by various diseases
  • mad cow disease -  a fatal disease of cattle that affects the central nervous system; causes staggering and agitation
  • malabsorption -  abnormal absorption of nutrients from the digestive tract
  • malaria -  an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito; marked by paroxysms of chills and fever
  • malformation -  something abnormal or anomalous; an affliction in which some part of the body is misshapen or malformed
  • malignant melanoma -  any of several malignant neoplasms (usually of the skin) consisting of melanocytes
  • malignant tumor -  a tumor that is malignant and tends to spread to other parts of the body
  • malnutrition -  a state of poor nutrition; can result from insufficient or excessive or unbalanced diet or from inability to absorb foods
  • MALT -  a cereal grain that is kiln-dried after having been germinated by soaking in water; used especially in brewing and distilling; a lager of high alcohol content; by law it is considered too alcoholic to be sold as lager or beer; a milkshake made with malt powder; verb convert into malt; convert grain into malt; turn into malt, become malt; treat with malt or malt extract
  • mammogram -  X-ray film of the soft tissue of the breast
  • management -  the act of managing something; those in charge of running a business
  • mandible -  the jaw in vertebrates that is hinged to open the mouth
  • mania -  an irrational but irresistible motive for a belief or action; a mood disorder; an affective disorder in which the victim tends to respond excessively and sometimes violently
  • MAO -  Chinese communist leader (1893-1976); an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of many body compounds (e.g., epinephrine and norepinephrine and serotonin)
  • marijuana -  a strong-smelling plant from whose dried leaves a number of euphoriant and hallucinogenic drugs are prepared; the most commonly used illicit drug; considered a soft drug, it consists of the dried leaves of the hemp plant; smoked or chewed for euphoric effect
  • mast cell -  a large connective tissue cell that contains histamine and heparin and serotonin which are released in allergic reactions or in response to injury or inflammation
  • mastectomy -  surgical removal of a breast to remove a malignant tumor
  • mastitis -  inflammation of a breast (or udder)
  • masturbation -  manual stimulation of the genital organs (of yourself or another) for sexual pleasure
  • MDMA -  a stimulant drug that is chemically related to mescaline and amphetamine and is used illicitly for its euphoric and hallucinogenic effects; it was formerly used in psychotherapy but in 1985 it was declared illegal in the United States
  • measles -  an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash; occurs primarily in children
  • meconium -  thick dark green mucoid material that is the first feces of a newborn child
  • medical -  requiring or amenable to treatment by medicine especially as opposed to surgery; relating to the study or practice of medicine; of or belonging to Aesculapius or the healing art;  a thorough physical examination; includes a variety of tests depending on the age and sex and health of the person
  • medicine -  the learned profession that is mastered by graduate training in a medical school and that is devoted to preventing or alleviating or curing diseases and injuries; (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease; the branches of medical science that deal with nonsurgical techniques; punishment for one's actions; verb treat medicinally, treat with medicine
  • meditation -  continuous and profound contemplation or musing on a subject or series of subjects of a deep or abstruse nature; (religion) contemplation of spiritual matters (usually on religious or philosophical subjects)
  • medulla -  the inner part of an organ or structure in plant or animal; lower or hindmost part of the brain; continuous with spinal cord; (`bulb' is an old term for medulla oblongata); a white fatty substance that forms a medullary sheath around the axis cylinder of some nerve fibers
  • megakaryocyte -  a large bone marrow cell; regarded as the source of blood platelets
  • melanin -  insoluble pigments that account for the color of e.g. skin and scales and feathers
  • melanocyte -  a cell in the basal layer of the epidermis that produces melanin under the control of the melanocyte-stimulating hormone
  • melanoma -  any of several malignant neoplasms (usually of the skin) consisting of melanocytes
  • melasma -  a tan discoloration of a woman's face that is associated with pregnancy or with the use of oral contraceptives
  • melatonin -  hormone secreted by the pineal gland
  • membranous labyrinth -  the sensory structures of the inner ear including the labyrinthine receptors and the cochlea; contained within the bony labyrinth
  • MEN -  the force of workers available
  • menarche -  the first occurrence of menstruation in a woman
  • Mendel -  Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822-1884)
  • meninges -  a membrane (one of 3) that envelops the brain and spinal cord
  • meningitis -  infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection; symptoms include headache and stiff neck and fever and nausea
  • meniscectomy -  surgical removal of the meniscus of the knee
  • meniscus -  (physics) the curved upper surface of a nonturbulent liquid in a vertical tube; (optics) a lens that is concave on one side and convex on the other; (anatomy) a disk of cartilage that serves as a cushion between the ends of bones that meet at a joint
  • menopause -  the time in a woman's life in which the menstrual cycle ends
  • menstrual cycle -  a recurring cycle (beginning at menarche and ending at menopause) in which the endometrial lining of the uterus prepares for pregnancy; if pregnancy does not occur the lining is shed at menstruation
  • menstruation -  the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus of nonpregnant women from puberty to menopause
  • mercury -  temperature measured by a mercury thermometer; the smallest planet and the nearest to the sun; (Roman mythology) messenger of Jupiter and god of commerce; counterpart of Greek Hermes; a heavy silvery toxic univalent and bivalent metallic element; the only metal that is liquid at ordinary temperatures
  • mescaline -  the hallucinatory alkaloid that is the active agent in mescal buttons
  • mesoderm -  the middle germ layer that develops into muscle and bone and cartilage and blood and connective tissue
  • metabolism -  the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life; the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals
  • metastasis -  the spreading of a disease to another part of the body; the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life
  • methadone -  synthetic narcotic drug similar to morphine but less habit-forming; used in narcotic detoxification and maintenance of heroin addiction
  • methamphetamine -  an amphetamine derivative (trade name Methedrine) used in the form of a crystalline hydrochloride; used as a stimulant to the nervous system and as an appetite suppressant
  • methotrexate -  toxic antimetabolite that limits cellular reproduction by acting as an antagonist to folic acid; used to treat certain cancers and psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis
  • methylenedioxymethamphetamine -  a stimulant drug that is chemically related to mescaline and amphetamine and is used illicitly for its euphoric and hallucinogenic effects; it was formerly used in psychotherapy but in 1985 it was declared illegal in the United States
  • microbe -  a minute life form (especially a disease-causing bacterium); the term is not in technical use
  • midbrain -  the middle portion of the brain
  • middle ear -  the main cavity of the ear; between the eardrum and the inner ear
  • miliaria -  obstruction of the sweat ducts during high heat and humidity
  • milk thistle -  tall Old World biennial thistle with large clasping white-blotched leaves and purple flower heads; naturalized in California and South America; any of several Old World coarse prickly-leaved shrubs and subshrubs having milky juice and yellow flowers; widely naturalized; often noxious weeds in cultivated soil
  • mittelschmerz -  pain in the area of the ovary that is felt at the time of ovulation (usually midway through the menstrual cycle)
  • mold -  container into which liquid is poured to create a given shape when it hardens; sculpture produced by molding; a fungus that produces a superficial growth on various kinds of damp or decaying organic matter; loose soil rich in organic matter; the process of becoming mildewed; the distinctive form in which a thing is made; verb become moldy; spoil due to humidity; fit tightly, follow the contours of; shape or influence; give direction to; make something, usually for a specific function; form by pouring (e.g., wax or hot metal) into a cast or mold; form in clay, wax, etc
  • monoamine oxidase -  an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of many body compounds (e.g., epinephrine and norepinephrine and serotonin)
  • monocyte -  a type of granular leukocyte that functions in the ingestion of bacteria
  • mononucleosis -  an acute disease characterized by fever and swollen lymph nodes and an abnormal increase of mononuclear leucocytes or monocytes in the bloodstream; not highly contagious; some believe it can be transmitted by kissing
  • monosaccharide -  a sugar (like sucrose or fructose) that does not hydrolyse to give other sugars; the simplest group of carbohydrates
  • monosomy -  chromosomal abnormality consisting of the absence of one chromosome from the normal diploid number
  • morning sickness -  nausea early in the day; a characteristic symptom in the early months of pregnancy
  • morphine -  an alkaloid narcotic drug extracted from opium; a powerful, habit-forming narcotic used to relieve pain
  • mosaicism -  the condition in which an organism has two or more cell populations that differ in genetic makeup
  • mouth -  the opening of a jar or bottle; the externally visible part of the oral cavity on the face and the system of organs surrounding the opening; the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge; the point where a stream issues into a larger body of water; an opening that resembles a mouth (as of a cave or a gorge); a person conceived as a consumer of food; an impudent or insolent rejoinder; a spokesperson (as a lawyer); verb articulate silently; form words with the lips only; touch with the mouth; express in speech
  • mucosa -  mucus-secreting membrane lining all body cavities or passages that communicate with the exterior
  • mucus -  protective secretion of the mucous membranes; in the gut it lubricates the passage of food and protects the epithelial cells; in the nose and throat and lungs it can make it difficult for bacteria to penetrate the body through the epithelium
  • multiple sclerosis -  a chronic progressive nervous disorder involving loss of myelin sheath around certain nerve fibers
  • mumps -  an acute contagious viral disease characterized by fever and by swelling of the parotid glands
  • muscle -  authority or power or force (especially when used in a coercive way); animal tissue consisting predominantly of contractile cells; one of the contractile organs of the body; possessing muscular strength; a bully employed as a thug or bodyguard; verb make one's way by force
  • muscle spasm -  a painful and involuntary muscular contraction
  • muscular dystrophy -  any of several hereditary diseases of the muscular system characterized by weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles
  • musculoskeletal system -  the system of muscles and tendons and ligaments and bones and joints and associated tissues that move the body and maintain its form
  • mutation -  a change or alteration in form or qualities; (genetics) any event that changes genetic structure; any alteration in the inherited nucleic acid sequence of the genotype of an organism; (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration
  • myasthenia gravis -  a chronic progressive disease characterized by chronic fatigue and muscular weakness (especially in the face and neck); caused by a deficiency of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions
  • mydriasis -  reflex pupillary dilation as a muscle pulls the iris outward; occurs in response to a decrease in light or certain drugs
  • myelin -  a white fatty substance that forms a medullary sheath around the axis cylinder of some nerve fibers
  • myeloma -  a tumor of the bone marrow (usually malignant) composed of cells normally found in bone marrow
  • myocardial infarction -  destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle
  • myocarditis -  inflammation of the myocardium (the muscular tissue of the heart)
  • myocardium -  the middle muscular layer of the heart wall
  • myoclonus -  a clonic spasm of a muscle or muscle group
  • myometrium -  the smooth muscle forming the wall of the uterus
  • myopathy -  any pathology of the muscles that is not attributable to nerve dysfunction
  • myopia -  (ophthalmology) eyesight abnormality resulting from the eye's faulty refractive ability; distant objects appear blurred
  • myotonia -  abnormally long muscular contractions; slow relaxation of a muscle after a contraction
  • myotonic muscular dystrophy -  a severe form of muscular dystrophy marked by generalized weakness and muscular wasting that affects the face and feet and hands and neck; difficult speech and difficulty with the hands that spreads to the arms and shoulders and legs and hips; the onset can be any time from birth to middle age and the progression is slow; inheritance is autosomal dominant
  • myringotomy -  surgical incision into the eardrum (to relieve pressure or release pus from the middle ear)
  • myxoma -  a benign tumor of connective tissue containing jellylike material
  • nabothian cyst -  a cyst that forms in the nabothian glands of the uterine cervix
  • naltrexone -  an oral antagonist against the action of opiates
  • naphthoquinone -  a fat-soluble vitamin that helps in the clotting of blood
  • narcolepsy -  a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep
  • nasal septum -  a partition of bone and cartilage between the nasal cavities
  • National Institutes of Health -  an agency in the Department of Health and Human Services whose mission is to employ science in the pursuit of knowledge to improve human health; is the principal biomedical research agency of the federal government
  • natural immunity -  immunity to disease that occurs as part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • naturopathy -  a method of treating disease using food and exercise and heat to assist the natural healing process
  • nausea -  disgust so strong it makes you feel sick; the state that precedes vomiting
  • nearsightedness -  (ophthalmology) eyesight abnormality resulting from the eye's faulty refractive ability; distant objects appear blurred
  • neck -  an opening in a garment for the neck of the wearer; a part of the garment near the wearer's neck; the part of an organism that connects the head to the rest of the body; a cut of meat from the neck of an animal; a narrow elongated projecting strip of land; verb kiss, embrace, or fondle with sexual passion
  • necrosis -  the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply)
  • neoplasia -  the pathological process that results in the formation and growth of a tumor
  • nephroblastoma -  malignant renal tumor of young children characterized by hypertension and blood in the urine and the presence of a palpable mass
  • nephron -  any of the small tubules that are the excretory units of the vertebrate kidney
  • nephrotic syndrome -  a syndrome characterized by edema and large amounts of protein in the urine and usually increased blood cholesterol; usually associated with glomerulonephritis or with a complication of various systemic diseases
  • nerve -  any bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body; impudent aggressiveness; the courage to carry on; verb get ready for something difficult or unpleasant
  • nervous system -  the sensory and control apparatus consisting of a network of nerve cells
  • neural tube -  a tube of ectodermal tissue in the embryo from which the brain and spinal cord develop
  • neuralgia -  acute spasmodic pain along the course of one or more nerves
  • neuritis -  inflammation of a nerve accompanied by pain and sometimes loss of function
  • neurofibromatosis -  autosomal dominant disease characterized by numerous neurofibromas and by spots on the skin and often by developmental abnormalities
  • neurogenic bladder -  a urinary bladder disorder caused by a lesion in the nervous system
  • neuron -  a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses
  • neuropathy -  any pathology of the peripheral nerves
  • neurosis -  a mental or personality disturbance not attributable to any known neurological or organic dysfunction
  • neutropenia -  leukopenia in which the decrease is primarily in number of neutrophils (the chief phagocytic leukocyte)
  • neutrophil -  the chief phagocytic leukocyte; stains with either basic or acid dyes
  • nevus -  a blemish on the skin that is formed before birth
  • nicotine -  an alkaloid poison that occurs in tobacco; used in medicine and as an insecticide
  • night blindness -  inability to see clearly in dim light; due to a deficiency of vitamin A or to a retinal disorder
  • NIH -  an agency in the Department of Health and Human Services whose mission is to employ science in the pursuit of knowledge to improve human health; is the principal biomedical research agency of the federal government
  • nocturia -  excessive urination at night; especially common in older men
  • node -  (computer science) any computer that is hooked up to a computer network; any bulge or swelling of an anatomical structure or part; (astronomy) a point where an orbit crosses a plane; (physics) the point of minimum displacement in a periodic system; any thickened enlargement; a connecting point at which several lines come together; the source of lymph and lymphocytes
  • nodule -  a small node; (mineralogy) a small rounded lump of mineral substance (usually harder than the surrounding rock or sediment); small rounded wartlike protuberance on a plant
  • norepinephrine -  a catecholamine precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and also released at synapses
  • nose -  a front that resembles a human nose (especially the front of an aircraft); the front or forward projection of a tool or weapon; the organ of smell and entrance to the respiratory tract; the prominent part of the face of man or other mammals; a natural skill; the sense of smell (especially in animals); a symbol of inquisitiveness; a small distance; a projecting spout from which a fluid is discharged; verb defeat by a narrow margin; push or move with the nose; advance the forward part of with caution; rub noses; catch the scent of; get wind of; search or inquire in a meddlesome way
  • nosocomial -  taking place or originating in a hospital
  • nucleic acid -  (biochemistry) any of various macromolecules composed of nucleotide chains that are vital constituents of all living cells
  • nucleotide -  a phosphoric ester of a nucleoside; the basic structural unit of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA)
  • nursing -  the work of caring for the sick or injured or infirm; nourishing at the breast; the profession of a nurse
  • nutrition -  the scientific study of food and drink (especially in humans); (physiology) the organic process of nourishing or being nourished; the processes by which an organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance; a source of materials to nourish the body
  • nystagmus -  involuntary movements of the eyeballs; its presence or absence is used to diagnose a variety of neurological and visual disorders
  • obesity -  more than average fatness
  • occupational therapy -  physical therapy involving the therapeutic use of crafts and hobbies for the rehabilitation of handicapped or convalescing patients (especially for emotionally disturbed patients)
  • OCT -  the month following September and preceding November
  • olfactory nerve -  a collective term for numerous olfactory filaments in the nasal mucosa
  • oliguria -  production of an abnormally small amount of urine; abnormally small production of urine; can be a symptom of kidney disease or obstruction of the urinary tract or edema or an imbalance of fluids and electrolytes in the body
  • open -  ready for business; not having been filled; without undue constriction as from e.g. tenseness or inhibition; affording unobstructed entrance and exit; not shut or closed; affording free passage or access; used of mouth or eyes; having no protecting cover or enclosure; (set theory) of an interval that contains neither of its endpoints; open to or in view of all; accessible to all; not sealed or having been unsealed; not brought to a conclusion; subject to further thought; not requiring union membership; openly straightforward and direct without reserve or secretiveness; affording free passage or view; open and observable; not secret or hidden; with no protection or shield; ready or willing to receive favorably; (of textures) full of small openings or gaps; possibly accepting or permitting; not defended or capable of being defended;  information that has become public; a tournament in which both professionals and amateurs may play; a clear or unobstructed space or expanse of land or water; where the air is unconfined; verb make available; become available; make the opening move; cause to open or to become open; become open; display the contents of a file or start an application as on a computer; begin or set in action, of meetings, speeches, recitals, etc.; start to operate or function or cause to start operating or functioning; have an opening or passage or outlet; spread out or open from a closed or folded state; afford access to
  • open fracture -  bone fracture associated with lacerated soft tissue or an open wound
  • operation -  the activity of operating something (a machine or business etc.); a planned activity involving many people performing various actions; a process or series of acts especially of a practical or mechanical nature involved in a particular form of work; a medical procedure involving an incision with instruments; performed to repair damage or arrest disease in a living body; activity by a military or naval force (as a maneuver or campaign); a business especially one run on a large scale; (computer science) data processing in which the result is completely specified by a rule (especially the processing that results from a single instruction); process or manner of functioning or operating; the state of being in effect or being operative; (mathematics) calculation by mathematical methods; (psychology) the performance of some composite cognitive activity; an operation that affects mental contents
  • operations -  financial transactions at a brokerage; having to do with the execution of trades and keeping customer records
  • ophthalmoscopy -  examination of the interior of an eye using an ophthalmoscope
  • opium -  an addictive narcotic extracted from seed capsules of the opium poppy
  • opportunistic -  taking immediate advantage, often unethically, of any circumstance of possible benefit
  • optic disk -  the point where the optic nerve enters the retina; not sensitive to light
  • optic nerve -  the cranial nerve that serves the retina
  • orchiectomy -  surgical removal of one or both testicles
  • orchiopexy -  operation to bring an undescended testicle into the scrotum
  • orchitis -  inflammation of one or both testes; characterized by pain and swelling
  • organ of Corti -  the hearing organ of the inner ear; contains receptors that respond to sound waves
  • organic brain syndrome -  mental abnormality resulting from disturbance of the structure or function of the brain
  • Organization -  the activity or result of distributing or disposing persons or things properly or methodically; the act of organizing a business or an activity related to a business; an ordered manner; orderliness by virtue of being methodical and well organized; a group of people who work together; the act of forming something; an organized structure for arranging or classifying; the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something
  • orgasm -  the moment of most intense pleasure in sexual intercourse
  • OSHA -  a government agency in the Department of Labor to maintain a safe and healthy work environment
  • ossification -  hardened conventionality; the developmental process of bone formation; the process of becoming rigidly fixed in a conventional pattern of thought or behavior; the calcification of soft tissue into a bonelike material
  • osteoarthritis -  chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints; the most common form of arthritis occurring usually after middle age
  • osteogenesis imperfecta -  autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue characterized by brittle bones that fracture easily
  • osteomalacia -  abnormal softening of bones caused by deficiencies of phosphorus or calcium or vitamin D
  • osteomyelitis -  an inflammation of bone and bone marrow (usually caused by bacterial infection)
  • osteopathy -  therapy based on the assumption that restoring health is best accomplished by manipulating the skeleton and muscles
  • osteopetrosis -  an inherited disorder characterized by an increase in bone density; in severe forms the bone marrow cavity may be obliterated
  • osteoporosis -  abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium; most common in postmenopausal women
  • OTC -  (of securities) not quoted on a stock exchange
  • otitis -  inflammation of the ear
  • otitis externa -  inflammation of the external ear (including auricle and ear canal)
  • otitis externa -  inflammation of the external ear (including auricle and ear canal)
  • otitis media -  inflammation of the middle ear; common in children
  • otoplasty -  reconstructive surgery of the auricle of the external ear
  • otorrhea -  discharge from the external ear
  • otosclerosis -  hereditary disorder in which ossification of the labyrinth of the inner ear causes tinnitus and eventual deafness
  • ovarian cyst -  a cystic tumor (usually benign) of the ovary
  • over-the-counter -  (of securities) not quoted on a stock exchange; purchasable without a doctor's prescription
  • overeating -  eating to excess (personified as one of the deadly sins)
  • overview -  a general summary of a subject
  • ovulation -  the expulsion of an ovum from the ovary (usually midway in the menstrual cycle)
  • oxidation -  the process of oxidizing; the addition of oxygen to a compound with a loss of electrons; always occurs accompanied by reduction
  • oxygen -  a nonmetallic bivalent element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless nonflammable diatomic gas; constitutes 21 percent of the atmosphere by volume; the most abundant element in the earth's crust
  • oxygenation -  the process of providing or combining or treating with oxygen
  • oxytocin -  hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitocin); stimulates contractions of the uterus and ejection of milk
  • pacemaker -  an implanted electronic device that takes over the function of the natural cardiac pacemaker; a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat; a horse used to set the pace in racing; a leading instance in its field
  • pain -  a somatic sensation of acute discomfort; emotional distress; a fundamental feeling that people try to avoid; a bothersome annoying person; a symptom of some physical hurt or disorder; something or someone that causes trouble; a source of unhappiness; verb cause emotional anguish or make miserable; cause bodily suffering to and make sick or indisposed
  • pancreas -  a large elongated exocrine gland located behind the stomach; secretes pancreatic juice and insulin
  • pancreatitis -  inflammation of the pancreas; usually marked by abdominal pain
  • panic disorder -  an anxiety disorder characterized by unpredictable panic attacks; the attacks are usually severe but brief
  • Pap test -  a method of examining stained cells in a cervical smear for early diagnosis of uterine cancer
  • Papaver somniferum -  southwestern Asian herb with greyish leaves and white or reddish flowers; source of opium
  • papilledema -  swelling of the optic disc (where the optic nerve enters the eyeball); usually associated with an increase in intraocular pressure
  • papilloma -  a benign epithelial tumor forming a rounded mass
  • papule -  a small inflamed elevation of skin that is nonsuppurative (as in chicken pox)
  • paracentesis -  centesis of the belly to remove fluid for diagnosis
  • paralysis -  loss of the ability to move a body part
  • paranoia -  a psychological disorder characterized by delusions of persecution or grandeur
  • parasite -  an animal or plant that lives in or on a host (another animal or plant); it obtains nourishment from the host without benefiting or killing the host; a follower who hangs around a host (without benefit to the host) in hope of gain or advantage
  • parathormone -  hormone synthesized and released into the blood stream by the parathyroid glands; regulates phosphorus and calcium in the body and functions in neuromuscular excitation and blood clotting
  • parathyroid hormone -  hormone synthesized and released into the blood stream by the parathyroid glands; regulates phosphorus and calcium in the body and functions in neuromuscular excitation and blood clotting
  • paresthesia -  abnormal skin sensations (as tingling or tickling or itching or burning) usually associated with peripheral nerve damage
  • Parkinson's disease -  a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by tremor and impaired muscular coordination
  • paronychia -  low-growing annual or perennial herbs or woody plants; whitlowworts; infection in the tissues adjacent to a nail on a finger or toe
  • passive immunity -  an impermanent form of acquired immunity in which antibodies against a disease are acquired naturally (as through the placenta to an unborn child) or artificially (as by injection of antiserum)
  • Pasteur -  French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
  • PAT -  exactly suited to the occasion; having only superficial plausibility; adv. completely or perfectly;  the sound made by a gentle blow; a light touch or stroke; verb hit lightly; pat or squeeze fondly or playfully, especially under the chin
  • pathogen -  any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
  • PCP -  a drug used as an anesthetic by veterinarians; illicitly taken (originally in the form of powder or `dust') for its effects as a hallucinogen
  • PDA -  a lightweight consumer electronic device that looks like a hand-held computer but instead performs specific tasks; can serve as a diary or a personal database or a telephone or an alarm clock etc.
  • pediculosis -  infestation with lice (Pediculus humanus) resulting in severe itching
  • pellagra -  a disease caused by deficiency of niacin or tryptophan (or by a defect in the metabolic conversion of tryptophan to niacin); characterized by gastrointestinal disturbances and erythema and nervous or mental disorders; may be caused by malnutrition or alcoholism or other nutritional impairments
  • pelvic inflammatory disease -  inflammation of the female pelvic organs (especially the Fallopian tubes) caused by infection by any of several microorganisms (chiefly gonococci and chlamydia); symptoms are abdominal pain and fever and foul-smelling vaginal discharge
  • pemphigus -  a skin disease characterized by large thin-walled blisters (bullae) arising from normal skin or mucous membrane
  • penicillin -  any of various antibiotics obtained from Penicillium molds (or produced synthetically) and used in the treatment of various infections and diseases
  • penis -  the male organ of copulation (`member' is a euphemism)
  • peptide -  amide combining the amino group of one amino acid with the carboxyl group of another; usually obtained by partial hydrolysis of protein
  • perception -  the process of perceiving; knowledge gained by perceiving; a way of conceiving something; becoming aware of something via the senses; the representation of what is perceived; basic component in the formation of a concept
  • pericardium -  a serous membrane with two layers that surrounds the heart
  • peristalsis -  the process of wavelike muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
  • peritoneal cavity -  the interior of the peritoneum; a potential space between layers of the peritoneum
  • peritonsillar abscess -  a painful pus filled inflammation of the tonsils and surrounding tissues; usually a complication of tonsillitis
  • pertussis -  a disease of the respiratory mucous membrane
  • pessary -  a contraceptive device consisting of a flexible dome-shaped cup made of rubber or plastic; it is filled with spermicide and fitted over the uterine cervix
  • phagocyte -  a cell that engulfs and digests debris and invading microorganisms
  • phagocytosis -  process in which phagocytes engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris; an important defense against infection
  • pharmacokinetics -  the study of the action of drugs in the body: method and rate of excretion; duration of effect; etc.
  • pharmacopeia -  (pharmacology) a book containing a compilation of pharmaceutical products with their formulas and methods of preparation
  • pharynx -  the passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone
  • phenazopyridine -  analgesic (trade name Pyridium) used to treat urinary tract infections
  • phencyclidine -  a drug used as an anesthetic by veterinarians; illicitly taken (originally in the form of powder or `dust') for its effects as a hallucinogen
  • phenotype -  what an organism looks like as a consequence of the interaction of its genotype and the environment
  • phenylketonuria -  a genetic disorder of metabolism; lack of the enzyme needed to turn phenylalanine into tyrosine results in an accumulation of phenylalanine in the body fluids which causes various degrees of mental deficiency
  • pheochromocytoma -  a vascular tumor of the adrenal gland; hypersecretion of epinephrine results in intermittent or sustained hypertension
  • phimosis -  an abnormal tightness of the foreskin preventing retraction over the glans
  • phlebotomy -  surgical incision into a vein; used to treat hemochromatosis
  • phobia -  an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme and irrational fear of simple things or social situations
  • phosphate -  carbonated drink with fruit syrup and a little phosphoric acid; a salt of phosphoric acid
  • photophobia -  a morbid fear of light; pain in the eye resulting from exposure to bright light (often associated with albinism)
  • phototherapy -  the use of strong light to treat acne or hyperbilirubinemia of the newborn
  • physical therapy -  therapy that uses physical agents: exercise and massage and other modalities
  • PID -  inflammation of the female pelvic organs (especially the Fallopian tubes) caused by infection by any of several microorganisms (chiefly gonococci and chlamydia); symptoms are abdominal pain and fever and foul-smelling vaginal discharge
  • pineal gland -  a small endocrine gland in the brain; situated beneath the back part of the corpus callosum; secretes melatonin
  • pinguecula -  a slightly elevated elastic tissue deposit in the conjunctiva that may extend to the cornea but does not cover it
  • pituitary gland -  the master gland of the endocrine system; located at the base of the brain
  • pityriasis rosea -  pityriasis in which an itchy rash develops over the trunk and extremities
  • PKU -  a genetic disorder of metabolism; lack of the enzyme needed to turn phenylalanine into tyrosine results in an accumulation of phenylalanine in the body fluids which causes various degrees of mental deficiency
  • placebo -  (Roman Catholic Church) vespers of the office for the dead; an innocuous or inert medication; given as a pacifier or to the control group in experiments on the efficacy of a drug
  • placenta -  the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus; that part of the ovary of a flowering plant where the ovules form
  • plaque -  (pathology) a small abnormal patch on or inside the body; a memorial made of brass
  • plasma -  colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended; (physical chemistry) a fourth state of matter distinct from solid or liquid or gas and present in stars and fusion reactors; a gas becomes a plasma when it is heated until the atoms lose all their electrons, leaving a highly electrified collection of nuclei and free electrons; a green slightly translucent variety of chalcedony used as a gemstone
  • plasmapheresis -  plasma is separated from whole blood and the rest is returned to the donor
  • plastic surgery -  surgery concerned with therapeutic or cosmetic reformation of tissue
  • platelet -  tiny bits of protoplasm found in vertebrate blood; essential for blood clotting
  • pleura -  the thin serous membrane around the lungs and inner walls of the chest
  • pleural cavity -  the cavity in the thorax that contains the lungs and heart
  • pleural space -  the small potential space between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura
  • pleurisy -  inflammation of the pleura of the lungs (especially the parietal layer)
  • PMS -  a syndrome that occurs in many women from 2 to 14 days before the onset of menstruation
  • pneumoconiosis -  chronic respiratory disease caused by inhaling metallic or mineral particles
  • pneumonectomy -  surgical removal of a lung (usually to treat lung cancer)
  • pneumonia -  respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants
  • pneumonitis -  inflammation of the lungs; caused by a virus or an allergic reaction
  • pneumothorax -  abnormal presence of air in the pleural cavity resulting in the collapse of the lung; may be spontaneous (due to injury to the chest) or induced (as a treatment for tuberculosis)
  • poisoning -  the act of giving poison to a person or animal with the intent to kill; the physiological state produced by a poison or other toxic substance
  • poliomyelitis -  an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord
  • pollen -  the fine spores that contain male gametes and that are borne by an anther in a flowering plant
  • polycystic kidney disease -  kidney disease characterized by enlarged kidneys containing many cysts; often leads to kidney failure
  • polydactyly -  birth defect characterized by the presence of more than the normal number of fingers or toes
  • polymyositis -  myositis characterized by weakness of limb and neck muscles and much muscle pain and swelling; progression and severity vary among individuals
  • polyp -  one of two forms that coelenterates take e.g. a hydra or coral: usually sedentary and has a hollow cylindrical body usually with a ring of tentacles around the mouth; a small vascular growth on the surface of a mucous membrane
  • porphyria -  a genetic abnormality of metabolism causing abdominal pains and mental confusion
  • portal hypertension -  increase in blood pressure in the veins of the portal system caused by obstruction in the liver (often associated with alcoholic cirrhosis), causing enlargement of the spleen and collateral veins
  • postnasal drip -  chronic secretion of mucus from the rear of the nasal cavity into the nasopharynx
  • potassium -  a light soft silver-white metallic element of the alkali metal group; oxidizes rapidly in air and reacts violently with water; is abundant in nature in combined forms occurring in sea water and in carnallite and kainite and sylvite
  • poultry -  flesh of chickens or turkeys or ducks or geese raised for food; a domesticated gallinaceous bird thought to be descended from the red jungle fowl
  • preeclampsia -  abnormal state of pregnancy characterized by hypertension and fluid retention and albuminuria; can lead to eclampsia if untreated
  • pregnancy -  the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus
  • premenstrual syndrome -  a syndrome that occurs in many women from 2 to 14 days before the onset of menstruation
  • prepuce -  a fold of skin covering the tip of the penis; a fold of skin covering the tip of the clitoris
  • presbyopia -  farsightedness resulting from a reduced ability to focus caused by loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens with age
  • pressure sore -  a chronic ulcer of the skin caused by prolonged pressure on it (as in bedridden patients)
  • priapism -  condition in which the penis is continually erect; usually painful and seldom with sexual arousal
  • prion -  (microbiology) an infectious protein particle similar to a virus but lacking nucleic acid; thought to be the agent responsible for scrapie and other degenerative diseases of the nervous system
  • proctitis -  inflammation of the rectum; marked by bloody stools and a frequent urge to defecate; frequently associated with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
  • prodrome -  an early symptom that a disease is developing or that an attack is about to occur
  • progeria -  a rare abnormality marked by premature aging (grey hair and wrinkled skin and stooped posture) in a child
  • progesterone -  a steroid hormone (trade name Lipo-Lutin) produced in the ovary; prepares and maintains the uterus for pregnancy
  • prolactin -  gonadotropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary; in females it stimulates growth of the mammary glands and lactation after parturition
  • proprioception -  the ability to sense the position and location and orientation and movement of the body and its parts
  • prostate gland -  a firm partly muscular chestnut sized gland in males at the neck of the urethra; produces a viscid secretion that is the fluid part of semen
  • prostate specific antigen -  a protein manufactured exclusively by the prostate gland; PSA is produced for the ejaculate where it liquifies the semen and allows sperm cells to swim freely; elevated levels of PSA in blood serum are associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer
  • prostatectomy -  surgical removal of part or all of the prostate gland
  • prostatitis -  inflammation of the prostate gland characterized by perineal pain and irregular urination and (if severe) chills and fever
  • protection -  payment extorted by gangsters on threat of violence; the activity of protecting someone or something; the imposition of duties or quotas on imports in order to protect domestic industry against foreign competition; the condition of being protected; kindly endorsement and guidance; a covering that is intend to protect from damage or injury; defense against financial failure; financial independence
  • protein -  any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes
  • proteinuria -  the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
  • protozoa -  in some classifications considered a superphylum or a subkingdom; comprises flagellates; ciliates; sporozoans; amoebas; foraminifers
  • prurigo -  chronic inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by blister capped papules and intense itching
  • pruritus -  an intense itching sensation that can have various causes (as by allergies or infection or lymphoma or jaundice etc.)
  • PSA -  a protein manufactured exclusively by the prostate gland; PSA is produced for the ejaculate where it liquifies the semen and allows sperm cells to swim freely; elevated levels of PSA in blood serum are associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer
  • psoriasis -  a chronic skin disease characterized by dry red patches covered with scales; occurs especially on the scalp and ears and genitalia and the skin over bony prominences
  • psychosis -  any severe mental disorder in which contact with reality is lost or highly distorted
  • psychotherapy -  the treatment of mental or emotional problems by psychological means; the branch of psychiatry concerned with psychological methods
  • pterygium -  either of two thickened triangular layers of conjunctiva extending from the nasal edge of the eye to the cornea; it arises from irritation of the pinguecula
  • ptosis -  drooping of the upper eyelid caused by muscle paralysis and weakness
  • PTSD -  an anxiety disorder associated with serious traumatic events and characterized by such symptoms as survivor guilt, reliving the trauma in dreams, numbness and lack of involvement with reality, or recurrent thoughts and images
  • puberty -  the time of life when sex glands become functional
  • puerperal fever -  serious form of septicemia contracted by a woman during childbirth or abortion (usually attributable to unsanitary conditions); formerly widespread but now uncommon
  • pulmonary embolism -  blockage of the pulmonary artery by foreign matter or by a blood clot
  • pulmonary embolism -  blockage of the pulmonary artery by foreign matter or by a blood clot
  • pulp -  the soft inner part of a tooth; an inexpensive magazine printed on poor quality paper; any soft or soggy mass; a soft moist part of a fruit; a mixture of cellulose fibers; verb reduce to pulp; remove the pulp from, as from a fruit
  • pulse -  the rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries with each beat of the heart; edible seeds of various pod-bearing plants (peas or beans or lentils etc.); the rate at which the heart beats; usually measured to obtain a quick evaluation of a person's health; (electronics) a sharp transient wave in the normal electrical state (or a series of such transients); verb produce or modulate (as electromagnetic waves) in the form of short bursts or pulses or cause an apparatus to produce pulses; drive by or as if by pulsation; expand and contract rhythmically; beat rhythmically
  • purpura -  any of several blood diseases causing subcutaneous bleeding
  • pustule -  a small inflamed elevation of skin containing pus; a blister filled with pus
  • PVC -  irregularity of cardiac rhythm; recurrent occurrences can be a precursor of ventricular fibrillation; a polymer of vinyl chloride used instead of rubber in electric cables
  • Pyridium -  analgesic (trade name Pyridium) used to treat urinary tract infections
  • quality of life -  your personal satisfaction (or dissatisfaction) with the cultural or intellectual conditions under which you live (as distinct from material comfort)
  • rabies -  an acute viral disease of the nervous system of warm-blooded animals (usually transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal); rabies is fatal if the virus reaches the brain
  • radiation therapy -  (medicine) the treatment of disease (especially cancer) by exposure to a radioactive substance
  • radioisotope -  a radioactive isotope of an element; produced either naturally or artificially
  • rash -  imprudently incurring risk; marked by defiant disregard for danger or consequences;  a series of unexpected and unpleasant occurrences; any red eruption of the skin
  • reaction -  doing something in opposition to another way of doing it that you don't like; a bodily process occurring due to the effect of some foregoing stimulus or agent; an idea evoked by some experience; extreme conservatism in political or social matters; a response that reveals a person's feelings or attitude; (mechanics) the equal and opposite force that is produced when any force is applied to a body; (chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others
  • reaction -  doing something in opposition to another way of doing it that you don't like; a bodily process occurring due to the effect of some foregoing stimulus or agent; an idea evoked by some experience; extreme conservatism in political or social matters; a response that reveals a person's feelings or attitude; (mechanics) the equal and opposite force that is produced when any force is applied to a body; (chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others
  • rebound tenderness -  pain felt when a hand pressing on the abdomen is suddenly released; a symptom of peritoneal inflammation
  • receptor -  a cellular structure that is postulated to exist in order to mediate between a chemical agent that acts on nervous tissue and the physiological response; an organ having nerve endings (in the skin or viscera or eye or ear or nose or mouth) that respond to stimulation
  • recombinant DNA -  genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms
  • rectocele -  protrusion or herniation of the rectum into the vagina; can occur if pelvic muscles are weakened by childbirth
  • rectum -  the terminal section of the alimentary canal; from the sigmoid flexure to the anus
  • recurrence -  happening again (especially at regular intervals)
  • reflex -  without volition or conscious control;  an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus
  • regional anesthesia -  loss of sensation in a region of the body produced by application of an anesthetic agent to all the nerves supplying that region (as when an epidural anesthetic is administered to the pelvic region during childbirth)
  • Reiter's syndrome -  an inflammatory syndrome (etiology unknown) predominantly in males; characterized by arthritis and conjunctivitis and urethritis
  • relaxin -  hormone secreted by the corpus luteum during the last days of pregnancy; relaxes the pelvic ligaments and prepares the uterus for labor
  • relief -  the act of freeing a city or town that has been besieged; aid for the aged or indigent or handicapped; assistance in time of difficulty; sculpture consisting of shapes carved on a surface so as to stand out from the surrounding background; the feeling that comes when something burdensome is removed or reduced; (law) redress awarded by a court; the condition of being comfortable or relieved (especially after being relieved of distress); the act of reducing something unpleasant (as pain or annoyance); a change for the better; someone who takes the place of another (as when things get dangerous or difficult); a pause for relaxation
  • remission -  (law) the act of remitting (especially the referral of a law case to another court); an abatement in intensity or degree (as in the manifestations of a disease); the act of absolving or remitting; formal redemption as proced by a priest in the sacrament of penance; a payment of money sent to a person in another place
  • renal corpuscle -  the capsule that contains Bowman's capsule and a glomerulus at the expanded end of a nephron
  • renal cortex -  the cortex of the kidney containing the glomeruli and the convoluted tubules
  • renal failure -  inability of the kidneys to excrete wastes and to help maintain the electrolyte balance
  • renal pelvis -  a structure shaped like a funnel in the outlet of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter
  • renin -  a proteolytic enzyme secreted by the kidneys; catalyzes the formation of angiotensin and thus affects blood pressure
  • replacement -  the act of furnishing an equivalent person or thing in the place of another; a person or thing that takes or can take the place of another; an event in which one thing is substituted for another; a person who follows next in order; someone who takes the place of another person; filling again by supplying what has been used up
  • reproductive system -  organs and tissues involved in the production and maturation of gametes and in their union and subsequent development as offspring
  • resistance -  the action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with; the military action of resisting the enemy's advance; group action in opposition to those in power; (psychiatry) an unwillingness to bring repressed feelings into conscious awareness; the degree of unresponsiveness of a disease-causing microorganism to antibiotics or other drugs (as in penicillin-resistant bacteria); any mechanical force that tends to retard or oppose motion; an electrical device that resists the flow of electrical current; a secret group organized to overthrow a government or occupation force; a material's opposition to the flow of electric current; measured in ohms; (medicine) the condition in which an organism can resist disease
  • resolution -  finding a solution to a problem; a decision to do something or to behave in a certain manner; analysis into clear-cut components; a formal expression by a meeting; agreed to by a vote; (music) a dissonant chord is followed by a consonant chord; the subsidence of swelling or other signs of inflammation (especially in a lung); (computer science) the number of pixels per square inch on a computer-generated display; the greater the resolution, the better the picture; the trait of being resolute; something settled or resolved; the outcome of decision making; a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem; the ability of a microscope or telescope to measure the angular separation of images that are close together
  • response -  a phrase recited or sung by the congregation following a versicle by the priest or minister; a result; a bodily process occurring due to the effect of some foregoing stimulus or agent; the manner in which something is greeted; a statement (either spoken or written) that is made in reply to a question or request or criticism or accusation; the speech act of continuing a conversational exchange
  • rest -  freedom from activity (work or strain or responsibility); a support on which things can be put; a musical notation indicating a silence of a specified duration; euphemisms for death (based on an analogy between lying in a bed and in a tomb); a state of inaction; something left after other parts have been taken away; a pause for relaxation; verb be at rest; take a short break from one's activities in order to relax; give a rest to; not move; be in a resting position; put something in a resting position, as for support or steadying; be inactive, refrain from acting; be inherent or innate in; stay the same; remain in a certain state; rest on or as if on a pillow; sit, as on a branch; have a place in relation to something else
  • restless legs syndrome -  feeling of uneasiness and restlessness in the legs after going to bed (sometimes causing insomnia); may be relieved temporarily by walking or moving the legs
  • resuscitation -  the act of reviving a person and returning them to consciousness
  • reticulocyte -  an immature red blood cell containing a network of filaments or granules
  • retina -  the light-sensitive membrane covering the back wall of the eyeball; it is continuous with the optic nerve
  • retinal detachment -  visual impairment resulting from the retina becoming separated from the choroid in the back of the eye; treated by photocoagulation
  • retinoblastoma -  malignant ocular tumor of retinal cells; usually occurs before the third year of life; composed of primitive small round retinal cells
  • retrovirus -  any of a group of viruses that contain two single-strand linear RNA molecules per virion and reverse transcriptase (RNA to DNA)
  • reverse transcriptase -  a polymerase that catalyzes the formation of DNA using RNA as a template; found especially in retroviruses
  • Reye's syndrome -  acquired brain disorder following acute viral infections (especially influenza or chicken pox) in young children
  • Rh factor -  a blood group antigen possessed by Rh-positive people; if an Rh-negative person receives a blood transfusion from an Rh-positive person it can result in hemolysis and anemia
  • rheumatic heart disease -  heart disease caused by recurrent episodes of rheumatic fever; characterized by changes in the myocardium or scarring of the heart valves that reduce the power of the heart to pump blood
  • rheumatoid arthritis -  a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities; something (possibly a virus) triggers an attack on the synovium by the immune system, which releases cytokines that stimulate an inflammatory reaction that can lead to the destruction of all components of the joint
  • rhinoplasty -  cosmetic surgery to improve the appearance of your nose
  • rhinorrhea -  persistent watery mucus discharge from the nose (as in the common cold)
  • rhizotomy -  surgical procedure in which spinal nerve roots are cut; done (anterior roots) to relieve intractable pain or (posterior roots) to stop severe muscle spasms
  • rhytidoplasty -  plastic surgery to remove wrinkles and other signs of aging from your face; an incision is made near the hair line and skin is pulled back and excess tissue is excised
  • ribonucleic acid -  (biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes; it transmits genetic information from DNA to the cytoplasm and controls certain chemical processes in the cell
  • RICE -  grains used as food either unpolished or more often polished; United States playwright (1892-1967); English lyricist who frequently worked with Andrew Lloyd Webber (born in 1944); annual or perennial rhizomatous marsh grasses; seed used for food; straw used for paper; verb sieve so that it becomes the consistency of rice
  • RICE -  grains used as food either unpolished or more often polished; United States playwright (1892-1967); English lyricist who frequently worked with Andrew Lloyd Webber (born in 1944); annual or perennial rhizomatous marsh grasses; seed used for food; straw used for paper; verb sieve so that it becomes the consistency of rice
  • rickets -  childhood disease caused by deficiency of vitamin D and sunlight associated with impaired metabolism of calcium and phosphorus
  • right atrium -  the right upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the venae cavae and coronary sinus
  • ringworm -  infections of the skin or nails caused by fungi and appearing as itching circular patches
  • RNA -  (biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes; it transmits genetic information from DNA to the cytoplasm and controls certain chemical processes in the cell
  • RNA -  (biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes; it transmits genetic information from DNA to the cytoplasm and controls certain chemical processes in the cell
  • Rohypnol -  a depressant and tranquilizer (trade name Rohypnol) often used in the commission of sexual assault; legally available in Europe and Mexico and Colombia
  • Rome -  the leadership of the Roman Catholic Church; capital and largest city of Italy; on the Tiber; seat of the Roman Catholic Church; formerly the capital of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire
  • rosacea -  a skin disease of adults (more often women) in which blood vessels of the face enlarge resulting in a flushed appearance
  • rubella -  a contagious viral disease that is a milder form of measles lasting three or four days; can be damaging to a fetus during the first trimester
  • rubeola -  an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash; occurs primarily in children
  • SA node -  a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat
  • SAD -  experiencing or showing sorrow or unhappiness; of things that make you feel sad; bad; unfortunate
  • salicylic acid -  a white crystalline substance with a bitter aftertaste; used as a fungicide or in making aspirin or dyes or perfumes
  • saliva -  a clear liquid secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands and mucous glands of the mouth; moistens the mouth and starts the digestion of starches
  • salmonellosis -  a kind of food poisoning caused by eating foods contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium
  • SALT -  (of speech) painful or bitter; one of the four basic taste sensations; like the taste of sea water;  the taste experience when common salt is taken into the mouth; white crystalline form of especially sodium chloride used to season and preserve food; a compound formed by replacing hydrogen in an acid by a metal (or a radical that acts like a metal); negotiations between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics opened in 1969 in Helsinki designed to limit both countries' stock of nuclear weapons; verb preserve with salt; add zest or liveliness to; sprinkle as if with salt; add salt to
  • SAMe -  unchanged in character or nature; closely similar or comparable in kind or quality or quantity or degree; same in identity; equal in amount or value;  the language of nomadic Lapps in northern Scandinavia and the Kola Peninsula; a member of an indigenous nomadic people living in northern Scandinavia and herding reindeer
  • sarcoidosis -  a chronic disease of unknown cause marked by the formation of nodules in the lungs and liver and lymph glands and salivary glands
  • sarcoma -  a usually malignant tumor arising from connective tissue (bone or muscle etc.); one of the four major types of cancer
  • SARS -  a respiratory disease of unknown etiology that apparently originated in mainland China in 2003; characterized by fever and coughing or difficulty breathing or hypoxia; can be fatal
  • satiety -  the state of being satisfactorily full and unable to take on more
  • saw palmetto -  small hardy clump-forming spiny palm of southern United States
  • scabies -  a contagious skin infection caused by the itch mite; characterized by persistent itching and skin irritation
  • scale -  a flattened rigid plate forming part of the body covering of many animals; an indicator having a graduated sequence of marks; a measuring instrument for weighing; shows amount of mass; (music) a series of notes differing in pitch according to a specific scheme (usually within an octave); a thin flake of dead epidermis shed from the surface of the skin; a specialized leaf or bract that protects a bud or catkin; relative magnitude; the ratio between the size of something and a representation of it; an ordered reference standard; a metal sheathing of uniform thickness (such as the shield attached to an artillery piece to protect the gunners); verb size or measure according to a scale; measure with or as if with scales; remove the scales from; pattern, make, regulate, set, measure, or estimate according to some rate or standard; climb up by means of a ladder; reach the highest point of; take by attacking with scaling ladders; measure by or as if by a scale
  • scalp -  the skin that covers the top of the head; verb remove the scalp of; sell illegally, as on the black market
  • scan -  the act of scanning; systematic examination of a prescribed region; an image produced by scanning; verb read metrically; make a wide, sweeping search of; move a light beam over; in electronics, to reproduce an image; examine hastily; examine minutely or intensely; conform to a metrical pattern; obtain data from magnetic tapes
  • scar -  a mark left (usually on the skin) by the healing of injured tissue; an indication of damage; verb mark with a scar
  • scar tissue -  the connective tissue that forms a scar; consists of fibroblasts in new scars and collagen fibers in old scars
  • scarlet fever -  an acute communicable disease (usually in children) characterized by fever and a red rash
  • schizophrenia -  any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact
  • sciatica -  neuralgia along the sciatic nerve
  • SCID -  a congenital disease affecting T cells that can result from a mutation in any one of several different genes; children with it are susceptible to infectious disease; if untreated it is lethal within the first year or two of life
  • sclera -  whitish fibrous membrane (albuginea) that with the cornea forms the outer covering of the eyeball
  • sclerosis -  any pathological hardening or thickening of tissue
  • scoliosis -  an abnormal lateral curve to the vertebral column
  • scotoma -  an isolated area of diminished vision within the visual field
  • scrotum -  the external pouch that contains the testes
  • scurvy -  of the most contemptible kind;  a condition caused by deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
  • seborrheic dermatitis -  a chronic skin disease associated with seborrhea and greasy scales on the scalp or eyelids or other parts of the skin
  • seborrheic keratosis -  a skin condition characterized by circumscribed wartlike lesions that can be itchy and covered with a greasy crust
  • sebum -  the oily secretion of the sebaceous glands; with perspiration it moistens and protects the skin
  • sedation -  the administration of a sedative agent or drug; a state of reduced excitement or anxiety that is induced by the administrative of a sedative agent
  • selenium -  a toxic nonmetallic element related to sulfur and tellurium; occurs in several allotropic forms; a stable grey metallike allotrope conducts electricity better in the light than in the dark and is used in photocells; occurs in sulfide ores (as pyrite)
  • semen -  the thick white fluid containing spermatozoa that is ejaculated by the male genital tract
  • seminoma -  malignant tumor of the testis; usually occurring in older men
  • senescence -  the property characteristic of old age; the organic process of growing older and showing the effects of increasing age
  • septal defect -  a congenital abnormality in the septum between the left and right sides of the heart
  • septicemia -  invasion of the bloodstream by virulent microorganisms from a focus of infection
  • serotonin -  a neurotransmitter involved in e.g. sleep and depression and memory
  • Service -  the performance of duties by a waiter or servant; the act of delivering a writ or summons upon someone; work done by one person or group that benefits another; (law) the acts performed by an English feudal tenant for the benefit of his lord which formed the consideration for the property granted to him; employment in or work for another; the act of public worship following prescribed rules; an act of help or assistance; tableware consisting of a complete set of articles (silver or dishware) for use at table; a company or agency that performs a public service; subject to government regulation; Canadian writer (born in England) who wrote about life in the Yukon Territory (1874-1958); periodic maintenance on a car or machine; (sports) a stroke that puts the ball in play; the act of mating by male animals; a means of serving; a force that is a branch of the armed forces; verb make fit for use; be used by; as of a utility; mate with
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome -  a respiratory disease of unknown etiology that apparently originated in mainland China in 2003; characterized by fever and coughing or difficulty breathing or hypoxia; can be fatal
  • severe combined immunodeficiency -  a congenital disease affecting T cells that can result from a mutation in any one of several different genes; children with it are susceptible to infectious disease; if untreated it is lethal within the first year or two of life
  • sex chromosome -  (genetics) a chromosome that determines the sex of an individual
  • sexual -  having or involving sex; of or relating to or characterized by sexuality; involved in a sexual relationship
  • sexual abuse -  a statutory offense that provides that it is a crime to knowingly cause another person to engage in an unwanted sexual act by force or threat
  • sexual assault -  a statutory offense that provides that it is a crime to knowingly cause another person to engage in an unwanted sexual act by force or threat
  • sexual intercourse -  the act of sexual procreation between a man and a woman; the man's penis is inserted into the woman's vagina and excited until orgasm and ejaculation occur
  • sexuality -  the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles
  • shigellosis -  an acute infection of the intestine by shigella bacteria; characterized by diarrhea and fever and abdominal pains
  • shin splints -  painful inflammation of the muscles around the shins; frequent among runners
  • shingles -  eruptions along a nerve path often accompanied by severe neuralgia
  • shock -  the violent interaction of individuals or groups entering into combat; an unpleasant or disappointing surprise; an instance of agitation of the earth's crust; a bushy thick mass (especially hair); a pile of sheaves of grain set on end in a field to dry; stalks of Indian corn set up in a field; (pathology) bodily collapse or near collapse caused by inadequate oxygen delivery to the cells; characterized by reduced cardiac output and rapid heartbeat and circulatory insufficiency and pallor; a reflex response to the passage of electric current through the body; a mechanical damper; absorbs energy of sudden impulses; the feeling of distress and disbelief that you have when something bad happens accidentally; verb subject to electrical shocks; collect or gather into shocks; collide violently; strike with horror or terror; surprise greatly; knock someone's socks off; strike with disgust or revulsion; inflict a trauma upon
  • shoulder -  narrow edge of land (usually unpaved) along the side of a road; the part of the body between the neck and the upper arm; a ball-and-socket joint between the head of the humerus and a cavity of the scapula; a cut of beef from the shoulder of the animal; verb push with the shoulders; carry a burden, either real or metaphoric; lift onto one's shoulders
  • side effect -  any adverse and unwanted secondary effect; a secondary and usually adverse effect of a drug or therapy
  • SIDS -  sudden and unexpected death of an apparently healthy infant during sleep
  • sigmoid colon -  the s-shaped curve between the descending colon and the rectum
  • sildenafil -  virility drug (trade name Viagra) used to treat erectile dysfunction in men
  • silicosis -  a lung disease caused by inhaling particles of silica or quartz or slate
  • sinus headache -  a headache resulting from congestion or infection in the paranasal sinuses
  • sinusitis -  inflammation of one of the paranasal sinuses
  • sitz bath -  a bathtub in which your buttocks and hips are immersed as if you were sitting in a chair and you bathe in a sitting position
  • skeletal muscle -  a muscle that is connected at either or both ends to a bone and so move parts of the skeleton; a muscle that is characterized by transverse stripes
  • skeleton -  the internal supporting structure that gives an artifact its shape; a scandal that is kept secret; something reduced to its minimal form; the hard structure (bones and cartilages) that provides a frame for the body of an animal
  • skin -  an outer surface (usually thin); a bag serving as a container for liquids; it is made from the hide of an animal; a natural protective body covering and site of the sense of touch; a person's skin regarded as their life; the tissue forming the hard outer layer (of e.g. a fruit); body covering of a living animal; the rind of a fruit or vegetable; verb strip the skin off; bruise, cut, or injure the skin or the surface of; remove the bark of a tree; climb awkwardly, as if by scrambling
  • skin test -  any test to determine immunity or sensitivity to a disease by introducing small amounts on or into the skin
  • SLE -  an inflammatory disease of connective tissue with variable features including fever and weakness and fatigability and joint pains and skin lesions on the face or neck or arms
  • small intestine -  the longest part of the alimentary canal; where digestion is completed
  • smallpox -  a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever and weakness and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs that slough off leaving scars
  • smoking -  emitting smoke in great volume;  the act of smoking tobacco or other substances; a hot vapor containing fine particles of carbon being produced by combustion
  • smooth muscle -  muscle tissue that does not appear striated under the microscope; has the form of thin layers or sheets; a muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)
  • sneeze -  a symptom consisting of the involuntary expulsion of air from the nose; verb exhale spasmodically, as when an irritant entered one's nose
  • Snellen chart -  display consisting of a printed card with letters and numbers in lines of decreasing size; used to test visual acuity
  • snuff -  snuff colored; of a greyish to yellowish brown;  finely powdered tobacco for sniffing up the nose; a pinch of smokeless tobacco inhaled at a single time; the charred portion of a candlewick; sensing an odor by inhaling through the nose; verb inhale audibly through the nose; sniff or smell inquiringly
  • sobriety -  abstaining from excess; moderation in or abstinence from alcohol or other drugs; a manner that is serious and solemn; the state of being sober and not intoxicated by alcohol
  • sodium -  a silvery soft waxy metallic element of the alkali metal group; occurs abundantly in natural compounds (especially in salt water); burns with a yellow flame and reacts violently in water; occurs in sea water and in the mineral halite (rock salt)
  • somatic cell -  any of the cells of a plant or animal except the reproductive cells; a cell that does not participate in the production of gametes
  • soy -  most highly proteinaceous vegetable crop known; erect bushy hairy annual herb having trifoliate leaves and purple to pink flowers; extensively cultivated for food and forage and soil improvement but especially for its nutritious oil-rich seeds; native to Asia; a source of oil; used for forage and soil improvement and as food; thin sauce made of fermented soy beans
  • spasm -  (pathology) sudden constriction of a hollow organ (as a blood vessel); a painful and involuntary muscular contraction
  • specific -  stated explicitly or in detail; (sometimes followed by `to') applying to or characterized by or distinguishing something particular or special or unique; being or affecting a disease produced by a particular microorganism or condition; used also of stains or dyes used in making microscope slides; relating to or distinguishing or constituting a taxonomic species;  a medicine that has a mitigating effect on a specific disease; a fact about some part (as opposed to general)
  • sperm -  the male reproductive cell; the male gamete
  • spermatic cord -  a structure resembling a cord that suspends the testis within the scrotum and contains the vas deferens and other vessels and nerves
  • spermatocele -  a swelling on the epididymis or the testis; usually contains spermatozoa
  • spermatozoon -  the male reproductive cell; the male gamete
  • spina bifida -  a not uncommon congenital defect in which a vertebra is malformed; unless several vertebrae are affected or there is myelomeningocele there are few symptoms; can be diagnosed by amniocentesis
  • spinal cord -  a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain; a long tubelike structure extending from the base of the brain through the vertebral canal to the upper lumbar region
  • spinal tap -  removal by centesis of fluid from the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region of the spinal cord for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes
  • spine -  a sharp rigid animal process or appendage; as a porcupine quill or a ridge on a bone or a ray of a fish fin; the part of a book's cover that encloses the inner side of the book's pages and that faces outward when the book is shelved; a small sharp-pointed tip resembling a spike on a stem or leaf; the series of vertebrae forming the axis of the skeleton and protecting the spinal cord; any sharply pointed projection
  • spleen -  a large dark-red oval organ on the left side of the body between the stomach and the diaphragm; produces cells involved in immune responses; a feeling of resentful anger
  • spongy -  like a sponge in being able to absorb liquids and yield it back when compressed; easily squashed; resembling a sponge in having soft porous texture and compressibility
  • sputum -  expectorated matter; saliva mixed with discharges from the respiratory passages; in ancient and medieval physiology it was believed to cause sluggishness
  • squamous cell -  an epithelial cell that is flat like a plate and form a single layer of epithelial tissue
  • Staphylococcus -  spherical Gram-positive parasitic bacteria that tend to form irregular colonies; some cause boils or septicemia or infections
  • starvation -  the act of depriving of food or subjecting to famine; a state of extreme hunger resulting from lack of essential nutrients over a prolonged period
  • steatorrhea -  the presence of greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces which are frothy and foul smelling and floating; a symptom of disorders of fat metabolism and malabsorption syndrome
  • stem cell -  an undifferentiated cell whose daughter cells may differentiate into other cell types (such as blood cells)
  • stenosis -  abnormal narrowing of a bodily canal or passageway
  • stent -  a slender tube inserted inside a tubular body part (as a blood vessel) to provide support during and after surgical anastomosis
  • sterility -  the state of being unable to produce offspring; in a woman it is an inability to conceive; in a man it is an inability to impregnate; (of non-living objects) the state of being free of pathogenic organisms
  • sternum -  the flat bone that articulates with the clavicles and the first seven pairs of ribs
  • steroid -  any of several fat-soluble organic compounds having as a basis 17 carbon atoms in four rings; many have important physiological effects; any hormone affecting the development and growth of sex organs
  • stethoscope -  a medical instrument for listening to the sounds generated inside the body
  • stillbirth -  a natural loss of the products of conception
  • stimulation -  the act of arousing an organism to action; any stimulating information or event; acts to arouse action; (physiology) the effect of a stimulus (on nerves or organs etc.); mutual sexual fondling prior to sexual intercourse
  • stinger -  a sharp stinging blow; a sharp organ of offense or defense (as of a wasp or stingray or scorpion) often connected with a poison gland; a portable low altitude surface-to-air missile system using infrared guidance and an impact fuse; fired from the shoulder; a remark capable of wounding mentally; a cocktail made of made of creme de menthe and brandy
  • stoma -  a mouth or mouthlike opening (especially one created by surgery on the surface of the body to create an opening to an internal organ); a minute epidermal pore in a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor can pass
  • stomach -  an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal; the principal organ of digestion; an appetite for food; an inclination or liking for things involving conflict or difficulty or unpleasantness; the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis; verb bear to eat; put up with something or somebody unpleasant
  • strabismus -  abnormal alignment of one or both eyes
  • strength -  the property of being physically or mentally strong; the condition of financial success; capacity to produce strong physiological or chemical effects; physical energy or intensity; permanence by virtue of the power to resist stress or force; the amount of energy transmitted (as by acoustic or electromagnetic radiation); an asset of special worth or utility; the power to induce the taking of a course of action or the embracing of a point of view by means of argument or entreaty; capability in terms of personnel and materiel that affect the capacity to fight a war
  • strep throat -  an infection of the oral pharynx and tonsils by streptococcus
  • Streptococcus -  spherical Gram-positive bacteria occurring in pairs or chains; cause e.g. scarlet fever and tonsillitis
  • streptokinase -  an enzyme produced by some strains of streptococcus that can liquefy blood clots by converting plasminogen to plasmin; used medicinally in some cases of myocardial infarction and pulmonary embolism
  • streptomycin -  an antibiotic produced by the actinomycete Streptomyces griseus and used to treat tuberculosis
  • stress fracture -  fracture resulting from excessive activity rather than a specific injury
  • stress incontinence -  urinary incontinence that occurs when involuntary pressure is put on the bladder by coughing or laughing or sneezing or lifting or straining
  • stress test -  a test measuring how a system functions when subjected to controlled amounts of stress
  • striated muscle -  a muscle that is connected at either or both ends to a bone and so move parts of the skeleton; a muscle that is characterized by transverse stripes
  • stroke -  a light touch with the hands; a single complete movement; (sports) the act of swinging or striking at a ball with a club or racket or bat or cue or hand; any one of the repeated movements of the limbs and body used for locomotion in swimming or rowing; a mark made by a writing implement (as in cursive writing); a light touch; the oarsman nearest the stern of the shell who sets the pace for the rest of the crew; a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain; a punctuation mark (/) used to separate related items of information; the maximum movement available to a pivoted or reciprocating piece by a cam; verb treat gingerly or carefully; strike a ball with a smooth blow; row at a particular rate; touch lightly and with affection, with brushing motions
  • stupor -  marginal consciousness; the feeling of distress and disbelief that you have when something bad happens accidentally
  • substantia nigra -  a layer of deeply pigmented grey matter in the midbrain; associated with the striate body; is involved in metabolic disturbances associated with Parkinson's disease and with Huntington's disease
  • sunburn -  redness of the skin caused by exposure to the rays of the sun; a browning of the skin resulting from exposure to the rays of the sun; verb get a sunburn by overexposure to the sun
  • superior vena cava -  receives blood from the head and arms and chest and empties into the right atrium of the heart; formed from the azygos and both brachiocephalic veins
  • surgery -  a room where a doctor or dentist can be consulted; the branch of medical science that treats disease or injury by operative procedures; a medical procedure involving an incision with instruments; performed to repair damage or arrest disease in a living body; a room in a hospital equipped for the performance of surgical operations
  • sweating -  being wet with perspiration;  the process of the sweat glands of the skin secreting a salty fluid
  • sympathetic nervous system -  originates in the thoracic regions of the spinal cord; opposes physiological effects of the parasympathetic: reduces digestive secretions; speeds the heart; contracts blood vessels
  • syncope -  (phonology) the loss of sounds in the interior of a word (as in `fo'c'sle' for `forecastle'); a spontaneous loss of consciousness caused by insufficient blood to the brain
  • syndactyly -  birth defect in which there is partial or total webbing connecting two or more fingers or toes
  • syndrome -  a complex of concurrent things; a pattern of symptoms indicative of some disease
  • syndrome -  a complex of concurrent things; a pattern of symptoms indicative of some disease
  • synovial membrane -  a thin membrane in synovial (freely moving) joints that lines the joint capsule and secretes synovial fluid
  • synovitis -  inflammation of the synovial membrane that lines a synovial joint; results in pain and swelling
  • syphilis -  a common venereal disease caused by the treponema pallidum spirochete; symptoms change through progressive stages; can be congenital (transmitted through the placenta)
  • system -  instrumentality that combines interrelated interacting artifacts designed to work as a coherent entity; the living body considered as made up of interdependent components forming a unified whole; a group of physiologically or anatomically related organs or parts; a complex of methods or rules governing behavior; a procedure or process for obtaining an objective; a group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole; (physical chemistry) a sample of matter in which substances in different phases are in equilibrium; an ordered manner; orderliness by virtue of being methodical and well organized; an organized structure for arranging or classifying
  • systemic lupus erythematosus -  an inflammatory disease of connective tissue with variable features including fever and weakness and fatigability and joint pains and skin lesions on the face or neck or arms
  • systole -  the contraction of the chambers of the heart (especially the ventricles) to drive blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery
  • tachycardia -  abnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)
  • tachycardia -  abnormally rapid heartbeat (over 100 beats per minute)
  • tai chi -  a Chinese system of slow meditative physical exercise designed for relaxation and balance and health
  • tamoxifen -  an antagonist for estrogen that is used in the treatment of breast cancer
  • tamponade -  blockage or closure (as of a wound or body cavity) by (or as if by) a tampon (especially to stop bleeding)
  • tardive dyskinesia -  involuntary rolling of the tongue and twitching of the face or trunk or limbs; often occurs in patients with Parkinsonism who are treated with phenothiazine
  • taste -  a kind of sensing; distinguishing substances by means of the taste buds; the faculty of distinguishing sweet, sour, bitter, and salty properties in the mouth; the sensation that results when taste buds in the tongue and throat convey information about the chemical composition of a soluble stimulus; delicate discrimination (especially of aesthetic values); a brief experience of something; a small amount eaten or drunk; a strong liking; verb experience briefly; perceive by the sense of taste; distinguish flavors; have flavor; taste of something; take a sample of; have a distinctive or characteristic taste
  • tea -  a light midafternoon meal of tea and sandwiches or cakes; dried leaves of the tea shrub; used to make tea; a beverage made by steeping tea leaves in water; a reception or party at which tea is served; a tropical evergreen shrub or small tree extensively cultivated in e.g. China and Japan and India; source of tea leaves
  • tear -  the act of tearing; a drop of the clear salty saline solution secreted by the lacrimal glands; an occasion for excessive eating or drinking; an opening made forcibly as by pulling apart; verb fill with tears or shed tears; to separate or be separated by force; separate or cause to separate abruptly; move quickly and violently; strip of feathers
  • tears -  the process of shedding tears (usually accompanied by sobs or other inarticulate sounds)
  • technology -  the practical application of science to commerce or industry; the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems
  • teeth -  the kind and number and arrangement of teeth (collectively) in a person or animal
  • telomere -  either (free) end of a eukaryotic chromosome
  • temporal lobe -  that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying inside the temples of the head
  • tendon -  a cord or band of inelastic tissue connecting a muscle with its bony attachment
  • tension headache -  a headache located at the back of the head; usually caused by body tension resulting from overwork or psychological stress
  • testosterone -  a potent androgenic hormone produced chiefly by the testes; responsible for the development of male secondary sex characteristics
  • tetracycline -  an antibiotic (trade name Achromycin) derived from microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces and used broadly to treat infections
  • tetralogy of Fallot -  a congenital heart defect producing cyanosis; characterized by four symptoms: pulmonary stenosis and ventricular septal defect and malposition of the aorta over both ventricles and hypertrophy of the right ventricle
  • thalamus -  large egg-shaped structures of grey matter that form the dorsal subdivision of the diencephalon
  • thalassemia -  an inherited form of anemia caused by faulty synthesis of hemoglobin
  • therapy -  (medicine) the act of caring for someone (as by medication or remedial training etc.)
  • thimerosal -  a light-colored crystalline powder (trade name Merthiolate) used as a surgical antiseptic
  • thoracentesis -  removal of fluid from the chest by centesis for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes
  • thoracic cavity -  the cavity in the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart
  • thoracotomy -  surgical incision into the chest walls opening up the pleural cavity
  • throat -  a passage resembling a throat in shape or function; an opening in the vamp of a shoe at the instep; the passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone
  • thrombocytopenia -  a blood disease characterized by an abnormally small number of platelets in the blood
  • thrombolytic therapy -  therapy consisting of the administration of a pharmacological agent to cause thrombolysis of an abnormal blood clot
  • thrombosis -  the formation or presence of a thrombus (a clot of coagulated blood attached at the site of its formation) in a blood vessel
  • thrush -  songbirds characteristically having brownish upper plumage with a spotted breast; a woman who sings popular songs; candidiasis of the oral cavity; seen mostly in infants or debilitated adults
  • thymosin -  hormone secreted by the thymus; stimulates immunological activity of lymphoid tissue
  • thymus -  large genus of Old World mints: thyme; a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity; atrophies with age
  • thyroid hormone -  any of several closely related compounds that are produced by the thyroid gland and are active metabolically
  • thyrotoxicosis -  an overactive thyroid gland; pathologically excessive production of thyroid hormones or the condition resulting from excessive production of thyroid hormones
  • thyroxine -  hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism by controlling the rate of oxidation in cells
  • TIA -  brief episode in which the brain gets insufficient blood supply; symptoms depend on the site of the blockage
  • tibia -  the inner and thicker of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and ankle
  • tic -  a local and habitual twitching especially in the face
  • tinea -  type genus of the Tineidae: clothes moths; infections of the skin or nails caused by fungi and appearing as itching circular patches
  • tinnitus -  a ringing or booming sensation in one or both ears; a symptom of an ear infection or Meniere's disease
  • tissue -  part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function; a soft thin (usually translucent) paper; verb create a piece of cloth by interlacing strands of fabric, such as wool or cotton
  • tissue -  part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function; a soft thin (usually translucent) paper; verb create a piece of cloth by interlacing strands of fabric, such as wool or cotton
  • tobacco -  leaves of the tobacco plant dried and prepared for smoking or ingestion; aromatic annual or perennial herbs and shrubs
  • tolerance -  the act of tolerating something; the power or capacity of an organism to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions; willingness to recognize and respect the beliefs or practices of others; a disposition to allow freedom of choice and behavior; a permissible difference; allowing some freedom to move within limits
  • tongue -  the flap of material under the laces of a shoe or boot; a mobile mass of muscular tissue covered with mucous membrane and located in the oral cavity; a manner of speaking; the tongue of certain animals used as meat; any long thin projection that is transient; metal striker that hangs inside a bell and makes a sound by hitting the side; a human written or spoken language used by a community; opposed to e.g. a computer language; a narrow strip of land that juts out into the sea; verb lick or explore with the tongue; articulate by tonguing, as when playing wind instruments
  • tonsillitis -  inflammation of the tonsils (especially the palatine tonsils)
  • toothache -  an ache localized in or around a tooth
  • torticollis -  an unnatural condition in which the head leans to one side because the neck muscles on that side are contracted
  • Tourette's syndrome -  neurological disorder characterized by facial grimaces and tics and movements of the upper body and grunts and shouts and coprolalia
  • toxic shock syndrome -  syndrome resulting from a serious acute (sometimes fatal) infection associated with the presence of staphylococcus; characterized by fever and diarrhea and nausea and diffuse erythema and shock; occurs especially in menstruating women using highly absorbent tampons
  • toxoplasmosis -  infection caused by parasites transmitted to humans from infected cats; if contracted by a pregnant woman it can result in serious damage to the fetus
  • trachea -  membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi; one of the tubules forming the respiratory system of most insects and many arachnids
  • tracheostomy -  a surgical operation that creates an opening into the trachea with a tube inserted to provide a passage for air; performed when the pharynx is obstructed by edema or cancer or other causes
  • training -  activity leading to skilled behavior; the result of good upbringing (especially knowledge of correct social behavior)
  • transdermal patch -  a medicated adhesive pad placed on the skin for absorption of a time released dose of medication into the bloodstream
  • transient ischemic attack -  brief episode in which the brain gets insufficient blood supply; symptoms depend on the site of the blockage
  • transition -  a passage that connects a topic to one that follows; a musical passage moving from one key to another; a change from one place or state or subject or stage to another; the act of passing from one state or place to the next; an event that results in a transformation; verb make or undergo a transition (from one state or system to another); cause to convert or undergo a transition
  • translocation -  (genetics) an exchange of chromosome parts; the transport of dissolved material within a plant
  • transplantation -  the act of removing something from one location and introducing it in another location; an operation moving an organ from one organism (the donor) to another (the recipient)
  • TRH -  hormone released by the hypothalamus that controls the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the anterior pituitary
  • triage -  sorting and allocating aid on the basis of need for or likely benefit from medical treatment or food
  • trigeminal nerve -  the main sensory nerve of the face and motor nerve for the muscles of mastication
  • triiodothyronine -  thyroid hormone similar to thyroxine but with one less iodine atom per molecule and produced in smaller quantity; exerts the same biological effects as thyroxine but is more potent and briefer
  • trisomy -  chrosomal abnormality in which there is one more than the normal number of chromosomes in a cell
  • trochlear nerve -  either of the two cranial nerves on either side that control the superior oblique muscles of the eyes
  • trophozoite -  a sporozoan in the active feeding stage of its life cycle
  • TSH -  anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the function of the thyroid gland
  • tubal ligation -  a sterilization procedure with women; both Fallopian tubes are tied in two places and the tubes removed in between the ligations
  • tuberculosis -  infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
  • tumor -  an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose
  • Turner's syndrome -  a chromosomal disorder in females who have only one X chromosome; marked by dwarfism and heart abnormalities and underdeveloped sex organs
  • tympanoplasty -  surgical correction or repair of defects or injuries in the eardrum or the bones of the middle ear
  • type -  a small metal block bearing a raised character on one end; produces a printed character when inked and pressed on paper; a subdivision of a particular kind of thing; all of the tokens of the same symbol; printed characters; (biology) the taxonomic group whose characteristics are used to define the next higher taxon; a person of a specified kind (usually with many eccentricities); verb identify as belonging to a certain type; write by means of a keyboard with types
  • type b -  the blood group whose red cells carry the B antigen
  • typhoid -  serious infection marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration; caused by Salmonella typhosa ingested with food or water
  • typhoid fever -  serious infection marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration; caused by Salmonella typhosa ingested with food or water
  • tyrosine -  an amino acid found in most proteins; a precursor of several hormones
  • ultraviolet light -  radiation lying in the ultraviolet range; wave lengths shorter than light but longer than X rays
  • umbilical cord -  membranous duct connecting the fetus with the placenta
  • unconsciousness -  a state lacking normal awareness of the self or environment
  • uremia -  accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine
  • ureter -  either of a pair of thick-walled tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder
  • urethra -  duct through which urine is discharged in most mammals and which serves as the male genital duct
  • urethritis -  inflammation of the urethra; results in painful urination
  • urinary system -  the system that includes all organs involved in reproduction and in the formation and voidance of urine
  • urine -  liquid excretory product
  • urticaria -  an itchy skin eruption characterized by weals with pale interiors and well-defined red margins; usually the result of an allergic response to insect bites or food or drugs
  • US Congress -  the legislature of the United States government
  • USDA -  the federal department that administers programs that provide services to farmers (including research and soil conservation and efforts to stabilize the farming economy); created in 1862
  • uterus -  a hollow muscular organ in the pelvic cavity of females; contains the developing fetus
  • uveitis -  inflammation of the uvea of the eye
  • uvula -  a small pendant fleshy lobe at the back of the soft palate
  • vaccination -  the scar left following inoculation with a vaccine; taking a vaccine as a precaution against contracting a disease
  • vaccine -  immunogen consisting of a suspension of weakened or dead pathogenic cells injected in order to stimulate the production of antibodies
  • vagina -  the lower part of the female reproductive tract; a moist canal in female mammals extending from the labia minora to the uterus
  • vaginal birth -  the parturition process in human beings; having a baby; the process of giving birth to a child
  • vaginitis -  inflammation of the vagina (usually associated with candidiasis)
  • vagus nerve -  a mixed nerve that supplies the pharynx and larynx and lungs and heart and esophagus and stomach and most of the abdominal viscera
  • valerian -  a plant of the genus Valeriana having lobed or dissected leaves and cymose white or ink flowers
  • Valium -  a tranquilizer (trade name Valium) used to relieve anxiety and relax muscles; acts by enhancing the inhibitory actions of the neurotransmitter GABA; can also be used as an anticonvulsant drug in cases of nerve agent poisoning
  • valley fever -  an infection of the lungs and skin characterized by excessive sputum and nodules
  • valproic acid -  anticonvulsant (trade name Depokene) used to prevent some kinds of seizures
  • valvular heart disease -  heart disease caused by stenosis of the cardiac valves and obstructed blood flow or caused by degeneration and blood regurgitation
  • variation -  an activity that varies from a norm or standard; the act of changing or altering something slightly but noticeably from the norm or standard; an artifact that deviates from a norm or standard; a repetition of a musical theme in which it is modified or embellished; an instance of change; the rate or magnitude of change; (astronomy) any perturbation of the mean motion or orbit of a planet or satellite (especially a perturbation of the earth's moon); the process of varying or being varied; (ballet) a solo dance or dance figure; something a little different from others of the same type; (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration; the angle (at a particular location) between magnetic north and true north
  • varicocele -  dilatation of the veins associated with the spermatic cord in the testes
  • vas deferens -  a duct that carries spermatozoa from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct
  • vasectomy -  surgical procedure that removes all or part of the vas deferens (usually as a means of sterilization); is sometimes reversible
  • vein -  one of the horny ribs that stiffen and support the wing of an insect; a blood vessel that carries blood from the capillaries toward the heart; a distinctive style or manner; a layer of ore between layers of rock; any of the vascular bundles or ribs that form the branching framework of conducting and supporting tissues in a leaf or other plant organ; verb make a veinlike pattern
  • vena cava -  either of two large veins that return oxygen-depleted blood to the right atrium of the heart
  • venogram -  an X ray of a vein injected with a radiopaque contrast medium
  • ventricular fibrillation -  fibrillation of heart muscles resulting in interference with rhythmic contractions of the ventricles and possibly leading to cardiac arrest
  • vermiform appendix -  a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch
  • vertigo -  a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall
  • vertigo -  a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall
  • very low density lipoprotein -  large lipoproteins rich in triglycerides; VLDLs circulate through the blood giving up their triglycerides to fat and muscle tissue until the VLDL remnants are modified and converted into LDL
  • vesicle -  a small anatomically normal sac or bladderlike structure (especially one containing fluid)
  • vestibulocochlear nerve -  a composite sensory nerve supplying the hair cells of the vestibular organ and the hair cells of the cochlea
  • Viagra -  virility drug (trade name Viagra) used to treat erectile dysfunction in men
  • violence -  an act of aggression (as one against a person who resists); a turbulent state resulting in injuries and destruction etc.; the property of being wild or turbulent
  • virion -  (virology) a complete viral particle; nucleic acid and capsid (and a lipid envelope in some viruses)
  • virus -  (virology) ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts; many are pathogenic; a piece of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a thin coat of protein; a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer; a harmful or corrupting agency
  • visual acuity -  sharpness of vision; the visual ability to resolve fine detail (usually measured by a Snellen chart)
  • visual field -  all of the points of the physical environment that can be perceived by a stable eye at a given moment
  • visualization -  a mental image that is similar to a visual perception
  • vitamin A -  any of several fat-soluble vitamins essential for normal vision; prevents night blindness or inflammation or dryness of the eyes
  • vitamin B -  originally thought to be a single vitamin but now separated into several B vitamins
  • vitamin B complex -  originally thought to be a single vitamin but now separated into several B vitamins
  • vitamin C -  a vitamin found in fresh fruits (especially citrus fruits) and vegetables; prevents scurvy
  • vitamin D -  a fat-soluble vitamin that prevents rickets
  • vitamin E -  a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for normal reproduction; an important antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals in the body
  • vitamin K -  a fat-soluble vitamin that helps in the clotting of blood
  • vitiligo -  an acquired skin disease characterized by patches of unpigmented skin (often surrounded by a heavily pigmented border)
  • vitreous humor -  the clear colorless transparent jelly that fills the posterior chamber of the eyeball
  • VLDL -  large lipoproteins rich in triglycerides; VLDLs circulate through the blood giving up their triglycerides to fat and muscle tissue until the VLDL remnants are modified and converted into LDL
  • vomiting -  the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
  • von Willebrand's disease -  a form of hemophilia discovered by Erik von Willebrand; a genetic disorder that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait; characterized by a deficiency of the coagulation factor and by mucosal bleeding
  • vulva -  external parts of the female genitalia
  • warfarin -  an anticoagulant (trade name Coumadin) use to prevent and treat a thrombus or embolus
  • wart -  (pathology) a firm abnormal elevated blemish on the skin; caused by a virus; any small rounded protuberance (as on certain plants or animals)
  • Watson -  United States geneticist who (with Crick in 1953) helped discover the helical structure of DNA (born in 1928); United States psychologist considered the founder of behavioristic psychology (1878-1958); United States telephone engineer who assisted Alexander Graham Bell in his experiments (1854-1934)
  • weekend warrior -  a reservist who fulfills the military obligation on weekends; a homeowner who acts as a contractor and tries to do major improvement projects on weekends (often without understanding the scope of the work to be done)
  • wheal -  a raised mark on the skin (as produced by the blow of a whip); characteristic of many allergic reactions
  • white matter -  whitish nervous tissue of the CNS consisting of neurons and their myelin sheaths
  • whitlow -  a purulent infection at the end of a finger or toe in the area surrounding the nail
  • WHO -  a United Nations agency to coordinate international health activities and to help governments improve health services
  • Wilson's disease -  a rare inherited disorder of copper metabolism; copper accumulates in the liver and then in the red blood cells and brain
  • World Health Organization -  a United Nations agency to coordinate international health activities and to help governments improve health services
  • wryneck -  Old World woodpecker with a peculiar habit of twisting the neck; an unnatural condition in which the head leans to one side because the neck muscles on that side are contracted
  • xanthelasma -  xanthoma of the eyelids; occurs chiefly in the elderly
  • xanthoma -  a skin problem marked by the development (on the eyelids and neck and back) of irregular yellow nodules; sometimes attributable to disturbances of cholesterol metabolism
  • yoga -  a system of exercises practiced as part of the Hindu discipline to promote control of the body and mind; Hindu discipline aimed at training the consciousness for a state of perfect spiritual insight and tranquility that is achieved through the three paths of actions and knowledge and devotion
  • zeaxanthin -  yellow carotenoid (isomeric with lutein and occurs widely with it) that is the main pigment in yellow Indian corn
  • zinc -  a bluish-white lustrous metallic element; brittle at ordinary temperatures but malleable when heated; used in a wide variety of alloys and in galvanizing iron; it occurs as zinc sulphide in zinc blende; verb coat or cover with zinc
  • zygote -  the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell)


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