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Glossary of microbiology

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Dictionary of microbiology


  • ABC -  the elementary stages of any subject (usually plural)
  • AIDS -  a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
  • APHIS -  type genus of the Aphididae: injurious to fruit trees and vegetables
  • ATP -  a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the major source of energy for cellular reactions
  • AZT -  an antiviral drug (trade name Retrovir) used in the treatment of AIDS; adverse side effects include liver damage and suppression of the bone marrow
  • Acne -  an inflammatory disease involving the sebaceous glands of the skin; characterized by papules or pustules or comedones
  • Action level Concentration of a regulated substance (e.g., ethylene oxide, formaldehyde) within the employee breathing zone, above which OSHA requirements apply.
  • Activation of a sterilant Process of mixing the contents of a chemical sterilant that come in two containers (small vial with the activator solution; container of the chemical). Keeping the two chemicals separate until use extends the shelf life of the chemicals.
  • Acute – Sudden onset and repaid progression (when used in reference to a disease or condition).
  • Acyclovir -  an oral antiviral drug (trade name Zovirax) used to treat genital herpes; does not cure the disease but relieves the symptoms
  • Adhesion -  a fibrous band of scar tissue that binds together normally separate anatomical structures; abnormal union of bodily tissues; most common in the abdomen; faithful support for a religion or cause or political party; the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or the joining of surfaces of different composition
  • Aeration Method by which ethylene oxide (EtO) is removed from EtO-sterilized items by warm air circulation in an enclosed cabinet specifically designed for this purpose.
  • Aerobic – Bacteria that require oxygen to grow or will grow in the presence of oxygen.
  • Agency -  a business that serves other businesses; an administrative unit of government; the state of being in action or exerting power; how a result is obtained or an end is achieved; the state of serving as an official and authorized delegate or agent
  • Agrobacterium -  small motile bacterial rods that can reduce nitrates and cause galls on plant stems
  • Algae -  primitive chlorophyll-containing mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms lacking true stems and roots and leaves
  • Anabolism -  the synthesis in living organisms of more complex substances (e.g., living tissue) from simpler ones together with the storage of energy
  • Anaerobic – Bacteria that do not utilize oxygen to grow, or will not grow in the presence of oxygen.
  • Antagonism -  (biochemistry) interference in or inhibition of the physiological action of a chemical substance by another having a similar structure; an actively expressed feeling of dislike and hostility; the relation between opposing principles or forces or factors; a state of deep-seated ill-will
  • Anthrax -  a disease of humans that is not communicable; caused by infection with Bacillus anthracis followed by septicemia; a highly infectious animal disease (especially cattle and sheep); it can be transmitted to people
  • Antimicrobial agent Any agent that kills or suppresses the growth of microorganisms.
  • Antiseptic Substance that prevents or arrests the growth or action of microorganisms by inhibiting their activity or by destroying them. The term is used especially for preparations applied topically to living tissue.
  • Antiseptic -  (extended sense) of exceptionally clean language; clean and honest; thoroughly clean and free of or destructive to disease-causing organisms; made free from live bacteria or other microorganisms; freeing from error or corruption;  a substance that destroys micro-organisms that carry disease without harming body tissues
  • Aqueous – Relating to water. Autoinfection]] – Infection caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites persisting on or in the body.
  • Argentina -  type genus of the Argentinidae: argentines; a republic in southern South America; second largest country in South America
  • Argentine hemorrhagic fever -  hemorrhagic fever with neurological signs; caused by the Junin virus
  • Ascariasis -  infestation of the human intestine with Ascaris roundworms
  • Ascomycota -  a large subdivision of Eumycota including Hemiascomycetes and Plectomycetes and Pyrenomycetes and Discomycetes; sac fungi; in some classification systems considered a division of the kingdom Fungi
  • Asepsis Prevention of contact with microorganisms.
  • Aspergillosis -  disease especially in agricultural workers caused by inhalation of Aspergillus spores causing lumps in skin and ears and respiratory organs; an opportunistic infection by a fungus of the genus Aspergillus; characterized by inflammation and lesions of the ear and other organs; severe respiratory disease of birds that takes the form of an acute rapidly fatal pneumonia in young chickens and turkeys
  • Assimilation -  in the theories of Jean Piaget: the application of a general schema to a particular instance; a linguistic process by which a sound becomes similar to an adjacent sound; the process of absorbing nutrients into the body after digestion; the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another; the state of being assimilated; people of different backgrounds come to see themselves as part of a larger national family; the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
  • Attenuation -  the property of something that has been weakened or reduced in thickness or density; weakening in force or intensity
  • Attenuator -  an electrical device for attenuating the strength of an electrical signal
  • Australia -  a nation occupying the whole of the Australian continent; aboriginal tribes are thought to have migrated from southeastern Asia 20,000 years ago; first Europeans were British convicts sent there as a penal colony; the smallest continent; between the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean
  • Autoclave Device that sterilizes instruments or other objects using steam under pressure. The length of time required for sterilization depends on temperature, vacuum, and pressure.
  • Autoradiography -  producing a radiograph by means of the radiation emitted from the specimen being photographed
  • Azolla -  a genus of fern sometimes placed in its own family Azollaceae
  • BLAST -  a very long fly ball; an explosion (as of dynamite); intense adverse criticism; a highly pleasurable or exciting experience; a sudden very loud noise; a strong current of air; verb use explosives on; make a strident sound; hit hard
  • BPI -  a measure of how densely information is packed on a storage medium
  • BSE -  a fatal disease of cattle that affects the central nervous system; causes staggering and agitation
  • Bacillus subtilis -  a species of bacillus found in soil and decomposing organic matter; some strains produce antibiotics
  • Bacitracin -  a polypeptide antibiotic of known chemical structure effective against several types of Gram-positive organisms; usually applied locally
  • Bacterial count Method of estimating the number of bacteria per unit sample. The term also refers to the estimated number of bacteria per unit sample, usually expressed as number of colony-forming units.
  • Bactericidal -  preventing infection by inhibiting the growth or action of microorganisms
  • Bactericide Agent that kills bacteria.
  • Bactericide -  any chemical agent that destroys bacteria; any drug that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth
  • Bacteriocin – A substance that is produced by specific bacteria that is toxic to closely related strains of the same specific bacteria and either kills or slows the growth of those other specific bacteria.
  • Bacteriophage -  a virus that is parasitic in bacteria
  • Basidiomycetes -  large class of higher fungi coextensive with subdivision Basidiomycota
  • Basidiomycota -  comprises fungi bearing the spores on a basidium; includes Gasteromycetes (puffballs) and Tiliomycetes comprising the orders Ustilaginales (smuts) and Uredinales (rusts) and Hymenomycetes (mushrooms, toadstools, agarics and bracket fungi); in some classification systems considered a division of kingdom Fungi
  • Behavior -  manner of acting or controlling yourself; (psychology) the aggregate of the responses or reactions or movements made by an organism in any situation; the action or reaction of something (as a machine or substance) under specified circumstances; (behavioral attributes) the way a person behaves toward other people
  • Belarus -  a landlocked republic in eastern Europe; formerly a European soviet
  • Belgium -  a monarchy in northwestern Europe; headquarters for the European Union and for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Bioburden Number and types of viable microorganisms with which an item is contaminated; also called bioload or microbial load.
  • Biofilm Accumulated mass of bacteria and extracellular material that is tightly adhered to a surface and cannot be easily removed.
  • Biologic indicator Device for monitoring the sterilization process. The device consists of a standardized, viable population of microorganisms (usually bacterial spores) known to be resistant to the sterilization process being monitored. Biologic indicators are intended to demonstrate whether conditions were adequate to achieve sterilization. A negative biologic indicator does not prove that all items in the load are sterile or that they were all exposed to adequate sterilization conditions.
  • Biological warfare -  the use of bacteria or viruses or toxins to destroy men and animals or food
  • Biological -  of parents and children; related by blood; pertaining to biology or to life and living things
  • Bioluminescence -  luminescence produced by physiological processes (as in the firefly)
  • Biomass -  the total mass of living matter in a given unit area; plant materials and animal waste used as fuel
  • Bioremediation -  the act of treating waste or pollutants by the use of microorganisms (as bacteria) that can break down the undesirable substances; the branch of biotechnology that uses biological process to overcome environmental problems
  • Biotechnology -  the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments; the branch of molecular biology that studies the use of microorganisms to perform specific industrial processes
  • Black Death -  the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
  • Blastomycosis -  any of several infections of the skin or mucous membrane caused by Blastomyces
  • Bleach Household bleach (that includes 5.25% or 6.00%–6.15% sodium hypochlorite depending on manufacturer) is usually diluted in water at 1:10 or 1:100. Approximate dilutions are 1.5 cups of bleach in a gallon of water for a 1:10 dilution (~6,000 ppm) and 0.25 cup of bleach in a gallon of water for a 1:100 dilution (~600 ppm). Sodium hypochlorite products that make pesticidal claims, such as sanitization or disinfection, must be registered by EPA and be labeled with an EPA Registration Number. Diagnostic test of a sterilizer’s ability to remove air from the chamber of a prevacuum steam sterilizer. The air-removal or Bowie-Dick test is not a test for sterilization.
  • Blue -  causing dejection; of the color intermediate between green and violet; having a color similar to that of a clear unclouded sky; low in spirits; morally rigorous and strict; used to signify the Union forces in the American Civil War (who wore blue uniforms); suggestive of sexual impropriety; characterized by profanity or cursing; belonging to or characteristic of the nobility or aristocracy;  any of numerous small butterflies of the family Lycaenidae; blue clothing; blue color or pigment; resembling the color of the clear sky in the daytime; any organization or party whose uniforms or badges are blue; the sodium salt of amobarbital that is used as a barbiturate; used as a sedative and a hypnotic; the sky as viewed during daylight; used to whiten laundry or hair or give it a bluish tinge; verb turn blue
  • Bordeaux mixture -  antifungal agent consisting of a solution of copper sulphate and quicklime
  • Borrelia burgdorferi -  cause of Lyme disease; transmitted primarily by ticks of genus Ixodes
  • Botulinum toxin -  any of several neurotoxins that are produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum; causes muscle paralysis
  • Brazil -  the largest Latin American country and the largest Portuguese speaking country in the world; located in the central and northeastern part of South America; world's leading coffee exporter; three-sided tropical American nut with white oily meat and hard brown shell
  • Brucella -  an aerobic Gram-negative coccobacillus that causes brucellosis; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Budding -  beginning to develop;  reproduction of some unicellular organisms (such as yeasts) by growth and specialization followed by the separation by constriction of a part of the parent
  • Bulgaria -  a republic in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe
  • CAP -  a tight-fitting headdress; a top (as for a bottle); something serving as a cover or protection; a fruiting structure resembling an umbrella that forms the top of a stalked fleshy fungus such as a mushroom; the upper part of a column that supports the entablature; dental appliance consisting of an artificial crown for a tooth; a mechanical or electrical explosive device or a small amount of explosive; can be used to initiate the reaction of a disrupting explosive; an upper limit on what is allowed; verb restrict the number or amount of; lie at the top of
  • CDC -  a federal agency in the Department of Health and Human Services; located in Atlanta; investigates and diagnoses and tries to control or prevent diseases (especially new and unusual diseases)
  • CDNA -  single-stranded DNA that is complementary to messenger RNA or DNA that has been synthesized from messenger RNA by reverse transcriptase
  • CIRCE -  (Greek mythology) a sorceress who detained Odysseus on her island and turned his men into swine
  • CJD -  rare (usually fatal) brain disease (usually in middle age) caused by an unidentified slow virus; characterized by progressive dementia and gradual loss of muscle control
  • CMV -  any of a group of herpes viruses that enlarge epithelial cells and can cause birth defects; can affect humans with impaired immunological systems
  • CNS -  the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
  • Canada -  a nation in northern North America; the French were the first Europeans to settle in mainland Canada
  • Candidiasis -  an infection caused by fungi of the genus Monilia or Candida (especially Candida albicans)
  • Canine distemper -  a viral disease of young dogs characterized by high fever and respiratory inflammation
  • Capsid -  the outer covering of protein surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus; a variety of leaf bug
  • Carbon cycle -  a thermonuclear reaction in the interior of stars; the organic circulation of carbon from the atmosphere into organisms and back again
  • Carbon dioxide -  a heavy odorless colorless gas formed during respiration and by the decomposition of organic substances; absorbed from the air by plants in photosynthesis
  • Carotene -  yellow or orange-red fat-soluble pigments in plants; an orange isomer of an unsaturated hydrocarbon found in many plants; is converted into vitamin A in the liver
  • Catabolism -  breakdown in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones together with release of energy
  • Cecum -  the cavity in which the large intestine begins and into which the ileum opens
  • Ceiling limit Concentration of an airborne chemical contaminant that should not be exceeded during any part of the workday. If instantaneous monitoring is not feasible, the ceiling must be assessed as a 15-minute time-weighted average exposure.
  • Cellulitis -  an inflammation of body tissue (especially that below the skin) characterized by fever and swelling and redness and pain
  • Centigrade or Celsius A temperature scale (0°C = freezing point of water; 100°C = boiling point of water at sea level). Equivalents mentioned in the guideline are as follows: 20°C = 68°F; 25°C = 77°F; 121°C = 250°F; 132°C = 270°F; 134°C = 273°F. For other temperatures the formula is: F° = (C° × 9 ⁄ 5) + 32 or C° = (F° − 32) × 5 ⁄ 9.
  • Central processing or Central service department The department within a health-care facility that processes, issues, and controls professional supplies and equipment, both sterile and nonsterile, for some or all patient-care areas of the facility.
  • Cerebral -  involving intelligence rather than emotions or instinct; of or relating to the cerebrum or brain
  • Challenge test pack Pack used in installation, qualification, and ongoing quality assurance testing of health-care facility sterilizers.
  • Chamaecrista -  genus of tropical herbs or subshrubs having sensitive leaves and suddenly dehiscing pods; some species placed in genus Cassia
  • Chaperone -  one who accompanies and supervises a young woman or gatherings of young people; verb accompany as a chaperone
  • CheW -  biting and grinding food in your mouth so it becomes soft enough to swallow; a wad of something chewable as tobacco; verb chew (food)
  • Chemical indicator Device for monitoring a sterilization process. The device is designed to respond with a characteristic chemical or physical change to one or more of the physical condi­tions within the sterilizing chamber. Chemical indicators are intended to detect potential sterili­zation failures that could result from incorrect packaging, incorrect loading of the sterilizer, or malfunctions of the sterilizer. The “pass” response of a chemical indicator does not prove the item accompanied by the indicator is necessarily sterile. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has defined five classes of chemical indicators: Class 1 (process indicator); Class 2 (Bowie-Dick test indicator); Class 3 (single-parameter indicator); Class 4 (multi-parameter indicator); and Class 5 (integrating indicator).
  • Chemotaxis -  movement by a cell or organism in reaction to a chemical stimulus
  • China -  high quality porcelain originally made only in China; a communist nation that covers a vast territory in eastern Asia; the most populous country in the world; dishware made of high quality porcelain; a government on the island of Taiwan established in 1949 by Chiang Kai-shek after the conquest of mainland China by the communists led by Mao Zedong
  • Chlamydia -  coccoid rickettsia infesting birds and mammals; cause infections of eyes and lungs and genitourinary tract; a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria of the genus Chlamydia
  • Chlorhexidine -  a long-lasting liquid antiseptic; used by surgeons to wash their hands before performing surgery
  • Choline -  a B-complex vitamin that is a constituent of lecithin; essential in the metabolism of fat
  • Chromoblastomycosis -  a fungal infection characterized by itchy warty nodules on the skin
  • Ciliophora -  class of protozoa having cilia or hairlike appendages on part or all of the surface during some part of the life cycle
  • Cleaning removal, usually with detergent and water or enzyme cleaner and water, of adherent visible soil, blood, protein substances, microorganisms and other debris from the surfaces, crevices, serrations, joints, and lumens of instruments, devices, and equipment by a manual or mechanical process that prepares the items for safe handling and/or further decontamination.
  • Clone -  a group of genetically identical cells or organisms derived from a single cell or individual by some kind of asexual reproduction; an unauthorized copy or imitation; a person who is almost identical to another; verb make multiple identical copies of
  • Cloning -  a general term for the research activity that creates a copy of some biological entity (a gene or organism or cell)
  • ColE -  coarse curly-leafed cabbage; a hardy cabbage with coarse curly leaves that do not form a head
  • Coliform – Bacteria that most often inhabit the intestine of animals and do not utilize oxygen, but can grow in its presence. Bacteria that are classified as coliforms have the same shape and many of the same characteristics. These bacteria are used as indicators of sanitary quality in many food products.
  • Colitis -  inflammation of the colon
  • Colon cancer -  a malignant tumor of the colon; early symptom is bloody stools
  • Colon -  the part of the large intestine between the cecum and the rectum; it extracts moisture from food residues before they are excreted; a punctuation mark (:) used after a word introducing a series or an example or an explanation (or after the salutation of a business letter); a port city at the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal; the basic unit of money in Costa Rica; equal to 100 centimos; the basic unit of money in El Salvador; equal to 100 centavos
  • Colony-forming units (CFUs) – Visible units counted in a plate count, which may be formed from a group of cells rather than from one cell. CFU is used to measure the number of living cells present.
  • Colony – A visible growth of microorganisms (bacteria) on a solid nutrient medium. Members of the colony are identical to the original or parent cell.
  • Commensalism -  the relation between two different kinds of organisms when one receives benefits from the other without damaging it
  • Complementarity -  the interrelation of reciprocity whereby one thing supplements or depends on the other; a relation between two opposite states or principles that together exhaust the possibilities
  • Complementation -  the grammatical relation of a word or phrase to a predicate; (linguistics) a distribution of related speech sounds or forms in such a way that they only appear in different contexts
  • Conduction -  the transmission of heat or electricity or sound
  • Condyloma acuminatum -  a small benign wart on or around the genitals and anus
  • Confinement -  the act of restraining of a person's liberty by confining them; the state of being confined; concluding state of pregnancy; from the onset of labor to the birth of a child
  • Conjunctivitis -  inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye
  • Constitutive -  constitutional in the structure of something (especially your physical makeup)
  • Contact time Time a disinfectant is in direct contact with the surface or item to be disinfected. For surface disinfection, this period is framed by the application to the surface until complete drying has occurred.
  • Container system, rigid container Sterilization containment device designed to hold medical devices for sterilization, storage, transportation, and aseptic presentation of contents.
  • Containment -  the act of containing; keeping something from spreading; (physics) a system designed to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material from a reactor; a policy of creating strategic alliances in order to check the expansion of a hostile power or ideology or to force it to negotiate peacefully
  • Contaminated State of having actual or potential contact with microorganisms. As used in health care, the term generally refers to the presence of microorganisms that could produce disease or infection.
  • Control, positive Biologic indicator, from the same lot as a test biologic indicator, that is left unexposed to the sterilization cycle and then incubated to verify the viability of the test biologic indicator.
  • Cortex -  the tissue forming the outer layer of an organ or structure in plant or animal; the layer of unmyelinated neurons (the grey matter) forming the cortex of the cerebrum
  • Corynebacterium diphtheriae -  a species of bacterium that causes diphtheria
  • Cryptococcosis -  a fungal infection characterized by nodular lesions--first in the lungs and spreading to the nervous system
  • Cuba -  the largest island in the West Indies; a communist state in the Caribbean on the island of Cuba
  • Culture medium Substance or preparation used to grow and cultivate microorganisms.
  • Culture growth of microorganisms in or on a nutrient medium; to grow microorganisms in or on such a medium.
  • Cup 8 fluid ounces.
  • Curing – The addition of salt, sodium, or potassium nitrate (or saltpeter), nitrites, and sometimes sugar, seasonings, phosphates, and cure accelerators (e.g., sodium ascorbate), to pork for preservation, color development, and flavor enhancement.
  • Curing -  the process of becoming hard or solid by cooling or drying or crystallization
  • Cutaneous anthrax -  a form of anthrax infection that begins as papule that becomes a vesicle and breaks with a discharge of toxins; symptoms of septicemia are severe with vomiting and high fever and profuse sweating; the infection is often fatal
  • Cyanobacteria -  predominantly photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms containing a blue pigment in addition to chlorophyll; occur singly or in colonies in diverse habitats; important as phytoplankton
  • Cyclic -  recurring in cycles; of a compound having atoms arranged in a ring structure; botany; forming a whorl or having parts arranged in a whorl; marked by repeated cycles; conforming to the Carnot cycle
  • Cytomegalovirus -  any of a group of herpes viruses that enlarge epithelial cells and can cause birth defects; can affect humans with impaired immunological systems
  • Czech -  of or relating to Czechoslovakia or its people or their language;  the Slavic language of Czechs; a native of inhabitant of the Czech Republic; a native or inhabitant of the former republic of Czechoslovakia
  • D value Time or radiation dose required to inactivate 90% of a population of the test microorganism under stated exposure conditions.
  • D-value – The amount of time needed to destroy one log unit of a specific bacteria at a specific temperature in a specific medium
  • DIP -  a gymnastic exercise on the parallel bars in which the body is lowered and raised by bending and straightening the arms; a brief swim in water; a candle that is made by repeated dipping in a pool of wax or tallow; a brief immersion; tasty mixture or liquid into which bite-sized foods are dipped; (physics) the angle that a magnetic needle makes with the plane of the horizon; a depression in an otherwise level surface; a sudden sharp decrease in some quantity; a thief who steals from the pockets or purses of others in public places; verb stain an object by immersing it in a liquid; go down momentarily; scoop up by plunging one's hand or a ladle below the surface; immerse in a disinfectant solution; place (candle wicks) into hot, liquid wax; dip into a liquid; slope downwards; appear to move downward; lower briefly; dip into a liquid while eating; immerse briefly into a liquid so as to wet, coat, or saturate; switch (a car's headlights) from a higher to a lower beam
  • DNA -  (biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix; associated with the transmission of genetic information
  • Decarboxylation -  the process of removing a carboxyl group from a chemical compound (usually replacing it with hydrogen)
  • Decomposition -  the analysis of a vector field; (biology) the process of decay caused by bacterial or fungal action; (chemistry) separation of a substance into two or more substances that may differ from each other and from the original substance; in a decomposed state; the organic phenomenon of rotting
  • Decontamination area Area of a health-care facility designated for collection, retention, and cleaning of soiled and/or contaminated items.
  • Decontamination According to OSHA, “the use of physical or chemical means to remove, inactivate, or destroy bloodborne pathogens on a surface or item to the point where they are no longer capable of transmitting infectious particles and the surface or item is rendered safe for handling, use, or disposal” [29 CFR 1910.1030]. In health-care facilities, the term generally refers to all pathogenic organisms.
  • Delta hepatitis -  a severe form of hepatitis
  • Dengue fever -  an infectious disease of the tropics transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by rash and aching head and joints
  • Dental caries -  soft decayed area in a tooth; progressive decay can lead to the death of a tooth
  • Dental plaque -  a film of mucus and bacteria deposited on the teeth that encourages the development of dental caries
  • Dermatophytosis -  fungal infection of the skin (especially of moist parts covered by clothing)
  • Dermis -  the deep vascular inner layer of the skin
  • Detachment -  the act of releasing from an attachment or connection; a small unit of troops of special composition; coming apart; avoiding emotional involvement; the state of being isolated or detached
  • Detection limit – The lowest threshold amount of bacteria that must be present in a sample to be found. Detection level depends upon methods used.
  • Detergent Cleaning agent that makes no antimicrobial claims on the label. They comprise a hydrophilic component and a lipohilic component and can be divided into four types: anionic, cationic, amphoteric, and non-ionic detergents.
  • Detergent -  having cleansing power;  a cleansing agent that differs from soap but can also emulsify oils and hold dirt in suspension; a surface-active chemical widely used in industry and laundering
  • Deuteromycota -  large and heterogeneous form division of fungi comprising forms for which no sexually reproductive stage is known
  • Diffusion -  the spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to another; (physics) the process of diffusing; the intermingling of molecules in gases and liquids as a result of random thermal agitation; the act of dispersing or diffusing something; the property of being diffused or dispersed
  • Diphtheria -  acute contagious infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae; marked by the formation of a false membrane in the throat and other air passages causing difficulty in breathing
  • Direct plating – The application of a sample, or dilution thereof, to solid media, usually containing agar and other material used to grow and enumerate bacteria.
  • Disinfectant usually a chemical agent (but sometimes a physical agent) that destroys disease-causing pathogens or other harmful microorganisms but might not kill bacterial spores. It refers to substances applied to inanimate objects. EPA groups disinfectants by product label claims of “limited,” “general,” or “hospital” disinfection.
  • Disinfectant -  preventing infection by inhibiting the growth or action of microorganisms;  an agent (as heat or radiation or a chemical) that destroys microorganisms that might carry disease
  • Disinfection Thermal or chemical destruction of pathogenic and other types of microorganisms. Disinfection is less lethal than sterilization because it destroys most recognized pathogenic microorganisms but not necessarily all microbial forms (e.g., bacterial spores).
  • Dissimilation -  a linguistic process by which one of two similar sounds in a word becomes less like the other; breakdown in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones together with release of energy
  • Dracunculiasis -  a painful and debilitating infestation contracted by drinking stagnant water contaminated with Guinea worm larvae that can mature inside a human's abdomen until the worm emerges through a painful blister in the person's skin
  • Dysentery -  an infection of the intestines marked by severe diarrhea
  • EPA Registration Number or EPA Reg. No. A hyphenated, two- or three-part number assigned by EPA to identify each germicidal product registered within the United States. The first number is the company identification number, the second is the specific product number, and the third (when present) is the company identification number for a supplemental registrant.
  • EPA -  an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
  • ER -  a room in a hospital or clinic staffed and equipped to provide emergency care to persons requiring immediate medical treatment; a trivalent metallic element of the rare earth group; occurs with yttrium
  • EST -  standard time in the 5th time zone west of Greenwich, reckoned at the 75th meridian; used in the eastern United States
  • Ebola virus -  a filovirus that causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever; carried by animals; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Ecosystem -  a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
  • Elements -  violent or severe weather (viewed as caused by the action of the four elements)
  • Endemic -  native to or confined to a certain region; of or relating to a disease (or anything resembling a disease) constantly present to greater or lesser extent in a particular locality; originating where it is found;  a plant that is native to a certain limited area; a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain class or in people living in a particular location
  • Endoscope An instrument that allows examination and treatment of the interior of the body canals and hollow organs.
  • Enrichment – The addition of nutrient-rich broth so that certain bacteria or types of bacteria increase in number to result in a bacterial cell count that is higher than the detection limit. This is used to detect only the presence or absence of the bacteria, not the amount present.
  • Enteritis -  inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine); usually characterized by diarrhea
  • Enterobacteriaceae – Large group of bacteria that are closely related and are commonly found in fecal material of warm-blooded animals. They include coliforms and pathogens such as Salmonella.
  • Enterovirus -  any of a group of picornaviruses that infect the gastrointestinal tract and can spread to other areas (especially the nervous system)
  • Envelope -  any wrapper or covering; a flat rectangular paper container for papers; the bag containing the gas in a balloon; the maximum operating capability of a system; a natural covering (as by a fluid); a curve that is tangent to each of a family of curves
  • Environmental Protection Agency -  an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
  • Enzyme cleaner a solution used before disinfecting instruments to improve removal of organic material (e.g., proteases to assist in removing protein).
  • Epidermis -  the outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates
  • Epstein -  British sculptor (born in the United States) noted for busts and large controversial works (1880-1959)
  • Ergot -  a fungus that infects various cereal plants forming compact black masses of branching filaments that replace many grains of the plant; source of medicinally important alkaloids and of lysergic acid; a plant disease caused by the ergot fungus
  • Erysipelas -  an acute streptococcal infection characterized by deep-red inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes
  • Escherichia coli -  a species of bacterium normally present in intestinal tract of humans and other animals; sometimes pathogenic; can be a threat to food safety
  • Excision -  the act of pulling up or out; uprooting; cutting off from existence; the act of banishing a member of a church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the church; cutting a person off from a religious society; surgical removal of a body part or tissue; the omission that is made when an editorial change shortens a written passage
  • Exonuclease -  a nuclease that releases one nucleotide at a time (serially) beginning at one of a nucleic acid
  • Exposure time Period in a sterilization process during which items are exposed to the sterilant at the specified sterilization parameters. For example, in a steam sterilization process, exposure time is the period during which items are exposed to saturated steam at the specified temperature.
  • Extinction -  the act of extinguishing; causing to stop burning; a conditioning process in which the reinforcer is removed and a conditioned response becomes independent of the conditioned stimulus; complete annihilation; the reduction of the intensity of radiation as a consequence of absorption and radiation; no longer in existence; no longer active; extinguished
  • F-value – Measured in minutes, the D-value of a specific organism at 250 ˚F (121 ˚C) multiplied by the desired log reduction.
  • FDA -  a federal agency in the Department of Health and Human Services established to regulate the release of new foods and health-related products
  • FR -  a radioactive element of the alkali-metal group discovered as a disintegration product of actinium
  • Facultative aerobes – Microorganisms that grow best when oxygen is present but do not need it to grow.
  • Facultative anaerobe – Microorganisms that do not need oxygen to grow, but will use it when it is present.
  • Facultative -  not compulsory; granting a privilege or permission or power to do or not do something; able to exist under more than one set of conditions; of or relating to the mental faculties
  • Ferritin -  a protein containing 20% iron that is found in the intestines and liver and spleen; it is one of the chief forms in which iron is stored in the body
  • Fin -  organ of locomotion and balance in fishes and some other aquatic animals; a stabilizer on a ship that resembles the fin of a fish; a shoe for swimming; the paddle-like front is an aid in swimming (especially underwater); one of a set of parallel slats in a door or window to admit air and reject rain; one of a pair of decorations projecting above the rear fenders of an automobile; verb show the fins above the water while swimming; propel oneself through the water in a finning motion; equip (a car) with fins
  • Finland -  republic in northern Europe; achieved independence from Russia in 1917
  • Fission -  a nuclear reaction in which a massive nucleus splits into smaller nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy; reproduction of some unicellular organisms by division of the cell into two more or less equal parts
  • Flash sterilization Process designed for the steam sterilization of unwrapped patient-care items for immediate use (or placed in a specially designed, covered, rigid container to allow for rapid penetration of steam).
  • Flashlight fish -  fish of deep dark waters having a light organ below each eye; fish having a luminous organ beneath eye; of warm waters of the western Pacific and Puerto Rico
  • Flora -  a living organism lacking the power of locomotion; all the plant life in a particular region or period
  • Fluorescence microscopy -  light microscopy in which the specimen is irradiated at wavelengths that excite fluorochromes
  • Fluoride -  a salt of hydrofluoric acid
  • Folliculitis -  inflammation of a hair follicle
  • France -  a republic in western Europe; the largest country wholly in Europe; French writer of sophisticated novels and short stories (1844-1924)
  • Fructose -  a simple sugar found in honey and in many ripe fruits
  • Fungicide Agent that destroys fungi (including yeasts) and/or fungal spores pathogenic to humans or other animals in the inanimate environment.
  • GAP -  a narrow opening; a conspicuous disparity or difference as between two figures; a difference (especially an unfortunate difference) between two opinions or two views or two situations; an act of delaying or interrupting the continuity; a pass between mountain peaks; an open or empty space in or between things; verb make an opening or gap in
  • Gangrene -  necrotic tissue; a mortified or gangrenous part or mass; the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply); verb undergo necrosis
  • Gastritis -  inflammation of the lining of the stomach; nausea and loss of appetite and discomfort after eating
  • Gastroenteritis -  inflammation of the stomach and intestines; can be caused by Salmonella enteritidis
  • Gene expression -  conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein
  • General disinfectant EPA-registered disinfectant labeled for use against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Efficacy is demonstrated against both Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Also called broad-spectrum disinfectant.
  • Genetic code -  the ordering of nucleotides in DNA molecules that carries the genetic information in living cells
  • Genetic map -  graphical representation of the arrangement of genes on a chromosome
  • Genomics -  the branch of genetics that studies organisms in terms of their genomes (their full DNA sequences)
  • Genotype -  the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism; a group of organisms sharing a specific genetic constitution
  • Germany -  a republic in central Europe; split into East German and West Germany after World War II and reunited in 1990
  • Germicidal detergent Detergent that also is EPA-registered as a disinfectant.
  • Germicide Agent that destroys microorganisms, especially pathogenic organisms.
  • Germicide -  an agent (as heat or radiation or a chemical) that destroys microorganisms that might carry disease
  • Germination – The process of a spore becoming a vegetative cell.
  • Gingivitis -  inflammation of the gums
  • Glabrous -  having no hair or similar growth; smooth
  • Global warming -  an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
  • Glutamate -  a salt or ester of glutamic acid
  • Glutamine -  a crystalline amino acid occurring in proteins; important in protein metabolism
  • Glycerol -  a sweet syrupy trihydroxy alcohol obtained by saponification of fats and oils
  • Glycine -  genus of Asiatic erect or sprawling herbs: soya bean; the simplest amino acid found in proteins and the principal amino acid in sugar cane
  • Gonorrhea -  a common venereal disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae; symptoms are painful urination and pain around the urethra
  • Gram stain -  a staining technique used to classify bacteria; bacteria are stained with gentian violet and then treated with Gram's solution; after being decolorized with alcohol and treated with safranine and washed in water, those that retain the gentian violet are Gram-positive and those that do not retain it are Gram-negative
  • Granulocytopenia -  an acute blood disorder (often caused by radiation or drug therapy) characterized by severe reduction in granulocytes
  • Gravid – Pregnant or containing eggs.
  • Growth rate -  the rate of increase in size per unit time
  • Growth -  vegetation that has grown; something grown or growing; (biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically; a purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level; a progression from simpler to more complex forms; (pathology) an abnormal proliferation of tissue (as in a tumor); the gradual beginning or coming forth; a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important
  • Gulf War -  a dispute over control of the waterway between Iraq and Iran broke out into open fighting in 1980 and continued until 1988, when they accepted a UN cease-fire resolution; a war fought between Iraq and a coalition led by the United States that freed Kuwait from Iraqi invaders; 1990-1991
  • HAART -  a combination of protease inhibitors taken with reverse transcriptase inhibitors; used in treating AIDS and HIV
  • HIV -  infection by the human immunodeficiency virus; the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); it replicates in and kills the helper T cells
  • HUS -  Czechoslovakian religious reformer who anticipated the Reformation; he questioned the infallibility of the Catholic Church was excommunicated (1409) for attacking the corruption of the clergy; he was burned at the stake (1372-1415)
  • Heat labile – Destroyed or altered by heat.
  • Heliobacter pylori -  the type species of genus Heliobacter; produces urease and is associated with several gastroduodenal diseases (including gastritis and gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers and other peptic ulcers)
  • Hemolytic anemia – A condition in which red blood cells are destroyed and removed from the bloodstream before their normal lifespan is over. This leads to the blood having a lower than normal number of red blood cells. Hemolytic anemia can lead to many health problems, such as fatigue (tiredness), pain, irregular heartbeats, an enlarged heart, and heart failure.
  • Hemorrhagic colitis – Abdominal cramps and bloody diarrhea, without fever. Inactivation]] – The destruction of the activity of a pathogenic microorganisms so the microorganism is no longer harmful.
  • Hemorrhagic fever -  a group of illnesses caused by a viral infection (usually restricted to a specific geographic area); fever and gastrointestinal symptoms are followed by capillary hemorrhage
  • Hepatitis A virus -  the virus causing hepatitis A
  • Hepatitis B -  an acute (sometimes fatal) form of viral hepatitis caused by a DNA virus that tends to persist in the blood serum and is transmitted by sexual contact or by transfusion or by ingestion of contaminated blood or other bodily fluids
  • Hepatitis C -  a viral hepatitis clinically indistinguishable from hepatitis B but caused by a single-stranded RNA virus; usually transmitted by parenteral means (as injection of an illicit drug or blood transfusion or exposure to blood or blood products)
  • High-level disinfectant Agent capable of killing bacterial spores when used in sufficient concentration under suitable conditions. It therefore is expected to kill all other microorganisms.
  • Histamine -  amine formed from histidine that stimulates gastric secretions and dilates blood vessels; released by the human immune system during allergic reactions
  • Holdfast -  restraint that attaches to something or holds something in place
  • Hospital disinfectant Disinfectant registered for use in hospitals, clinics, dental offices, and any other medical-related facility. Efficacy is demonstrated against Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. EPA has registered approximately 1,200 hospital disinfectants.
  • Huck towel All-cotton surgical towel with a honey-comb weave; both warp and fill yarns are tightly twisted. Huck towels can be used to prepare biologic indicator challenge test packs.
  • Human Genome Project -  an international study of the entire human genetic material
  • Human immunodeficiency virus -  the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); it replicates in and kills the helper T cells
  • Humus -  partially decomposed organic matter; the organic component of soil; a thick spread made from mashed chickpeas, tahini, lemon juice and garlic; used especially as a dip for pita; originated in the Middle East
  • Hungary -  a republic in central Europe
  • Hydrogen peroxide -  a viscous liquid with strong oxidizing properties; a powerful bleaching agent; also used as a disinfectant and (in strong concentrations) as an oxidant in rocket fuels
  • Hydrophobic -  abnormally afraid of water; lacking affinity for water; tending to repel and not absorb water; tending not to dissolve in or mix with or be wetted by water
  • Hydroxyproline -  a crystalline amino acid obtained from gelatin or collagen
  • Hyperemia -  increased blood in an organ or other body part
  • IRs -  the bureau of the Treasury Department responsible for tax collections
  • Immobilization -  the act of limiting movement or making incapable of movement; fixation (as by a plaster cast) of a body part in order to promote proper healing
  • Immunity -  the quality of being unaffected by something; (medicine) the condition in which an organism can resist disease; an act exempting someone; the state of not being susceptible
  • Immunogenicity -  the property of eliciting an immune response
  • Impetigo -  a very contagious infection of the skin; common in children; localized redness develops into small blisters that gradually crust and erode
  • Implantable device According to FDA, “device that is placed into a surgically or naturally formed cavity of the human body if it is intended to remain there for a period of 30 days or more” [21 CFR 812.3(d)].
  • In vitro -  in an artificial environment outside the living organism; adv. in an artificial environment outside the living organism
  • Inanimate surface Nonliving surface (e.g., floors, walls, furniture).
  • Incubation period -  the period between infection and the appearance of symptoms of the disease
  • Incubator Apparatus for maintaining a constant and suitable temperature for the growth and cultivation of microorganisms.
  • India -  a republic in the Asian subcontinent in southern Asia; second most populous country in the world; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1947
  • Indinavir -  a protease inhibitor (trade name Crixivan) used for treating HIV
  • Indonesia -  a republic in southeastern Asia on an archipelago including more than 13,000 islands; achieved independence from the Netherlands in 1945; the principal oil producer in the Far East and Pacific regions
  • Induction -  the act of bringing about something (especially at an early time); an electrical phenomenon whereby an electromotive force (EMF) is generated in a closed circuit by a change in the flow of current; an act that sets in motion some course of events; reasoning from detailed facts to general principles; stimulation that calls up (draws forth) a particular class of behaviors; a formal entry into an organization or position or office
  • Infection – The invasion by, and growth of, pathogenic microorganisms in a host.
  • Infectious agent -  an agent capable of producing infection
  • Infectious microorganisms Microorganisms capa­ble of producing disease in appropriate hosts.
  • Infectivity – The ability to produce infection. Infestation]] – The presence of large numbers of organisms on or in a host causing illness or damage.
  • Information -  (communication theory) a numerical measure of the uncertainty of an outcome; knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction; a message received and understood; formal accusation of a crime; a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn
  • Inhibition – The slowing or stopping of bacterial growth. k (Growth rate)]] – The rate at which bacterial cells reproduce.
  • Inoculation -  taking a vaccine as a precaution against contracting a disease
  • Inorganic and organic load Naturally occurring or artificially placed inorganic (e.g., metal salts) or organic (e.g., proteins) contaminants on a medical device before exposure to a microbicidal process.
  • Intelligence -  the operation of gathering information about an enemy; the ability to comprehend; to understand and profit from experience; secret information about an enemy (or potential enemy); a unit responsible for gathering and interpreting information about an enemy; new information about specific and timely events
  • Intermediate-level disinfectant Agent that destroys all vegetative bacteria, including tubercle bacilli, lipid and some nonlipid viruses, and fungi, but not bacterial spores.
  • Internet -  a computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use the TCP/IP network protocols to facilitate data transmission and exchange
  • Japan -  lacquer with a durable glossy black finish, originally from the orient; lacquerware decorated and varnished in the Japanese manner with a glossy durable black lacquer; a string of more than 3,000 islands east of Asia extending 1,300 miles between the Sea of Japan and the western Pacific Ocean; a constitutional monarchy occupying the Japanese Archipelago; a world leader in electronics and automobile manufacture and ship building; verb coat with a lacquer, as done in Japan
  • Keratin -  a fibrous scleroprotein that occurs in the outer layer of the skin and in horny tissues such as hair feathers nails and hooves
  • Kuru -  100 kurus equal 1 lira in Turkey; a progressive disease of the central nervous system marked by increasing lack of coordination and advancing to paralysis and death within a year of the appearance of symptoms; thought to have been transmitted by cannibalistic consumption of diseased brain tissue since the disease virtually disappeared when cannibalism was abandoned
  • LINE -  acting in conformity; something (as a cord or rope) that is long and thin and flexible; the road consisting of railroad track and roadbed; a commercial organization serving as a common carrier; a particular kind of product or merchandise; a conceptual separation or distinction; a mark that is long relative to its width; text consisting of a row of words written across a page or computer screen; a formation of people or things one behind another; a formation of people or things one beside another; a spatial location defined by a real or imaginary unidimensional extent; in games or sports; a mark indicating positions or bounds of the playing area; a fortified position (especially one marking the most forward position of troops); a single frequency (or very narrow band) of radiation in a spectrum; a length (straight or curved) without breadth or thickness; the trace of a moving point; the principal activity in your life that you do to earn money; a conductor for transmitting electrical or optical signals or electric power; a pipe used to transport liquids or gases; mechanical system in a factory whereby an article is conveyed through sites at which successive operations are performed on it; a telephone connection; the methodical process of logical reasoning; (often plural) a means of communication or access; a short personal letter; a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence; the descendants of one individual; a connected series of events or actions or developments; the maximum credit that a customer is allowed; space for one line of print (one column wide and 1/14 inch deep) used to measure advertising; a slight depression in the smoothness of a surface; verb reinforce with fabric; fill plentifully; cover the interior of; mark with lines; be in line with; form a line along; make a mark or lines on a surface
  • Lactobacillus -  Gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria that produce lactic acid especially in milk
  • Lag time – The time that bacteria take to become acclimated to a new environment before starting to multiply. Bacteria divide and their numbers grow exponentially: 1 becomes 2 becomes 4 becomes 8, etc.
  • Lamivudine -  a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is very effective in combination with zidovudine in treating AIDS and HIV
  • Lander -  a space vehicle that is designed to land on the moon or another planet; a town in central Wyoming
  • Lassa fever -  an acute contagious viral disease of central western Africa; characterized by fever and inflammation and muscular pains and difficulty swallowing; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Learning -  the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge; profound scholarly knowledge
  • Lethality – The effectiveness of a treatment to destroy or kill bacteria.
  • Leukopenia -  an abnormal lowering of the white blood cell count
  • Ligation -  (surgery) tying a duct or blood vessel with a ligature (as to prevent bleeding during surgery)
  • Limited disinfectant Disinfectant registered for use against a specific major group of organisms (gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria). Efficacy has been demonstrated in laboratory tests against either Salmonella choleraesuis or Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.
  • Lipid virus Virus surrounded by an envelope of lipoprotein in addition to the usual core of nucleic acid surrounded by a coat of protein. This type of virus (e.g., HIV) is generally easily inactivated by many types of disinfectants. Also called enveloped or lipophilic virus.
  • Listeria monocytogenes -  the type species of the genus Listeria; can cause meningitis, encephalitis, septicemia, endocarditis, abortion, abscesses, listeriosis
  • Listeria -  any species of the genus Listeria
  • Log unit – An exponential (multiplicative) relationship between units in a numerical scale. The exact relationship is conveyed by the base. Assuming that “log” is “log base 10,” every unit is expressed as the exponential of 10. For example, 1 log10 is equal to 101 (10 to the 1st power) or 10; 2 log10 is equal to 102 (10 x 10) or 100, and so on. Moving 1 unit in the log10 scale is equivalent to multiplying or dividing the preceding number by 10 (multiply if increasing the log number, divide if decreasing the log number). Scientists convert bacterial counts to log scales (or plot on log-log or semilog graphs) because it allows them to see the large changes apart from the irrelevant data inherent in the process of measuring bacteria populations. If two populations of bacteria differ by less than 10 fold (1 log10 unit), the distinction is not likely to be significant. But differences of 10, 100, or 1,000 fold (1, 2 or 3 log10 units) are more likely to be significant and scientifically important.
  • Low-level disinfectant Agent that destroys all vegetative bacteria (except tubercle bacilli), lipid viruses, some nonlipid viruses, and some fungi, but not bacterial spores.
  • Luciferin -  pigment occurring in luminescent organisms (as fireflies); emits heatless light when undergoing oxidation
  • Lyme disease -  an acute inflammatory disease characterized by a rash with joint swelling and fever; caused by bacteria carried by the bite of a deer tick
  • Lymphangitis -  inflammation of a lymph vessel
  • Lyophilization -  a method of drying food or blood plasma or pharmaceuticals or tissue without destroying their physical structure; material is frozen and then warmed in a vacuum so that the ice sublimes
  • Lysozyme -  an enzyme found in saliva and sweat and tears that destroys the cell walls of certain bacteria
  • MAC -  a waterproof raincoat made of rubberized fabric
  • Magnesium -  a light silver-white ductile bivalent metallic element; in pure form it burns with brilliant white flame; occurs naturally only in combination (as in magnesite and dolomite and carnallite and spinel and olivine)
  • Mannitol -  a diuretic (trade name Osmitrol) used to promote the excretion of urine
  • Marburg virus -  a filovirus that causes Marburg disease; carried by animals; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Measles -  an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash; occurs primarily in children
  • Mechanical indicator Devices that monitor the sterilization process (e.g., graphs, gauges, printouts).
  • Medical device Instrument, apparatus, material, or other article, whether used alone or in combination, including software necessary for its application, intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for diagnosis, prevention, monitoring treatment, or alleviation of disease; diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, or alleviation of or compensation for an injury or handicap; investigation, replacement, or modification of the anatomy or of a physiologic process; or control of conception And that does not achieve its primary intended action in or on the human body by pharmacologic, immunologic, or metabolic means but might be assisted in its function by such means.
  • Mesophiles – Bacteria that have optimum growing temperatures between 77 °F (25 °C) and 104 °F (40 °C).
  • Methicillin -  antibiotic drug of the penicillin family used in the treatment of certain staphylococcal infections
  • Methionine -  a crystalline amino acid containing sulfur; found in most proteins and essential for nutrition
  • Metronidazole -  antiprotozoal medication (trade name Flagyl) used to treat trichomoniasis and giardiasis
  • Mexico -  a republic in southern North America; became independent from Spain in 1810
  • Miconazole -  an antifungal agent usually administered in the form of a nitrate (trade name Monistat)
  • Microaerophiles – Microorganisms that require oxygen at a lower level than is found in normal air to survive.
  • Microbicide Any substance or mixture of substances that effectively kills microorganisms.
  • Microcosm -  a miniature model of something
  • Microflora – Bacteria, molds, and yeasts. Obligate aerobe]] – Microorganisms that require a high concentration of oxygen to survive.
  • Microorganisms Animals or plants of microscopic size. As used in health care, generally refers to bacteria, fungi, viruses, and bacterial spores.
  • Minimum effective concentration (MEC) The minimum concentration of a liquid chemical germicide needed to achieve the claimed microbicidal activity as determined by dose-response testing. Sometimes used interchangeably with minimum recommended concentration.
  • Mps -  a widely distributed system of free and fixed macrophages derived from bone marrow
  • Mucocutaneous -  of or relating to the mucous membranes and skin
  • Muslin Loosely woven (by convention, 140 threads per square inch), 100% cotton cloth. Formerly used as a wrap for sterile packs or a surgical drape. Fabric wraps used currently consist of a cotton-polyester blend.
  • Mutagenesis -  an event capable of causing a mutation
  • Mycelium -  the vegetative part of a fungus consisting of a mass of branching threadlike hyphae
  • Mycobacteria Bacteria with a thick, waxy coat that makes them more resistant to chemical germicides than other types of vegetative bacteria.
  • Mycobacteria -  rod-shaped bacteria some saprophytic or causing diseases
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis -  cause of tuberculosis
  • NAD -  a coenzyme present in most living cells and derived from the B vitamin nicotinic acid; serves as a reductant in various metabolic processes
  • NIH -  an agency in the Department of Health and Human Services whose mission is to employ science in the pursuit of knowledge to improve human health; is the principal biomedical research agency of the federal government
  • National Institutes of Health -  an agency in the Department of Health and Human Services whose mission is to employ science in the pursuit of knowledge to improve human health; is the principal biomedical research agency of the federal government
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae -  the pus-producing bacterium that causes gonorrhea
  • Nelfinavir -  a protease inhibitor (trade name Viracept) used in treating HIV usually in combination with other drugs
  • Network -  (broadcasting) a communication system consisting of a group of broadcasting stations that all transmit the same programs; (electronics) a system of interconnected electronic components or circuits; a system of intersecting lines or channels; an interconnected system of things or people; an open fabric of string or rope or wire woven together at regular intervals; verb communicate with and within a group
  • Neuropathy -  any pathology of the peripheral nerves
  • Neutropenia -  leukopenia in which the decrease is primarily in number of neutrophils (the chief phagocytic leukocyte)
  • Nevirapine -  a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (trade name Viramune) used to treat AIDS and HIV
  • New Zealand -  North Island and South Island and adjacent small islands in the South Pacific; an independent country within the British Commonwealth; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1907; known for sheep and spectacular scenery
  • Nitrification -  the oxidation of ammonium compounds in dead organic material into nitrates and nitrites by soil bacteria (making nitrogen available to plants); the chemical process in which a nitro group is added to an organic compound (or substituted for another group in an organic compound)
  • Nitrogen cycle -  the circulation of nitrogen; nitrates from the soil are absorbed by plants which are eaten by animals that die and decay returning the nitrogen back to the soil
  • Nitrogen -  a common nonmetallic element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless inert diatomic gas; constitutes 78 percent of the atmosphere by volume; a constituent of all living tissues
  • Nonlipid viruses generally considered more resistant to inactivation than lipid viruses. Also called nonenveloped or hydrophilic viruses.
  • Nuclease -  general term for enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleic acid by cleaving chains of nucleotides into smaller units
  • Nutrition -  the scientific study of food and drink (especially in humans); (physiology) the organic process of nourishing or being nourished; the processes by which an organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance; a source of materials to nourish the body
  • Nystatin -  an antifungal and antibiotic (trade names Mycostatin and Nystan) discovered in New York State; derived from soil fungi actinomycetes
  • Obligate anaerobe – Microorganisms that must avoid all oxygen to survive.
  • Oligosaccharide -  any of the carbohydrates that yield only a few monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
  • Oncosphere – The larva of the tapeworm contained within the external embryonic envelope and armed with six hooks. Pathogen]] – Organisms that cause illness. These organisms include bacteria, protozoa, or viruses.
  • One-step disinfection process Simultaneous cleaning and disinfection of a noncritical surface or item.
  • Oomycetes -  nonphotosynthetic fungi that resemble algae and that reproduce by forming oospores; sometimes classified as protoctists
  • Operation Desert Storm -  the United States and its allies defeated Iraq in a ground war that lasted 100 hours (1991)
  • Ophthalmia neonatorum -  ophthalmia in newborns; contracted while passing through the birth canal; usually prevented with silver nitrate drops
  • Opine - verb speak one's opinion without fear or hesitation; expect, believe, or suppose
  • Osmotic pressure -  (physical chemistry) the pressure exerted by a solution necessary to prevent osmosis into that solution when it is separated from the pure solvent by a semipermeable membrane
  • Otitis media -  inflammation of the middle ear; common in children
  • Otitis -  inflammation of the ear
  • Overgrowth -  a profusion of growth on or over something else; excessive size; usually caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland
  • Oxidase -  any of the enzymes that catalyze biological oxidation
  • Oxidative phosphorylation -  an enzymatic process in cell metabolism that synthesizes ATP from ADP
  • Oxygen -  a nonmetallic bivalent element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless nonflammable diatomic gas; constitutes 21 percent of the atmosphere by volume; the most abundant element in the earth's crust
  • PAD -  the foot or fleshy cushion-like underside of the toes of an animal; a usually thin flat mass of padding; a block of absorbent material saturated with ink; used to transfer ink evenly to a rubber stamp; the large floating leaf of an aquatic plant (as the water lily); a number of sheets of paper fastened together along one edge; temporary living quarters; a platform from which rockets or space craft are launched; verb add padding to; line or stuff with soft material; add details to; walk heavily and firmly, as when weary, or through mud
  • PCP -  a drug used as an anesthetic by veterinarians; illicitly taken (originally in the form of powder or `dust') for its effects as a hallucinogen
  • PID -  inflammation of the female pelvic organs (especially the Fallopian tubes) caused by infection by any of several microorganisms (chiefly gonococci and chlamydia); symptoms are abdominal pain and fever and foul-smelling vaginal discharge
  • Package -  a wrapped container; a collection of things wrapped or boxed together; (computer science) written programs or procedures or rules and associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a computer system and that are stored in read/write memory; verb put into a box
  • Palindrome -  a word or phrase that reads the same backward as forward
  • Parametric release Declaration that a product is sterile on the basis of physical and/or chemical process data rather than on sample testing or biologic indicator results.
  • Parasitism -  the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)
  • Parenchyma -  animal tissue that constitutes the essential part of an organ as contrasted with e.g. connective tissue and blood vessels; the primary tissue of higher plants composed of thin-walled cells that remain capable of cell division even when mature; constitutes the greater part of leaves, roots, the pulp of fruits, and the pith of stems
  • Paronychia -  low-growing annual or perennial herbs or woody plants; whitlowworts; infection in the tissues adjacent to a nail on a finger or toe
  • Parts per million (ppm) Common measurement for concentrations by volume of trace contaminant gases in the air (or chemicals in a liquid); 1 volume of contaminated gas per 1 million volumes of contaminated air or 1¢ in $10,000 both equal 1 ppm. Parts per million = µg∕mL or mg∕L.
  • Pasteurization Process developed by Louis Pasteur of heating milk, wine, or other liquids to 65–77°C (or the equivalent) for approximately 30 minutes to kill or markedly reduce the number of pathogenic and spoilage organisms other than bacterial spores.
  • Pathogen -  any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
  • Pedicel -  a small stalk bearing a single flower of an inflorescence; an ultimate division of a common peduncle
  • Pellicle -  thin protective membrane in some protozoa
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease -  inflammation of the female pelvic organs (especially the Fallopian tubes) caused by infection by any of several microorganisms (chiefly gonococci and chlamydia); symptoms are abdominal pain and fever and foul-smelling vaginal discharge
  • Penicillin -  any of various antibiotics obtained from Penicillium molds (or produced synthetically) and used in the treatment of various infections and diseases
  • Penicylinder Carriers inoculated with the test bacteria for in vitro tests of germicides. Can be constructed of stainless steel, porcelain, glass, or other materials and are approximately 8 x 10 mm in diameter.
  • Peristalsis -  the process of wavelike muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
  • Permissible exposure limit (PEL) Time-weighted average maximum concentration of an air contaminant to which a worker can be exposed, according to OSHA standards. Usually calculated over 8 hours, with exposure considered over a 40-hour work week.
  • Personal protective equipment (PPE) Specialized clothing or equipment worn by an employee for protection against a hazard. General work clothes (e.g., uniforms, pants, shirts) not intended to function as protection against a hazard are not considered to be PPE.
  • Pertussis -  a disease of the respiratory mucous membrane
  • Phase III -  a large clinical trial of a treatment or drug that in phase I and phase II has been shown to be efficacious with tolerable side effects; after successful conclusion of these clinical trials it will receive formal approval from the FDA
  • Phenotype -  what an organism looks like as a consequence of the interaction of its genotype and the environment
  • Phloem -  (botany) tissue that conducts synthesized food substances (e.g., from leaves) to parts where needed; consists primarily of sieve tubes
  • Phosphorescence -  a fluorescence that persists after the bombarding radiation has ceased
  • Phosphorus -  a multivalent nonmetallic element of the nitrogen family that occurs commonly in inorganic phosphate rocks and as organic phosphates in all living cells; is highly reactive and occurs in several allotropic forms; a planet (usually Venus) seen just before sunrise in the eastern sky
  • Picornavirus -  a group of single-strand RNA viruses with a protein coat
  • Pilosebaceous -  of or relating to a hair follicle and its sebaceous gland
  • Plankton -  the aggregate of small plant and animal organisms that float or drift in great numbers in fresh or salt water
  • Planktonic -  of or relating to plankton
  • Plaque -  (pathology) a small abnormal patch on or inside the body; a memorial made of brass
  • Plasma membrane -  a thin membrane (a double layer of lipids) enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell; proteins in the membrane control passage of ions (like sodium or potassium or calcium) in and out of the cell
  • Poland -  a republic in central Europe; the invasion of Poland by Germany in 1939 started World War II
  • Polymerase -  an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of new DNA and RNA from an existing strand of DNA or RNA
  • Population -  the act of populating (causing to live in a place); (statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which samples can be drawn; a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area; the people who inhabit a territory or state; the number of inhabitants (either the total number or the number of a particular race or class) in a given place (country or city etc.)
  • Preservative -  tending or having the power to preserve;  a chemical compound that is added to protect against decay or decomposition
  • Prions Transmissible pathogenic agents that cause a variety of neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals, including sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. They are unlike any other infectious pathogens because they are composed of an abnormal conformational isoform of a normal cellular protein, the prion protein (PrP). Prions are extremely resistant to inactivation by sterilization processes and disinfecting agents.
  • Process challenge device (PCD) Item designed to simulate product to be sterilized and to constitute a defined challenge to the sterilization process and used to assess the effective performance of the process. A PCD is a challenge test pack or test tray that contains a biologic indicator, a Class 5 integrating indicator, or an enzyme-only indicator.
  • Proglottid – An individual segment of a tapeworm.
  • Proline -  an amino acid that is found in many proteins (especially collagen)
  • Promiscuity -  indulging in promiscuous (casual and indiscriminate) sexual relations
  • Proteomics -  the branch of genetics that studies the full set of proteins encoded by a genome
  • Psi -  the 23rd letter of the Greek alphabet; a unit of pressure
  • Psychrotrophs – Bacteria that have optimum growing temperatures between 68 °F (20 °C) and 86 °F (30 °C), but can grow at temperatures as low as 32 °F (0 °C).
  • QUAT Abbreviation for quaternary ammonium compound, a surface-active, water-soluble disinfecting substance that has four carbon atoms linked to a nitrogen atom through covalent bonds.
  • Quinone -  any of a class of aromatic yellow compounds including several that are biologically important as coenzymes or acceptors or vitamins; used in making dyes
  • RI -  a state in New England; one of the original 13 colonies; the smallest state
  • Radiation -  the act of spreading outward from a central source; a radial arrangement of nerve fibers connecting different parts of the brain; the spread of a group of organisms into new habitats; energy that is radiated or transmitted in the form of rays or waves or particles; the spontaneous emission of a stream of particles or electromagnetic rays in nuclear decay; (medicine) the treatment of disease (especially cancer) by exposure to a radioactive substance; syndrome resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation (e.g., exposure to radioactive chemicals or to nuclear explosions); low doses cause diarrhea and nausea and vomiting and sometimes loss of hair; greater exposure can cause sterility and cataracts and some forms of cancer and other diseases; severe exposure can cause death within hours
  • Recombinant DNA -  genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms
  • Recommended exposure limit (REL) Occupational exposure limit recommended by NIOSH as being protective of worker health and safety over a working lifetime. Frequently expressed as a 40-hour time-weighted-average exposure for up to 10 hours per day during a 40-work week.
  • Repellent -  incapable of absorbing or mixing with; highly offensive; arousing aversion or disgust; serving or tending to repel;  the power to repel; a chemical substance that repels animals; a compound with which fabrics are treated to repel water
  • Repression -  the act of repressing; control by holding down; (psychiatry) the classical defense mechanism that protects you from impulses or ideas that would cause anxiety by preventing them from becoming conscious; a state of forcible subjugation
  • Reprocess Method to ensure proper disinfection or sterilization; can include: cleaning, inspection, wrapping, sterilizing, and storing.
  • Respiratory syncytial virus -  a paramyxovirus that forms syncytia in tissue culture and that is responsible for severe respiratory diseases such as bronchiolitis and bronchial pneumonia (especially in children)
  • Reverse transcriptase -  a polymerase that catalyzes the formation of DNA using RNA as a template; found especially in retroviruses
  • Rhinovirus -  any of a group of picornaviruses that are responsible for many upper respiratory infections
  • Rhizobium -  the type genus of Rhizobiaceae; usually occur in the root nodules of legumes; can fix atmospheric oxygen
  • Rho -  the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet
  • Ribavirin -  an inhaled antiviral agent (trade name Virazole) that may be used to treat serious virus infections
  • Riboflavin -  a B vitamin that prevents skin lesions and weight loss
  • Rift valley fever -  an infection common in Africa caused by a bunyavirus; transmitted by mosquitoes or by handling infected animals
  • Rotavirus -  the reovirus causing infant enteritis
  • Russia -  a former empire in eastern Europe and northern Asia created in the 14th century with Moscow as the capital; powerful in the 17th and 18th centuries under Peter the Great and Catherine the Great when Saint Petersburg was the capital; overthrown by revolution in 1917; a federation in northeastern Europe and northern Asia; formerly Soviet Russia; since 1991 an independent state; a former communist country in eastern Europe and northern Asia; established in 1922; included Russia and 14 other soviet socialist republics (Ukraine and Byelorussia and others); officially dissolved 31 December 1991; formerly the largest Soviet Socialist Republic in the USSR occupying eastern Europe and northern Asia
  • SAGE -  of the grey-green color of sage leaves; having wisdom that comes with age and experience;  aromatic fresh or dried grey-green leaves used widely as seasoning for meats and fowl and game etc; a mentor in spiritual and philosophical topics who is renowned for profound wisdom; any of various plants of the genus Salvia; a cosmopolitan herb
  • SALT -  (of speech) painful or bitter; one of the four basic taste sensations; like the taste of sea water;  the taste experience when common salt is taken into the mouth; white crystalline form of especially sodium chloride used to season and preserve food; a compound formed by replacing hydrogen in an acid by a metal (or a radical that acts like a metal); negotiations between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics opened in 1969 in Helsinki designed to limit both countries' stock of nuclear weapons; verb preserve with salt; add zest or liveliness to; sprinkle as if with salt; add salt to
  • SCID -  a congenital disease affecting T cells that can result from a mutation in any one of several different genes; children with it are susceptible to infectious disease; if untreated it is lethal within the first year or two of life
  • SOS -  an internationally recognized distress signal in radio code
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae -  used as a leaven in baking and brewing
  • Salmonella -  rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria; cause typhoid fever and food poisoning; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Sanitizer Agent that reduces the number of bacterial contaminants to safe levels as judged by public health requirements. Commonly used with substances applied to inanimate objects. According to the protocol for the official sanitizer test, a sanitizer is a chemical that kills 99.999% of the specific test bacteria in 30 seconds under the conditions of the test.
  • Saquinavir -  a weak protease inhibitor (trade name Invirase) used in treating HIV
  • Sarcosine -  a sweetish crystalline amino acid
  • Scolex – The head of a tapeworm that usually has suckers and/or hooks.
  • Scrapie -  a fatal disease of sheep characterized by chronic itching and loss of muscular control and progressive degeneration of the central nervous system
  • Septum -  (anatomy) a dividing partition between two tissues or cavities; a partition or wall especially in an ovary
  • Service -  the performance of duties by a waiter or servant; the act of delivering a writ or summons upon someone; work done by one person or group that benefits another; (law) the acts performed by an English feudal tenant for the benefit of his lord which formed the consideration for the property granted to him; employment in or work for another; the act of public worship following prescribed rules; an act of help or assistance; tableware consisting of a complete set of articles (silver or dishware) for use at table; a company or agency that performs a public service; subject to government regulation; Canadian writer (born in England) who wrote about life in the Yukon Territory (1874-1958); periodic maintenance on a car or machine; (sports) a stroke that puts the ball in play; the act of mating by male animals; a means of serving; a force that is a branch of the armed forces; verb make fit for use; be used by; as of a utility; mate with
  • Sessile -  attached directly by the base; not having an intervening stalk; permanently attached to a substrate; not free to move about
  • Shelf life Length of time an undiluted or use dilution of a product can remain active and effective. Also refers to the length of time a sterilized product (e.g., sterile instrument set) is expected to remain sterile.
  • Shocked (heat shocked) – Occurs when a product is heated, but the temperature is not high enough to destroy the bacteria. It results in bacteria that are injured for a while, but in most cases can repair itself and becomes more resistant to heat the next time the product is heated. Heat shocked also can refer to the process by which a spore is induced into germination. When a product is heated thoroughly, the vegetative cells are destroyed, but the spores are undamaged by the heat. The spores then germinate into vegetative cells once the temperature has decreased to an optimum level.
  • Sigma -  the 18th letter of the Greek alphabet
  • Significant difference – Statistical difference in results.
  • Soil profile -  a vertical section of soil from the ground surface to the parent rock
  • Spaulding classification Strategy for reprocessing contaminated medical devices. The system classifies a medical device as critical, semicritical, or noncritical on the basis of risk to patient safety from contamination on a device. The system also established three levels of germicidal activity (sterilization, high-level disinfection, and low-level disinfection) for strategies with the three classes of medical devices (critical, semicritical, and noncritical).
  • Spoilage -  the process of becoming spoiled; the amount that has spoiled; the act of spoiling something by causing damage to it
  • Sporangium -  organ containing or producing spores
  • Spore strip Paper strip impregnated with a known population of spores that meets the definition of biological indicators.
  • Spore – A highly resistant, dormant form that some bacteria can change into. Spores are usually very resistant to heat, long periods of dryness, and other adverse conditions that normal vegetative cells cannot survive. Most must be adverse conditions that normal vegetative cells cannot survive. Most must be heat-shocked to germinate into normal, vegetative cells. Most of the time, spores have a toxin associated with them, either within the spore covering, or released at the time of germination, or when becoming a spore (sporulation).
  • Spore Relatively water-poor round or elliptical resting cell consisting of condensed cytoplasm and nucleus surrounded by an impervious cell wall or coat. Spores are relatively resistant to disinfectant and sterilant activity and drying conditions (specifically in the genera Bacillus and Clostridium).
  • Sporotrichosis -  a chronic fungal infection of the skin and lymph nodes
  • Sporozoa -  strictly parasitic protozoans that are usually immobile; includes plasmodia and coccidia and piroplasms and malaria parasites
  • Staphylococci -  spherical Gram-positive parasitic bacteria that tend to form irregular colonies; some cause boils or septicemia or infections
  • Steam quality Steam characteristic reflecting the dryness fraction (weight of dry steam in a mixture of dry saturated steam and entrained water) and the level of noncondensable gas (air or other gas that will not condense under the conditions of temperature and pressure used during the sterilization process). The dryness fraction (i.e., the proportion of completely dry steam in the steam being considered) should not fall below 97%.
  • Steam sterilization, dynamic air removal type One of two types of sterilization cycles in which air is removed from the chamber and the load by a series of pressure and vacuum excursions (prevacuum cycle) or by a series of steam flushes and pressure pulses above atmospheric pressure (steam-flush-pressure-pulse cycle).
  • Steam sterilization Sterilization process that uses saturated steam under pressure for a specified exposure time and at a specified temperature, as the sterilizing agent.
  • Sterile or Sterility State of being free from all living microorganisms. In practice, usually described as a probability function, e.g., as the probability of a microorganism surviving sterilization being one in one million.
  • Sterility assurance level (SAL) Probability of a viable microorganism being present on a product unit after sterilization. Usually expressed as 10–6; a SAL of 10-6 means ≤1/1 million chance that a single viable microorganism is present on a sterilized item. A SAL of 10-6 generally is accepted as appropriate for items intended to contact compromised tissue (i.e., tissue that has lost the integrity of the natural body barriers). The sterilizer manufacturer is responsible for ensuring the sterilizer can achieve the desired SAL. The user is responsible for monitoring the performance of the sterilizer to ensure it is operating in conformance to the manufacturer’s recommendations.
  • Sterilization area Area of a health-care facility designed to house sterilization equipment, such as steam ethylene oxide, hydrogen peroxide gas plasma, or ozone sterilizers.
  • Sterilization Validated process used to render a product free of all forms of viable microorganisms. In a sterilization process, the presence of microorganisms on any individual item can be expressed in terms of probability. Although this probability can be reduced to a very low number, it can never be reduced to zero.
  • Sterilizer, gravity-displacement type Type of steam sterilizer in which incoming steam displaces residual air through a port or drain in or near the bottom (usually) of the sterilizer chamber. Typical operating temperatures are 121–123°C (250–254°F) and 132–135°C (270–275°F).
  • Sterilizer, prevacuum type Type of steam sterilizer that depends on one or more pressure and vacuum excursions at the beginning of the cycle to remove air. This method of operation results in shorter cycle times for wrapped items because of the rapid removal of air from the chamber and the load by the vacuum system and because of the usually higher operating temperature (132–135°C [270–275°F]; 141–144°C [285–291°F]). This type of sterilizer generally provides for shorter exposure time and accelerated drying of fabric loads by pulling a further vacuum at the end of the sterilizing cycle.
  • Sterilizer, steam-flush pressure-pulse type Type of sterilizer in which a repeated sequence consisting of a steam flush and a pressure pulse removes air from the sterilizing chamber and processed materials using steam at above atmospheric pressure (no vacuum is required). Like a prevacuum sterilizer, a steam-flush pressure-pulse sterilizer rapidly removes air from the sterilizing chamber and wrapped items; however, the system is not susceptible to air leaks because air is removed with the sterilizing chamber pressure at above atmospheric pressure. Typical operating temperatures are 121–123°C (250–254°F), 132–135°C (270–275°F), and 141–144°C (285–291°F).
  • Sterilizer Apparatus used to sterilize medical de­vices, equipment, or supplies by direct exposure to the sterilizing agent.
  • Sterilizer -  a device for heating substances above their boiling point; used to manufacture chemicals or to sterilize surgical instruments
  • Strain – A specific subset of bacteria. For example, Escherichia is the genus, coli is the species, and O157:H7 is the serotype (strain).
  • Streptococci -  spherical Gram-positive bacteria occurring in pairs or chains; cause e.g. scarlet fever and tonsillitis
  • Streptomyces -  aerobic bacteria (some of which produce the antibiotic streptomycin)
  • Subacute bacterial endocarditis -  a chronic bacterial infection of the endocardium and heart valves; symptoms develop slowly
  • Subdivision -  the act of subdividing; division of something previously divided; an area composed of subdivided lots; a section of a section; a part of a part; i.e., a part of something already divided; a self-contained part of a larger composition (written or musical); an administrative division of some larger or more complex organization
  • Sucrose -  a complex carbohydrate found in many plants and used as a sweetening agent
  • Sulfate -  a salt or ester of sulphuric acid; verb convert into a sulfate
  • Sulfide -  a compound of sulphur and some other element that is more electropositive
  • Sulfur -  an abundant tasteless odorless multivalent nonmetallic element; best known in yellow crystals; occurs in many sulphide and sulphate minerals and even in native form (especially in volcanic regions); verb treat with sulphur in order to preserve
  • Sup -  a small amount of liquid food; verb take solid or liquid food into the mouth a little at a time either by drinking or by eating with a spoon
  • Superinfection -  infection that occurs while you are being treated for another infection
  • Superoxide -  the univalent anion O2-; a metallic oxide containing the univalent anion O2-
  • Surfactant Agent that reduces the surface tension of water or the tension at the interface between water and another liquid; a wetting agent found in many sterilants and disinfectants.
  • Surfactant -  a substance capable of reducing the surface tension of a liquid in which it is dissolved
  • Sweden -  a Scandinavian kingdom in the eastern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula
  • Synergism -  the theological doctrine that salvation results from the interaction of human will and divine grace; the working together of two things (muscles or drugs for example) to produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects
  • TAT -  a projective technique using black-and-white pictures; subjects tell a story about each picture; tastelessness by virtue of being cheap and vulgar; verb make lacework by knotting or looping
  • TCE -  a heavy colorless highly toxic liquid used as a solvent to clean electronic components and for dry cleaning and as a fumigant; causes cancer and liver and lung damage
  • TRAP -  a device in which something (usually an animal) can be caught and penned; a light two-wheeled carriage; a device to hurl clay pigeons into the air for trapshooters; drain consisting of a U-shaped section of drainpipe that holds liquid and so prevents a return flow of sewer gas; informal terms for the mouth; something (often something deceptively attractive) that catches you unawares; the act of concealing yourself and lying in wait to attack by surprise; a hazard on a golf course; verb to hold fast or prevent from moving; catch in or as if in a trap; hold or catch as if in a trap; place in a confining or embarrassing position
  • TRNA -  RNA molecules present in the cell (in at least 20 varieties, each variety capable of combining with a specific amino acid) that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell (according to directions coded in the mRNA)
  • Tabletop steam sterilizer A compact gravity-displacement steam sterilizer that has a chamber volume of not more than 2 cubic feet and that generates its own steam when distilled or deionized water is added.
  • Taiwan -  an island in southeastern Asia 100 miles off the coast of mainland China in the South China Sea; a government on the island of Taiwan established in 1949 by Chiang Kai-shek after the conquest of mainland China by the communists led by Mao Zedong
  • Tau -  the 19th letter of the Greek alphabet
  • Taurine -  of or relating to or resembling a bull;  a colorless crystalline substance obtained from the bile of mammals
  • Taxon -  animal or plant group having natural relations
  • Temperature -  the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity); the somatic sensation of cold or heat
  • Terbinafine -  an oral antifungal drug (trade name Lamisil) used to treat cases of fungal nail disease
  • Terminator -  someone who exterminates (especially someone whose occupation is the extermination of troublesome rodents and insects)
  • Tetanus -  a sustained muscular contraction resulting from a rapid series of nerve impulses; an acute and serious infection of the central nervous system caused by bacterial infection of open wounds; spasms of the jaw and laryngeal muscles may occur during the late stages
  • Tetrodotoxin -  a powerful neurotoxin found in the ovaries of pufferfish
  • Thailand -  a country of southeastern Asia that extends southward along the Isthmus of Kra to the Malay peninsula
  • The Netherlands -  a constitutional monarchy in western Europe on the North Sea; half the country lies below sea level
  • Thermobocytopenia – An abnormal drop in the number of blood cells, called platelets, that are involved in forming blood clots.
  • Thermotolerant – Bacteria that can withstand higher-than-normal temperatures.
  • Thiabendazole -  an antifungal agent and anthelmintic
  • Thrombocytopenia -  a blood disease characterized by an abnormally small number of platelets in the blood
  • Time-weighted average (TWA) An average of all the concentrations of a chemical to which a worker has been exposed during a specific sampling time, reported as an average over the sampling time. For example, the permissible exposure limit for ethylene oxide is 1 ppm as an 8-hour TWA. Exposures above the ppm limit are permitted if they are compensated for by equal or longer exposures below the limit during the 8-hour workday as long as they do not exceed the ceiling limit; short-term exposure limit; or, in the case of ethylene oxide, excursion limit of 5 ppm averaged over a 15-minute sampling period.
  • Tinea barbae -  fungal infection of the face and neck
  • Tinea cruris -  fungal infection of the groin (most common in men)
  • Tinea pedis -  fungal infection of the feet
  • Tinea unguium -  fungal infection of the nails (especially toenails)
  • Toxin (enterotoxin, mycotoxin, neurotoxin) – A compound produced by a bacterium or fungi (molds and yeasts) that can cause illness in other living organisms. Specific examples include enterotoxins which affect the intestine, mycotoxins (toxins produced by fungi), and neurotoxins that attack the nervous system.
  • Transdermal synergists – Compounds that work with other compounds against bacteria when applied to the surface of a carcass.
  • Transposition -  (music) playing in a different key from the key intended; moving the pitch of a piece of music upwards or downwards; the act of reversing the order or place of; (electricity) a rearrangement of the relative positions of power lines in order to minimize the effects of mutual capacitance and inductance; (mathematics) the transfer of a quantity from one side of an equation to the other along with a change of sign; (genetics) a kind of mutation in which a chromosomal segment is transfered to a new position on the same or another chromosome; any abnormal position of the organs of the body; an event in which one thing is substituted for another
  • Treatment – The method of processing that is being tested. A good research study will compare various treatments, such as levels of salt in a product, to a control. In this example, the control may be no salt added. All other conditions should remain the same for all samples tested, except the specific treatment.
  • Trench foot -  resembling frostbite but without freezing; resulting from exposure to cold and wet
  • Trichinella spiralis -  parasitic nematode occurring in the intestines of pigs and rats and human beings and producing larvae that form cysts in skeletal muscles
  • Trichuriasis -  infestation by a roundworm; common in tropical areas with poor sanitation
  • Tropism -  an involuntary orienting response; positive or negative reaction to a stimulus source
  • Tuberculocide An EPA-classified hospital disinfectant that also kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tubercle bacilli). EPA has registered approximately 200 tuberculocides. Such agents also are called mycobactericides.
  • Typhoid fever -  serious infection marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration; caused by Salmonella typhosa ingested with food or water
  • UK -  a monarchy in northwestern Europe occupying most of the British Isles; divided into England and Scotland and Wales and Northern Ireland
  • UR -  an ancient city of Sumer located on a former channel of the Euphrates River
  • Ukraine -  a republic in southeastern Europe; formerly a European soviet; the center of the original Russian state which came into existence in the ninth century
  • Ultraviolet radiation -  radiation lying in the ultraviolet range; wave lengths shorter than light but longer than X rays
  • United Kingdom -  a monarchy in northwestern Europe occupying most of the British Isles; divided into England and Scotland and Wales and Northern Ireland
  • United States -  North American republic containing 50 states - 48 conterminous states in North America plus Alaska in northwest North America and the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean; achieved independence in 1776; the executive and legislative and judicial branches of the federal government of the United States
  • Urea -  the chief solid component of mammalian urine; synthesized from ammonia and carbon dioxide and used as fertilizer and in animal feed and in plastics
  • Use-life The length of time a diluted product can remain active and effective. The stability of the chemical and the storage conditions (e.g., temperature and presence of air, light, organic matter, or metals) determine the use-life of antimicrobial products.
  • Uveitis -  inflammation of the uvea of the eye
  • Variolation -  the obsolete process of inoculating a susceptible person with material taken from a vesicle of a person who has smallpox
  • Vegetative bacteria Bacteria that are devoid of spores and usually can be readily inactivated by many types of germicides.
  • Vegetative cell – The normal bacteria cell. This is in contrast to a spore. Vegetative cells are susceptible to destruction or damage from heat, additives, and other factors that can damage and destroy them relatively easily.
  • Virion -  (virology) a complete viral particle; nucleic acid and capsid (and a lipid envelope in some viruses)
  • Virucide An agent that kills viruses to make them noninfective.
  • Virucide -  an agent (physical or chemical) that inactivates or destroys viruses
  • Virulent -  infectious; having the ability to cause disease; harsh or corrosive in tone; extremely poisonous or injurious; producing venom
  • WEE -  very early; (used informally) very small;  a short time; verb eliminate urine
  • Water -  a fluid necessary for the life of most animals and plants; binary compound that occurs at room temperature as a clear colorless odorless tasteless liquid; freezes into ice below 0 degrees centigrade and boils above 100 degrees centigrade; widely used as a solvent; once thought to be one of four elements composing the universe (Empedocles); a facility that provides a source of water; the part of the earth's surface covered with water (such as a river or lake or ocean); liquid excretory product; verb secrete or form water, as tears or saliva; supply with water, as with channels or ditches or streams; fill with tears; provide with water
  • Xenotransplantation -  a surgical procedure in which tissue or whole organs are transfered from one species to another species
  • Xerostomia -  abnormal dryness of the mouth resulting from decreased secretion of saliva
  • Xylem -  the woody part of plants: the supporting and water-conducting tissue, consisting primarily of tracheids and vessels
  • Yellow fever -  caused by a flavivirus transmitted by a mosquito
  • Zidovudine -  an antiviral drug (trade name Retrovir) used in the treatment of AIDS; adverse side effects include liver damage and suppression of the bone marrow
  • Zoonosis -  an animal disease that can be transmitted to humans
  • Zoster -  eruptions along a nerve path often accompanied by severe neuralgia
  • Zygomycota -  division of fungi having sexually produced zygospores
  • abiotic factors non-living factors that can affect life, like soil, nutrients, climate, wind etc.
  • abortive -  failing to accomplish an intended result
  • absorption field an organized system of meticulously constructed narrow trenches, which are partially filled with washed gravel or crushed stone, into which a pipe is placed. Discharges from septic tanks are passed through these trenches.
  • absorption -  (chemistry) a process in which one substance permeates another; a fluid permeates or is dissolved by a liquid or solid; (physics) the process in which incident radiated energy is retained without reflection or transmission on passing through a medium; the mental state of being preoccupied by something; complete attention; intense mental effort; the process of absorbing nutrients into the body after digestion; the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another
  • acclimation -  adaptation to a new climate (a new temperature or altitude or environment)
  • acetogenic bacterium an aerobic, gram negative bacteria, that is rod-shaped, which is made of non-sporogenous organisms that produce acetic acid as a waste product.
  • acetylene block assay determines the release of nitrous oxide gas from acetylene treated soil, which is used to estimate denitrification.
  • acetylene reduction assay this is used to estimate nitrogenase activity by measuring the rate of reduction of ethylene to acetylene.
  • acid soil soil which has a ph value lesser than six point six
  • acid -  having the characteristics of an acid; harsh or corrosive in tone; being sour to the taste;  street name for lysergic acid diethylamide; any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt
  • acidophile an organism that grows well in an acidic medium.
  • acidophilic -  especially of some bacteria; growing well in an acid medium
  • acquired -  gotten through environmental forces
  • acquisition -  the act of contracting or assuming or acquiring possession of something; something acquired; an ability that has been acquired by training; the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge
  • actinomycete these are gram positive, nonmotile, nonsporing, noncapsulated filaments that break into bacillary and coccoid elements. They resemble fungi, and most are free living, particularly in soil.
  • actinorhizae the association present between actinomycetes and roots of plants.
  • activated sludge sludge particles which are produced in raw or settled wastewater, by the growth of organisms in aeration tanks. This is all done in the presence of dissolved oxygen. This sludge contains living organisms that can feed on incoming wastewater
  • activation energy the amount of energy required to bring all molecules in one mole of a substance, to their reactive state, at a given temperature
  • activation -  making active and effective (as a bomb); stimulation of activity in an organism or chemical; the activity of causing to have energy and be active
  • active carrier an infected person who has visible clinical symptoms of a disease, and is capable of transmitting the disease to other individuals.
  • active site the location on the surface of the enzyme where the substrate binds.
  • active transport -  transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient; requires an expenditure of energy
  • activity -  any specific behavior; (chemistry) the capacity of a substance to take part in a chemical reaction; the trait of being active; moving or acting rapidly and energetically; an organic process that takes place in the body; a process existing in or produced by nature (rather than by the intent of human beings); the state of being active
  • acts -  a New Testament book describing the development of the early church from Christ's Ascension to Paul's sojourn at Rome
  • adaptation -  (physiology) the responsive adjustment of a sense organ (as the eye) to varying conditions (as of light); a written work (as a novel) that has been recast in a new form; the process of adapting to something (such as environmental conditions)
  • adaptive -  having a capacity for adaptation
  • adjuvant the material added to an antigen to increase its immunogenicity, for example, alum
  • administration -  the act of administering medication; a method of tending to (especially business) matters; the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something; the tenure of a president
  • adsorption -  the accumulation of molecules of a gas to form a thin film on the surface of a solid
  • aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis photosynthetic process which takes place under aerobic conditions, but which does not result in the formation of oxygen.
  • aerobic this includes organisms that require molecular oxygen to survive (aerobic organisms), an environment that has molecular oxygen, and processes that happen only in the presence of oxygen (aerobic respiration).
  • aerobic -  depending on free oxygen or air; based on or using the principles of aerobics; enhancing respiratory and circulatory efficiency
  • aerotolerant anaerobes microbes that can survive in both, aerobic and anaerobic conditions, because they obtain their energy by fermentation.
  • aflatoxin a toxin produced by aspergillus flavus and aspergillus parasiticus, which contaminate groundnut seedlings. This is said to be a cause of hepatic carcinoma.
  • agar a dried hydrophilic, colloidal substance extracted from red algae species, used as a solid culture media for bacteria and other micro-organisms. Also used as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis
  • agarose agarose is obtained from seaweed and is used as a resolving medium in electrophoresis. It consists of non-sulfated linear polymer, which contains d-galactose and :-anhydro-l-galactose alternately.
  • agglutinates the visible clumps that are formed as a result of an agglutination reaction.
  • agglutination reaction the process of clumping together, in suspension of antigen bearing cells, micro-organisms, or particles in the presence of specific antibodies called agglutinins. This leads to the formation of an insoluble immune complex.
  • aggregative -  gathered or tending to gather into a mass or whole
  • agricultural -  relating to or used in or promoting agriculture or farming; relating to rural matters
  • airborne transmission a type of transmission, wherein the organism is suspended in or spreads its infection by air.
  • akinete a resting non-motile, dormant, thick-walled spore state of cyanobacteria and algae
  • alcoholic beverage -  a liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent
  • alcoholic fermentation a fermentation process that produces alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide from sugars.
  • alga phototrophic eukaryotic micro-organisms, that maybe unicellular or multicellular. These include phaeophyta: brown algae, spirogyra and red algae.
  • algal -  of or relating to alga
  • aliphatic pertaining to any member of one of the two major groups of organic compounds, with the main carbon structure as a straight chain
  • alkaline soil soil having ph greater than ..
  • alkaline -  relating to or containing an alkali; having a pH greater than 7
  • alkalophile organisms that have an affinity for alkaline media, thus, growing best in such conditions
  • allochthonous flora organisms that are not originally found in soil, but reach there by precipitation, sewage, diseased tissue and other such means. They do not contribute much ecologically.
  • allosteric site a non-active site on the enzyme body, where a non-substrate compound binds. This may result in conformational changes at the active site.
  • allotype any of various allelic variants of a protein, characterized by antigenic differences.
  • alpha hemolysis a partial clearing zone, greenish in color, around a bacterial colony that grows on blood agar.
  • alpha-proteobacteria one of the five sub-groups of proteobacteria, each with distinctive s rrna sequences. Mostly contains oligotrophic proteobacteria, many of which have distinctive morphological features.
  • altered -  changed in form or character without becoming something else; having testicles or ovaries removed; changed in order to improve or made more fit for a particular purpose
  • alternative complement pathway a pathway of complement activation, including the c-c components of the classical pathway. It is independent of antibody activity.
  • alternative -  necessitating a choice between mutually exclusive possibilities; pertaining to unconventional choices; allowing a choice;  one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen
  • alveolar macrophage a highly active and aggressive phagocytic macrophage, located on the epithelial lining of the lung alveoli, which ingests and destroys any inhaled particles and micro-organisms.
  • amensalism (antagonism) a type of symbiosis, wherein one population is adversely affected, while the other is unaffected
  • ames test a test that uses a special strain of salmonella to test chemicals for mutagenicity and carcinogenicity
  • amino acid activation the first stage of synthesis of proteins, where the amino acid is attached to transfer rna.
  • amino group the monovalent radical nh, attached to a carbon skeleton, as seen in amines and amino acids.
  • aminoacyl or acceptor site (a site) the site on the ribosome that contains an aminoacyl-trna at the beginning of the elongation cycle during protein synthesis.
  • ammonia oxidation a test which is conducted during manufacturing process, to evaluate ammonia oxidation rate for nitrifiers.
  • ammonification liberation of ammonia by micro-organisms acting on organic nitrogenous compounds
  • ammonification -  impregnation with ammonia or a compound of ammonia
  • amoeba a minute protozoan, occurring as a single cell with a nucleus, that changes shape by extruding its cytoplasm, leading to the formation of pseudopodia, by means of which it absorbs food and moves
  • amoeboid movement movement by means of extrusions of the cytoplasm, leading to formation of foot-like processes called pseudopodia.
  • amphibolic pathways metabolic pathways that function both anabolically, as well as catabolically.
  • amphitrichous a cell which has a single flagellum at each end
  • amphotericin b an antibiotic derived from streptomyces nodosus which is effective against many species of fungi and certain species of leishmania.
  • amplification -  (electronics) the act of increasing voltage or power or current; addition of extra material or illustration or clarifying detail; the amount of increase in signal power or voltage or current expressed as the ratio of output to input
  • amyloid -  resembling starch;  (pathology) a waxy translucent complex protein resembling starch that results from degeneration of tissue; a non-nitrogenous food substance consisting chiefly of starch; any substance resembling starch
  • anaerobic refers to organisms that survive in the absence of oxygen (anearobic organisms), the absence of molecular oxygen, processes occurring in the absence of oxygen like anearobic respiration.
  • anaerobic -  living or active in the absence of free oxygen; not aerobic
  • analysis -  an investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole; the abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations; a branch of mathematics involving calculus and the theory of limits; sequences and series and integration and differentiation; a form of literary criticism in which the structure of a piece of writing is analyzed; the use of closed-class words instead of inflections: e.g., `the father of the bride' instead of `the bride's father'; a set of techniques for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various mental disorders; based on the theories of Sigmund Freud
  • anamorph a stage of fungal reproduction, where cells are asexually formed by the process of mitosis.
  • anaplerotic reactions reactions that help replenish intermediates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle when their reserves are depleted.
  • anergy decreased responsiveness to antigens, to the extent that there is an inability to react to substances that are expected to be antigenic
  • anion exchange capacity total exchangeable anions that a soil can adsorb. The unit used to express the amount is in centimoles of negative charge per kilogram of soil.
  • annotation the process of determining the exact location of specific genes in a genome map
  • annotation -  the act of adding notes; a comment or instruction (usually added)
  • anoxic a condition or state which is devoid of oxygen.
  • anoxygenic photosynthesis a type of photosynthesis where oxygen is not produced. This phenomenon is seen in green and purple bacteria.
  • antagonist a drug that binds to a hormone, neurotransmitter, or another drug, thus, blocking the action of the other substance.
  • antagonistic -  incapable of harmonious association; used especially of drugs or muscles that counteract or neutralize each other's effect; arousing animosity or hostility; characterized by antagonism or antipathy; indicating opposition or resistance
  • antenna -  one of a pair of mobile appendages on the head of e.g. insects and crustaceans; typically sensitive to touch and taste; an electrical device that sends or receives radio or television signals; sensitivity similar to that of a receptor organ
  • antheridium the male gametangium found in phylum oomycota (kingdom stramenopila) and phylum ascomyta (kingdom fungi)
  • anthrax an often fatal and infectious disease, caused by ingestion or inhalation of spores of bacillus anthracis, which are normally found in soil. It is acquired by humans through contaminated wool or animal products or by inhalation of airborne spores
  • anthropogenic something that is derived from human activities.
  • anthropogenic -  of or relating to the study of the origins and development of human beings
  • antibiosis lysis of an organism brought about by metabolic products of the antagonist. This can be caused by enzymes, lytic agents or other toxic compounds
  • antibiotic a chemical substance produced by a microorganism, which has the capacity to inhibit the growth of, or kill other micro-organisms
  • antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (adcc) a type of reaction wherein, cells with fc receptors that recognize the fc region of the bound antibody, kill the antibody-coated target cells.
  • antibody an immunoglobulin molecule that reacts with a specific antigen that induced its synthesis and with molecules that have a similar structure
  • anticodon triplet a triplet of nucleotides in transfer rna that is complementary to the codon in messenger rna.
  • antifungal -  capable of destroying fungi;  any agent that destroys or prevents the growth of fungi
  • antigen any substance capable of instigating the immune system into action, inciting a specific immune response and of reacting with the products of that response.
  • antimetabolite a substance that interferes with a specific metabolic pathway, by inhibiting a key enzyme, due its resemblance with the normal enzyme substrate.
  • antimicrobial agent an agent that has the capacity to kill or inhibit the growth of micro-organisms
  • antimicrobial -  capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of disease-causing microorganisms;  an agent (as heat or radiation or a chemical) that destroys microorganisms that might carry disease
  • antisense rna one of the strands of a double-stranded molecule, which does not directly encode the product, but is complementary to it, thus, inhibiting its activity.
  • antiseptic a substance that inhibits the growth and development of micro-organisms, but does not necessarily kill them.
  • antiviral -  inhibiting or stopping the growth and reproduction of viruses;  any drug that destroys viruses
  • aplanospore a spore that is formed during asexual reproduction, which is nonflagellated and nonmotile.
  • apoenzyme a protein part of an enzyme that is separable from the prosthetic group (the coenzyme).
  • apoptosis a pattern of cell death which is often called 'programmed death' or 'suicide of cells', wherein the cell breaks up into fragments, which are membrane bound. These fragments are then eliminated by phagocytosis. This is a protective mechanism, by which the cell prevents spread of infection to other cells by sacrificing itself.
  • aporepressor a product of regulator genes, that combines with the corepressor to form the complete repressor.
  • appropriateness -  the quality of being specially suitable; appropriate conduct; doing the right thing
  • arbuscule special structure formed in the root cortical cells by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The structure formed resembles a tree.
  • archaic -  little evolved from or characteristic of an earlier ancestral type; so extremely old as seeming to belong to an earlier period
  • architecture -  the profession of designing buildings and environments with consideration for their esthetic effect; an architectural product or work; the discipline dealing with the principles of design and construction and ornamentation of fine buildings; (computer science) the structure and organization of a computer's hardware or system software
  • artificial -  artificially formal; contrived by art rather than nature; not arising from natural growth or characterized by vital processes
  • artificially acquired passive immunity a type of temporary immunity that results from the introduction of antibodies produced by another organism or by in vitro methods, into the body.
  • aseptic technique procedures that are performed under strict sterile conditions. These procedures maybe laboratory procedures such as microbiological cultures.
  • aseptic -  free of or using methods to keep free of pathological microorganisms
  • assembly -  the social act of assembling; a group of machine parts that fit together to form a self-contained unit; a group of persons gathered together for a common purpose; the act of constructing something (as a piece of machinery); a public facility to meet for open discussion
  • assimilatory nitrate reduction reduction of nitrate to compounds like ammonium, for the synthesis of amino acids and proteins.
  • associative dinitrogen fixation an enhanced rate of dinitrogen fixation, brought about by a close relationship between free-living diazotrophic organisms and a higher plant.
  • associative symbiosis interaction between two dissimilar organisms or biological systems, which is normally mutually beneficial.
  • associative -  characterized by or causing or resulting from the process of bringing ideas or events together in memory or imagination
  • attachment -  the act of attaching or affixing something; faithful support for a religion or cause or political party; a supplementary part or accessory; a connection that fastens things together; a writ authorizing the seizure of property that may be needed for the payment of a judgment in a judicial proceeding; a feeling of affection for a person or an institution; the act of fastening things together
  • autogenous infection an infection which occurs due to the microbiota of the patient himself.
  • autoimmune disease a disease where the target is the body's own tissues, that is, there is attacking of self-antigens.
  • autoimmunity a condition where a specific humoral or cell mediated immune response is initiated against the constituents of the body's own tissues. It normally leads to hypersesitivity reactions, and if it persists, can even escalate to an autoimmune disease.
  • autolysins a lysin that originates in an organism, which is capable of destroying its own cells and tissues.
  • automation -  the act of implementing the control of equipment with advanced technology; usually involving electronic hardware; equipment used to achieve automatic control or operation; the condition of being automatically operated or controlled
  • autoradiography making a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording the radiation emitted by it on a photographic plate. The radiation is emitted by radioactive material within the object or tissue.
  • autoregulation -  (physiology) processes that maintain a generally constant physiological state in a cell or organism
  • autotrophic nitrification the combined nitrification action of two autotrophic organisms, one converting ammonium to nitrite and the other oxidizing nitrite to nitrate.
  • auxotroph a mutated type of organism that requires specific organic growth factors, in addition to the carbon source present in a minimal medium.
  • aw (Water activity) – The measure of free water in the environment that is available for use by bacterial cells.
  • axenic pure cultures of micro-organisms, that is, which are not contaminated by any foreign organisms.
  • axial filament found in spirochetes, it is the organ of motility.
  • b-cell (b lymphocyte) bursa-dependent lymphocytes which are precursors of antibody-producing cells (plasma cells) and the cells primarily responsible for humoral immunity.
  • b-cell antigen receptor (bcr) the membrane which is formed of membrane immunoglobulin or surface immunoglobulin, which allows a b-cell to detect, when a specific antigen is present in the body, and triggers b-cell activation.
  • background -  (computer science) the area of the screen in graphical user interfaces against which icons and windows appear; a person's social heritage: previous experience or training; information that is essential to understanding a situation or problem; the part of a scene (or picture) that lies behind objects in the foreground; relatively unimportant or inconspicuous accompanying situation; extraneous signals that can be confused with the phenomenon to be observed or measured; scenery hung at back of stage; the state of the environment in which a situation exists; verb understate the importance or quality of
  • bacteremia presence of bacteria in the blood.
  • bacteremia -  transient presence of bacteria (or other microorganisms) in the blood
  • bacteria a domain that contains prokaryotic cells that are not multicellular. Read more on bacteria.
  • bacteria -  (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants
  • bacterial artificial chromosome a cloning vector that is derived from e. Coli, which is used to clone foreign dna fragments in e. Coli.
  • bacterial photosynthesis a mode of metabolism, which is light-dependent and where carbon dioxide is reduced to glucose, which is used for energy production and biosynthesis. It is an anaerobic reaction.
  • bacterial -  relating to or caused by bacteria
  • bactericide a substance that kills bacteria
  • bacteriochlorophyll a light absorbing pigment found in phototrophic bacteria, like green sulfur and purple sulfur bacteria.
  • bacteriocin substances that are produced by bacteria which kill other strains of bacteria by inducing a metabolic block.
  • bacteriorhodopsin a protein involved in light mediated atp synthesis, which contains retinal. It is one of the main characteristics of archaebacteria.
  • bacteriostatic an agent that inhibits the growth or multiplication of bacteria, but does not kill them.
  • bacteroid a genus of bacteroides, these are gram negative, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria which are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, urogenital and intestinal cavities of animals and humans.
  • baeocytes reproductive cells formed by cyanobacteria through multiple fission. They are small and spherical in shape.
  • balanced growth microbial growth where all cellular constituents are synthesized at constant rates, in relation to each other.
  • barophile an organism that thrives in conditions of high hydrostatic pressure.
  • barotolerant an organism that can tolerate high hydrostatic pressure, although it will grow better under normal pressure.
  • basal body a cylindrical structure that attaches the flagella to the cell body at the base of prokaryotic or eukaryotic organisms.
  • basal medium a basal medium allows the growth of many types of micro-organisms which do not require special nutrient supplements.
  • base composition the proportion of total bases consisting of guanine plus cytosine or thymine plus adenine base pairs.
  • base -  debased; not genuine; illegitimate; having or showing an ignoble lack of honor or morality; of low birth or station (`base' is archaic in this sense); not adhering to ethical or moral principles; (used of metals) consisting of or alloyed with inferior metal; serving as or forming a base;  a support or foundation; place that runner must touch before scoring; (electronics) the part of a transistor that separates the emitter from the collector; installation from which a military force initiates operations; a flat bottom on which something is intended to sit; the principal ingredient of a mixture; the place where you are stationed and from which missions start and end; (anatomy) the part of an organ nearest its point of attachment; the bottom or lowest part; (numeration system) the positive integer that is equivalent to one in the next higher counting place; the bottom side of a geometric figure from which the altitude can be constructed; any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water; lowest support of a structure; the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area; the fundamental assumptions from which something is begun or developed or calculated or explained; (linguistics) the form of a word after all affixes are removed; a lower limit; a terrorist network intensely opposed to the United States that dispenses money and logistical support and training to a wide variety of radical Islamic terrorist groups; has cells in more than 50 countries; the most important or necessary part of something; verb use as a basis for; found on; assign to a station; use (purified cocaine) by burning it and inhaling the fumes
  • basidioma fruiting body that produces the basidia.
  • basidiospore the sexual spore of the basidiomycotina, which is formed on the basidium.
  • batch culture a culture of micro-organisms which is obtained by inoculating a dish containing a single batch of medium.
  • batch process a treatment procedure wherein, a tank or reactor is filled, the solution is treated, and the tank is emptied. Batch processes are mostly used to cleanse, stabilize, or condition chemical solutions for use in industries.
  • bending -  not remaining rigid or straight;  the act of bending something; movement that causes the formation of a curve; the property of being bent or deflected
  • benthic zone the ecological region at the lowest level of a water body, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.
  • beta hemolysis a clear zone seen around a bacterial colony growing on blood agar.
  • binding -  causing constipation; hindering freedom of movement; executed with proper legal authority;  the protective covering on the front, back, and spine of a book; strip sewn over or along an edge for reinforcement or decoration; the capacity to attract and hold something; the act of applying a bandage
  • bio-tower a tower filled with a media similar to a rachet or plastic rings, where air and water are forced up the tower by a counterflow movement. It is an attached culture system.
  • bioaccumulation intracellular accumulation of chemical substances in living tissue.
  • bioaugmentation addition to the micro-organism's environment that can metabolize and grow on specific organic compounds.
  • bioavailability the extent to which a drug or other substance becomes available to the target tissue after administration.
  • biochemical oxygen demand the amount of dissolved oxygen consumed in five days by biological processes breaking down organic matter. It is a test that measures the oxygen consumed (in mg/l) over five days at degrees celsius.
  • biochemistry -  the organic chemistry of compounds and processes occuring in organisms; the effort to understand biology within the context of chemistry
  • biodegradable the property by which a substance is capable of being degraded by biological processes, like bacterial or enzymatic action.
  • biodegradation the process of breakdown of substances by chemical reactions, thus rendering these substances less harmful to the environment.
  • biodiversity -  the diversity of plant and animal life in a particular habitat (or in the world as a whole)
  • bioengineering -  the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments
  • biogenesis -  the production of living organisms from other living organisms; production of a chemical compound by a living organism
  • bioinsecticide a pathogen (either bacteria, virus or fungi) used to kill or inhibit the activity of unwanted insect pests.
  • biological process -  a process occurring in living organisms
  • biological weapon -  any weapon usable in biological warfare
  • bioluminescence the production of light in living organisms by the enzyme luciferase.
  • bioluminescent -  (of living organisms) emitting light
  • biomagnification increase in the concentration of a chemical substance, as its position progresses in the food chain.
  • biostimulation a process which helps catalyze the activity of micro-organisms involved in biodegradation
  • biosynthesis production of cellular constituents from simpler compounds.
  • biosynthesis -  production of a chemical compound by a living organism
  • biotransformation the chemical alterations of a drug, occurring in the body, due to enzymatic activity.
  • biotrophic close associations seen between two different organisms, that work mutually to benefit each other.
  • bioventing a procedure where the subsurface is aerated to enhance biological activity of naturally occurring micro-organisms in the soil.
  • black -  marked by anger or resentment or hostility; of or belonging to a racial group having dark skin especially of sub-Saharan African origin; extremely dark; being of the achromatic color of maximum darkness; having little or no hue owing to absorption of almost all incident light; (of the face) made black especially as with suffused blood; soiled with dirt or soot; dressed in black; (of coffee) without cream or sugar; (of events) having extremely unfortunate or dire consequences; bringing ruin; stemming from evil characteristics or forces; wicked or dishonorable; (used of conduct or character) deserving or bringing disgrace or shame; offering little or no hope; (of intelligence operations) deliberately misleading; harshly ironic or sinister; distributed or sold illicitly;  black clothing (worn as a sign of mourning); (board games) the darker pieces; the quality or state of the achromatic color of least lightness (bearing the least resemblance to white); a person with dark skin who comes from Africa (or whose ancestors came from Africa); popular child actress of the 1930's (born in 1928); British chemist who identified carbon dioxide and who formulated the concepts of specific heat and latent heat (1728-1799); total absence of light; verb make or become black
  • blastomycosis an infection caused due to blastomyces dermatitidis, it predominantly affects skin, lungs and bones.
  • bone -  consisting of or made up of bone;  a shade of white the color of bleached bones; rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates; the porous calcified substance from which bones are made; verb remove the bones from; study intensively, as before an exam
  • botulinum -  anaerobic bacterium producing botulin the toxin that causes botulism
  • burst size the number of phages ejected by a host cell over the course of its lytic life cycle.
  • butanediol fermentation a kind of fermentation found in enterobacteriaceae family, where ,-butanediol is a major product.
  • capsid the outer proteinaceous coat of a virus.
  • capsomere a protein sub-unit of the capsid of a virus.
  • carbon cycle the cycle where carbon-dioxide is taken in and converted to organic compunds by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis, after which it is partially incorporated into sediments, and then returned to the atmosphere by respiration or combustion
  • carbon fixation conversion of carbon-dioxide and other single carbon compounds to organic compunds such as carbohydrates.
  • carbon-nitrogen (c/n) ratio ratio of carbon mass to nitrogen mass in soil or other organic material.
  • carboxyl group the -cooh group found attached to the main carbon skeleton in certain compounds, like carboxylic acids and fatty acids.
  • carboxysomes polyhedral cell inclusions which form the key enzyme of the calvin cycle.
  • carcinogen an often mutated substance which is implicated as one of the causing agents of cancer.
  • casein -  a milk protein used in making e.g. plastics and adhesives; a water-base paint made with a protein precipitated from milk
  • catabolism a process by which complex substances are broken down into simpler compounds, often accompanied by the release of energy.
  • catabolite repression transcription-level inhibition of inducible enzymes by glucose, or other easily available carbon sources.
  • catalysis -  acceleration of a chemical reaction induced the presence of material that is chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction
  • cell division -  the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells
  • cell membrane -  a thin membrane (a double layer of lipids) enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell; proteins in the membrane control passage of ions (like sodium or potassium or calcium) in and out of the cell
  • cell-mediated immunity immunity resulting from destruction of foreign organisms and infected cells by the active action of t-lymphocytes on them. It can be acquired by individuals by the transfer of cells.
  • cellular slime molds slime molds with a vegetative phase containing amoeboid cells that come together to form a pseudoplasmodium.
  • cellular -  characterized by or divided into or containing cells or compartments (the smallest organizational or structural unit of an organism or organization); relating to cells
  • cellulitis a diffused inflammation of the soft or connective tissue, in which a thin and watery exudate spreads through tissue spaces, often leading to ulceration and abscess formation.
  • cephalosporin a group of broad-spectrum, penicillinase resistant antibiotics, derived from cephalosporium. Read more on different types of antibiotics.
  • cereus -  genus of much-branched treelike or shrubby cacti with proced ribs and rounded needlelike spines and nocturnal flowers usually white
  • cesarian section -  the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)
  • chaperonin heat shock proteins that oversee correct folding and assembly of polypeptides in bacteria, plasmids, eukaryotic, cytosol, and mitochondria.
  • characterization -  the act of describing distinctive characteristics or essential features; acting the part of a character on stage; dramatically representing the character by speech and action and gesture; a graphic or vivid verbal description
  • charged -  of a particle or body or system; having a net amount of positive or negative electric charge; fraught with great emotion; capable of producing violent emotion or arousing controversy; supplied with carbon dioxide
  • chelate a chemical compound in which a metallic ion is firmly bound into a ring within the chelating molecule. Chelates are used in metal poisoning.
  • chemical -  relating to or used in chemistry; of or made from or using substances produced by or used in reactions involving atomic or molecular changes;  produced by or used in a reaction involving changes in atoms or molecules
  • chemistry -  the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions; the way two individuals relate to each other
  • chemoautotroph organisms that obtain their enegry from the oxidation of inorganic chemicals and other carbon compounds.
  • chemoheterotroph organisms that obtain energy and carbon from the oxidation of organic compunds.
  • chemolithotroph living organisms that obtain their energy from oxidation of inorganic compunds, which act as electron donors.
  • chemoorganotroph organisms that obtain energy and electrons from the oxidation of organic compounds.
  • chemostat a continuously used culture device, controlled by limited amounts of nutrients and dilution rates.
  • chemotaxis movement of a motile organism under the influence of a chemical. It maybe attracted towards the chemical or maybe repulsed by it.
  • chemotrophs organisms that obtain their energy by the oxidation of chemical compounds.
  • chlamydospore a thick walled intercalary or terminal asexual spore which is not shed. It is formed by rounding up of a cell.
  • chloramphenicol -  an oral antibiotic (trade name Chloromycetin) used to treat serious infections (especially typhoid fever)
  • chlorophyll a -  a blue-black plant pigment having a blue-green alcohol solution; found in all higher plants
  • cholera -  an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
  • chromosome mapping -  (genetics) the process of locating genes on a chromosome
  • chromosome -  a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
  • chronic carrier an individual carrying a pathogen over an extended period of time.
  • chytrid a fungus belonging to the genus chytridomycota. It is spherical in shape and has rhizoids, which are short, thin filamentous branches, that resemble fine roots.
  • cilia minute hairlike extensions present on a cell surface, which move in a rhythmic manner.
  • ciliate a protozoan that moves with the help of cilia.
  • circular -  marked by or moving in a circle; having a circular shape; shaped like a ring;  an advertisement (usually printed on a page or in a leaflet) intended for wide distribution
  • clarification the process of purification of water, where suspended material in the water is removed. It can be done by using sedimentation, filtration or by the use of adsorbing chemicals like alum.
  • classification -  restriction imposed by the government on documents or weapons that are available only to certain authorized people; the basic cognitive process of arranging into classes or categories; a group of people or things arranged by class or category; the act of distributing things into classes or categories of the same type
  • clone cells which have descended from a single parent cell. Organisms having identical copies of dna structure, which is obtained by replication.
  • colonization establishment of an entire community of micro-organisms at a designated site.
  • colonization -  the act of colonizing; the establishment of colonies
  • colorless sulfur bacteria a group of nonphotosynthetic bacteria that oxidize sulfur compounds, thus deriving their energy by this process.
  • combinatorial biology the process of transfer of genetic material from one microorganism to another. Mostly used to synthesize products such as antibiotics. It is also used in genetic engineering.
  • cometabolism transformation of a substrate by a microorganism without deriving energy or nutrients from the substrate.
  • comparative -  having significance only in relation to something else; relating to or based on or involving comparison;  the comparative form of an adjective
  • compartmental -  divided up into compartments or categories
  • compatible -  able to exist and perform in harmonious or agreeable combination; capable of being used with or connected to other devices or components without modification; capable of forming a homogeneous mixture that neither separates nor is altered by chemical interaction; having similar disposition and tastes; (of a couple) existing together harmoniously
  • competence -  the quality of being adequately or well qualified physically and intellectually
  • competent the ability to take up dna.
  • competition -  the act of competing as for profit or a prize; a business relation in which two parties compete to gain customers; an occasion on which a winner is selected from among two or more contestants; the contestant you hope to defeat
  • complementary dna a dna copy of any rna molecule, like mrna or trna
  • complex viruses viruses with capsids that are neither icosahedral nor helical. They have a complicated symmetry.
  • complex -  complicated in structure; consisting of interconnected parts;  a conceptual whole made up of complicated and related parts; (psychoanalysis) a combination of emotions and impulses that have been rejected from awareness but still influence a person's behavior; a compound described in terms of the central atom to which other atoms are bound or coordinated; a whole structure (as a building) made up of interconnected or related structures
  • compliance -  happy friendly agreement; the act of submitting; usually surrendering power to another; acting according to certain accepted standards; a disposition or tendency to yield to the will of others
  • composite -  consisting of separate interconnected parts; of or relating to or belonging to the plant family Compositae;  considered the most highly evolved dicotyledonous plants, characterized by florets arranged in dense heads that resemble single flowers; a conceptual whole made up of complicated and related parts
  • composition -  something that is created by arranging several things to form a unified whole; the spatial property resulting from the arrangement of parts in relation to each other and to the whole; an essay (especially one written as an assignment); a mixture of ingredients; the act of creating written works; musical creation; the way in which someone or something is composed; art and technique of printing with movable type; a musical work that has been created
  • comprehensive -  including all or everything; broad in scope;  an intensive examination testing a student's proficiency in some special field of knowledge
  • computer program -  (computer science) a sequence of instructions that a computer can interpret and execute
  • computer software -  (computer science) written programs or procedures or rules and associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a computer system and that are stored in read/write memory
  • computerized -  stored, processed, analyzed, or generated by computer
  • concentration -  strengthening the amount of a substance in a unit amount of another substance (as of a solute in a mixture) by removing the other substance; bringing together military forces; (chemistry) the strength of a solution; number of molecules of a substance in a given volume (expressed as moles/cubic meter); the spatial property of being crowded together; complete attention; intense mental effort; increase in density; great and constant diligence and attention
  • condensation -  (psychoanalysis) an unconscious process whereby two ideas or images combine into a single symbol; especially in dreams; a shortened version of a written work; atmospheric moisture that has condensed because of cold; the process of changing from a gaseous to a liquid or solid state; the act of increasing the density of something; the process or result of becoming smaller or pressed together
  • conditional mutations mutations occurring only under certain specific conditions.
  • congenital -  present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development
  • conidiospore a thin-walled, asexual spore seen on hyphae which is not contained in sporangium.
  • conjugal -  of or relating to marriage or to the relationship between a wife and husband
  • conjugants mating partners that participate in conjugation, which is a type of sexual reproduction, seen in protozoans.
  • conjugation -  a class of verbs having the same inflectional forms; the complete set of inflected forms of a verb; the inflection of verbs; the act of making or becoming a single unit; the act of pairing a male and female for reproductive purposes; the state of being joined together
  • conjugative plasmid a self transmissible plasmid, or a plasmid that can encode all functions required to bring about its conjugation.
  • consortium two or more members working together, where each organism benefits from the other, thus often performing functions that may not be possible to carry out individually.
  • constitutive enzyme enzymes synthesized in the cell, irrespective of the environmental conditions surrounding the cell.
  • consuming -  very intense
  • continued -  without stop or interruption
  • control -  the activity of managing or exerting control over something; (physiology) regulation or maintenance of a function or action or reflex etc; a mechanism that controls the operation of a machine; power to direct or determine; the economic policy of controlling or limiting or curbing prices or wages etc.; a spiritual agency that is assumed to assist the medium during a seance; a relation of constraint of one entity (thing or person or group) by another; discipline in personal and social activities; great skillfulness and knowledge of some subject or activity; a standard against which other conditions can be compared in a scientific experiment; the state that exists when one person or group has power over another; verb verify by using a duplicate register for comparison; exercise authoritative control or power over; lessen the intensity of; temper; hold in restraint; hold or keep within limits; verify or regulate by conducting a parallel experiment or comparing with another standard, of scientific experiments; have a firm understanding or knowledge of; be on top of; be careful or certain to do something; make certain of something; handle and cause to function; control (others or oneself) or influence skillfully, usually to one's advantage
  • conversion -  a spiritual enlightenment causing a person to lead a new life; a successful free throw or try for point after a touchdown; the act of changing from one use or function or purpose to another; act of exchanging one type of money or security for another; a change in the units or form of an expression: "conversion from Fahrenheit to Centigrade"; interchange of subject and predicate of a proposition; a change of religion; an event that results in a transformation; (psychiatry) a defense mechanism represses emotional conflicts which are then converted into physical symptoms that have no organic basis
  • cooperation -  the practice of cooperating; joint operation or action
  • coprophagy -  eating feces; in human a symptom of some kinds of insanity
  • core -  a bar of magnetic material (as soft iron) that passes through a coil and serves to increase the inductance of the coil; the chamber of a nuclear reactor containing the fissile material where the reaction takes place; a small group of indispensable persons or things; the center of an object; the central part of the Earth; a cylindrical sample of soil or rock obtained with a hollow drill; the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience; the central meaning or theme of a speech or literary work; an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality; verb remove the core or center from
  • cosmid a plasmid vector which can be packed in a phage capsid. It is useful for cloning large fragments of dna.
  • creation -  (theology) God's act of bringing the universe into existence; the human act of creating; an artifact that has been brought into existence by someone; the event that occurred at the beginning of something; the act of starting something for the first time; introducing something new; everything that exists anywhere
  • crowding -  a situation in which people or things are crowded together
  • cubic -  having three dimensions
  • culture -  the raising of plants or animals; (biology) the growing of microorganisms in a nutrient medium (such as gelatin or agar); the tastes in art and manners that are favored by a social group; the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization; a particular society at a particular time and place; all the knowledge and values shared by a society; a highly developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable quality
  • current -  occurring in or belonging to the present time;  a steady flow (usually from natural causes); a flow of electricity through a conductor; dominant course (suggestive of running water) of successive events or ideas
  • cutaneous -  relating to or existing on or affecting the skin
  • cyanobacterium a photosynthetic, nitrogen fixing bacteria which includes the blue-green bacteria.
  • cyst resting stage of certain bacteria and protozoans, wherein the entire cell is surrounded by a protective layer.
  • cytokine non-antibody proteins released by a cell when it comes in contact with specific antigens.
  • cytoplasm the protoplasm of a cell, exclusive of the nucleus. Read more on the structure and functions of cytoplasm.
  • cytoplasm -  the protoplasm of a cell excluding the nucleus; is full of proteins that control cell metabolism
  • cytoplasmic membrane a selectively permeable membrane which is present around the cytoplasm of the cell.
  • decomposition chemical breakdown of a compound into smaller and simpler compounds by micro-organisms.
  • decontamination -  the removal of contaminants
  • defined medium a medium whose quantitative and chemical composition is exactly known.
  • definition -  clarity of outline; a concise explanation of the meaning of a word or phrase or symbol
  • degradation process by which a compound is transformed into simpler compounds.
  • degradation -  changing to a lower state (a less respected state); a low or downcast state
  • demonstration -  a show of military force or preparedness; a public display of group feelings (usually of a political nature); proof by a process of argument or a series of proposition proving an asserted conclusion; a visual presentation showing how something works; a show or display; the act of presenting something to sight or view
  • denaturation process by which double stranded dna unwinds into two single strands.
  • denitrification reduction of nitrate or nitrite into simpler nitrogenous compounds like molecular nitrogen or nitrogen oxides.
  • derepressible enzyme enzyme produced in the absence of a specific inhibitory compound.
  • description -  sort or variety; a statement that represents something in words; the act of describing something
  • deserts -  an outcome (good or bad) that is well deserved
  • design -  the act of working out the form of something (as by making a sketch or outline or plan); a decorative or artistic work; a preliminary sketch indicating the plan for something; an arrangement scheme; the creation of something in the mind; something intended as a guide for making something else; an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions; verb intend or have as a purpose; design something for a specific role or purpose or effect; conceive or fashion in the mind; invent; make a design of; plan out in systematic, often graphic form; create the design for; create or execute in an artistic or highly skilled manner; create designs; make or work out a plan for; devise
  • destruction -  the termination of something by causing so much damage to it that it cannot be repaired or no longer exists; an event (or the result of an event) that completely destroys something; a final state
  • detection -  the act of detecting something; catching sight of something; a police investigation to determine the perpetrator; the perception that something has occurred or some state exists; the detection that a signal is being received
  • detoxification -  treatment for poisoning by neutralizing the toxic properties (normally a function of the liver); a treatment for addiction to drugs or alcohol intended to remove the physiological effects of the addictive substances
  • development -  act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining; (music) the section of a composition or movement (especially in sonata form) where the major musical themes are developed and elaborated; a recent event that has some relevance for the present situation; a district that has been developed to serve some purpose; processing a photosensitive material in order to make an image visible; a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage); a state in which things are improving; the result of developing (as in the early part of a game of chess); the act of making some area of land or water more profitable or productive or useful; (biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically; a purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level
  • dew point the temperature to which air must be cooled to bring about the condensation of water vapor.
  • diagnosis -  identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon
  • diarrhea -  frequent and watery bowel movements; can be a symptom of infection or food poisoning or colitis or a gastrointestinal tumor
  • diarrheal -  of or relating to diarrhea
  • diazotroph organism capable of using dinitrogen as its sole nitrogen source.
  • diet -  the act of restricting your food intake (or your intake of particular foods); the usual food and drink consumed by an organism (person or animal); a prescribed selection of foods; a legislative assembly in certain countries (e.g., Japan); verb eat sparingly, for health reasons or to lose weight; follow a regimen or a diet, as for health reasons
  • differential medium a medium with certain indicators, which helps distinguish between different chemical reactions during growth of organisms on it.
  • differential -  relating to or showing a difference; involving or containing one or more derivatives;  a quality that differentiates between similar things; a bevel gear that permits rotation of two shafts at different speeds; used on the rear axle of automobiles to allow wheels to rotate at different speeds on curves; the result of mathematical differentiation; the instantaneous change of one quantity relative to another; df(x)/dx
  • diffused air aeration a diffused air activated sludge plant takes air, compresses it and discharges it with force, below the surface of water.
  • dikaryon when two nuclei are present in the same hyphal compartment (they maybe homokaryon or heterokaryon), it is known as dikaryon.
  • dilution plate count method a method of estimating the number of viable micro-organisms in a sample.
  • dimorphic -  occurring or existing in two different forms
  • din -  the act of making a noisy disturbance; a loud harsh or strident noise; verb instill (into a person) by constant repetition; make a resonant sound, like artillery
  • dinitrogen fixation conversion of molecular dinitrogen into ammonia and other organic combinations useful in other biological processes.
  • dinoflagellate -  chiefly marine protozoa having two flagella; a chief constituent of plankton
  • direct count using direct microscopic examination to determine the number of micro-organisms present in a given mass of soil.
  • direction -  a general course along which something has a tendency to develop; a message describing how something is to be done; a line leading to a place or point; the spatial relation between something and the course along which it points or moves; the act of setting and holding a course; the act of managing something; the concentration of attention or energy on something; something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action; a formal statement of a command or injunction to do something
  • discovery -  the act of discovering something; a productive insight; something that is discovered; (law) compulsory pretrial disclosure of documents relevant to a case; enables one side in a litigation to elicit information from the other side concerning the facts in the case
  • disease -  an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
  • disinfectant an agent that kills micro-organisms.
  • dissemination -  the property of being diffused or dispersed; the opening of a subject to widespread discussion and debate; the act of dispersing or diffusing something
  • distribution -  the act of distributing or spreading or apportioning; the commercial activity of transporting and selling goods from a producer to a consumer; the spatial property of being scattered about over an area or volume; (statistics) an arrangement of values of a variable showing their observed or theoretical frequency of occurrence
  • diversity -  the condition or result of being changed; noticeable heterogeneity
  • division -  the act or process of dividing; the act of dividing or partitioning; separation by the creation of a boundary that divides or keeps apart; an arithmetic operation that is the inverse of multiplication; the quotient of two numbers is computed; discord that splits a group; an army unit large enough to sustain combat; a group of ships of similar type; a unit of the United States Air Force usually comprising two or more wings; an administrative unit in government or business; (botany) taxonomic unit of plants corresponding to a phylum; (biology) a group of organisms forming a subdivision of a larger category; one of the portions into which something is regarded as divided and which together constitute a whole; a league ranked by quality
  • dna fingerprinting techniques by which possible differences between different dna samples can be assessed.
  • dolipore septum specialized cross-wall that separates hypha of fungi belonging to the genus basidiomycota.
  • domain the highest level of biological classification which goes beyond kingdoms. The three domains of biological organisms are bacteria, eukarya, and archaea.
  • dosage -  the quantity of an active agent (substance or radiation) taken in or absorbed at any one time
  • doubling time the time needed for a certain population to double in number.
  • duplex -  allowing communication in opposite directions simultaneously; (used technically of a device or process) having two parts;  an apartment having rooms on two floors that are connected by a staircase; a house with two units sharing a common wall; verb change into a duplex
  • duplication -  the act of copying or making a duplicate (or duplicates) of something; a copy that corresponds to an original exactly
  • early -  at or near the beginning of a period of time or course of events or before the usual or expected time; being or occurring at an early stage of development; of an early stage in the development of a language or literature; very young; belonging to the distant past; expected in the near future; adv. before the usual time or the time expected; in good time; during an early stage
  • earth -  the abode of mortals (as contrasted with heaven or hell); the 3rd planet from the sun; the planet we live on; the loose soft material that makes up a large part of the land surface; once thought to be one of four elements composing the universe (Empedocles); a connection between an electrical device and a large conducting body, such as the earth (which is taken to be at zero voltage); the concerns of this life as distinguished from heaven and the afterlife; the solid part of the earth's surface; verb connect to the earth; hide in the earth like a hunted animal
  • ecology -  the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment; the environment as it relates to living organisms
  • economics -  the branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management
  • editing -  putting something (as a literary work or a legislative bill) into acceptable form
  • electricity -  keen and shared excitement; a physical phenomenon associated with stationary or moving electrons and protons; energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor
  • elemental -  relating to or being an element; relating to severe atmospheric conditions; of or being the essential or basic part
  • elongation -  the act of lengthening something; an addition to the length of something; the quality of being elongated
  • emergence -  the act of emerging; the becoming visible; the gradual beginning or coming forth; the act of coming (or going) out; becoming apparent
  • emerging -  coming to maturity; coming into view; coming into existence
  • emetic -  a medicine that induces nausea and vomiting
  • encephalitis -  inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus; symptoms include headache and neck pain and drowsiness and nausea and fever (`phrenitis' is no longer in scientific use)
  • encyclopedia -  a reference work (often in several volumes) containing articles on various topics (often arranged in alphabetical order) dealing with the entire range of human knowledge or with some particular specialty
  • endoenzyme enzyme that acts along the internal portion of a polymer.
  • endogenous -  derived or originating internally; of or resembling an endogen
  • endonuclease the endoenzyme responsible for breaking the phosphodiester bonds in a nucleic acid molecule.
  • endophyte an organism, which maybe parasitic or symbiotic, with a plant that is grown within.
  • endospore a cell which is formed by certain gram-positive bacteria in unfavorable conditions. An endospore is extremely resistant to heat and other harmful agents.
  • enhanced rhizosphere degradation enhanced activity of micro-organisms involved with biodegradation of contaminants near plant roots which is brought about by compounds exuded by the plant roots.
  • enhanced -  increased or intensified in value or beauty or quality
  • enhancement -  an improvement that makes something more agreeable
  • enrichment culture technique wherein environmental conditions are altered to aid the growth of a specific organism or group of organisms.
  • enteric bacteria these are bacteria present in the intestinal tract of humans and other animals. They maybe physiologic or pathologic.
  • entry -  an item inserted in a written record; a written record of a commercial transaction; the act of entering; the act of beginning something new; something that provides access (to get in or get out); something (manuscripts or architectural plans and models or estimates or works of art of all genres etc.) submitted for the judgment of others (as in a competition)
  • environment -  the area in which something exists or lives; the totality of surrounding conditions
  • environmental -  concerned with the ecological effects of altering the environment; of or relating to the external conditions or surroundings
  • enzymology -  the branch of biochemistry dealing with the chemical nature and biological activity of enzymes
  • epidemiology -  the branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of disease
  • epidermal -  of or relating to a cuticle or cuticula
  • episome an extrachromosomal replicating genetic element found in certain bacteria.
  • epitope an antigenic determinant of known structure. It is the region of the antigen to which the variable region of the antibody binds.
  • eradication -  the complete destruction of every trace of something
  • ericoid mycorrhizae the type of mycorrhizae found in ericales plants. These hyphae are capable of penetrating cortical cells.
  • esophagus -  the passage between the pharynx and the stomach
  • estimation -  a judgment of the qualities of something or somebody; an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth; the respect with which a person is held; a document appraising the value of something (as for insurance or taxation)
  • estuaries water bodies located at river ends. They are subjected to tidal fluctuations.
  • eubacteria a genus of bacteria belonging to the family propionibacteriaceae, found as saprophytes in soil and water.
  • eubacteria -  a large group of bacteria having rigid cell walls; motile types have flagella
  • eukaryotic -  having cells with `good' or membrane-bound nuclei
  • evaluation -  act of ascertaining or fixing the value or worth of; an appraisal of the value of something
  • evolution -  (biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms; a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage)
  • examination -  the act of examining something closely (as for mistakes); the act of giving students or candidates a test (as by questions) to determine what they know or have learned; a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge; a detailed inspection of your conscience (as done daily by Jesuits); formal systematic questioning
  • excess -  more than is needed, desired, or required;  immoderation as a consequence of going beyond sufficient or permitted limits; a quantity much larger than is needed; excessive indulgence; the state of being more than full
  • excitation -  something that agitates and arouses; the neural or electrical arousal of an organ or muscle or gland; the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up
  • exoenzyme an enzyme which acts outside the cell that secretes it.
  • exogenous -  derived or originating externally
  • exons the region of a split dna that codes for rna.
  • exotoxin -  a toxin that is secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding medium
  • export -  commodities (goods or services) sold to a foreign country; verb cause to spread in another part of the world; sell or transfer abroad
  • expression -  the act of forcing something out by squeezing or pressing; the feelings expressed on a person's face; expression without words; the communication (in speech or writing) of your beliefs or opinions; (genetics) the process of expressing a gene; a group of words that form a constituent of a sentence and are considered as a single unit; a group of symbols that make a mathematical statement; the style of expressing yourself; a word or phrase that particular people use in particular situations
  • extent -  the distance or area or volume over which something extends; the point or degree to which something extends
  • external -  happening or arising or located outside or beyond some limits or especially surface; purely outward or superficial; from or between other countries; coming from the outside;  outward features
  • extracellular outside the cell.
  • extracellular -  located or occurring outside a cell or cells
  • extreme -  most distant in any direction; of the greatest possible degree or extent or intensity; far beyond a norm in quantity or amount or degree; to an utmost degree; beyond a norm in views or actions;  the furthest or highest degree of something; the point located farthest from the middle of something
  • exudate a fluid high in protein and cellular debris which has escaped from blood vessels, usually as a result of inflammation.
  • facilitated -  freed from difficulty or impediment
  • facultative organism an organism which is able to adjust to a particular circumstance or has the ability to take up different roles in a process.
  • familial -  tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity; relating to or having the characteristics of a family
  • fast -  acting or moving or capable of acting or moving quickly; at a rapid tempo; (used of timepieces) indicating a time ahead of or later than the correct time; securely fixed in place; resistant to destruction or fading; (of surfaces) conducive to rapid speeds; unwavering in devotion to friend or vow or cause; hurried and brief; unrestrained by convention or morality; firmly fastened or secured against opening; adv. quickly or rapidly (often used as a combining form); firmly or tightly;  abstaining from food; verb abstain from eating; abstain from certain foods, as for religious or medical reasons
  • feedback initiation inhibition by an end product of the biosynthetic pathway involved in its synthesis.
  • feedback -  response to an inquiry or experiment; the process in which part of the output of a system is returned to its input in order to regulate its further output
  • fermentation -  a process in which an agent causes an organic substance to break down into simpler substances; especially, the anaerobic breakdown of sugar into alcohol; a state of agitation or turbulent change or development
  • ferrous -  of or relating to or containing iron
  • fertilizer any organic or inorganic material added to the soil to enhance the growth of plants.
  • field capacity content of water remaining in the soil after being saturated with water.
  • field -  a particular kind of commercial enterprise; the area that is visible (as through an optical instrument); all the competitors in a particular contest or sporting event; all of the horses in a particular horse race; (mathematics) a set of elements such that addition and multiplication are commutative and associative and multiplication is distributive over addition and there are two elements 0 and 1; (computer science) a set of one or more adjacent characters comprising a unit of information; a region in which active military operations are in progress; somewhere (away from a studio or office or library or laboratory) where practical work is done or data is collected; a piece of land cleared of trees and usually enclosed; a geographic region (land or sea) under which something valuable is found; the space around a radiating body within which its electromagnetic oscillations can exert force on another similar body not in contact with it; a place where planes take off and land; a branch of knowledge; a region where a battle is being (or has been) fought; a piece of land prepared for playing a game; extensive tract of level open land; a particular environment or walk of life; verb select (a team or individual player) for a game; answer adequately or successfully; play as a fielder; catch or pick up (balls) in baseball or cricket
  • filamentous in the form of very long rods, mostly seen in bacteria. Seen as branching strands in fungi.
  • filamentous -  thin in diameter; resembling a thread
  • fimbria short filamentous structure present on a bacterial cell, involved with adhesion of the bacteria to other surfaces it comes in contact with.
  • fixation -  (histology) the preservation and hardening of a tissue sample to retain as nearly as possible the same relations they had in the living body; the activity of fastening something firmly in position; an unhealthy and compulsive preoccupation with something or someone; an abnormal state in which development has stopped prematurely
  • fixed -  incapable of being changed or moved or undone; e.g. "frozen prices"; (of a number) having a fixed and unchanging value; securely placed or fastened or set; fixed and unmoving; (of taxes) not increasing as the amount taxed increases
  • flight -  a scheduled trip by plane between designated airports; an instance of traveling by air; a stairway (set of steps) between one floor or landing and the next; passing above and beyond ordinary bounds; an air force unit smaller than a squadron; a formation of aircraft in flight; a flock of flying birds; the act of escaping physically; the path followed by an object moving through space; verb fly in a flock; shoot a bird in flight; decorate with feathers
  • flow -  the act of flowing or streaming; continuous progression; the motion characteristic of fluids (liquids or gases); any uninterrupted stream or discharge; the amount of fluid that flows in a given time; dominant course (suggestive of running water) of successive events or ideas; the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus of nonpregnant women from puberty to menopause; something that resembles a flowing stream in moving continuously; verb cover or swamp with water; move or progress freely as if in a stream; cause to flow; be abundantly present; undergo menstruation; fall or flow in a certain way; move along, of liquids
  • fluorescent antibody this is a laboratory test that is done, wherein antibodies are tagged with fluorescent dye to detect the presence of micro-organisms.
  • folding -  capable of being folded up and stored;  the act of folding; a geological process that causes a bend in a stratum of rock; the process whereby a protein molecule assumes its intricate three-dimensional shape
  • food chain -  (ecology) a community of organisms where each member is eaten in turn by another member
  • food poisoning -  illness caused by poisonous or contaminated food
  • food -  any substance that can be metabolized by an organism to give energy and build tissue; anything that provides mental stimulus for thinking; any solid substance (as opposed to liquid) that is used as a source of nourishment
  • form -  a mold for setting concrete; the visual appearance of something or someone; a particular mode in which something is manifested; an ability to perform well; a perceptual structure; the phonological or orthographic sound or appearance of a word that can be used to describe or identify something; a printed document with spaces in which to write; an arrangement of the elements in a composition or discourse; (biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups; the spatial arrangement of something as distinct from its substance; a life-size dummy used to display clothes; any spatial attributes (especially as defined by outline); alternative names for the body of a human being; a category of things distinguished by some common characteristic or quality; a body of students who are taught together; (physical chemistry) a distinct state of matter in a system; matter that is identical in chemical composition and physical state and separated from other material by the phase boundary; verb assume a form or shape; create (as an entity); to compose or represent:"This wall forms the background of the stage setting"; develop into a distinctive entity; give shape or form to; make something, usually for a specific function; establish or impress firmly in the mind
  • formation -  the fabrication of something in a particular shape; creation by mental activity; a particular spatial arrangement; an arrangement of people or things acting as a unit; natural process that causes something to form; the act of forming something; (geology) the geological features of the earth
  • fractionation -  separation into portions; a process that uses heat to separate a substance into its components
  • free -  not literal; unconstrained or not chemically bound in a molecule or not fixed and capable of relatively unrestricted motion; able to act at will; not hampered; not under compulsion or restraint; not held in servitude; not occupied or in use; not fixed in position; not taken up by scheduled activities; costing nothing; adv. without restraint;  people who are free; verb free or remove obstruction from; grant freedom to; free from confinement; free from obligations or duties; make (information) available publication; make (assets) available; let off the hook; remove or force out from a position; part with a possession or right; relieve from; grant relief or an exemption from a rule or requirement to
  • frequency -  the number of observations in a given statistical category; the ratio of the number of observations in a statistical category to the total number of observations; the number of occurrences within a given time period
  • frustule siliceous wall and protoplasm seen in diatoms.
  • fulvic acid the yellow organic material that remains behind after removal of humic acid by the process of acidification.
  • function -  the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group; what something is used for; a formal or official social gathering or ceremony; a relation such that one thing is dependent on another; a mathematical relation such that each element of one set is associated with at least one element of another set; a set sequence of steps, part of larger computer program; a vaguely specified social event; verb perform as expected when applied; perform duties attached to a particular office or place or function; serve a purpose, role, or function
  • functional -  designed for or capable of a particular function or use; involving or affecting function rather than physiology; designed for or adapted to a function or use; fit or ready for use or service; relating to or based on function especially as opposed to structure; (of e.g. a machine) performing or capable of performing
  • fungal infection -  an inflammatory condition caused by a fungus
  • fungal -  of or relating to fungi
  • fungi -  (pun) the one who buys the drinks; the taxonomic kingdom of lower plants
  • fungistasis suppression of growth of new fungal cells, due to excessive competition for nutrients, or due to the presence of excessive inhibitory compounds in the soil.
  • fungus eukaryotic heterotrophic organisms that live as saprophytes or parasites. This group includes mushrooms, yeast and molds. They have a rigid cell wall.
  • fusion -  the act of fusing (or melting) together; correction of an unstable part of the spine by joining two or more vertebrae; usually done surgically but sometimes done by traction or immobilization; the combining of images from the two eyes to form a single visual percept; an occurrence that involves the production of a union; a nuclear reaction in which nuclei combine to form more massive nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy; the merging of adjacent sounds or syllables or words; the state of being combined into one body
  • future -  coming at a subsequent time or stage; (of elected officers) elected but not yet serving; yet to be or coming; effective in or looking toward the future; a verb tense or other formation referring to events or states that have not yet happened;  bulk commodities bought or sold at an agreed price for delivery at a specified future date; a verb tense that expresses actions or states in the future; the time yet to come
  • g (Generation time) – The time it takes for bacterial cell numbers to double.
  • gas vacuole a sub:cellular organelle, found only in prokaryotes, which are gas filled vesicles.
  • gas -  the state of matter distinguished from the solid and liquid states by: relatively low density and viscosity; relatively great expansion and contraction with changes in pressure and temperature; the ability to diffuse readily; and the spontaneous tendency to become distributed uniformly throughout any container; a fluid in the gaseous state having neither independent shape nor volume and being able to expand indefinitely; a pedal that controls the throttle valve; a state of excessive gas in the alimentary canal; a volatile flammable mixture of hydrocarbons (hexane and heptane and octane etc.) derived from petroleum; used mainly as a fuel in internal-combustion engines; a fossil fuel in the gaseous state; used for cooking and heating homes; verb attack with gas; subject to gas fumes; show off
  • gastric -  relating to or involving the stomach
  • gastrointestinal tract -  tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination
  • gastrointestinal -  of or relating to the stomach and intestines
  • gene cloning isolation of a desired gene from an organism and its replication in large amounts. It is used extensively in dna research.
  • gene probe a strand of nucleic acid which can be labeled and hybridized to a complementary molecule from a mixture of other nucleic acids. It is helpful in dna sequencing.
  • gene -  (genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it can include regions preceding and following the coding DNA as well as introns between the exons; it is considered a unit of heredity
  • generalized -  spread throughout a body or system; not biologically differentiated or adapted to a specific function or environment
  • generation time the time required for a population to double in number.
  • generation -  the act of producing offspring or multiplying by such production; the production of heat or electricity; group of genetically related organisms constituting a single step in the line of descent; the normal time between successive generations; a stage of technological development or innovation; a coming into being; all the people living at the same time or of approximately the same age
  • genetic code the information on the dna, which is required for the synthesis of proteins.
  • genetic engineering -  the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism
  • genetic -  of or relating to the science of genetics; pertaining to or referring to origin; tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity; of or relating to or produced by or being a gene
  • genetics -  the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
  • genital herpes -  an infection caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) that is usually transmitted by sexual contact; marked by recurrent attacks of painful eruptions on the skin and mucous membranes of the genital area
  • genome -  the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism; the full DNA sequence of an organism
  • germination -  the origin of some development; the process whereby seeds or spores sprout and begin to grow
  • global -  involving the entire earth; not limited or provincial in scope; having the shape of a sphere or ball
  • glucose -  a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms; an important source of physiological energy
  • glycosidase the enzyme responsible for hydrolizing a glucosidic linkage between two sugar molecules.
  • gradient -  the property possessed by a line or surface that departs from the horizontal; a graded change in the magnitude of some physical quantity or dimension
  • gram stain a differential stain that divides bacteria into two groups, as gram positive and gram negative, depending on the ability of the organism to retain crystal violet when decolorized with an organic solvent like ethanol.
  • gram-negative -  (of bacteria) being of or relating to a bacterium that does not retain the violet stain used in Gram's method
  • gram-positive -  (of bacteria) being or relating to a bacterium that retains the violet stain used in Gram's method
  • granule -  a tiny grain
  • group A -  the blood group whose red cells carry the A antigen
  • growth factor organic compound essential for growth which is required in trace amounts, and which cannot be synthesized by the organism itself.
  • growth rate constant slope of log of the number of cells per unit volume plotted against time.
  • growth rate the rate at which growth occurs.
  • growth yield coefficient quantity of carbon formed per unit of substrate carbon consumed.
  • growth an increase in the number of cells, and the size and constituents present in the cells.
  • habit -  a pattern of behavior acquired through frequent repetition; a distinctive attire (as the costume of a religious order); an established custom; excessive use of drugs; verb put a habit on
  • habitat -  the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs
  • hairy root -  a phase of crown gall (especially in apples) during which there is abnormal development of fine fibrous roots
  • halophile an organism that thrives, or at least which can survive in a saline environment.
  • halotolerant an organism that can survive in a saline environment, but does not require a saline environment for growth.
  • handling -  the action of touching with the hands (or the skillful use of the hands) or by the use of mechanical means; manual (or mechanical) carrying or moving or delivering or working with something; the management of someone or something
  • hands-off -  not involving participation or intervention
  • hapten a substance not inducing antibody formation, but which is able to combine with a specific antibody.
  • head -  a single domestic animal; a projection out from one end; (nautical) a toilet on board a boat or ship; the striking part of a tool; (usually plural) the obverse side of a coin that usually bears the representation of a person's head; that part of a skeletal muscle that is away from the bone that it moves; the upper part of the human body or the front part of the body in animals; contains the face and brains; the rounded end of a bone that bits into a rounded cavity in another bone to form a joint; (grammar) the word in a grammatical constituent that plays the same grammatical role as the whole constituent; the front of a military formation or procession; the top of something; the foam or froth that accumulates at the top when you pour an effervescent liquid into a container; a rounded compact mass; a user of (usually soft) drugs; a person who is in charge; an individual person; the pressure exerted by a fluid; the length or height based on the size of a human or animal head; the tip of an abscess (where the pus accumulates); oral stimulation of the genitals; a membrane that is stretched taut over a drum; (computer science) a tiny electromagnetic coil and metal pole used to write and read magnetic patterns on a disk; that which is responsible for one's thoughts and feelings; the seat of the faculty of reason; a line of text serving to indicate what the passage below it is about; the subject matter at issue; a V-shaped mark at one end of an arrow pointer; forward movement; a difficult juncture; the source of water from which a stream arises; the part in the front or nearest the viewer; a natural elevation (especially a rocky one that juts out into the sea); the educator who has executive authority for a school; a dense clusters of flowers or foliage; verb remove the head of; to go or travel towards; be in charge of; form a head or come or grow to a head; be in the front of or on top of; be the first or leading member of (a group) and excel; take its rise; direct the course; determine the direction of travelling; travel in front of; go in advance of others
  • heme -  a complex red organic pigment containing iron and other atoms to which oxygen binds
  • hepatitis -  inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or a toxin
  • herpes labialis -  caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)
  • heterofermentation any fermentation where there is more than one main end product.
  • heterokaryon hypha that contains at least two genetically dissimilar nuclei.
  • heterolactic fermentation a kind of lactic acid fermentation, wherein various sugars are fermented into different products.
  • heterothallic hyphae that are incompatible with each other, thus requiring another compatible hypha to mate with, to form a dikaryon or a diploid.
  • heterotrophic nitrification the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate by heterotrophic organisms.
  • heterotrophic -  requiring organic compounds of carbon and nitrogen for nourishment
  • hexose monophosphate pathway a metabolic pathway involving the oxidative decarboxylation of glucose::phosphate.
  • history -  the discipline that records and interprets past events involving human beings; all that is remembered of the past as preserved in writing; a body of knowledge; a record or narrative description of past events; the aggregate of past events; the continuum of events occurring in succession leading from the past to the present and even into the future
  • holomictic these are those lakes, wherein the water in them at some point of time will have a uniform temperature and density from top to bottom, thus allowing the lake waters to mix completely.
  • holomorph a fungus which consists of all sexual and asexual stages in its life cycle.
  • homofermentation a type of fermentation where there is only one type of end product generated.
  • homokaryon a fungal hypha containing nuclei which are genetically identical.
  • homolactic fermentation a type of lactic acid fermentation, in which all sugars involved are converted into lactic acid.
  • homologous -  corresponding or similar in position or structure or function or characteristics; especially derived from an organism of the same species; having the same evolutionary origin but serving different functions
  • homology -  the quality of being similar or corresponding in position or value or structure or function
  • homothallic hyphae that are self:compatible, that is, sexual reproduction occurs in the same organism by meiosis and genetic recombination. Fusion of these hyphae lead to the formation of dikaryon or diploid.
  • hook -  a short swinging punch delivered from the side with the elbow bent; a golf shot that curves to the left for a right-handed golfer; a curved or bent implement for suspending or pulling something; a mechanical device that is curved or bent to suspend or hold or pull something; a catch for locking a door; a sharp curve or crook; a shape resembling a hook; a basketball shot made over the head with the hand that is farther from the basket; anything that serves as an enticement; verb approach with an offer of sexual favors; entice and trap; secure with the foot; fasten with a hook; catch with a hook; hit with a hook; hit a ball and put a spin on it so that it travels to the left; take by theft; to cause (someone or oneself) to become dependent (on something, especially a narcotic drug); make a piece of needlework by interlocking and looping thread with a hooked needle; make off with belongings of others; rip off; ask an unreasonable price
  • horizontal -  parallel to or in the plane of the horizon or a base line;  something that is oriented horizontally
  • host an organism that can harbor or nourish another organism.
  • host -  an animal or plant that nourishes and supports a parasite; it does not benefit and is often harmed by the association; a technical name for the bread used in the service of Mass or Holy Communion; archaic terms for army; any organization that provides resources and facilities for a function or event; the owner or manager of an inn; a person who invites guests to a social event (such as a party in his or her own home) and who is responsible for them while they are there; (medicine) recipient of transplanted tissue or organ from a donor; (computer science) a computer that provides client stations with access to files and printers as shared resources to a computer network; a vast multitude; a person who acts as host at formal occasions (makes an introductory speech and introduces other speakers); verb be the host of or for
  • housekeeping -  the work of cleaning and running a house
  • human -  having human form or attributes as opposed to those of animals or divine beings; characteristic of humanity; relating to a person;  any living or extinct member of the family Hominidae characterized by superior intelligence, articulate speech, and erect carriage
  • humans -  all of the living human inhabitants of the earth
  • humic acid dark colored organic material extracted from the soil by the use of reagents and which is precipitated by acid.
  • humic substances high molecular weight substances formed by secondary synthesis reactions, for example, humic acid and fulvic acid.
  • humification the process of conversion of organic residues into humic substances by biochemical processes.
  • hybridization natural or artificial construction of a duplex nucleic acid molecule by complementary base pairing between two nucleic acid strands derived from different sources.
  • hydraulics -  study of the mechanics of fluids
  • hydrocarbon an organic compound containing carbon and hydrogen only.
  • hydrogen oxidizing bacterium these are bacteria that oxidize hydrogen for energy and synthesize carbohydrates, using carbon dioxide as their source of carbon in the absence of other organic compounds.
  • hydrolysis -  a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds; involves the splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion from the water
  • hyperparasite parasite that feeds on another parasite.
  • hyperthermophile an organism that thrives in temperatures ranging around degrees celsius or more.
  • hypolimnion this is the dense, bottom layer of water, that lies below the thermocline, in a thermally stratified lake.
  • identification -  the attribution to yourself (consciously or unconsciously) of the characteristics of another person (or group of persons); evidence of identity; something that identifies a person or thing; the condition of having your identity established; the act of designating or identifying something; the process of recognizing something or someone by remembering
  • illegitimate -  contrary to or forbidden by law; of marriages and offspring; not recognized as lawful;  the illegitimate offspring of unmarried parents
  • illness -  impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism
  • illuviation repositioning of soil removed from one horizon to another.
  • immobilization conversion of an element from inorganic to organic form.
  • immune response -  a bodily defense reaction that recognizes an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus or fungus or bacteria or transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specific against that antigen
  • immune system -  a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response
  • immunity the protection mechanism against infections caused by micro-organisms or toxins, that is inherent in the body.
  • immunoblot the technique for analyzing or identifying proteins via antigen:antibody specific reactions.
  • immunofluoresence the technique to determine the location of an antigen or antibody in a tissue section or smear by fluorescence.
  • immunogen a substance that has the capacity to bring about an immune response.
  • immunoglobulin a protein which has antibody activity.
  • impact -  the striking of one body against another; a forceful consequence; a strong effect; influencing strongly; the violent interaction of individuals or groups entering into combat; verb press or wedge together; pack together; have an effect upon
  • impaired -  diminished in strength, quality, or utility; mentally or physically unfit
  • import -  commodities (goods or services) bought from a foreign country; an imported person brought from a foreign country; having important effects or influence; a meaning that is not expressly stated but can be inferred; the message that is intended or expressed or signified; verb bring in from abroad; indicate or signify
  • importance -  the quality of being important and worthy of note; a prominent status
  • in vivo inside the body.
  • inactivation -  the process of rendering inactive; breaking up a military unit (by transfers or discharges)
  • inchworm -  small hairless caterpillar having legs on only its front and rear segments; mostly larvae of moths of the family Geometridae
  • incidence -  the striking of a light beam on a surface; the relative frequency of occurrence of something
  • incompatibility -  the quality of being unable to exist or work in congenial combination; the relation between propositions that cannot both be true at the same time; (immunology) the degree to which the body's immune system will try to reject foreign material (as transfused blood or transplanted tissue)
  • increased -  made greater in size or amount or degree
  • index -  the finger next to the thumb; an alphabetical listing of names and topics along with page numbers where they are discussed; a number or ratio (a value on a scale of measurement) derived from a series of observed facts; can reveal relative changes as a function of time; a numerical scale used to compare variables with one another or with some reference number; a mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself; verb adjust through indexation; provide with an index; list in an index
  • inducible enzyme an enzyme generated in response to an external factor.
  • industrial -  suitable to stand up to hard wear; having highly developed industries; employed in industry; of or relating to or resulting from industry; employed in industry
  • infection thread the tube in root hair, through which rhizobia reach and infect roots.
  • infection invasion and multiplication of micro-organisms in body tissues, leading to various diseases and disorders.
  • infection -  (international law) illegality that taints or contaminates a ship or cargo rendering it liable to seizure; moral corruption or contamination; an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted; (medicine) the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease; (phonetics) the alteration of a speech sound under the influence of a neighboring sound; the pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms; the communication of an attitude or emotional state among a number of people
  • influence -  causing something without any direct or apparent effort; a power to affect persons or events especially power based on prestige etc; a cognitive factor that tends to have an effect on what you do; one having power to influence another; the effect of one thing (or person) on another; verb have and exert influence or effect; shape or influence; give direction to; induce into action by using one's charm
  • influenza -  an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease
  • infrared (ir) the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum whose wavelength ranges from . Microns to millimeter.
  • inhibition -  (psychology) the conscious exclusion of unacceptable thoughts or desires; the quality of being inhibited; (physiology) the process whereby nerves can retard or prevent the functioning of an organ or part; the action of prohibiting or inhibiting or forbidding (or an instance thereof)
  • initiation -  the act of starting something for the first time; introducing something new; a formal entry into an organization or position or office; an act that sets in motion some course of events; wisdom as evidenced by the possession of knowledge
  • innate -  present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development; being talented through inherited qualities; not established by conditioning or learning
  • inoculate to treat a medium with micro-organisms for the purpose of creating a favorable response.
  • inoculum the material used to introduce an organism into a certain medium for growth.
  • insect -  small air-breathing arthropod; a person who has a nasty or unethical character undeserving of respect
  • insertion sequence the simplest possible type of transposable elements.
  • insertion a type of genetic mutation, wherein single or multiple nucleotides are added to dna.
  • integral -  constituting the undiminished entirety; lacking nothing essential especially not damaged; existing as an essential constituent or characteristic;  the result of a mathematical integration; F(x) is the integral of f(x) if dF/dx = f(x)
  • integrating -  the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community
  • integration the process by which a dna molecule becomes incorporated into another genome.
  • integration -  an operation used in the calculus whereby the integral of a function is determined; the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community; the act of combining into an integral whole
  • interaction -  a mutual or reciprocal action; interacting; (physics) the transfer of energy between elementary particles or between an elementary particle and a field or between fields; mediated by gauge bosons
  • intercellular -  located between cells
  • interest -  the power of attracting or holding one's attention (because it is unusual or exciting etc.); a sense of concern with and curiosity about someone or something; (usually plural) a social group whose members control some field of activity and who have common aims; (law) a right or legal share of something; a financial involvement with something; a fixed charge for borrowing money; usually a percentage of the amount borrowed; a diversion that occupies one's time and thoughts (usually pleasantly); a reason for wanting something done; verb excite the curiosity of; engage the interest of; be on the mind of; be of importance or consequence
  • internal -  happening or arising or located within some limits or especially surface; occurring within an institution or community; located inward; inside the country; innermost or essential
  • international -  concerning or belonging to all or at least two or more nations; from or between other countries;  any of several international socialist organizations
  • interspecies hydrogen transfer the process of hydrogen production and consumption reactions, occurring by the interaction of various micro-organisms.
  • interspecies -  arising or occurring between species
  • intervening -  standing between or separating two objects or areas; occurring or falling between events or points in time
  • intestinal -  of or relating to or inside the intestines
  • intracellular inside the cell.
  • intracellular -  located or occurring within a cell or cells
  • intrinsic -  situated within or belonging solely to the organ or body part on which it acts; belonging to a thing by its very nature
  • introduction -  the act of beginning something new; the first section of a communication; a basic or elementary instructional text; a new proposal; the act of starting something for the first time; introducing something new; the act of putting one thing into another; formally making a person known to another or to the public
  • invasion -  the act of invading; the act of an army that invades for conquest or plunder; (pathology) the spread of pathogenic microorganisms or malignant cells to new sites in the body; any entry into an area not previously occupied
  • iron -  extremely robust;  home appliance consisting of a flat metal base that is heated and used to smooth cloth; a golf club that has a relatively narrow metal head; implement used to brand live stock; a heavy ductile magnetic metallic element; is silver-white in pure form but readily rusts; used in construction and tools and armament; plays a role in the transport of oxygen by the blood; verb press and smooth with a heated iron
  • isoenzyme when two different enzymes, which maybe different in their composition, act as catalysts for the same reaction, or set of reactions.
  • isolation a procedure wherein a pure culture of an organism is obtained from a sample or an environment.
  • isolation -  the act of isolating something; setting something apart from others; a country's withdrawal from international politics; a feeling of being disliked and alone; (psychiatry) a defense mechanism in which memory of an unacceptable act or impulse is separated from the emotion originally associated with it; a state of separation between persons or groups
  • isomorphous substitution the substitution of an atom by a similarly sized atom of lower valence, in a crystalline clay sheet.
  • itraconazole -  an oral antifungal drug (trade name Sporanox) taken for cases of fungal nail disease
  • jaccard's coefficient an association coefficient of numerical taxonomy, which is the proportion of characters that match, excluding those that both organisms lack.
  • joint -  involving both houses of a legislature; united or combined; affecting or involving two or more;  marijuana leaves rolled into a cigarette for smoking; junction by which parts or objects are joined together; a disreputable place of entertainment; (anatomy) the point of connection between two bones or elements of a skeleton (especially if it allows motion); a piece of meat roasted or for roasting and of a size for slicing into more than one portion; the shape or manner in which things come together and a connection is made; verb separate (meat) at the joint; fasten with a joint; provide with a joint; fit as if by joints
  • k- strategy ecological strategy where organisms depend on adapting physiologically to the resources available in their immediate environment.
  • keratinization -  organic process by which keratin is deposited in cells and the cells become horny (as in nails and hair)
  • kinetic -  characterized by motion; relating to the motion of material bodies and the forces associated therewith; supplying motive force
  • koch's postulates laws given by robert koch which prove that an organism is the causative agent of a disease.
  • lack -  the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable; verb be without
  • lag phase the time period when there is no increase in the number of micro-organisms, seen after inoculation of fresh growth medium.
  • lamella seen in plants as the layers of protoplasmic membranes in chloroplast that contain photosynthetic pigments.
  • latency -  the state of being not yet evident or active; the time that elapses between a stimulus and the response to it; (computer science) the time it takes for a specific block of data on a data track to rotate around to the read/write head
  • latent -  not presently active; potentially existing but not presently evident or realized
  • laws -  the first of three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures comprising the first five books of the Hebrew Bible considered as a unit
  • leaching removal of metals from ores by the help of micro-organisms.
  • leader -  a person who rules or guides or inspires others; a featured article of merchandise sold at a loss in order to draw customers
  • lectins plant proteins with a high affinity for specific sugar residues.
  • leghemoglobin red colored pigments rich in iron, which are produced in root nodules during symbiotic association between rhizobia and leguminous plants.
  • licensed -  given official approval to act
  • life cycle -  a series of stages through which an organism passes between recurrences of a primary stage; the course of developmental changes in an organism from fertilized zygote to maturity when another zygote can be produced
  • ligand a molecule, ion or group of molecules or ions, bound to the central atom by means of a chelate or coordination compound.
  • light compensation point the point where the rate of respiration is higher than the rate of photosynthesis, which usually occurs at about % of sunlight intensity.
  • like -  resembling or similar; having the same or some of the same characteristics; often used in combination; equal in amount or value; having the same or similar characteristics; conforming in every respect;  a kind of person; a similar kind; verb feel about or towards; consider, evaluate, or regard; be fond of; find enjoyable or agreeable; want to have; prefer or wish to do something
  • lime (agricultural) soil amendment containing high levels of calcium compounds, like calcium carbonate and other such mineral which are used to neutralize soil acidity, and provide calcium for plant growth.
  • linear -  of or in or along or relating to a line; involving a single dimension; designating or involving an equation whose terms are of the first degree; measured lengthwise; of a leaf shape; long and narrow; of a circuit or device having an output that is proportional to the input
  • linked -  connected by a link, as railway cars or trailer trucks
  • links -  a golf course that is built on sand ground near a shore
  • lipopolysaccharide (lps) complex lipid structure containing sugars and fatty acids, which is commonly found in most gram negative bacteria.
  • lipoprotein -  a conjugated protein having a lipid component; the principal means for transporting lipids in the blood
  • lithotroph an organism that uses inorganic substrate such as ammonia or hydrogen to act as electron donors in energy metabolism. They maybe chemolithotrophs or photolithotrophs.
  • litter the surface layer of forests which is laden with leaves, twigs, fruits etc.
  • localization -  a determination of the place where something is; (physiology) the principle that specific functions have relatively circumscribed locations in some particular part or organ of the body
  • location -  a point or extent in space; a workplace away from a studio at which some or all of a movie may be made; a determination of the place where something is; the act of putting something in a certain place
  • lophotrichous an organism that has a tuft of flagella that is polar in nature.
  • luxury uptake uptake of nutrients in excess of what is required by an organism for its normal growth.
  • lysis the rupture and destruction of a cell, resulting in loss of cellular contents.
  • lysogenic -  capable of producing or undergoing lysis; of or relating to lysogeny
  • lysogeny an association where a prokaryote contains a prophage and the virus genome is replicated in sync with the chromosome of the host.
  • lysogeny -  the condition of a host bacterium that has incorporated a phage into its own genetic material
  • lysosome a cell organelle which contains lytic enzymes.
  • machinery -  machines or machine systems collectively; a system of means and activities whereby a social institution functions
  • macronutrient a substance required in large amounts for normal growth of an individual.
  • macropore larger soil pores from which water drains readily by gravity.
  • magnetosome small particles of magnetite, which is a compound containing magnesium, present in cells that exhibit magnetotaxis.
  • magnetotactic bacteria bacteria that orient themselves according to the earth's magnetic field due to the presence of the magnetosomes.
  • maintenance -  the unauthorized interference in a legal action by a person having no interest in it (as by helping one party with money or otherwise to continue the action) so as to obstruct justice or promote unnecessary litigation or unsettle the peace of the community; means of maintenance of a family or group; activity involved in maintaining something in good working order; the act of sustaining life by food or providing a means of subsistence; court-ordered support paid by one spouse to another after they are separated
  • management -  the act of managing something; those in charge of running a business
  • manipulation -  exerting shrewd or devious influence especially for one's own advantage; the action of touching with the hands (or the skillful use of the hands) or by the use of mechanical means
  • manure animal excreta, with or without a bedding of litter at various stages of decomposition. It's normally considered to be a good fertilizer.
  • mapping -  (genetics) the process of locating genes on a chromosome; a function such that for every element of one set there is a unique element of another set
  • mar -  a mark or flaw that spoils the appearance of something (especially on a person's body); the month following February and preceding April; verb make imperfect; destroy or injure severely
  • marine -  native to or inhabiting the sea; of or relating to the sea; of or relating to military personnel who serve both on land and at sea (specifically the U.S. Marine Corps); relating to or involving ships or shipping or navigation or seamen;  a member of the United States Marine Corps; a soldier who serves both on shipboard and on land
  • mass flow (nutrient) the movement of solutes in relation to the movement of water.
  • master -  an original creation (i.e., an audio recording) from which copies can be made; an authority qualified to teach apprentices; directs the work of other; someone who holds a master's degree from academic institution; an officer who is licensed to command a merchant ship; key that secures entrance everywhere; presiding officer of a school; an artist of consummate skill; a person who has general authority over others; a combatant who is able to defeat rivals; verb have a firm understanding or knowledge of; be on top of; be or become completely proficient or skilled in; get on top of; deal with successfully; have dominance or the power to defeat over
  • mating -  the act of pairing a male and female for reproductive purposes
  • max -  street names for gamma hydroxybutyrate
  • measurement -  the act or process of assigning numbers to phenomena according to a rule
  • mechanism -  the technical aspects of doing something; device consisting of a piece of machinery; has moving parts that perform some function; (philosophy) the philosophical theory that all phenomena can be explained in terms of physical or biological causes; a natural object resembling a machine in structure or function; the atomic process that occurs during a chemical reaction
  • medical diagnosis -  identification a disease from its symptoms
  • medium a source where micro-organisms are grown.
  • membrane -  a thin pliable sheet of material; a pliable sheet of tissue that covers or lines or connects organs or cells of animals
  • memory -  an electronic memory device; the power of retaining and recalling past experience; the cognitive processes whereby past experience is remembered; something that is remembered; the area of cognitive psychology that studies memory processes
  • men -  the force of workers available
  • meningitis -  infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection; symptoms include headache and stiff neck and fever and nausea
  • mesofauna animals residing in the soil which are to microns in length. This group includes nematodes, oligochaete worms, smaller insect larvae and certain anthropods.
  • mesophile an organism that thrives in temperatures ranging from - degrees celsius.
  • metabolism -  the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life; the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals
  • metalworking -  the activity of making things out of metal in a skillful manner
  • methanogenesis the production of methane by biological reactions.
  • methanogenic bacterium bacteria that produce methane as a by:product of their chemical reactions.
  • methanotroph an organism capable of oxidizing methane.
  • method -  a way of doing something, especially a systematic way; implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps); an acting technique introduced by Stanislavsky in which the actor recalls emotions or reactions from his or her own life and uses them to identify with the character being portrayed
  • micro-organism an organism that is too small to be seen by the naked eye. Also called microbes, these include bacteria, fungi, protozoans, algae and viruses.
  • microaerophile micro-organisms that grow well in relatively low oxygen concentration environments.
  • microaggregate clusters of clay stabilized by organic matter and precipitated inorganic matter.
  • microbial biomass total mass of micro-organisms living in a given mass or volume of soil.
  • microbial population total number of micro-organisms living in a given mass or volume of soil.
  • microbial -  of or involving or caused by or being microbes
  • microbiology the study of micro-organisms, often with the aid of a microscope.
  • microbiology -  the branch of biology that studies microorganisms and their effects on humans
  • microcosm a community or any other unit that is representative of a larger community.
  • microenvironment the immediate physical and chemical surroundings of a microorganism.
  • microfauna protozoa, nematodes and anthropods that are smaller than microns.
  • microflora this includes bacteria, virus, fungi and algae.
  • micrometer one millionth of a meter (- meters).
  • micronutrient elements that are required for growth in trace amounts. These include copper, iron, zinc etc.
  • microorganism -  any organism of microscopic size
  • micropore a small sized soil pore (approximately less than microns in diameter) which is normally found within structural aggregates.
  • microsite a small part of the soil where the biological or chemical processes are different from the rest of the soil.
  • mitosis -  cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
  • mixing -  the act of mixing together
  • mixotroph organisms that are capable of assimilating organic compounds as carbon sources, while using inorganic compounds as electron donors.
  • mobilization -  act of assembling and putting into readiness for war or other emergency: "mobilization of the troops"; act of marshaling and organizing and making ready for use or action
  • model -  worthy of imitation;  the act of representing something (usually on a smaller scale); representation of something (sometimes on a smaller scale); a type of product; a hypothetical description of a complex entity or process; a representative form or pattern; a person who poses for a photographer or painter or sculptor; someone worthy of imitation; something to be imitated; a woman who wears clothes to display fashions; verb form in clay, wax, etc; construct a model of; create a representation or model of; plan or create according to a model or models; display (clothes) as a mannequin; assume a posture as for artistic purposes
  • modification -  slightly modified copy; not an exact copy; the grammatical relation that exists when a word qualifies the meaning of the phrase; the act of making something different (as e.g. the size of a garment); an event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another
  • module -  a self-contained component (unit or item) that is used in combination with other components; computer circuit consisting of an assembly of electronic components (as of computer hardware); detachable compartment of a spacecraft; one of the inherent cognitive or perceptual powers of the mind
  • mold a group of saprobic or parasitic fungi causing a cottony growth on organic substances.
  • molecular biology -  the branch of biology that studies the structure and activity of macromolecules essential to life (and especially with their genetic role)
  • molecular -  relating to simple or elementary organization; relating to or produced by or consisting of molecules
  • monitoring -  the act of observing something (and sometimes keeping a record of it)
  • monoclonal antibody antibody produced from a single clone of cells, which has a uniform structure and specificity.
  • monokaryon fungal hyphae where the compartments contain only nucleus.
  • morphogenesis -  differentiation and growth of the structure of an organism (or a part of an organism)
  • morphology -  the branch of biology that deals with the structure of animals and plants; the branch of geology that studies the characteristics and configuration and evolution of rocks and land forms; the admissible arrangement of sounds in words; studies of the rules for forming admissible words
  • morphometric characters these are characteristics regarding the depth, dimension, sediment distribution, water currents etc.
  • mortality rate -  the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year
  • mortality -  the quality or state of being mortal; the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year
  • motility the ability of a cell to move from one place to another.
  • motility -  ability to move spontaneously and independently; a change of position that does not entail a change of location
  • mouth -  the opening of a jar or bottle; the externally visible part of the oral cavity on the face and the system of organs surrounding the opening; the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge; the point where a stream issues into a larger body of water; an opening that resembles a mouth (as of a cave or a gorge); a person conceived as a consumer of food; an impudent or insolent rejoinder; a spokesperson (as a lawyer); verb articulate silently; form words with the lips only; touch with the mouth; express in speech
  • movement -  the act of changing the location of something; the driving and regulating parts of a mechanism (as of a watch or clock); a major self-contained part of a symphony or sonata; a natural event that involves a change in the position or location of something; a group of people with a common ideology who try together to achieve certain general goals; the act of changing location from one place to another; a change of position that does not entail a change of location; a series of actions advancing a principle or tending toward a particular end; a general tendency to change (as of opinion); an optical illusion of motion produced by viewing a rapid succession of still pictures of a moving object; a euphemism for defecation
  • mucigel gelatinous material found on the surface of roots growing in normal soil.
  • mucilage gelatinous secretions and exudates produced by plant roots and most micro-organisms.
  • mulch materials which are laid down on soil to protect it from rain, crusting, freezing etc. These materials could be sawdust, plastic, leaves etc.
  • multiple -  having or involving or consisting of more than one part or entity or individual;  the product of a quantity by an integer
  • multiplication -  an arithmetic operation that is the inverse of division; the product of two numbers is computed; a multiplicative increase; the act of producing offspring or multiplying by such production
  • multivalent -  having many values, meanings, or appeals; used of the association of three or more homologous chromosomes during the first division of meiosis; having more than one valence, or having a valence of 3 or higher
  • mumps -  an acute contagious viral disease characterized by fever and by swelling of the parotid glands
  • municipal solid waste the total consumer and commercial waste generated in a certain confined and restricted geographic area.
  • mushroom -  fleshy body of any of numerous edible fungi; a large cloud of rubble and dust shaped like a mushroom and rising into the sky after an explosion (especially of a nuclear bomb); any of various fleshy fungi of the subdivision Basidiomycota consisting of a cap at the end of a stem arising from an underground mycelium; common name for an edible agaric (contrasting with the inedible toadstool); verb grow and spread fast; pick or gather mushrooms
  • mutability -  the quality of being capable of mutation
  • mutagenic -  capable of inducing mutation (used mainly of extracellular factors such as X-rays or chemical pollution)
  • mutant -  tending to undergo or resulting from mutation;  an animal that has undergone mutation; (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration
  • mutation -  a change or alteration in form or qualities; (genetics) any event that changes genetic structure; any alteration in the inherited nucleic acid sequence of the genotype of an organism; (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration
  • mycophagous organisms that eat fungi.
  • mycovirus viruses that infect fungi.
  • myxobacteria -  bacteria that form colonies in self-produced slime; inhabit moist soils or decaying plant matter or animal waste
  • nanopore soil pore having dimensions in nanometers.
  • napl a non-aqueous phase liquid which maybe lighter or denser than water.
  • natural -  being talented through inherited qualities; related by blood; not adopted; in accordance with nature; relating to or concerning nature; existing in or produced by nature; not artificial or imitation; existing in or in conformity with nature or the observable world; neither supernatural nor magical; (of a key) containing no sharps or flats; (of a note) being neither raised nor lowered by one chromatic semitone; functioning or occurring in a normal way; lacking abnormalities or deficiencies; (used especially of commodities) being unprocessed or manufactured using only simple or minimal processes; unthinking; prompted by (or as if by) instinct; free from artificiality;  (craps) a first roll of 7 or 11 that immediately wins the stake; a notation cancelling a previous sharp or flat; someone regarded as certain to succeed
  • naturally occurring -  existing by nature and without artificial aid
  • neck -  an opening in a garment for the neck of the wearer; a part of the garment near the wearer's neck; the part of an organism that connects the head to the rest of the body; a cut of meat from the neck of an animal; a narrow elongated projecting strip of land; verb kiss, embrace, or fondle with sexual passion
  • necrotrophic a mechanism by which an organism produces lytic enzymes that kill and then breakdown host cells for its nutrition.
  • nematode eukaryotes that are unsegmented, usually microscopic roundworm.
  • neonatal -  relating to or affecting the infant during the first month after birth
  • neutralism lack of interaction between two organisms in the same habitat.
  • neutralization -  action intended to nullify the effects of some previous action; action intended to keep a country politically neutral or exclude it from a possible war; (euphemism) the removal of a threat by killing or destroying it (especially in a covert operation or military operation); a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base interact with the formation of a salt; with strong acids and bases the essential reaction is the combination of hydrogen ions with hydroxyl ions to form water
  • new -  unfamiliar; having no previous example or precedent or parallel; (of crops) harvested at an early stage of development; before complete maturity; in use after medieval times; not of long duration; having just (or relatively recently) come into being or been made or acquired or discovered; other than the former one(s); different; unaffected by use or exposure; used of a living language; being the current stage in its development; lacking training or experience; original and of a kind not seen before; (of a new kind or fashion) gratuitously new; adv. very recently
  • niche functional role of an organism in a certain habitat.
  • nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nadp+) an important oxidized coenzyme that acts as a hydrogen and electron carrier in various redox reactions.
  • nictotinamide adenine dinucleotide (nad+) an important oxidized coenzyme that is a hydrogen and electron carrier in redox reactions.
  • nitrate reduction (biological) the process of reduction of nitrate to simpler forms like ammonium by plant and micro-organisms.
  • nitric oxide -  a poisonous red-brown gas (NO)
  • nitrification biological oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.
  • nitrifying bacteria chemolithotrophs that can carry out the transformation from ammonia to nitrite or nitrate.
  • nitrogen cycle the cycle where nitrogen is used by a living organism, then after the organism dies is restored to soil, followed by its final conversion to its original state of oxidation.
  • nitrogen fixation -  the assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by soil bacteria and its release for plant use on the death of the bacteria
  • nitrogenase the enzyme required for biological nitrogen fixation.
  • nodulin proteins produced in root hairs or nodules in response to rhizobial infection.
  • nomenclature -  a system of words used to name things in a particular discipline
  • nonpolar a substance that is hydrophobic and does not easily dissolve in water.
  • normal -  conforming with or constituting a norm or standard or level or type or social norm; not abnormal; being approximately average or within certain limits in e.g. intelligence and development; in accordance with scientific laws; forming a right angle;  something regarded as a normative example
  • northern blot hybridization of single stranded dna or rna to rna fragments.
  • nucleic acid a high molecular weight nucleotide polymer.
  • nucleoid the nuclear region of certain organisms like bacteria, which contains chromosomes, but which is not limited by a nuclear membrane.
  • nucleophilic compound an electron donor in chemical reactions involving covalent catalysis in which the donated electrons bond with other chemical groups.
  • number -  an item of merchandise offered for sale; a clothing measurement; the property possessed by a sum or total or indefinite quantity of units or individuals; the grammatical category for the forms of s and pros and verbs that are used depending on the number of entities involved (singular or dual or plural); a numeral or string of numerals that is used for identification; a select company of people; a concept of quantity derived from zero and units; the number is used in calling a particular telephone; one of a series published periodically; a symbol used to represent a number; a short theatrical performance that is part of a longer program; verb place a limit on the number of; enumerate; give numbers to; determine the number or amount of; add up in number or quantity; put into a group
  • numbers -  the fourth book of the Old Testament; contains a record of the number of Israelites who followed Moses out of Egypt; an illegal daily lottery
  • nutritional -  of or relating to or providing nutrition
  • obligate -  restricted to a particular condition of life; verb commit in order to fulfill an obligation; bind by an obligation; cause to be indebted; force or compel somebody to do something
  • ocean -  a large body of water constituting a principal part of the hydrosphere; anything apparently limitless in quantity or volume
  • oligonucleotide a short nucleic acid chain, which is obtained from an organism or is synthesized chemically.
  • oligotroph a microorganism that has adapted itself to grow in environments that are low in nutrients.
  • onwards - adv. in a forward direction
  • oospore thick walled spore formed in an oogonium by fungus like organisms like the phylum oomycota.
  • operon genes whose expression is controlled by a single operator.
  • optimization -  the act of rendering optimal
  • oral -  a stage in psychosexual development when the child's interest is concentrated in the mouth; fixation at this stage is said to result in dependence, selfishness, and aggression; of or involving the mouth or mouth region or the surface on which the mouth is located; using speech rather than writing; of or relating to or affecting or for use in the mouth;  an examination conducted by word of mouth
  • organism -  a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently; a system considered analogous in structure or function to a living body
  • orientation -  the act of orienting; a person's awareness of self with regard to position and time and place and personal relationships; an integrated set of attitudes and beliefs; position or alignment relative to points of the compass or other specific directions; a course introducing a new situation or environment; a predisposition in favor of something
  • origin -  properties attributable to your ancestry; the point of intersection of coordinate axes; where the values of the coordinates are all zero; an event that is a beginning; a first part or stage of subsequent events; the descendants of one individual; the place where something begins, where it springs into being
  • oversight -  a mistake resulting from inattention; an unintentional omission resulting from failure to notice something; management by overseeing the performance or operation of a person or group
  • overview -  a general summary of a subject
  • oxidation -  the process of oxidizing; the addition of oxygen to a compound with a loss of electrons; always occurs accompanied by reduction
  • pH – Level of acidity or alkalinity in a product. The pH scale ranges from 1 to 14, with 7 considered neutral, 1 the most acidic, and 14 the most alkaline. Fresh meat usually has a pH near 5.6.
  • packing -  carrying something in a pack on the back; the enclosure of something in a package or box; any material used especially to protect something
  • pallidum -  the inner pale yellow part of the lenticular nucleus
  • pandemic -  existing everywhere; epidemic over a wide geographical area;  an epidemic that is geographically widespread; occurring throughout a region or even throughout the world
  • parasexual cycle a nuclear cycle wherein genes of haploid nuclei recombine without meiosis.
  • parasitic -  of plants or persons; having the nature or habits of a parasite or leech; living off another; relating to or caused by parasites; of or pertaining to epenthesis
  • parasitism feeding by one organism on the cells of a second, normally larger organism, thus, harming the host.
  • particle density density of particles present in soil.
  • particle size effective diameter of a particle measured by sedimentation or micrometric mathods.
  • particle -  a function word that can be used in English to form phrasal verbs; a body having finite mass and internal structure but negligible dimensions; (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything
  • particulate -  composed of distinct particles;  a small discrete mass of solid or liquid matter that remains individually dispersed in gas or liquid emissions (usually considered to be an atmospheric pollutant)
  • passive -  lacking in energy or will; expressing that the subject of the sentence is the patient of the action denoted by the verb; peacefully resistant in response to injustice;  the voice used to indicate that the grammatical subject of the verb is the recipient (not the source) of the action denoted by the verb
  • pasteurization process of using heat to kill or reduce the activity of micro-organisms in heat:sensitive materials.
  • pathogen suppressive soil soil where a pathogen does not persist, either in its own survival or in its pathogenicity.
  • pathogen an organism that is capable of causing an infection, or harming a host cell.
  • pathogenesis -  the origination and development of a disease
  • pathogenic -  able to cause disease
  • pathogenicity the ability of a parasite to infect or inflict damage on a host.
  • pathway -  a trodden path; a bundle of myelinated nerve fibers following a path through the brain
  • peat unconsolidated soil material consisting mostly of undecomposed organic matter with excessive moisture content.
  • pellicle a rigid protein layer just below the cell membrane.
  • pelvic -  of or relating to the pelvis
  • peptidoglycan rigid cell wall layer seen in bacteria. It's also called murein.
  • perception -  the process of perceiving; knowledge gained by perceiving; a way of conceiving something; becoming aware of something via the senses; the representation of what is perceived; basic component in the formation of a concept
  • perfect -  precisely accurate or exact; being complete of its kind and without defect or blemish; without qualification; used informally as (often pejorative) intensifiers;  a tense of verbs used in describing action that has been completed (sometimes regarded as perfective aspect); verb make perfect or complete
  • peribacteroid membrane a plant derived membrane which surrounds rhizobia in host cells of legume nodules.
  • periodontal disease -  a disease that attacks the gum and bone and around the teeth
  • periplasmic space the area between the cell membrane and cell wall in gram negative bacteria.
  • perithecium flask shaped ascocarp open at the tip.
  • peritrichous flagellation multiple flagella present all over the cell surface.
  • permanent wilting point the highest concentration of soil at which plants present in it, will irreversibly wilt when placed in a humid chamber.
  • persistence -  the act of persisting or persevering; continuing or repeating behavior; persistent determination; the property of a continuous and connected period of time
  • pestis -  a serious (sometimes fatal) infection of rodents caused by Yersinia pestis and accidentally transmitted to humans by the bite of a flea that has bitten an infected animal
  • phage -  a virus that is parasitic in bacteria
  • pharmacokinetics -  the study of the action of drugs in the body: method and rate of excretion; duration of effect; etc.
  • phosphate -  carbonated drink with fruit syrup and a little phosphoric acid; a salt of phosphoric acid
  • phosphobacterium bacteria that are good at dissolving insoluble inorganic phosphate that is present in soil.
  • photoautotroph self:sufficient organisms that can generate energy from light and carbon dioxide.
  • photoheterotroph organisms able to use light as source of energy and organic materials as carbon source.
  • photophosphorylation synthesis of high energy phosphate bonds by the use of light as source of energy.
  • photosynthesis -  synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants)
  • phototaxis movement of an organism, or a part of it, towards light.
  • phycobilin water soluble pigment that is seen in cyanobacteria and is the light harvesting pigment for photosystem ii.
  • phylogenetic -  of or relating to the evolutionary development of organisms
  • phylogeny -  (biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms
  • physical -  having substance or material existence; perceptible to the senses; concerned with material things; characterized by energetic bodily activity; according with material things or natural laws (other than those peculiar to living matter); involving the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit; relating to the sciences dealing with matter and energy; especially physics; impelled by physical force especially against resistance
  • physiology -  processes and functions of an organism; the branch of the biological sciences dealing with the functioning of organisms
  • phytoextraction the use of plants or algae for removing contaminants from soil, sediments or water, and turning them into harvestable plant biomass.
  • pilus fimbria like substance present on fertile cells that deals with transfer of dna during the process of conjugation.
  • planned -  designed or carried out according to a plan; planned in advance
  • plaque a localized area of lysis or cell inhibition which is caused due to virus infection.
  • plasmid -  a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication
  • plasmogamy fusion of two cell contents, inclusive of the cytoplasm and nuclei.
  • plate count number of colonies formed on a solid culture medium, when uniformly inoculated with a known amount of soil.
  • pleomorphic -  relating to or characterized by pleomorphism
  • plot -  a secret scheme to do something (especially something underhand or illegal); the story that is told in a novel or play or movie etc.; a chart or map showing the movements or progress of an object; a small area of ground covered by specific vegetation; verb plan secretly, usually something illegal; make a plat of; make a schematic or technical drawing of that shows how things work or how they are constructed
  • polar flagellation the presence of flagella at one or both ends.
  • polar -  having a pair of equal and opposite charges; of or existing at or near a geographical pole or within the Arctic or Antarctic Circles; located at or near or coming from the earth's poles; being of crucial importance; extremely cold; characterized by opposite extremes; completely opposed
  • polymorphism -  (biology) the existence of two or more forms of individuals within the same animal species (independent of sex differences); (chemistry) the existence of different kinds of crystal of the same chemical compound
  • pour plate the method of performing a plate count of micro-organisms.
  • practical -  having or put to a practical purpose or use; concerned with actual use or practice; guided by practical experience and observation rather than theory; being actually such in almost every respect
  • predatory -  living by preying on other animals especially by catching living prey; living by or given to victimizing others for personal gain; characterized by plundering or pillaging or marauding
  • prediction -  the act of predicting (as by reasoning about the future); a statement made about the future
  • predominance -  the state of being predominant over others; the quality of being more noticeable than anything else
  • pregnancy -  the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus
  • preparation -  the activity of putting or setting in order in advance of some act or purpose; (music) a note that produces a dissonant chord is first heard in a consonant chord; the act of preparing something (as food) by the application of heat; preparatory school work done outside school (especially at home); activity leading to skilled behavior; the cognitive process of thinking about what you will do in the event of something happening; the state of having been made ready or prepared for use or action (especially military action); a substance prepared according to a formula
  • prevalence -  the quality of prevailing generally; being widespread; (epidemiology) the ratio (for a given time period) of the number of occurrences of a disease or event to the number of units at risk in the population; a superiority in numbers or amount
  • prevention -  the act of preventing
  • priming -  the act of making something ready; the first or preliminary coat of paint or size applied to a surface; any igniter that is used to initiate the burning of a propellant
  • principle -  a basic truth or law or assumption; a rule or law concerning a natural phenomenon or the function of a complex system; a basic generalization that is accepted as true and that can be used as a basis for reasoning or conduct; a rule or standard especially of good behavior; rule of personal conduct; (law) an explanation of the fundamental reasons (especially an explanation of the working of some device in terms of laws of nature)
  • probabilistic -  of or relating to or based on probability; of or relating to the Roman Catholic philosophy of probabilism
  • probe -  an investigation conducted using a flexible surgical instrument to explore an injury or a body cavity; an exploratory action or expedition; a flexible slender surgical instrument used to explore wounds or body cavities; an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities; verb question or examine thoroughly and closely; examine physically with or as if with a probe
  • processing -  preparing or putting through a prescribed procedure
  • production -  (law) the act of exhibiting in a court of law; the act or process of producing something; the creation of value or wealth by producing goods and services; (economics) manufacturing or mining or growing something (usually in large quantities) for sale; a presentation for the stage or screen or radio or television; a display that is exaggerated or unduly complicated; an artifact that has been created by someone or some process; the quantity of something (as a commodity) that is created (usually within a given period of time)
  • prokaryotic -  having cells that lack membrane-bound nuclei
  • proliferation -  growth by the rapid multiplication of parts; a rapid increase in number (especially a rapid increase in the number of deadly weapons)
  • propagation -  the spreading of something (a belief or practice) into new regions; the movement of a wave through a medium; the act of producing offspring or multiplying by such production
  • prophylactic -  preventing or contributing to the prevention of disease; tending to ward off; capable of preventing conception or impregnation;  contraceptive device consisting of a sheath of thin rubber or latex that is worn over the penis during intercourse; remedy that prevents or slows the course of an illness or disease
  • prophylaxis -  the prevention of disease
  • protection -  payment extorted by gangsters on threat of violence; the activity of protecting someone or something; the imposition of duties or quotas on imports in order to protect domestic industry against foreign competition; the condition of being protected; kindly endorsement and guidance; a covering that is intend to protect from damage or injury; defense against financial failure; financial independence
  • protein -  any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes
  • proton -  a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron
  • protoplast a cell devoid of cell wall.
  • protozoa -  in some classifications considered a superphylum or a subkingdom; comprises flagellates; ciliates; sporozoans; amoebas; foraminifers
  • protozoal -  of or relating to the Protozoa
  • psychrotroph an organism that is able to grow at zero degrees and above twenty degrees celsius.
  • published -  prepared and printed for distribution and sale; formally made public
  • pure culture a microorganism population of a single strain.
  • purification -  the act of purging of sin or guilt; moral or spiritual cleansing; a ceremonial cleansing from defilement or uncleanness by the performance of appropriate rites; the act of cleaning by getting rid of impurities; the process of removing impurities (as from oil or metals or sugar etc.)
  • radioimmunoassay an immunological assay that makes use of radioactive antibodies or antigens to detect certain substances.
  • random -  lacking any definite plan or order or purpose; governed by or depending on chance; taken haphazardly
  • rate -  amount of a charge or payment relative to some basis; a quantity or amount or measure considered as a proportion of another quantity or amount or measure; a magnitude or frequency relative to a time unit; the relative speed of progress or change; verb assign a rank or rating to; estimate the value of; be worthy of or have a certain rating
  • rates -  a local tax on property (usually used in the plural)
  • ratio -  the relative magnitudes of two quantities (usually expressed as a quotient)
  • reaction center a photosynthetic complex containing chlorophyll and other compounds.
  • reannealing the process seen on cooling, where two complementary strands of dna hybridize back into a single strand.
  • recalcitrant resistance of an organism to a microbial attack.
  • receptor -  a cellular structure that is postulated to exist in order to mediate between a chemical agent that acts on nervous tissue and the physiological response; an organ having nerve endings (in the skin or viscera or eye or ear or nose or mouth) that respond to stimulation
  • recombinant DNA technology -  the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism
  • recombination process by which genetic elements in two separate genomes are brought together in one unit. This is an important step in gene therapy.
  • recombination -  (genetics) a combining of genes or characters different from what they were in the parents; (physics) a combining of charges or transfer of electrons in a gas that results in the neutralization of ions; important for ions arising from the passage of high-energy particles
  • reduction -  the act of reducing complexity; any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen); always occurs accompanied by oxidation of the reducing agent; the act of decreasing or reducing something
  • regulation -  prescribed by or according to regulation;  the act of controlling or directing according to rule; the act of bringing to uniformity; making regular; an authoritative rule; (embryology) the ability of an early embryo to continue normal development after its structure has been somehow damaged or altered; the state of being controlled or governed; a principle or condition that customarily governs behavior
  • relatedness -  a particular manner of connectedness
  • release -  (music) the act or manner of terminating a musical phrase or tone; a formal written statement of relinquishment; activity that frees or expresses creative energy or emotion; merchandise issued for sale or public showing (especially a record or film); a device that when pressed will release part of a mechanism; a process that liberates or discharges something; the act of liberating someone or something; the termination of someone's employment (leaving them free to depart); the act of allowing a fluid to escape; a legal document evidencing the discharge of a debt or obligation; an ancement distributed to members of the press in order to supplement or replace an oral presentation; euphemistic expressions for death; verb part with a possession or right; generate and separate from cells or bodily fluids; eliminate (substances) from the body; make (assets) available; prepare and issue for public distribution or sale; let (something) fall or spill a container; release, as from one's grip; grant freedom to; free from confinement; make (information) available publication
  • repair -  the act of putting something in working order again; a formal way of referring to the condition of something; a frequently visited place; verb restore by replacing a part or putting together what is torn or broken; move, travel, or proceed toward some place; give new life or energy to; set straight or right; make amends for; pay compensation for
  • replication conversion of one double stranded dna molecule into two identical double stranded dna molecules.
  • replication -  the repetition of an experiment in order to test the validity of its conclusion; (law) a pleading made by a plaintiff in reply to the defendant's plea or answer; (genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division; the act of making copies; copy that is not the original; something that has been copied; the persistence of a sound after its source has stopped; a quick reply to a question or remark (especially a witty or critical one)
  • repression process by which an enzyme synthesis is suppressed due to the presence of certain external substance.
  • reproduction -  the sexual activity of conceiving and bearing offspring; the act of making copies; recall that is hypothesized to work by storing the original stimulus input and reproducing it during recall; the process of generating offspring; copy that is not the original; something that has been copied
  • requirement -  required activity; something that is required in advance; anything indispensable
  • resistance -  the action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with; the military action of resisting the enemy's advance; group action in opposition to those in power; (psychiatry) an unwillingness to bring repressed feelings into conscious awareness; the degree of unresponsiveness of a disease-causing microorganism to antibiotics or other drugs (as in penicillin-resistant bacteria); any mechanical force that tends to retard or oppose motion; an electrical device that resists the flow of electrical current; a secret group organized to overthrow a government or occupation force; a material's opposition to the flow of electric current; measured in ohms; (medicine) the condition in which an organism can resist disease
  • respiration -  the metabolic processes whereby certain organisms obtain energy from organic molecules; processes that take place in the cells and tissues during which energy is released and carbon dioxide is produced and absorbed by the blood to be transported to the lungs; a single complete act of breathing in and out; the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation; the process of taking in oxygen from inhaled air and releasing carbon dioxide by exhalation
  • restriction -  the act of keeping something within specified bounds (by force if necessary); a principle that limits the extent of something; an act of limiting or restricting (as by regulation)
  • retinitis -  inflammation of the retina
  • reverse transcription process of copying information from rna to dna.
  • reversed -  turned inside out and resewn; turned about in order or relation
  • rhizobacteria bacteria that are found in roots, where they aggressively colonize.
  • rhizobia bacteria capable of living symbiotically in leguminous plant roots, from where they receive energy and commonly fix molecular dinitrogen.
  • rhizomorph mass of fungal hyphae that are organized in long, thick strands with a darkly pigmented outer rind that contains specialized tissues for absorption and water transport.
  • rhizoplane plant root surface and strongly adhering soil particles.
  • rhizosphere competence ability of an organism to colonize the rhizosphere.
  • rhizosphere the zone of soil immediately adjacent to plant roots in which the activity and type of micro-organisms present differ from that in the rest of the soil.
  • ritonavir -  a protease inhibitor (trade name Norvir) used in treating HIV
  • rod -  any rod-shaped bacterium; a long thin implement made of metal or wood; visual receptor cell sensitive to dim light; a gangster's pistol; a square rod of land; a linear measure of 16.5 feet
  • role -  normal or customary activity of a person in a particular social setting; the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group; what something is used for; an actor's portrayal of someone in a play
  • rotation -  the act of rotating as if on an axis; a planned recurrent sequence (of crops or personnel etc.); a single complete turn (axial or orbital); (mathematics) a transformation in which the coordinate axes are rotated by a fixed angle about the origin
  • rule -  measuring stick consisting of a strip of wood or metal or plastic with a straight edge that is used for drawing straight lines and measuring lengths; a principle or condition that customarily governs behavior; (mathematics) a standard procedure for solving a class of mathematical problems; any one of a systematic body of regulations defining the way of life of members of a religious order; prescribed guide for conduct or action; directions that define the way a game or sport is to be conducted; (linguistics) a rule describing (or prescribing) a linguistic practice; the duration of a monarch's or government's power; something regarded as a normative example; a rule or law concerning a natural phenomenon or the function of a complex system; a basic generalization that is accepted as true and that can be used as a basis for reasoning or conduct; dominance or power through legal authority; verb keep in check; decide with authority; decide on and make a declaration about; mark or draw with a ruler; have an affinity with; of signs of the zodiac; exercise authority over; as of nations; be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance
  • rumen -  the first compartment of the stomach of a ruminant; here food is collected and returned to the mouth as cud for chewing
  • safety -  a score in American football; a player is tackled behind his own goal line; a safe place; the state of being certain that adverse effects will not be caused by some agent under defined conditions; (baseball) the successful act of striking a baseball in such a way that the batter reaches base safely; contraceptive device consisting of a sheath of thin rubber or latex that is worn over the penis during intercourse; a device designed to prevent injury
  • saliva -  a clear liquid secreted into the mouth by the salivary glands and mucous glands of the mouth; moistens the mouth and starts the digestion of starches
  • sanitization elimination of pathogenic or harmful organisms, including insect larvae, intestinal parasites and weed seeds.
  • scale up - verb increase proportionally
  • schematic -  represented in simplified or symbolic form;  diagram of an electrical or mechanical system
  • sclerotium modified fungal hyphae that form a compact and hard vegetative resting structure with a thick pigmented outer rind.
  • scores -  a large number or amount
  • seafood -  edible fish (broadly including freshwater fish) or shellfish or roe etc
  • second -  having the second highest gear ratio; coming next after first; a part or voice or instrument or orchestra section lower in pitch than or subordinate to the first; coming next after the first in position in space or time or degree or magnitude; adv. in the second place;  a speech seconding a motion; the official attendant of a contestant in a duel or boxing match; a 60th part of a minute of arc; following the first in an ordering or series; 1/60 of a minute; the basic unit of time adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites; the fielding position of the player on a baseball team who is stationed near the second of the bases in the infield; merchandise that has imperfections; usually sold at a reduced price without the brand name; the gear that has the second lowest forward gear ratio in the gear box of a motor vehicle; a particular point in time; an indefinitely short time; verb transfer an employee to a different, temporary assignment; give support or one's approval to
  • secondary metabolite product of intermediary metabolism released from a cell, for example, antibiotic.
  • secondary -  belonging to a lower class or rank; not of major importance; being of second rank or importance or value; not direct or immediate; depending on or incidental to what is original or primary; inferior in rank or status;  the defensive football players who line up behind the linemen; coil such that current is induced in it by passing a current through the primary coil
  • secrecy -  the trait of keeping things secret; the condition of being concealed or hidden
  • secretion -  a functionally specialized substance (especially one that is not a waste) released from a gland or cell; the organic process of synthesizing and releasing some substance
  • secretory -  of or relating to or producing a secretion
  • see -  the seat within a bishop's diocese where his cathedral is located; verb be careful or certain to do something; make certain of something; deem to be; deliberate or decide; match or meet; receive as a specified guest; accompany or escort; perceive by sight or have the power to perceive by sight; see and understand, have a good eye; observe as if with an eye; go to see for professional or business reasons; go to see for a social visit; perceive (an idea or situation) mentally; get to know or become aware of, usually accidentally; make sense of; assign a meaning to; find out, learn, or determine with certainty, usually by making an inquiry or other effort; imagine; conceive of; see in one's mind; come together; go or live through; perceive or be contemporaneous with; observe, check out, and look over carefully or inspect; see or watch; date regularly; have a steady relationship with; visit a place, as for entertainment; take charge of or deal with
  • selective medium a medium that is biased in allowing only certain types of micro-organisms to grow.
  • selective -  tending to select; characterized by careful choice; characterized by very careful or fastidious selection
  • selectivity -  the property of being selective
  • sensing -  becoming aware of something via the senses; the perception that something has occurred or some state exists
  • sensitivity -  the ability to respond to affective changes in your interpersonal environment; the ability to respond to physical stimuli or to register small physical amounts or differences; (physiology) responsiveness to external stimuli; the faculty of sensation; sensitivity to emotional feelings (of self and others); susceptibility to a pathogen
  • serial dilution series of stepwise dilutions, normally done in sterile water, which is done to reduce microorganism populations to manageable numbers.
  • serology study of reactions that take place between antigens and antibodies in vitro.
  • setting -  the context and environment in which something is set; the physical position of something; the state of the environment in which a situation exists; arrangement of scenery and properties to represent the place where a play or movie is enacted; a mounting consisting of a piece of metal (as in a ring or other jewelry) that holds a gem in place; a table service for one person
  • severity -  excessive sternness; extreme plainness; something hard to endure; used of the degree of something undesirable e.g. pain or weather
  • shape -  the spatial arrangement of something as distinct from its substance; any spatial attributes (especially as defined by outline); a concrete representation of an otherwise nebulous concept; the visual appearance of something or someone; alternative names for the body of a human being; a perceptual structure; the supreme headquarters that advises NATO on military matters and oversees all aspects of the Allied Command Europe; the state of (good) health (especially in the phrases `in condition' or `in shape' or `out of condition' or `out of shape'); verb give shape or form to; make something, usually for a specific function; shape or influence; give direction to
  • sheath tubular structure that is found either around a chain of cells or around a bundle of filaments.
  • siderochromes the compounds that are synthesized by the micro-organisms themselves, which are responsible for iron uptake.
  • siderophore a metabolite that is formed by some micro-organisms, that forms a strong coordination compound with iron.
  • signal -  notably out of the ordinary;  any communication that encodes a message; any incitement to action; an electric quantity (voltage or current or field strength) whose modulation represents coded information about the source from which it comes; verb be a signal for or a symptom of; communicate silently and non-verbally by signals or signs
  • signaling -  any communication that encodes a message
  • significance -  the quality of being significant; a meaning that is not expressly stated but can be inferred; the message that is intended or expressed or signified
  • silent -  having a frequency below or above the range of human audibility; not made to sound; marked by absence of sound; unable to speak because of hereditary deafness; failing to speak or communicate etc when expected to; indicated by necessary connotation though not expressed directly
  • simulated -  reproduced or made to resemble; imitative in character; not genuine or real; being an imitation of the genuine article
  • size -  (used in combination) sized;  the property resulting from being one of a series of graduated measurements (as of clothing); the physical magnitude of something (how big it is); a large magnitude; the actual state of affairs; any glutinous material used to fill pores in surfaces or to stiffen fabrics; verb make to a size; bring to a suitable size; sort according to size; cover or stiffen or glaze a porous material with size or sizing (a glutinous substance)
  • skin -  an outer surface (usually thin); a bag serving as a container for liquids; it is made from the hide of an animal; a natural protective body covering and site of the sense of touch; a person's skin regarded as their life; the tissue forming the hard outer layer (of e.g. a fruit); body covering of a living animal; the rind of a fruit or vegetable; verb strip the skin off; bruise, cut, or injure the skin or the surface of; remove the bark of a tree; climb awkwardly, as if by scrambling
  • slime layer a diffuse layer found immediately outside the cell wall in certain bacteria.
  • slime mold micro-organisms that are eukaryotic and which lack cell walls.
  • smallpox -  a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever and weakness and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs that slough off leaving scars
  • software -  (computer science) written programs or procedures or rules and associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a computer system and that are stored in read/write memory
  • soil -  the part of the earth's surface consisting of humus and disintegrated rock; the geographical area under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state; material in the top layer of the surface of the earth in which plants can grow (especially with reference to its quality or use); the state of being covered with unclean things; verb make soiled, filthy, or dirty
  • solarization a technique to control the growth of pathogens, wherein a plastic sheet is used to cover moistened soil in hot climates, thereby trapping the incoming radiation.
  • soluble -  (of a substance) capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water); susceptible of solution or of being solved or explained
  • source -  a facility where something is available; anything that provides inspiration for later work; a document (or organization) from which information is obtained; (technology) a process by which energy or a substance enters a system; a publication (or a passage from a publication) that is referred to; the place where something begins, where it springs into being; anything (a person or animal or plant or substance) in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies; someone who originates or causes or initiates something; a person who supplies information; verb specify the origin of; get (a product) from another country or business
  • specialized -  marked by or characteristic of specialization in a mechanical or scientific subject; developed or designed for a special activity or function
  • species -  a specific kind of something; (biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
  • specific activity expressed as micromoles formed per unit time per milligram of protein, this is the amount of enzyme activity units per mass of protein.
  • specificity -  the quality of being specific rather than general; the quality of being specific to a particular organism
  • speed -  changing location rapidly; a rate (usually rapid) at which something happens; distance travelled per unit time; a central nervous system stimulant that increases energy and decreases appetite; used to treat narcolepsy and some forms of depression; the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of a (camera) lens system; verb travel at an excessive or illegal velocity; move faster; cause to move faster; move very fast; step on it
  • spermosphere the area seen around a germinating seed, where there is increased microbiological activity.
  • sporulation -  asexual reproduction by the production and release of spores
  • spread plate a technique for performing a plate count of micro-organisms.
  • stability -  the quality or attribute of being firm and steadfast; a stable order; the quality of being enduring and free from change or variation
  • stable -  maintaining equilibrium; not taking part readily in chemical change; firm and dependable; subject to little fluctuation; resistant to change of position or condition; showing little if any change;  a farm building for housing horses or other livestock; verb shelter in a stable
  • stalked -  having or growing on or from a peduncle or stalk
  • staphylococcal -  of or relating to the staphylococcus bacteria
  • starvation -  the act of depriving of food or subjecting to famine; a state of extreme hunger resulting from lack of essential nutrients over a prolonged period
  • steam -  water at boiling temperature diffused in the atmosphere; verb cook something by letting steam pass over it; clean by means of steaming; get very angry; rise as vapor; emit steam; travel by means of steam power
  • sterilization the process whereby an object or surface is rendered free of any living micro-organisms.
  • sterilization -  the procedure of making some object free of live bacteria or other microorganisms (usually by heat or chemical means); the act of making an organism barren or infertile (unable to reproduce)
  • stoichiometry -  (chemistry) the relation between the quantities of substances that take part in a reaction or form a compound (typically a ratio of whole integers)
  • stomach -  an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal; the principal organ of digestion; an appetite for food; an inclination or liking for things involving conflict or difficulty or unpleasantness; the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis; verb bear to eat; put up with something or somebody unpleasant
  • storage polysaccharide the energy reserves which are stored in a cell when there is excess of carbon available.
  • storage -  the act of storing something; the commercial enterprise of storing goods and materials; (computer science) the process of storing information in a computer memory or on a magnetic tape or disk; depositing in a warehouse; an electronic memory device; a depository for goods
  • stored -  accumulated until needed
  • strain population of cells, all of which arise from a single pure isolate.
  • strategy -  the branch of military science dealing with military command and the planning and conduct of a war; an elaborate and systematic plan of action
  • stratum corneum -  the outermost layer of the epidermis consisting of dead cells that slough off
  • streptococcal -  of or relating to or caused by streptococci
  • structural -  concerned with systematic structure in a particular field of study; affecting or involved in structure or construction; relating to or having or characterized by structure; relating to or caused by structure, especially political or economic structure; relating to or concerned with the morphology of plants and animals; pertaining to geological structure
  • structure -  a thing constructed; a complex entity constructed of many parts; the manner of construction of something and the arrangement of its parts; a particular complex anatomical part; the complex composition of knowledge as elements and their combinations; the people in a society considered as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships; verb give a structure to
  • subacute -  less than acute; relating to a disease present in a person with no symptoms of it
  • subcutaneous -  relating to or located below the epidermis
  • substrate a base on which an organism is grown. They can also be the substances on which compounds and enzymes act.
  • sulfur cycle the cycle wherein sulfur, the element is taken up by living organisms, then released upon the death of the organism, and then converted to its final state of oxidation.
  • surface -  on the surface; involving a surface only;  the outer boundary of an artifact or a material layer constituting or resembling such a boundary; a superficial aspect as opposed to the real nature of something; the extended two-dimensional outer boundary of a three-dimensional object; the outermost level of the land or sea; a device that provides reactive force when in motion relative to the surrounding air; can lift or control a plane in flight; information that has become public; verb come to the surface; appear or become visible; make a showing; put a coat on; cover the surface of; furnish with a surface
  • survival -  something that survives; a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment; a state of surviving; remaining alive
  • susceptibility -  the state of being susceptible; easily affected
  • symbiosis two dissimilar organisms, living together. Their association maybe commensal or mutualistic.
  • symbiosis -  the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other
  • symbiotic -  used of organisms (especially of different species) living together but not necessarily in a relation beneficial to each
  • syndrome -  a complex of concurrent things; a pattern of symptoms indicative of some disease
  • synergism association between two organisms that is mutually beneficial.
  • synergy -  the working together of two things (muscles or drugs for example) to produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects
  • synthesis -  the combination of ideas into a complex whole; the process of producing a chemical compound (usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds); reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)
  • synthetic -  of a proposition whose truth value is determined by observation or facts; systematic combining of root and modifying elements into single words; involving or of the nature of synthesis (combining separate elements to form a coherent whole) as opposed to analysis; not genuine or natural; artificial as if portrayed in a film; not of natural origin; prepared or made artificially;  a compound made artificially by chemical reactions
  • syntrophy interaction between two or more populations that supply each other's nutritional needs.
  • syphilis -  a common venereal disease caused by the treponema pallidum spirochete; symptoms change through progressive stages; can be congenital (transmitted through the placenta)
  • system -  instrumentality that combines interrelated interacting artifacts designed to work as a coherent entity; the living body considered as made up of interdependent components forming a unified whole; a group of physiologically or anatomically related organs or parts; a complex of methods or rules governing behavior; a procedure or process for obtaining an objective; a group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole; (physical chemistry) a sample of matter in which substances in different phases are in equilibrium; an ordered manner; orderliness by virtue of being methodical and well organized; an organized structure for arranging or classifying
  • systematics -  the science of systematic classification
  • systemic something that involves the entire body and is not localized in the body.
  • systemic -  affecting an entire system
  • tailed -  having a tail of a specified kind; often used in combination
  • taxonomy -  practice of classifying plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships; (biology) study of the general principles of scientific classification; a classification of organisms into groups based on similarities of structure or origin etc
  • technology -  the practical application of science to commerce or industry; the discipline dealing with the art or science of applying scientific knowledge to practical problems
  • teichoic acids all wall, membrane or capsular polymers containing glycerophosphate or ribitol phosphate residues.
  • telemorph one of the stages of sexual reproduction, wherein cells are formed by meiosis and genetic recombination.
  • temperate virus a virus that does not cause destruction and lysis of the cells of its host, but instead, its genome may replicate in sync with that of the host.
  • temperate -  not extreme in behavior; (of weather or climate) free from extremes; mild; or characteristic of such weather or climate; not extreme
  • terminal electron acceptor the last acceptor of the electron, as it exits the electron transport chain.
  • termination -  the act of ending something; a coming to an end of a contract period; the end of a word (a suffix or inflectional ending or final morpheme); something that results; a place where something ends or is complete
  • terminology -  a system of words used to name things in a particular discipline
  • terrorism -  the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature; this is done through intimidation or coercion or instilling fear
  • tetracycline -  an antibiotic (trade name Achromycin) derived from microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces and used broadly to treat infections
  • theoretical -  concerned primarily with theories or hypotheses rather than practical considerations; concerned with theories rather than their practical applications
  • theory -  a belief that can guide behavior; a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world; an organized system of accepted knowledge that applies in a variety of circumstances to explain a specific set of phenomena; a tentative theory about the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena
  • thermocline that point in a lake, where there is a drastic drop in temperature with increase in depth.
  • thermophile an organism that grows best at temperatures around and degrees celsius.
  • ti plasmid a conjugative tumor inducing plasmid that can transfer genes into plants. Seen in the bacterium agrobacterium tunefaciens.
  • tightening -  the act of making something tighter
  • tolerance -  the act of tolerating something; the power or capacity of an organism to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions; willingness to recognize and respect the beliefs or practices of others; a disposition to allow freedom of choice and behavior; a permissible difference; allowing some freedom to move within limits
  • topical -  of interest at the present time; pertaining to the surface of a body part; of or relating to or arranged by topics
  • topology -  the configuration of a communication network; the branch of pure mathematics that deals only with the properties of a figure X that hold for every figure into which X can be transformed with a one-to-one correspondence that is continuous in both directions; topographic study of a given place (especially the history of place as indicated by its topography); the study of anatomy based on regions or divisions of the body and emphasizing the relations between various structures (muscles and nerves and arteries etc.) in that region
  • torque -  a twisting force
  • toxic -  of or relating to or caused by a toxin or poison
  • toxicity -  the degree to which something is poisonous; grave harmfulness or deadliness
  • toxin a foreign substance present in the body, which is mostly generated by micro-organisms, that is capable of inflicting damage on the host cell.
  • toxin -  a poisonous substance produced during the metabolism and growth of certain microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species
  • traditional -  consisting of or derived from tradition; pertaining to time-honored orthodox doctrines
  • transcription -  a sound or television recording (e.g., from a broadcast to a tape recording); something written, especially copied from one medium to another, as a typewritten version of dictation; (genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA; the process whereby a base sequence of messenger RNA is synthesized on a template of complementary DNA; the act of making a record (especially an audio record); the act of arranging and adapting a piece of music
  • transduction the process where host genetic information is transferred through an agent like a virus or a bacteriophage.
  • transduction -  the process whereby a transducer accepts energy in one form and gives back related energy in a different form; (genetics) the process of transfering genetic material from one cell to another by a plasmid or bacteriophage
  • transfer -  the act of transfering something from one form to another; transferring ownership; application of a skill learned in one situation to a different but similar situation; a ticket that allows a passenger to change conveyances; someone who transfers or is transferred from one position to another; the act of moving something from one location to another; verb transfer from one place or period to another; move around; change from one vehicle or transportation line to another; cause to change ownership; move from one place to another; transfer somebody to a different position or location of work; send from one person or place to another; lift and reset in another soil or situation; shift the position or location of, as for business, legal, educational, or military purposes
  • transferable -  legally transferable to the ownership of another; capable of being moved or conveyed from one place to another
  • transferrin -  a globulin in blood plasma that carries iron
  • transformation -  the act of changing in form or shape or appearance; (genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA; a rule describing the conversion of one syntactic structure into another related syntactic structure; a qualitative change; (mathematics) a function that changes the position or direction of the axes of a coordinate system
  • transgenic genetically modified plants or organisms, which contain foreign genes, which have been inserted by means of recombinant dna techniques.
  • translation -  the act of uniform movement; rewording something in less technical terminology; a written communication in a second language having the same meaning as the written communication in a first language; a uniform movement without rotation; (genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm; (mathematics) a transformation in which the origin of the coordinate system is moved to another position but the direction of each axis remains the same; the act of changing in form or shape or appearance
  • translocation -  (genetics) an exchange of chromosome parts; the transport of dissolved material within a plant
  • transmission -  the act of sending a message; causing a message to be transmitted; the gears that transmit power from an automobile engine via the driveshaft to the live axle; communication by means of transmitted signals; an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted; the fraction of radiant energy that passes through a substance
  • transport -  an exchange of molecules (and their kinetic energy and momentum) across the boundary between adjacent layers of a fluid or across cell membranes; the commercial enterprise of moving goods and materials; something that serves as a means of transportation; a mechanism that transports magnetic tape across the read/write heads of a tape playback/recorder; a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion; verb move while supporting, either in a vehicle or in one's hands or on one's body; transport commercially; move something or somebody around; usually over long distances; send from one person or place to another; hold spellbound
  • transposable element a genetic element that can be transposed from one site on a chromosome to another.
  • transposon mutagenesis a mutant phenotype is formed by inactivation of the host gene, which occurs due to the insertion of a transposon.
  • transposon transposable element which, in addition to transposable genes, carries other genes.
  • treatment -  care by procedures or applications that are intended to relieve illness or injury; the management of someone or something; a manner of dealing with something artistically; an extended communication (often interactive) dealing with some particular topic
  • tricarboxylic acid cycle a series of metabolic reactions, by which pyruvate is oxidized to carbon dioxide.
  • trophic level describes the residence of nutrients in various organisms along a food chain ranging from the primary nutrient assimilating autotrophs to carnivorous animals.
  • tropical -  of weather or climate; hot and humid as in the tropics; characterized by or of the nature of a trope or tropes; changed from its literal sense; relating to or situated in or characteristic of the tropics (the region on either side of the equator); of or relating to the tropics, or either tropic
  • tuberculosis -  infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
  • turnover -  a dish made by folding a piece of pastry over a filling; the act of upsetting something; the volume measured in dollars; the ratio of the number of workers that had to be replaced in a given time period to the average number of workers
  • two-dimensional -  lacking the expected range or depth; not designed to give an illusion or depth; involving two dimensions
  • type -  a small metal block bearing a raised character on one end; produces a printed character when inked and pressed on paper; a subdivision of a particular kind of thing; all of the tokens of the same symbol; printed characters; (biology) the taxonomic group whose characteristics are used to define the next higher taxon; a person of a specified kind (usually with many eccentricities); verb identify as belonging to a certain type; write by means of a keyboard with types
  • universal -  adapted to various purposes, sizes, forms, operations; applicable to or common to all members of a group or set; of worldwide scope or applicability;  a behavioral convention or pattern characteristic of all members of a particular culture or of all human beings; (logic) a proposition that asserts something of all members of a class; (linguistics) a grammatical rule (or other linguistic feature) that is found in all languages; coupling that connects two rotating shafts allowing freedom of movement in all directions
  • unknown -  not known; not known to exist; being or having an unknown or unnamed source; not known before; not famous or acclaimed;  a variable whose values are solutions of an equation; an unknown and unexplored region; anyone who does not belong in the environment in which they are found
  • unwanted -  interfering; not wanted; not needed
  • uptake -  a process of taking up or using up or consuming; the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)
  • uronic acid a class of acidic compounds that contain both carboxylic and aldehydic groups and are oxidation products of sugars. They occur mainly in polysaccharides.
  • utilization -  the state of having been made use of; the act of using
  • vaccination -  the scar left following inoculation with a vaccine; taking a vaccine as a precaution against contracting a disease
  • vaccine -  immunogen consisting of a suspension of weakened or dead pathogenic cells injected in order to stimulate the production of antibodies
  • vadose zone unsaturated zone of soil which is above the groundwater, extending from the bottom of the capillary fringe to the soil surface.
  • variation -  an activity that varies from a norm or standard; the act of changing or altering something slightly but noticeably from the norm or standard; an artifact that deviates from a norm or standard; a repetition of a musical theme in which it is modified or embellished; an instance of change; the rate or magnitude of change; (astronomy) any perturbation of the mean motion or orbit of a planet or satellite (especially a perturbation of the earth's moon); the process of varying or being varied; (ballet) a solo dance or dance figure; something a little different from others of the same type; (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration; the angle (at a particular location) between magnetic north and true north
  • vector an agent that can carry pathogens from one host to another. It can also denote a plasmid or virus used in genetic engineering to insert genes into a cell.
  • vegetative cell a growing or actively feeding form of a cell, as against a spore.
  • verification -  (law) an affidavit attached to a statement confirming the truth of that statement; additional proof that something that was believed (some fact or hypothesis or theory) is correct
  • versatility -  having a wide variety of skills
  • vertical -  of or relating to different levels in a hierarchy (as levels of social class or income group); at right angles to the plane of the horizon or a base line; relating to or involving all stages of a business from production to distribution; upright in position or posture;  something that is oriented vertically; a vertical structural member as a post or stake
  • vesicles spherical structures formed intra:cellularly, by certain arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.
  • viable but nonculturable living organisms that cannot be cultured on artificial media.
  • viable count measurement of the concentration of live cells in a microbial population.
  • vibrio curved, rod-shaped bacteria that cause cholera, belonging to the genus vibrio.
  • viral -  relating to or caused by a virus
  • virion the virus particle and the virus nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat.
  • virulence the degree of pathogenicity of a parasite.
  • virulence -  extreme hostility; extreme harmfulness (as the capacity of a microorganism to cause disease)
  • visualization -  a mental image that is similar to a visual perception
  • water content the amount of water contained in a material, which is expressed as the mass of water per unit mass of oven:dry material.
  • water retention curve a graph showing soil water content as a function of increasingly negative soil water potential.
  • weapon -  any instrument or instrumentality used in fighting or hunting; a means of persuading or arguing
  • website -  a computer connected to the internet that maintains a series of web pages on the World Wide Web
  • white rot fungus fungus that attacks lignin, along with cellulose and hemicellulose, leading to marked lightening of the infected wood.
  • white -  of or belonging to a racial group having light skin coloration; of summer nights in northern latitudes where the sun barely sets; being of the achromatic color of maximum lightness; having little or no hue owing to reflection of almost all incident light; (of hair) having lost its color; (of coffee) having cream or milk added; benevolent; without malicious intent; glowing white with heat; restricted to whites only; marked by the presence of snow; free from moral blemish or impurity; unsullied; anemic looking from illness or emotion; (of a surface) not written or printed on;  (board games) the lighter pieces; the quality or state of the achromatic color of greatest lightness (bearing the least resemblance to black); a tributary of the Mississippi River that flows southeastward through northern Arkansas and southern Missouri; a member of the Caucasoid race; United States educator who in 1865 (with Ezra Cornell) founded Cornell University and served as its first president (1832-1918); United States writer noted for his humorous essays (1899-1985); United States architect (1853-1906); United States political journalist (1915-1986); Australian writer (1912-1990); United States jurist appointed chief justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1910 by President Taft; noted for his work on antitrust legislation (1845-1921); (usually in the plural) trousers made of flannel or gabardine or tweed or white cloth; the white part of an egg; the nutritive and protective gelatinous substance surrounding the yolk consisting mainly of albumin dissolved in water; verb turn white
  • wild type strain of a microorganism that is isolated from nature. The native and original form of a gene or organism.
  • winogradsky column a glass column that allows growth of micro-organisms under conditions similar to those found in nutrient rich water and sediment. This column contains an anerobic lower zone and an aerobic upper zone.
  • woronin body a spherical structure found in fungi belonging to the phylum ascomycota, which are associated with the simple pore in the septa separating the hyphal compartments.
  • xenobiotic a compound that is foreign to the biological systems.
  • xerophile an organism that is capable of growing at low water potentials, that is, in very dry habitats.
  • yeast -  any of various single-celled fungi that reproduce asexually by budding or division; a commercial leavening agent containing yeast cells; used to raise the dough in making bread and for fermenting beer or whiskey
  • zymogenous flora refers to micro-organisms that respond rapidly by enzyme production and growth when simple organic substrates become available.

Also see Microbiology

Dictionary of microbiology

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