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Glossary of pathology

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Table of contents:

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#-A

  • acervulus - noun small asexual fruiting body resembling a cushion or blister consisting of a mat of hyphae that is produced on a host by some fungi
  • acid precipitation - noun rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
  • acid rain - noun rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
  • acropetal - adj. of leaves or flowers; developing or opening in succession from base to apex
  • acute - adj. having or experiencing a rapid onset and short but severe course; of critical importance and consequence; extremely sharp or intense; having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions; of an angle; less than 90 degrees; ending in a sharp point; noun a mark (') placed above a vowel to indicate pronunciation
  • aeciospore - noun spore of a rust fungus formed in an aecium
  • aecium - noun fruiting body of some rust fungi bearing chains of aeciospores
  • aflatoxin - noun a potent carcinogen from the fungus Aspergillus; can be produced and stored for use as a bioweapon
  • agar - noun a colloidal extract of algae; used especially in culture media and as a gelling agent in foods; any culture medium that uses agar as the gelling agent
  • aggressiveness - noun a natural disposition to be hostile; the quality of being bold and enterprising; a feeling of hostility that arouses thoughts of attack
  • allele - noun either of a pair (or series) of alternative forms of a gene that can occupy the same locus on a particular chromosome and that control the same character
  • amphimixis - noun union of sperm and egg in sexual reproduction;reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete
  • anaerobic - adj. living or active in the absence of free oxygen; not aerobic
  • anastomosis - noun a natural or surgical joining of parts or branches of tubular structures so as to make or become continuous
  • antibiotic - adj. of or relating to antibiotic drugs; noun a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections
  • antibody - noun any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response
  • antigen - noun any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates an immune response in the body (especially the production of antibodies)
  • antiseptic - adj. (extended sense) of exceptionally clean language;clean and honest; thoroughly clean and free of or destructive to disease-causing organisms; made free from live bacteria or other microorganisms; freeing from error or corruption; noun a substance that destroys micro-organisms that carry disease without harming body tissues
  • apothecium - noun a cuplike ascocarp in many lichens and ascomycetous fungi
  • antiseptic - adj. (extended sense) of exceptionally clean language;clean and honest; thoroughly clean and free of or destructive to disease-causing organisms; made free from live bacteria or other microorganisms; freeing from error or corruption; noun a substance that destroys micro-organisms that carry disease without harming body tissues
  • ascocarp - noun mature fruiting body of an ascomycetous fungus
  • ascoma - noun an ascocarp having the spore-bearing layer of cells (the hymenium) on a broad disklike receptacle
  • Ascomycetes - noun large class of higher fungi coextensive with division Ascomycota: sac fungi
  • ascospore - noun sexually produced fungal spore formed within an ascus
  • ascus - noun saclike structure in which ascospores are formed through sexual reproduction of ascomycetes
  • asexual - adj. not having or involving sex
  • atrophy - noun any weakening or degeneration (especially through lack of use); a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse; verb undergo atrophy
  • autotroph - noun plant capable of synthesizing its own food from simple organic substances
  • avirulent - adj. not virulent; unable to produce disease
  • axenic - adj. used of cultures of microorganisms; not contaminated by or completely free of the presence of other organisms; (of experimental animals) raised under sterile conditions
  • autoecious - adj. of parasites especially rust fungi; completing the entire life cycle on a single host

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B

  • bactericide - noun any chemical agent that destroys bacteria; any drug that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth
  • bacterium - noun (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants
  • bactericide - noun any chemical agent that destroys bacteria; any drug that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth
  • basidiocarp - noun the fruiting body of a basidiomycete which bears its spores on special cells
  • basidiospore - noun a sexually produced fungal spore borne on a basidium
  • basidium - noun a small club-shaped structure typically bearing four basidiospores at the ends of minute projections; unique to basidiomycetes
  • basidiospore - noun a sexually produced fungal spore borne on a basidium
  • basidium - noun a small club-shaped structure typically bearing four basidiospores at the ends of minute projections; unique to basidiomycetes
  • bioassay - noun appraisal of the biological activity of a substance by testing its effect on an organism and comparing the result with some agreed standard; verb subject to a bio-assay
  • biotic - adj. of or relating to living organisms
  • biotype - noun organisms sharing a specified genotype or the genotype (or peculiarities) so shared
  • blasting - adj. causing injury or blight; especially affecting with sudden violence or plague or ruin; unpleasantly loud and penetrating
  • blight - noun any plant disease resulting in withering without rotting;a state or condition being blighted; verb cause to suffer a blight
  • blotch - noun an irregularly shaped spot; verb mark with spots or blotches of different color or shades of color as if stained
  • breaking - adj. (of waves) curling over and crashing into surf or spray; noun the act of breaking something
  • brown rot - noun any of certain fungous diseases of plants characterized by browning and decay of tissues
  • burn - noun damage inflicted by fire; a place or area that has been burned (especially on a person's body); an injury caused by exposure to heat or chemicals or radiation; pain that feels hot as if it were on fire; a browning of the skin resulting from exposure to the rays of the sun; verb burn with heat, fire, or radiation; undergo combustion; cause to undergo combustion; destroy by fire; feel strong emotion, especially anger or passion; feel hot or painful;spend (significant amounts of money); burn at the stake; cause to burn or combust; shine intensely, as if with heat; get a sunburn by overexposure to the sun; burn, sear, or freeze (tissue) using a hot iron or electric current or a caustic agent; use up (energy); create by duplicating data; cause a sharp or stinging pain or discomfort
  • bursa - noun a small fluid-filled sac located between movable parts of the body especially at joints; a city in northwestern Turkey

C

  • canker - noun an ulceration (especially of the lips or lining of the mouth); a fungal disease of woody plants that causes localized damage to the bark; a pernicious and malign influence that is hard to get rid of; verb infect with a canker; become infected with a canker
  • capsid - noun the outer covering of protein surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus; a variety of leaf bug
  • carcinogen - noun any substance that produces cancer
  • carrier - noun (genetics) an organism that possesses a recessive gene whose effect is masked by a dominant allele; the associated trait is not apparent but can be passed on to offspring; a rack attached to a vehicle; for carrying luggage or skis or the like; a self-propelled wheeled vehicle designed specifically to carry something;a person or firm in the business of transporting people or goods or messages; (medicine) a person (or animal) who has some pathogen to which he is immune but who can pass it on to others; a boy who delivers newspapers; someone whose employment involves carrying something; an inactive substance that is a vehicle for a radioactive tracer of the same substance and that assists in its recovery after some chemical reaction; a large warship that carries planes and has a long flat deck for takeoffs and landings; a man who delivers the mail; a radio wave that can be modulated in order to transmit a signal
  • casting - noun the choice of actors to play particular roles in a play or movie; the act of throwing a fishing line out over the water by means of a rod and reel; the act of creating something by casting it in a mold; object formed by a mold
  • causal agent - noun any entity that produces an effect or is responsible for events or results
  • certification - noun the act of certifying or bestowing a franchise on;validating the authenticity of something or someone; a document attesting to the truth of certain stated facts; confirmation that some fact or statement is true
  • chemotaxis - noun movement by a cell or organism in reaction to a chemical stimulus
  • chemotherapy - noun the use of chemical agents to treat or control disease (or mental illness)
  • chlamydospore - noun thick-walled asexual resting spore of certain fungi and algae
  • chlamydospore - noun thick-walled asexual resting spore of certain fungi and algae
  • chlorosis - noun iron deficiency anemia in young women; characterized by weakness and menstrual disturbances and a green color to the skin
  • chytridiomycetes - noun a class of mostly aquatic fungi; saprophytic or parasitic on algae or fungi or plants
  • cirrus - noun a slender flexible animal appendage as on barnacles or crinoids or many insects; often tactile; a wispy white cloud (usually of fine ice crystals) at a high altitude (4 to 8 miles); usually coiled
  • cleistothecium - noun closed spore-bearing structure of some fungi (especially Aspergillaceae and Erysiphaceae) from which spores are released only by decay or disintegration
  • coalesce - verb fuse or cause to grow together; mix together different elements
  • coccus - noun any spherical or nearly spherical bacteria
  • colonization - noun the act of colonizing; the establishment of colonies
  • colony - noun a group of animals of the same type living together;(microbiology) a group of organisms grown from a single parent cell;a body of people who settle far from home but maintain ties with their homeland; inhabitants remain nationals of their home state but are not literally under the home state's system of government; a geographical area politically controlled by a distant country; one of the 13 British colonies that formed the original states of the United States
  • compartmentalization - noun a mild state of dissociation; the act of distributing things into classes or categories of the same type
  • conidiophore - noun a specialized fungal hypha that produces conidia
  • conidium - noun an asexually produced fungal spore formed on a conidiophore
  • conjugation - noun a class of verbs having the same inflectional forms; the complete set of inflected forms of a verb; the inflection of verbs; the act of making or becoming a single unit; the act of pairing a male and female for reproductive purposes; the state of being joined together
  • conk - noun informal term for the nose; verb hit, especially on the head; pass out from weakness, physical or emotional distress due to a loss of blood supply to the brain; pass from physical life and lose all bodily attributes and functions necessary to sustain life; come to a stop
  • constitutive - adj. constitutional in the structure of something (especially your physical makeup)
  • crozier - noun a staff surmounted by a crook or cross carried by bishops as a symbol of pastoral office
  • cryptobiosis - noun a state in which an animal's metabolic activities come to a reversible standstill
  • curl - noun American chemist who with Richard Smalley and Harold Kroto discovered fullerenes and opened a new branch of chemistry (born in 1933); a strand or cluster of hair; a round shape formed by a series of concentric circles (as formed by leaves or flower petals);verb form a curl, curve, or kink; play the Scottish game of curling;twist or roll into coils or ringlets; wind around something in coils or loops; shape one's body into a curl
  • cyst - noun a closed sac that develops abnormally in some body structure; a small anatomically normal sac or bladderlike structure (especially one containing fluid)

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D

  • damping off - noun a plant disease caused by a fungus; diseased condition of seedlings in excessive moisture
  • decay - noun the organic phenomenon of rotting; a gradual decrease; as of stored charge or current; the process of gradually becoming inferior; the spontaneous disintegration of a radioactive substance along with the emission of ionizing radiation; an inferior state resulting from the process of decaying; verb fall into decay or ruin; undergo decay or decomposition; lose a stored charge, magnetic flux, or current
  • degree day - noun a unit used in estimating fuel requirements for heating a building; the day on which university degrees are conferred
  • deuteromycetes - noun form class; coextensive with subdivision Deuteromycota
  • diagnostic - adj. characteristic or indicative of e.g. a disease;concerned with diagnosis; used for furthering diagnosis
  • antigen - noun any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates an immune response in the body (especially the production of antibodies)
  • diploid - adj. of a cell or organism having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number; noun (genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
  • Diploid - adj. of a cell or organism having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number; noun (genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
  • dieback - noun a disease of plants characterized by the gradual dying of the young shoots starting at the tips and progressing to the larger branches
  • differentiation - noun the mathematical process of obtaining the derivative of a function; a discrimination between things as different and distinct; (biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function
  • dimorphic - adj. occurring or existing in two different forms
  • Discomycetes - noun a large and taxonomically difficult group of Ascomycetes in which the fleshy fruiting body is disklike or cup-shaped
  • disease - noun an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
  • disinfect - verb destroy microorganisms or pathogens by cleansing
  • dispersal - noun the act of dispersing or diffusing something
  • dissemination - noun the property of being diffused or dispersed;the opening of a subject to widespread discussion and debate; the act of dispersing or diffusing something
  • dormancy - noun a state of quiet (but possibly temporary) inaction;quiet and inactive restfulness
  • downy mildew - noun any of various fungi of the family Peronosporaceae parasitic on e.g. grapes and potatoes and melons
  • drift - noun a horizontal (or nearly horizontal) passageway in a mine; the pervading meaning or tenor; a general tendency to change (as of opinion); something that is heaped up by the wind or by water currents; a force that moves something along; the gradual departure from an intended course due to external influences (as a ship or plane); a process of linguistic change over a period of time;verb be piled up in banks or heaps by the force of wind or a current;be subject to fluctuation; drive slowly and far afield for grazing;cause to be carried by a current; move in an unhurried fashion; vary or move from a fixed point or course; move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment; be in motion due to some air or water current; wander from a direct course or at random; live unhurriedly, irresponsibly, or freely
  • drought - noun a shortage of rainfall; a prolonged shortage
  • durable - adj. existing for a long time; very long lasting; serviceable for a long time

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E

  • ectoparasite - noun any external parasitic organism (as fleas)
  • enation - noun a natural projection or outgrowth from a plant body or organ; line of descent traced through the maternal side of the family
  • endemic - adj. native to or confined to a certain region; of or relating to a disease (or anything resembling a disease) constantly present to greater or lesser extent in a particular locality; originating where it is found; noun a plant that is native to a certain limited area; a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain class or in people living in a particular location
  • endogenous - adj. derived or originating internally; of or resembling an endogen
  • endoparasite - noun any of various parasites that live in the internal organs of animals (especially intestinal worms)
  • endospore - noun a small asexual spore that develops inside the cell of some bacteria and algae
  • epidemic - adj. (especially of medicine) of disease or anything resembling a disease; attacking or affecting many individuals in a community or a population simultaneously; noun a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease; many people are infected at the same time
  • epidemiology - noun the branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of disease
  • epiphytotic - adj. (of plants) epidemic among plants of a single kind especially over a wide area
  • eradication - noun the complete destruction of every trace of something
  • ergot - noun a fungus that infects various cereal plants forming compact black masses of branching filaments that replace many grains of the plant; source of medicinally important alkaloids and of lysergic acid; a plant disease caused by the ergot fungus
  • ergotism - noun poisoning by ingestion of ergot-infected grain products; characterized by thirst and diarrhea and nausea and craming and vomiting and abnormal cardiac rhythms; in severe cases it can cause seizures and gangrene of the limbs
  • escape - noun the act of escaping physically; a means or way of escaping; an avoidance of danger or difficulty; an inclination to retreat from unpleasant realities through diversion or fantasy; the unwanted discharge of a fluid from some container; a plant originally cultivated but now growing wild; nonperformance of something distasteful (as by deceit or trickery) that you are supposed to do; a valve in a container in which pressure can build up (as a steam boiler); it opens automatically when the pressure reaches a dangerous level; verb issue or leak, as from a small opening; run away from confinement; remove oneself from a familiar environment, usually for pleasure or diversion; fail to experience;escape potentially unpleasant consequences; get away with a forbidden action; flee; take to one's heels; cut and run; be incomprehensible to; escape understanding by
  • etiolation - noun (botany) the act of causing a plant to develop without chlorophyll by growing it without exposure to sunlight; the act of weakening by stunting the growth or development of something; a pale and sickly appearance
  • etiology - noun the philosophical study of causation; the cause of a disease
  • exclusion - noun the state of being excluded; the act of forcing out someone or something; a deliberate act of omission; the state of being excommunicated
  • exogenous - adj. derived or originating externally
  • exudate - noun a substance that oozes out from plant pores; verbrelease (a liquid) in drops or small quantities
  • fastidious - adj. giving careful attention to detail; hard to please; excessively concerned with cleanliness; having complicated nutritional requirements; especially growing only in special artificial cultures

F

  • filamentous - adj. thin in diameter; resembling a thread
  • flagellum - noun a lash-like appendage used for locomotion (e.g., in sperm cells and some bacteria and protozoa); a whip used to inflict punishment (often used for pedantic humor)
  • flagging - adj. weak from exhaustion; noun a walk of flagstones;flagstones collectively
  • fleck - noun a small contrasting part of something; a small fragment of something broken off from the whole; verb make a spot or mark onto
  • focus - noun maximum clarity or distinctness of an image rendered by an optical system; maximum clarity or distinctness of an idea; the concentration of attention or energy on something; a fixed reference point on the concave side of a conic section; a point of convergence of light (or other radiation) or a point from which it diverges; a central point or locus of an infection in an organism; special emphasis attached to something; verb put (an image) into focus; become focussed or come into focus; cause to converge on or toward a central point; direct one's attention on something; bring into focus or alignment; to converge or cause to converge; of ideas or emotions
  • fructification - noun organs of fruiting (especially the reproductive parts of ferns and mosses); the bearing of fruit
  • fumigant - noun a chemical substance used in fumigation
  • Fungi Imperfecti - noun large and heterogeneous form division of fungi comprising forms for which no sexually reproductive stage is known
  • fungicide - noun any agent that destroys or prevents the growth of fungi

G

  • gall - noun abnormal swelling of plant tissue caused by insects or microorganisms or injury; a skin sore caused by chafing; the trait of being rude and impertinent; inclined to take liberties; a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; aids in the digestion of fats; a feeling of deep and bitter anger and ill-will; an open sore on the back of a horse caused by ill-fitting or badly adjusted saddle; verb irritate or vex; become or make sore by or as if by rubbing
  • gametangium - noun cell or organ in which gametes develop
  • gametophyte - noun the gamete-bearing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
  • genotype - noun the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism; a group of organisms sharing a specific genetic constitution
  • germ theory - noun (medicine) the theory that all contagious diseases are caused by microorganisms
  • girdle - noun a band of material around the waist that strengthens a skirt or trousers; an encircling or ringlike structure; a woman's close-fitting foundation garment; verb put a girdle on or around; cut a girdle around so as to kill by interrupting the circulation of water and nutrients
  • gram-negative - adj. (of bacteria) being of or relating to a bacterium that does not retain the violet stain used in Gram's method
  • gram-positive - adj. (of bacteria) being or relating to a bacterium that retains the violet stain used in Gram's method
  • gram stain - noun a staining technique used to classify bacteria; bacteria are stained with gentian violet and then treated with Gram's solution; after being decolorized with alcohol and treated with safranine and washed in water, those that retain the gentian violet are Gram-positive and those that do not retain it are Gram-negative
  • gummosis - noun pathological production of gummy exudates in citrus and various stone-fruit trees; disease of citrus trees caused by the fungus Phytophthora citrophthora

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H

  • haploid - adj. of a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes; noun (genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
  • hardiness - noun the trait of being willing to undertake things that involve risk or danger; the property of being strong and healthy in constitution
  • hemiparasite - noun a parasitic plant that contains some chlorophyll and therefore is capable of photosynthesis
  • hermaphrodite - adj. of animal or plant; having both male female reproductive organs; noun one having both male and female sexual characteristics and organs; at birth an unambiguous assignment of male or female cannot be made
  • heteroecious - adj. of parasites; passing through different stages of the life cycle on different host species
  • heterotroph - noun an organism that depends on complex organic substances for nutrition
  • hyaline - adj. resembling glass in transparency or translucency;noun a glassy translucent material that occurs in hyaline cartilage or in certain skin conditions
  • hymenium - noun spore-bearing layer of cells in certain fungi containing asci or basidia
  • hyperplasia - noun abnormal increase in number of cells
  • hypertrophy - noun abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ;verb undergo hypertrophy
  • hypersensitive - adj. having an allergy or peculiar or excessive susceptibility (especially to a specific factor)
  • hypha - noun any of the threadlike filaments forming the mycelium of a fungus
  • hypoplasia - noun underdevelopment of an organ because of a decrease in the number of cells

I

  • immune - adj. (usually followed by `to') not affected by a given influence; relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection);secure against; relating to the condition of immunity; noun a person who is immune to a particular infection
  • immunity - noun the quality of being unaffected by something;(medicine) the condition in which an organism can resist disease; an act exempting someone; the state of not being susceptible
  • in-situ - adj. being in the original position; not having been moved
  • in vitro - adj. in an artificial environment outside the living organism;adv. in an artificial environment outside the living organism
  • in vivo - adj. within a living organism; adv. in the living organism
  • incubation period - noun the period between infection and the appearance of symptoms of the disease
  • induced - adj. brought about or caused; not spontaneous
  • infectious - adj. easily spread; caused by infection or capable of causing infection; of or relating to infection
  • infective - adj. able to cause disease; caused by infection or capable of causing infection
  • infest - verb invade in great numbers; live on or in a host, as of parasites; occupy in large numbers or live on a host
  • injury - noun an act that injures someone; an accident that results in physical damage or hurt; any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.; a casualty to military personnel resulting from combat
  • inoculate - verb impregnate with the virus or germ of a disease in order to render immune; insert a bud for propagation; introduce a microorganism into; introduce an idea or attitude into the mind of;perform vaccinations or produce immunity in by inoculation
  • inoculum - noun a substance (a virus or toxin or immune serum) that is introduced into the body to produce or increase immunity to a particular disease
  • intumescence - noun the swelling of certain substances when they are heated (often accompanied by release of water); swelling up with blood or other fluids (as with congestion)
  • isolate - verb place or set apart; obtain in pure form; separate (experiences) from the emotions relating to them; set apart from others

K

  • knot - noun a sandpiper that breeds in the arctic and winters in the southern hemisphere; any of various fastenings formed by looping and tying a rope (or cord) upon itself or to another rope or to another object; a tight cluster of people or things; something twisted and tight and swollen; a hard cross-grained round piece of wood in a board where a branch emerged; soft lump or unevenness in a yarn; either an imperfection or created by design; a unit of length used in navigation; equivalent to the distance spanned by one minute of arc in latitude; 1,852 meters; verb tie or fasten into a knot; make into knots; make knots out of; tangle or complicate


L

  • latent period - noun the time that elapses before the presence of a disease is manifested by symptoms; the time that elapses between a stimulus and the response to it
  • lesion - noun any visible abnormal structural change in a bodily part; any break in the skin or an organ caused by violence or surgical incision
  • life cycle - noun a series of stages through which an organism passes between recurrences of a primary stage; the course of developmental changes in an organism from fertilized zygote to maturity when another zygote can be produced
  • lodge - noun any of various native American dwellings; a small (rustic) house used as a temporary shelter; small house at the entrance to the grounds of a country mansion; usually occupied by a gatekeeper or gardener; English physicist who studied electromagnetic radiation and was a pioneer of radiotelegraphy (1851-1940); a hotel providing overnight lodging for travelers; a formal association of people with similar interests; verb fix, force, or implant; provide housing for; be a lodger; stay temporarily; file a formal charge against

M

  • macerate - verb soften, usually by steeping in liquid, and cause to disintegrate as a result; become soft or separate and disintegrate as a result of excessive soaking; separate into constituents by soaking;cause to grow thin or weak
  • mantle - noun (zoology) a protective layer of epidermis in mollusks or brachiopods that secretes a substance forming the shell; the cloak as a symbol of authority; the layer of the earth between the crust and the core; United States baseball player (1931-1997); a sleeveless garment like a cloak but shorter; hanging cloth used as a blind (especially for a window); shelf that projects from wall above fireplace; anything that covers; verb cover like a mantle; spread over a surface, like a mantle
  • medium - adj. (meat) cooked until there is just a little pink meat inside; around the middle of a scale of evaluation of physical measures; noun an intervening substance through which signals can travel as a means for communication; a means or instrumentality for storing or communicating information; (usually plural) transmissions that are disseminated widely to the public; the surrounding environment; someone who serves as an intermediary between the living and the dead; a state that is intermediate between extremes; a middle position; an intervening substance through which something is achieved; (biology) a substance in which specimens are preserved or displayed; a liquid with which pigment is mixed by a painter; an occupation for which you are especially well suited;(bacteriology) a nutrient substance (solid or liquid) that is used to cultivate micro-organisms
  • melanin - noun insoluble pigments that account for the color of e.g. skin and scales and feathers
  • microbial - adj. of or involving or caused by or being microbes
  • micronutrient - noun a substance needed only in small amounts for normal body function (e.g., vitamins or minerals)
  • mildew - noun a fungus that produces a superficial (usually white) growth on organic matter; the process of becoming mildewed; verbbecome moldy; spoil due to humidity
  • mold - noun container into which liquid is poured to create a given shape when it hardens; sculpture produced by molding; a fungus that produces a superficial growth on various kinds of damp or decaying organic matter; loose soil rich in organic matter; the process of becoming mildewed; the distinctive form in which a thing is made; verb become moldy; spoil due to humidity; fit tightly, follow the contours of; shape or influence; give direction to; make something, usually for a specific function; form by pouring (e.g., wax or hot metal) into a cast or mold; form in clay, wax, etc
  • monoecious - adj. having male and female reproductive organs in the same plant or animal
  • monogenic - adj. of or relating to an inheritable character that is controlled by a single pair of genes
  • mosaic - adj. decorated with small pieces of colored glass or stone fitted together; of or relating to Moses or the laws and writings attributed to him; noun art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass; assembly of aerial photographs forming a composite picture; transducer formed by the light-sensitive surface on a television camera tube; a pattern resembling a mosaic;a freeware browser; viral disease in solanaceous plants (tomatoes, potatoes, tobacco) resulting in mottling and often shriveling of the leaves
  • motile - adj. (of spores or microorganisms) capable of movement;noun one whose prevailing mental imagery takes the form of inner feelings of action
  • mottle - noun an irregular arrangement of patches of color; verbcolour with streaks or blotches of different shades; mark with spots or blotches of different color or shades of color as if stained
  • mummification - noun embalmment and drying a dead body and wrapping it as a mummy; a condition resembling that of a mummy;(pathology) gangrene that develops in the presence of arterial obstruction and is characterized by dryness of the dead tissue and a dark brown color
  • mummy - noun a body embalmed and dried and wrapped for burial (as in ancient Egypt); informal terms for a mother
  • mushroom - noun fleshy body of any of numerous edible fungi; a large cloud of rubble and dust shaped like a mushroom and rising into the sky after an explosion (especially of a nuclear bomb); any of various fleshy fungi of the subdivision Basidiomycota consisting of a cap at the end of a stem arising from an underground mycelium;common name for an edible agaric (contrasting with the inedible toadstool); verb grow and spread fast; pick or gather mushrooms
  • mutagen - noun any agent (physical or environmental) that can induce a genetic mutation or can increase the rate of mutation
  • mycelium - noun the vegetative part of a fungus consisting of a mass of branching threadlike hyphae
  • mycology - noun the branch of botany that studies fungi and fungus-caused diseases
  • mycotoxin - noun a toxin produced by a fungus
  • Myxomycetes - noun the class of true slime molds; essentially equivalent to the division Myxomycota

N

  • necrosis - noun the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply)
  • needle cast - noun a disease of conifers causing the needles to fall
  • nematode - noun unsegmented worms with elongated rounded body pointed at both ends; mostly free-living but some are parasitic

O

  • occlusion - noun (dentistry) the normal spatial relation of the teeth when the jaws are closed; closure or blockage (as of a blood vessel); the act of blocking; an obstruction in a pipe or tube;(meteorology) a composite front when colder air surrounds a mass of warm air and forces it aloft
  • oedema - noun swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
  • oospore - noun a thick-walled sexual spore that develops from a fertilized oosphere in some algae and fungi
  • ooze - noun the process of seeping; any thick messy substance;verb release (a liquid) in drops or small quantities; pass gradually or leak through or as if through small openings
  • ostiole - noun a small pore especially one in the reproductive bodies of certain algae and fungi through which spores pass


P

  • pandemic - adj. existing everywhere; epidemic over a wide geographical area; noun an epidemic that is geographically widespread; occurring throughout a region or even throughout the world
  • papilla - noun a small projection of tissue at the base of a hair or tooth or feather; a small nipple-shaped protuberance concerned with taste, touch, or smell; (botany) a tiny outgrowth on the surface of a petal or leaf
  • parasite - noun an animal or plant that lives in or on a host (another animal or plant); it obtains nourishment from the host without benefiting or killing the host; a follower who hangs around a host (without benefit to the host) in hope of gain or advantage
  • parasitism - noun the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)
  • parthenogenesis - noun process in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual; common among insects and some other arthropods; human conception without fertilization by a man
  • pasteurization - noun partial sterilization of foods at a temperature that destroys harmful microorganisms without major changes in the chemistry of the food
  • pathogen - noun any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
  • PR - noun a promotion intended to create goodwill for a person or institution; a self-governing commonwealth associated with the United States occupying the island of Puerto Rico; a soft yellowish-white trivalent metallic element of the rare earth group; can be recovered from bastnasite or monazite by an ion-exchange process
  • pathology - noun the branch of medical science that studies the causes and nature and effects of diseases; any deviation from a healthy or normal condition
  • penetration - noun the act of entering into or through something;the act (by a man) of inserting his penis into the vagina of a woman;an attack that penetrates into enemy territory; the depth to which something penetrates (especially the depth reached by a projectile that hits a target); the ability to make way into or through something;clear or deep perception of a situation
  • perfect - adj. precisely accurate or exact; being complete of its kind and without defect or blemish; without qualification; used informally as (often pejorative) intensifiers; noun a tense of verbs used in describing action that has been completed (sometimes regarded as perfective aspect); verb make perfect or complete
  • pest - noun any unwanted and destructive insect or other animal that attacks food or crops or livestock etc.; a persistently annoying person; any epidemic disease with a high death rate; a serious (sometimes fatal) infection of rodents caused by Yersinia pestis and accidentally transmitted to humans by the bite of a flea that has bitten an infected animal
  • pesticide - noun a chemical used to kill pests (as rodents or insects)
  • phenotype - noun what an organism looks like as a consequence of the interaction of its genotype and the environment
  • plasmodium - noun parasitic protozoan of the genus Plasmodium that causes malaria in humans; multinucleate sheet of cytoplasm characteristic of some stages of such organisms as slime molds
  • polymorphism - noun (biology) the existence of two or more forms of individuals within the same animal species (independent of sex differences); (chemistry) the existence of different kinds of crystal of the same chemical compound
  • powdery mildew - noun any of various fungi of the genus Erysiphe producing powdery conidia on the host surface
  • prokaryote - noun a unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane-bound nuclei; bacteria are the prime example but also included are blue-green algae and actinomycetes and mycoplasma
  • pustule - noun a small inflamed elevation of skin containing pus; a blister filled with pus

Q

  • quarantine - noun isolation to prevent the spread of infectious disease; enforced isolation of patients suffering from a contagious disease in order to prevent the spread of disease; verb place into enforced isolation, as for medical reasons
  • quiescent - adj. causing no symptoms; being quiet or still or inactive; not active or activated; marked by a state of tranquil repose
  • quiescent - adj. causing no symptoms; being quiet or still or inactive; not active or activated; marked by a state of tranquil repose


Table of contents:

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.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

R

  • race - noun a contest of speed; any competition; people who are believed to belong to the same genetic stock; a canal for a current of water; (biology) a taxonomic group that is a division of a species; usually arises as a consequence of geographical isolation within a species; the flow of air that is driven backwards by an aircraft propeller; verb compete in a race; cause to move fast or to rush or race; to work as fast as possible towards a goal, sometimes in competition with others; step on it
  • reniform - adj. of a leaf or bean shape resembling the shape of kidney
  • resistant - adj. impervious to being affected; incapable of absorbing or mixing with; disposed to or engaged in defiance of established authority; relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection);able to tolerate environmental conditions or physiological stress
  • rhizomorph - noun a dense mass of hyphae forming a rootlike structure characteristic of many fungi
  • rosette - noun an ornament or pattern resembling a rose that is worn as a badge of office or as recognition of having won an honor;a cluster of leaves growing in crowded circles from a common center or crown (usually at or close to the ground); circular window filled with tracery; rhizoctinia disease of potatoes
  • rot - noun unacceptable behavior (especially ludicrously false statements); (biology) the process of decay caused by bacterial or fungal action; a state of decay usually accompanied by an offensive odor; verb waste away; break down
  • roundworm - noun unsegmented worms with elongated rounded body pointed at both ends; mostly free-living but some are parasitic;infections of the skin or nails caused by fungi and appearing as itching circular patches
  • rugose - adj. of leaves; ridged or wrinkled
  • russet - adj. of brown with a reddish tinge; noun a reddish brown homespun fabric
  • rust - adj. of the brown color of rust; noun any of various fungi causing rust disease in plants; the formation of reddish-brown ferric oxides on iron by low-temperature oxidation in the presence of water; a reddish-brown discoloration of leaves and stems caused by a rust fungus; a red or brown oxide coating on iron or steel caused by the action of oxygen and moisture; verb become coated with oxide; become destroyed by water, air, or an etching chemical such as an acid; cause to deteriorate due to the action of water, air, or an acid

S

  • sanitation - noun making something sanitary (free of germs) as by sterilizing; the state of being clean and conducive to health
  • saprobe - noun an organism that lives in and derives its nourishment from organic matter in stagnant or foul water
  • scab - noun the crustlike surface of a healing skin lesion; someone who works (or provides workers) during a strike; verb form a scab;take the place of work of someone on strike
  • scald - noun the act of burning with steam or hot water; a burn cause by hot liquid or steam; verb burn with a hot liquid or steam;heat to the boiling point; treat with boiling water; subject to harsh criticism
  • sclerotium - noun compact usually dark-colored mass of hardened mycelium constituting a vegetative food-storage body in various true fungi; detaches when mature and can give rise to new growth; form genus of sterile imperfect fungi; many form sclerotia; some cause sclerotium disease in plants
  • scorch - noun a discoloration caused by heat; a plant disease that produces a browning or scorched appearance of plant tissues; a surface burn; verb become scorched or singed under intense heat or dry conditions; destroy completely by or as if by fire; become superficially burned; make very hot and dry; burn slightly and superficially so as to affect color
  • septate - adj. of or relating to a septum
  • serrate - adj. notched like a saw with teeth pointing toward the apex;verb make saw-toothed or jag the edge of
  • sessile - adj. attached directly by the base; not having an intervening stalk; permanently attached to a substrate; not free to move about
  • seta - noun a stiff hair or bristle; stalk of a moss capsule
  • shot hole - noun drill hole for a charge of an explosive
  • sign - adj. used of the language of the deaf; noun a perceptible indication of something not immediately apparent (as a visible clue that something has happened); a public display of a (usually written) message; a character indicating a relation between quantities; a gesture that is part of a sign language; a fundamental linguistic unit linking a signifier to that which is signified; (medicine) any objective evidence of the presence of a disorder or disease; structure displaying a board on which advertisements can be posted; any communication that encodes a message; an event that is experienced as indicating important things to come; (astrology) one of 12 equal areas into which the zodiac is divided; having an indicated pole (as the distinction between positive and negative electric charges); verb be engaged by a written agreement;communicate in sign language; mark with one's signature; write one's name (on); communicate silently and non-verbally by signals or signs; place signs, as along a road; engage by written agreement; approve and express assent, responsibility, or obligation; make the sign of the cross over someone in order to call on God for protection; consecrate
  • smut - noun any fungus of the order Ustilaginales; destructive diseases of plants (especially cereal grasses) caused by fungi that produce black powdery masses of spores; creative activity (writing or pictures or films etc.) of no literary or artistic value other than to stimulate sexual desire; an offensive or indecent word or phrase; a black colloidal substance consisting wholly or principally of amorphous carbon and used to make pigments and ink; verb affect with smut or mildew, as of a crop such as corn; become affected with smut; stain with a dirty substance, such as soot; make obscene
  • soft rot - noun mushy or slimy decay of plants caused by bacteria or fungi
  • sorus - noun cluster of sporangia usually on underside of a fern frond; a spore-producing structure in certain lichens and fungi
  • species - noun a specific kind of something; (biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
  • spicule - noun small pointed structure serving as a skeletal element in various marine and freshwater invertebrates e.g. sponges and corals
  • sporangium - noun organ containing or producing spores
  • spore - noun a small usually single-celled asexual reproductive body produced by many nonflowering plants and fungi and some bacteria and protozoans and that are capable of developing into a new individual without sexual fusion
  • sporocarp - noun specialized leaf branch in certain aquatic ferns that encloses the sori or clusters of sporangia
  • sporogenous - adj. producing spores or reproducing by means of spores
  • sporophore - noun a spore-bearing branch or organ: the part of the thallus of a sporophyte that develops spores; in ferns and mosses and liverworts is practically equivalent to the sporophyte
  • sporophyte - noun the spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
  • sporulate - verb convert into spores; produce spores
  • spot - noun a business establishment for entertainment; a playing card with a specified number of pips on it to indicate its value; a small contrasting part of something; a section of an entertainment that is assigned to a specific performer or performance; a short section or illustration (as between radio or tv programs or in a magazine) that is often used for advertising; a mark on a playing card (shape depending on the suit); a small quantity; an act that brings discredit to the person who does it; a job in an organization; a lamp that produces a strong beam of light to illuminate a restricted area; used to focus attention of a stage performer; a blemish made by dirt; an outstanding characteristic; a point located with respect to surface features of some region; a slight attack of illness; verb mark with a spot or spots so as to allow easy recognition; become spotted; make a spot or mark onto; mar or impair with a flaw; catch sight of
  • staghead - noun an abnormal tufted growth of small branches on a tree or shrub caused by fungi or insects or other physiological disturbance
  • sterilization - noun the procedure of making some object free of live bacteria or other microorganisms (usually by heat or chemical means); the act of making an organism barren or infertile (unable to reproduce)
  • strain - noun an intense or violent exertion; (physics) deformation of a physical body under the action of applied forces; injury to a muscle (often caused by overuse); results in swelling and pain; (psychology) nervousness resulting from mental stress; the act of singing; an effortful attempt to attain a goal; a lineage or race of people; the general meaning or substance of an utterance; a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence; a special variety of domesticated animals within a species; (biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups; difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension; verb use to the utmost; exert vigorously or to full capacity; become stretched or tense or taught; cause to be tense and uneasy or nervous or anxious; alter the shape of (something) by stress; to exert much effort or energy; rub through a strainer or process in an electric blender; remove by passing through a filter; separate by passing through a sieve or other straining device to separate out coarser elements; test the limits of
  • streak - noun a distinctive characteristic; a sudden flash (as of lightning); an unbroken series of events; a marking of a different color or texture from the background; verb run naked in a public place; move quickly in a straight line; mark with spots or blotches of different color or shades of color as if stained
  • striate - adj. marked with stria or striations; verb mark with striae or striations
  • stroma - noun the supporting tissue of an organ (as opposed to parenchyma); the dense colorless framework of a chloroplast; a mass of fungal tissue that has spore-bearing structures embedded in it or on it
  • stunting - noun the performance of stunts while in flight in an aircraft
  • subspecies - noun (biology) a taxonomic group that is a division of a species; usually arises as a consequence of geographical isolation within a species
  • substrate - noun an indigenous language that contributes features to the language of an invading people who impose their language on the indigenous population; any stratum or layer lying underneath another; a surface on which an organism grows or is attached; the substance that is acted upon by an enzyme or ferment
  • susceptible - adj. (often followed by `of' or `to') yielding readily to or capable of; easily impressed emotionally
  • symptom - noun anything that accompanies X and is regarded as an indication of X's existence; (medicine) any sensation or change in bodily function that is experienced by a patient and is associated with a particular disease
  • syncytium - noun a mass of cytoplasm containing several nuclei and enclosed in a membrane but no internal cell boundaries (as in muscle fibers)
  • synergism - noun the theological doctrine that salvation results from the interaction of human will and divine grace; the working together of two things (muscles or drugs for example) to produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects
  • systematics - noun the science of systematic classification
  • systemic - adj. affecting an entire system

Table of contents:

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.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

T

  • teliospore - noun a chlamydospore that develops in the last stage of the life cycle of the rust fungus
  • Teliospore - noun a chlamydospore that develops in the last stage of the life cycle of the rust fungus
  • thallus - noun a plant body without true stems or roots or leaves or vascular system; characteristic of the thallophytes
  • thermotherapy - noun the use of heat to treat a disease or disorder; heating pads or hot compresses or hot-water bottles are used to promote circulation in peripheral vascular disease or to relax tense muscles
  • tolerance - noun the act of tolerating something; the power or capacity of an organism to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions; willingness to recognize and respect the beliefs or practices of others; a disposition to allow freedom of choice and behavior; a permissible difference; allowing some freedom to move within limits
  • toxicity - noun the degree to which something is poisonous; grave harmfulness or deadliness
  • toxin - noun a poisonous substance produced during the metabolism and growth of certain microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species
  • transmit - verb send from one person or place to another; broadcast over the airwaves, as in radio or television; transmit or serve as the medium for transmission; transfer to another
  • transmit - verb send from one person or place to another; broadcast over the airwaves, as in radio or television; transmit or serve as the medium for transmission; transfer to another
  • tumor - noun an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose
  • type - noun a small metal block bearing a raised character on one end; produces a printed character when inked and pressed on paper; a subdivision of a particular kind of thing; all of the tokens of the same symbol; printed characters; (biology) the taxonomic group whose characteristics are used to define the next higher taxon; a person of a specified kind (usually with many eccentricities); verbidentify as belonging to a certain type; write by means of a keyboard with types

V

  • vector - noun a variable quantity that can be resolved into components; any agent (person or animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease; a straight line segment whose length is magnitude and whose orientation in space is direction
  • vermiform - adj. resembling a worm; long and thin and cylindrical
  • viable - adj. capable of life or normal growth and development;capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances as they are
  • virion - noun (virology) a complete viral particle; nucleic acid and capsid (and a lipid envelope in some viruses)
  • viroid - noun the smallest of viruses; a plant virus with its RNA arranged in a circular chromosome without a protein coat
  • virulence - noun extreme hostility; extreme harmfulness (as the capacity of a microorganism to cause disease)
  • virulent - adj. infectious; having the ability to cause disease; harsh or corrosive in tone; extremely poisonous or injurious; producing venom
  • virus - noun (virology) ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts; many are pathogenic; a piece of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a thin coat of protein; a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer; a harmful or corrupting agency

W

  • white rust - noun fungus causing a disease characterized by a white powdery mass of conidia
  • wilt - noun causing to become limp or drooping; any plant disease characterized by drooping and shriveling; usually caused by parasites attacking the roots; verb become limp; lose strength
  • witches' broom - noun an abnormal tufted growth of small branches on a tree or shrub caused by fungi or insects or other physiological disturbance
  • wound - adj. put in a coil; noun the act of inflicting a wound; a casualty to military personnel resulting from combat; a figurative injury (to your feelings or pride); any break in the skin or an organ caused by violence or surgical incision; verb cause injuries or bodily harm to; hurt the feelings of.

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Z

  • zoospore - noun an asexual spore of some algae and fungi that moves by means of flagella
  • Zygomycetes - noun class of fungi coextensive with subdivision Zygomycota
  • zygospore - noun a plant spore formed by two similar sexual cells
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