Glossary of pharmacology

From WikiMD


  • aa - noun a dry form of lava resembling clinkers;  an associate degree in arts;  an international organization that provides a support group for persons trying to overcome alcoholism
  • ab - noun the blood group whose red cells carry both the A and B antigens;  the eleventh month of the civil year; the fifth month of the ecclesiastical year in the Jewish calendar (in July and August);  the muscles of the abdomen;  a bachelor's degree in arts and sciences
  • abc - noun the elementary stages of any subject (usually plural)
  • abcs - noun the elementary stages of any subject (usually plural)
  • abdomen - noun the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis;  the cavity containing the major viscera; in mammals it is separated from the thorax by the diaphragm
  • abdominal - adj. of or relating to or near the abdomen;  noun the muscles of the abdomen
  • aberdeen - noun a city in northeastern Scotland on the North Sea;  a town in northeastern Maryland;  a town in northeastern South Dakota;  a town in western Washington
  • aberrant - adj. markedly different from an accepted norm;  noun one whose behavior departs substantially from the norm of a group
  • ability - noun the quality of being able to perform; a quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplishment;  possession of the qualities (especially mental qualities) required to do something or get something done
  • ablate - verb remove an organ or bodily structure;  wear away through erosion or vaporization
  • ablation - noun surgical removal of a body part or tissue;  the erosive process that reduces the size of glaciers
  • ablative - adj. tending to ablate; i.e. to be removed or vaporized at very high temperature;  relating to the ablative case;  noun the case indicating the agent in passive sentences or the instrument or manner or place of the action described by the verb
  • able - adj. (usually followed by `to') having the necessary means or skill or know-how or authority to do something;  having inherent physical or mental ability or capacity;  have the skills and qualifications to do things well;  having a strong healthy body
  • abnormal - adj. much greater than the normal;  not normal; not typical or usual or regular or conforming to a norm;  departing from the normal in e.g. intelligence and development
  • abnormality - noun behavior that breaches the rule or etiquette or custom or morality;  marked strangeness as a consequence of being abnormal;  retardation sufficient to fall outside the normal range of intelligence;  an abnormal condition
  • abnormally - adv. in an abnormal manner
  • abolish - verb do away with
  • abortion - noun termination of pregnancy;  failure of a plan
  • above - adj. appearing earlier in the same text;  adv. at an earlier place;  in or to a place that is higher;  noun an earlier section of a written text
  • abraham - noun the first of the Old Testament patriarchs and the father of Isaac; according to Genesis, God promised to give Abraham's family (the Hebrews) the land of Canaan (the Promised Land); God tested Abraham by asking him to sacrifice his son
  • abrasion - noun erosion by friction;  an abraded area where the skin is torn or worn off;  the wearing down of rock particles by friction due to water or wind or ice
  • abrupt - adj. surprisingly and unceremoniously brusque in manner; exceedingly sudden and unexpected;  extremely steep;  marked by sudden changes in subject and sharp transitions
  • abruptly - adv. quickly and without warning
  • abscess - noun symptom consisting of a localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue
  • abscissa - noun the value of a coordinate on the horizontal axis
  • absence - noun failure to be present;  the state of being absent;  the time interval during which something or somebody is away;  epilepsy characterized by paroxysmal attacks of brief clouding of consciousness (a possible other abnormalities)
  • absent - adj. lost in thought; showing preoccupation;  not in a specified place physically or mentally;  verb go away or leave
  • absolutely - adv. totally and definitely; without question;  completely and without qualification; used informally as intensifiers
  • absorb - verb cause to become one with;  engage or engross wholly; take up mentally;  assimilate or take in;  take in, also metaphorically; become imbued;  take up, as of debts or payments;  suck or take up or in;  engross (oneself) fully
  • absorbable - adj. capable of being absorbed or taken in through the pores of a surface
  • absorbed - adj. taken in through the pores of a surface;  retained without reflection;  giving or marked by complete attention to
  • absorptive - adj. having power or capacity or tendency to absorb or soak up something (liquids or energy etc.)
  • abstinence - noun act or practice of refraining from indulging an appetite;  the trait of abstaining (especially from alcohol)
  • abundant - adj. present in great quantity
  • abuse - noun a rude expression intended to offend or hurt;  cruel or inhumane treatment;  improper or excessive use;  verb use wrongly or improperly or excessively;  use foul or abusive language towards; change the inherent purpose or function of something;  treat badly
  • abused - adj. subjected to cruel treatment;  used improperly or excessively especially drugs
  • abusive - adj. characterized by physical or psychological maltreatment;  expressing offensive reproach
  • ac - noun an electric current that reverses direction sinusoidally;  a radioactive element of the actinide series; found in uranium ores
  • academic - adj. hypothetical or theoretical and not expected to produce an immediate or practical result;  marked by a narrow focus on or display of learning especially its trivial aspects;  associated with academia or an academy;  noun an educator who works at a college or university
  • academy - noun a learned establishment for the advancement of knowledge;  a school for special training;  a secondary school (usually private);  an institution for the advancement of art or science or literature
  • accelerate - verb move faster;  cause to move faster
  • accelerated - adj. caused to go more rapidly;  speeded up, as of an academic course
  • accelerating - adj. increasing in speed; becoming progressively faster
  • acceptability - noun satisfactoriness by virtue of conforming to approved standards
  • acceptable - adj. worthy of acceptance or satisfactory;  adequate for the purpose;  judged to be in conformity with approved usage; meeting requirements
  • acceptably - adv. in an acceptable (but not outstanding) manner
  • accepted - adj. generally approved or compelling recognition; generally agreed upon; not subject to dispute;  widely accepted as true or worthy;  widely or permanently accepted;  generally accepted or used;  judged to be in conformity with approved usage
  • accepting - adj. tolerating without protest
  • acceptor - noun the person (or institution) who accepts a check or draft and becomes responsible for paying the party named in the draft when it matures;  (chemistry) in the formation of a coordinate bond it is the compound to which electrons are donated
  • accessible - adj. capable of being reached;  easy to get along with or talk to; friendly;  easily obtained;  capable of being read with comprehension
  • accessory - adj. furnishing added support;  noun a supplementary component that improves capability;  clothing that is worn or carried, but not part of your main clothing;  someone who helps another person commit a crime
  • accident - noun anything that happens by chance without an apparent cause;  a mishap; especially one causing injury or death
  • accidental - adj. without intention (especially resulting from heedless action);  associated by chance and not an integral part; occurring or appearing or singled out by chance;  noun a musical notation that makes a note sharp or flat or natural although that is not part of the key signature
  • acclimatization - noun adaptation to a new climate (a new temperature or altitude or environment)
  • accompanied - adj. having accompaniment or companions or escort
  • accompany - verb go or travel along with;  perform an accompaniment to;  be associated with;  be a companion to somebody
  • accompanying - adj. following as a consequence
  • accomplished - adj. successfully completed or brought to an end; settled securely and unconditionally;  highly skilled
  • accordance - noun the act of granting rights;  concurrence of opinion
  • according - adj. (followed by `to') as reported or stated by;  (followed by `to') in agreement with or accordant with
  • accordingly - adv. in accordance with;  (sentence connectors) because of the reason given
  • accumulate - verb collect or gather;  get or gather together
  • accumulated - adj. brought together into a group or crowd; periodically accumulated over time
  • accumulation - noun the act of accumulating;  (finance) profits that are not paid out as dividends but are added to the capital base of the corporation;  several things grouped together or considered as a whole;  an increase by natural growth or addition
  • accuracy - noun the quality of being near to the true value; (mathematics) the number of significant figures given in a number
  • accurate - adj. conforming exactly or almost exactly to fact or to a standard or performing with total accuracy;  (of ideas, images, representations, expressions) characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth ; strictly correct
  • accurately - adv. with few mistakes;  strictly correctly
  • acetaldehyde - noun a colorless volatile water-soluble liquid aldehyde used chiefly in manufacture of acetic acid and perfumes and drugs
  • acetate - noun a salt or ester of acetic acid;  a fabric made from fibers of cellulose acetate
  • acetic - adj. relating to or containing acetic acid
  • acetone - noun the simplest ketone; a highly inflammable liquid widely used as an organic solvent and as material for making plastics
  • acetyl - noun the organic group of acetic acid (CH3CO-)
  • acetylate - verb introduce an acetyl group into (a chemical compound);  receive substitution of an acetyl group
  • acetylation - noun the process of introducing an acetyl group into a compound
  • acetylcholine - noun a neurotransmitter that is a derivative of choline; released at the ends of nerve fibers in the somatic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  • ache - noun a dull persistent (usually moderately intense) pain;  verbhave a desire for something or someone who is not present;  be the source of pain;  feel physical pain
  • achievable - adj. capable of existing or taking place or proving true; possible to do
  • achieve - verb to gain with effort
  • acid-fast - adj. not easily decolorized by acid solutions; pertains to micro-organisms (especially the tubercle bacillus that causes tuberculosis)
  • acid - adj. having the characteristics of an acid;  harsh or corrosive in tone;  being sour to the taste;  noun street name for lysergic acid diethylamide;  any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt
  • acidic - adj. being or containing an acid; of a solution having an excess of hydrogen atoms (having a pH of less than 7);  being sour to the taste
  • acidification - noun the process of becoming acid or being converted into an acid
  • acidity - noun pH values below 7;  the taste experience when something acidic is taken into the mouth;  the property of being acidic
  • acidophil - noun an organism that thrives in a relatively acid environment
  • acidosis - noun abnormally high acidity (excess hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
  • acne - noun an inflammatory disease involving the sebaceous glands of the skin; characterized by papules or pustules or comedones
  • acquired - adj. gotten through environmental forces
  • acromegaly - noun enlargement of bones of hands and feet and face; often accompanied by headache and muscle pain and emotional disturbances; caused by overproduction of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary gland (due to a tumor)
  • across - adv. transversely;  to the opposite side
  • acrylic - noun a synthetic fabric;  used especially by artists;  a glassy thermoplastic; can be cast and molded or used in coatings and adhesives;  polymerized from acrylonitrile
  • acth - noun a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex
  • acting - adj. serving temporarily especially as a substitute;  noun the performance of a part or role in a drama
  • activate - verb make active or more active;  make (substances) radioactive;  aerate (sewage) so as to favor the growth of organisms that decompose organic matter;  make more adsorptive;  put in motion or move to act
  • activated - adj. set up and placed on active assignment;  rendered active; e.g. rendered radioactive or luminescent or photosensitive or conductive;  (of e.g. a molecule) made reactive or more reactive;  (of sewage) treated with aeration and bacteria to aid decomposition
  • activating - adj. causing motion or action or change;  noun the activity of causing to have energy and be active
  • activation - noun making active and effective (as a bomb); stimulation of activity in an organism or chemical;  the activity of causing to have energy and be active
  • activator - noun (biology) any agency bringing about activation; a molecule that increases the activity of an enzyme or a protein that increases the production of a gene product in DNA transcription
  • actively - adv. in an active manner
  • actomyosin - noun a protein complex in muscle fibers; composed of myosin and actin; shortens when stimulated and causes muscle contractions
  • acts - noun a New Testament book describing the development of the early church from Christ's Ascension to Paul's sojourn at Rome
  • actual - adj. presently existing in fact and not merely potential or possible;  being or existing at the present moment;  taking place in reality; not pretended or imitated;  existing in act or fact;  being or reflecting the essential or genuine character of something;  existing in fact whether with lawful authority or not
  • actually - adv. used to imply that one would expect the fact to be the opposite of that stated; surprisingly;  in actual fact;  as a sentence modifier to add slight emphasis;  at the present moment
  • acuity - noun sharpness of vision; the visual ability to resolve fine detail (usually measured by a Snellen chart);  a quick and penetrating intelligence
  • acupuncture - noun treatment of pain or disease by inserting the tips of needles at specific points on the skin
  • acutely - adv. having a rapid onset;  in an acute manner;  in a shrewd manner;  changing suddenly in direction and degree
  • acyl - noun any group or radical of the form RCO- where R is an organic group
  • ad - adv. in the Christian era; used before dates after the supposed year Christ was born;  noun a public promotion of some product or service
  • adamant - adj. impervious to pleas, persuasion, requests, reason; noun very hard native crystalline carbon valued as a gem
  • adapt - verb make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose;  adapt or conform oneself to new or different conditions
  • adaptation - noun (physiology) the responsive adjustment of a sense organ (as the eye) to varying conditions (as of light);  a written work (as a novel) that has been recast in a new form;  the process of adapting to something (such as environmental conditions)
  • adapted - adj. changed in order to improve or made more fit for a particular purpose
  • adaptive - adj. having a capacity for adaptation
  • add-in - noun a printed circuit that can be inserted into expansion slots in a computer to increase the computer's capabilities
  • add-on - noun a supplementary component that improves capability; a component that is added to something to improve it
  • addict - noun someone who is physiologically dependent on a substance; abrupt deprivation of the substance produces withdrawal symptoms;  someone who is so ardently devoted to something that it resembles an addiction;  verb to cause (someone or oneself) to become dependent (on something, especially a narcotic drug)
  • addicted - adj. compulsively or physiologically dependent on something habit-forming
  • addictive - adj. causing or characterized by addiction
  • additional - adj. further or added
  • additionally - adv. by way of addition; furthermore
  • additive - adj. characterized or produced by addition;  designating or involving an equation whose terms are of the first degree;  nounsomething added to enhance food or gasoline or paint or medicine
  • addressed - adj. (of mail) marked with a destination
  • adductor - noun a muscle that draws a body part toward the median line
  • adenine - noun (biochemistry) purine base found in DNA and RNA; pairs with thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA
  • adenocarcinoma - noun malignant tumor originating in glandular epithelium
  • adenohypophysis - noun the anterior lobe of the pituitary body; primarily glandular in nature
  • adenoma - noun a benign epithelial tumor of glandular origin
  • adenosine - noun (biochemistry) a nucleoside that is a structural component of nucleic acids; it is present in all living cells in a combined form as a constituent of DNA and RNA and ADP and ATP and AMP
  • adenovirus - noun any of a group of viruses including those that in humans cause upper respiratory infections or infectious pinkeye
  • adequacy - noun the quality of being able to meet a need satisfactorily: "he questioned the adequacy of the usual sentimental interpretation of the Golden Rule";  the quality of being sufficient for the end in view
  • adequate - adj. (sometimes followed by `to') meeting the requirements especially of a task;  about average; acceptable; enough to meet a purpose
  • adequately - adv. in an adequate manner;  in an adequate manner or to an adequate degree
  • adh - noun hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus; affects blood pressure by stimulating capillary muscles and reduces urine flow by affecting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules
  • adhere - verb follow through or carry out a plan without deviation; stick to firmly;  be a devoted follower or supporter;  be compatible or in accordance with;  come or be in close contact with; stick or hold together and resist separation;  be loyal to
  • adherence - noun faithful support for a religion or cause or political party;  the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or the joining of surfaces of different composition
  • adherent - adj. sticking fast;  noun someone who believes and helps to spread the doctrine of another
  • adipose - adj. composed of animal fat
  • adjacent - adj. near or close to but not necessarily touching;  nearest in space or position; immediately adjoining without intervening space;  having a common boundary or edge; touching
  • adjunctive - adj. joining; forming an adjunct
  • adjust - verb adapt or conform oneself to new or different conditions;  alter or regulate so as to achieve accuracy or conform to a standard;  make correspondent or conformable;  decide how much is to be paid on an insurance claim;  place in a line or arrange so as to be parallel or straight
  • adjusted - adj. altered to accommodate to certain requirements or bring into a proper relation;  adjusted to demands of daily living; showing emotional stability;  (especially of garments) having the fit or style adjusted;  having achieved a comfortable relation with your environment
  • adjuvant - adj. enhancing the action of a medical treatment; furnishing added support;  noun an additive that enhances the effectiveness of medical treatment
  • administer - verb give or apply (medications);  administer ritually; of church sacraments;  work in an administrative capacity; supervise; administer or bestow, as in small portions
  • administration - noun the act of administering medication;  a method of tending to (especially business) matters;  the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something;  the tenure of a president
  • admiralty - noun the office of admiral;  the department in charge of the navy (as in Great Britain)
  • admission - noun the act of admitting someone to enter;  an acknowledgment of the truth of something;  the fee charged for admission
  • adolescence - noun in the state that someone is in between puberty and adulthood;  the time period between the beginning of puberty and adulthood
  • adopted - adj. acquired as your own by free choice;  having been taken into a specific relationship
  • adp - noun data processing by a computer;  an ester of adenosine that is converted to ATP for energy storage
  • adrenal - adj. of or pertaining to the adrenal glands or their secretions;  near the kidneys;  noun either of a pair of complex endocrine glands situated near the kidney
  • adrenaline - noun a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin); stimulates autonomic nerve action
  • adrenergic - adj. relating to epinephrine (its release or action);  noundrug that has the effects of epinephrine
  • adrenocortical - adj. of or derived from the cortex of the adrenal glands
  • adrenocorticotrophic - adj. stimulating or acting on the adrenal cortex
  • adrenocorticotropic - adj. stimulating or acting on the adrenal cortex
  • adsorbed - adj. accumulated on a surface of a solid
  • adsorption - noun the accumulation of molecules of a gas to form a thin film on the surface of a solid
  • adult - adj. (of animals) fully developed;  noun any mature animal;  a fully developed person from maturity onward
  • adulteration - noun the act of adulterating (especially the illicit substitution of one substance for another);  being mixed with extraneous material; the product of adulterating
  • adulthood - noun the state (and responsibilities) of a person who has attained maturity;  the period of time in your life after your physical growth has stopped and you are fully developed
  • advancing - adj. moving ahead or toward the front;  moving forward
  • advantage - noun benefit resulting from some event or action;  the quality of having a superior or more favorable position;  (tennis) first point scored after deuce;  verb give an advantage to
  • advantageous - adj. giving an advantage;  appropriate for achieving a particular end; implies a lack of concern for fairness
  • advent - noun arrival that has been awaited (especially of something momentous);  the season including the four Sundays preceding Christmas;  (Christian theology) the reappearance of Jesus as judge for the Last Judgment
  • adventitia - noun an enveloping or covering membrane or layer of body tissue
  • adverse - adj. in an opposing direction;  contrary to your interests or welfare
  • adversely - adv. in an adverse manner
  • advertising - noun the business of drawing public attention to goods and services;  a public promotion of some product or service
  • advice - noun a proposal for an appropriate course of action
  • advisable - adj. worthy of being recommended or suggested; prudent or wise
  • advise - verb inform (somebody) of something;  give advice to;  make a proposal, declare a plan for something
  • advised - adj. having received information;  having the benefit of careful prior consideration or counsel
  • advisor - noun an expert who gives advice
  • advisory - adj. giving advice;  noun an announcement that usually advises or warns the public of some threat
  • aerobe - noun an organism (especially a bacterium) that requires air or free oxygen for life
  • aerobic - adj. depending on free oxygen or air;  based on or using the principles of aerobics; enhancing respiratory and circulatory efficiency
  • aerosol - noun a dispenser that holds a substance under pressure and that can release it as a fine spray (usually by means of a propellant gas);  a cloud of solid or liquid particles in a gas
  • aerosolized - adj. in the form of ultramicroscopic solid or liquid particles dispersed or suspended in air or gas
  • aetiological - adj. relating to the etiology of a disease;  of or relating to the philosophical study of causation
  • aetiology - noun the philosophical study of causation;  the cause of a disease
  • afebrile - adj. having no fever
  • affect - noun the conscious subjective aspect of feeling or emotion; verb act physically on; have an effect upon;  have an effect upon; have an emotional or cognitive impact upon;  make believe with the intent to deceive;  connect closely and often incriminatingly
  • affected - adj. acted upon; influenced;  speaking or behaving in an artificial way to make an impression;  being excited or provoked to the expression of an emotion
  • affecting - adj. arousing affect
  • affective - adj. characterized by emotion
  • afferent - adj. of nerves and nerve impulses; conveying sensory information from the sense organs to the CNS;  noun a nerve that passes impulses from receptors toward or to the central nervous system
  • afflicted - adj. mentally or physically unfit;  grievously affected especially by disease
  • affluent - adj. having an abundant supply of money or possessions of value;  noun an affluent person; a person who is financially well off;  a branch that flows into the main stream
  • afford - verb be able to spare or give up;  afford access to;  have the financial means to do something or buy something;  be the cause or source of
  • african-american - adj. pertaining to or characteristic of Americans of African ancestry;  noun an American whose ancestors were born in Africa
  • african - adj. of or relating to the nations of Africa or their peoples; noun a native or inhabitant of Africa
  • after - adj. located farther aft;  adv. behind or in the rear;  happening at a time subsequent to a reference time
  • aftermath - noun the consequences of an event (especially a catastrophic event);  the outcome of an event especially as relative to an individual
  • afterwards - adv. happening at a time subsequent to a reference time
  • ag - noun a soft white precious univalent metallic element having the highest electrical and thermal conductivity of any metal; occurs in argentite and in free form; used in coins and jewelry and tableware and photography
  • age-related - adj. changing (increasing or decreasing) as an individual's age increases
  • age - noun how long something has existed;  a time in life (usually defined in years) at which some particular qualification or power arises;  a late time of life;  a prolonged period of time;  an era of history having some distinctive feature;  verb begin to seem older; get older;  make older;  grow old or older
  • ageing - adj. growing old;  noun the organic process of growing older and showing the effects of increasing age;  acquiring desirable qualities by being left undisturbed for some time
  • agency - noun a business that serves other businesses;  an administrative unit of government;  the state of being in action or exerting power;  how a result is obtained or an end is achieved;  the state of serving as an official and authorized delegate or agent
  • agenesis - noun imperfect development; nondevelopment of a part
  • aggravate - verb make worse;  exasperate or irritate
  • aggravated - adj. incited, especially deliberately, to anger;  made more severe or intense especially in law
  • aggravation - noun action that makes a problem or a disease (or its symptoms) worse;  unfriendly behavior that causes anger or resentment;  an exasperated feeling of annoyance
  • aggregation - noun the act of gathering something together;  several things grouped together or considered as a whole
  • aggression - noun violent action that is hostile and usually unprovoked;  deliberately unfriendly behavior;  the act of initiating hostilities;  a disposition to behave aggressively;  a feeling of hostility that arouses thoughts of attack
  • aggressive - adj. having or showing determination and energetic pursuit of your ends;  characteristic of an enemy or one eager to fight;  tending to spread quickly
  • aggressively - adv. in an aggressive manner
  • aging - adj. growing old;  noun the organic process of growing older and showing the effects of increasing age;  acquiring desirable qualities by being left undisturbed for some time
  • agitated - adj. troubled emotionally and usually deeply;  physically disturbed or set in motion;  thrown from side to side
  • agitation - noun the act of agitating something; causing it to move around (usually vigorously);  disturbance usually in protest;  the feeling of being agitated; not calm;  a state of agitation or turbulent change or development;  a mental state of extreme emotional disturbance
  • ago - adj. gone by; or in the past;  adv. in the past
  • agonist - noun (biochemistry) a drug that can combine with a receptor on a cell to produce a physiological reaction;  a muscle that contracts while another relaxes;  someone involved in a contest or battle (as in an agon);  the principal character in a work of fiction
  • agoraphobia - noun a morbid fear of open spaces (as fear of being caught alone in some public place)
  • agranulocytosis - noun an acute blood disorder (often caused by radiation or drug therapy) characterized by severe reduction in granulocytes
  • agree - verb consent or assent to a condition, or agree to do something;  be in accord; be in agreement;  achieve harmony of opinion, feeling, or purpose;  be agreeable or suitable;  show grammatical agreement;  be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics;  go together
  • agreed - adj. united by being of the same opinion
  • agreement - noun compatibility of observations;  the thing arranged or agreed to;  the statement (oral or written) of an exchange of promises;  the verbal act of agreeing;  the determination of grammatical inflection on the basis of word relations;  harmony of people's opinions or actions or characters
  • aid - noun the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose;  a resource;  a gift of money to support a worthy person or cause;  the work of providing treatment for or attending to someone or something;  verb improve the condition of;  give help or assistance; be of service
  • aided - adj. having help; often used as a combining form
  • aids - noun a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
  • airway - noun a commercial enterprise that provides scheduled flights for passengers;  a duct that provides ventilation (as in mines); the passages through which air enters and leaves the body;  a designated route followed by airplanes in flying from one airport to another
  • ak - noun a state in northwestern North America; the 49th state admitted to the union
  • akinesia - noun motionlessness attributable to a temporary paralysis
  • al - noun a state in the southeastern United States on the Gulf of Mexico; one of the Confederate states during the American Civil War;  a silvery ductile metallic element found primarily in bauxite
  • ala - noun a wing of an insect;  a flat wing-shaped process or winglike part of an organism
  • alarming - adj. causing alarm or fear
  • albert - noun prince consort of Queen Victoria of England (1819-1861)
  • albumin - noun a simple water-soluble protein found in many animal tissues and liquids
  • albuminuria - noun the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
  • alcohol - noun a liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent;  any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation
  • alcoholic - adj. addicted to alcohol;  characteristic of or containing alcohol;  noun a person who drinks alcohol to excess habitually
  • alcoholism - noun habitual intoxication; prolonged and excessive intake of alcoholic drinks leading to a breakdown in health and an addiction to alcohol such that abrupt deprivation leads to severe withdrawal symptoms;  an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess
  • aldehyde - noun any of a class of highly reactive chemical compounds; used in making resins and dyes and organic acids
  • aldosterone - noun a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland; regulates salt (sodium and potassium) and water balance
  • aldosteronism - noun a condition caused by overproduction of aldosterone
  • alertness - noun lively attentiveness;  a state of readiness to respond;  the process of paying close and continuous attention
  • algebraic - adj. of or relating to algebra
  • algorithm - noun a precise rule (or set of rules) specifying how to solve some problem
  • alimentary - adj. of or providing nourishment
  • aliphatic - adj. having carbon atoms linked in open chains
  • alkaline - adj. relating to or containing an alkali; having a pH greater than 7
  • alkalinize - verb make (a substance) alkaline;  become alkaline
  • alkaloid - noun natural bases containing nitrogen found in plants
  • alkalosis - noun abnormally high alkalinity (low hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
  • alkyl - noun any of a series of univalent groups of the general formula CnH2n+1 derived from aliphatic hydrocarbons
  • all - adj. completely given to or absorbed by;  quantifier; used with either mass or count nouns to indicate the whole number or amount of or every one of a class;  adv. to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole' is often used informally for `wholly')
  • allay - verb satisfy (thirst);  lessen the intensity of or calm
  • allergic - adj. having an allergy or peculiar or excessive susceptibility (especially to a specific factor);  characterized by or caused by allergy
  • allergy - noun hypersensitivity reaction to a particular allergen; symptoms can vary greatly in intensity
  • alleviate - verb provide physical relief, as from pain;  make easier
  • alleviation - noun the act of reducing something unpleasant (as pain or annoyance);  the feeling that comes when something burdensome is removed or reduced
  • allied - adj. joined by treaty or agreement;  related by common characteristics or ancestry;  united in a confederacy or league;  of or relating to or denoting the Allies in World War I;  of or relating to or denoting the Allies in World War II
  • allium - noun large genus of perennial and biennial pungent bulbous plants: garlic; leek; onion; chive; sometimes placed in family Alliaceae as the type genus
  • allopurinol - noun a drug (trade name Zyloprim) used to treat gout and other conditions in which there is an excessive buildup of uric acid
  • almost - adv. (of actions or states) slightly short of or not quite accomplished
  • alone - adj. radically distinctive and without equal;  exclusive of anyone or anything else;  isolated from others;  lacking companions or companionship;  adv. without anybody else;  without any others being included or involved
  • along - adv. with a forward motion;  in accompaniment or as a companion;  in addition (usually followed by `with');  to a more advanced state;  in line with a length or direction (often followed by `by' or `beside')
  • alopecia - noun loss of hair (especially on the head) or loss of wool or feathers; in humans it can result from heredity or hormonal imbalance or certain diseases or drugs and treatments (chemotherapy for cancer)
  • alpha-blocker - noun any of various drugs that block alpha-adrenergic receptors; used in treating benign prostatic hyperplasia; relaxes the muscles of the prostate and bladder
  • alpha - adj. early testing stage of a software or hardware product; first in order of importance;  noun the 1st letter of the Greek alphabet;  the beginning of a series or sequence
  • alphabetical - adj. arranged in order according to the alphabet; relating to or expressed by a writing system that uses an alphabet
  • alprazolam - noun an antianxiety agent (trade name Xanax) of the benzodiazepine class
  • already - adv. prior to a specified or implied time
  • als - noun thickening of tissue in the motor tracts of the lateral columns and anterior horns of the spinal cord; results in progressive muscle atrophy that starts in the limbs
  • alt - noun angular distance above the horizon (especially of a celestial object)
  • alter - verb remove the ovaries of;  make an alteration to;  make or become different in some particular way, without permanently losing one's or its former characteristics or essence;  cause to change; make different; cause a transformation;  insert words into texts, often falsifying it thereby
  • alteration - noun the act of making something different (as e.g. the size of a garment);  the act of revising or altering (involving reconsideration and modification);  an event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another
  • altered - adj. changed in form or character without becoming something else;  having testicles or ovaries removed;  changed in order to improve or made more fit for a particular purpose
  • altering - noun the sterilization of an animal
  • alternating - adj. (of a current) reversing direction;  occurring by turns; first one and then the other
  • alternative - adj. necessitating a choice between mutually exclusive possibilities;  pertaining to unconventional choices;  allowing a choice;  noun one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen
  • alternatively - adv. in place of, or as an alternative to
  • altitude - noun elevation especially above sea level or above the earth's surface;  the perpendicular distance from the base of a geometric figure to opposite vertex (or side if parallel);  angular distance above the horizon (especially of a celestial object)
  • altogether - adv. with everything included or counted;  to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole' is often used informally for `wholly');  with everything considered (and neglecting details); noun informal terms for nakedness
  • aluminium - noun a silvery ductile metallic element found primarily in bauxite
  • alveolar - adj. pertaining to the tiny air sacs of the lungs;  pertaining to the alveolar ridge;  noun a consonant articulated with the tip of the tongue near the gum ridge
  • alveolitis - noun inflammation of the alveoli in the lungs caused by inhaling dust; with repeated exposure the condition may become chronic;  inflammation in the socket of a tooth; sometimes occurs after a tooth is extracted and a blood clot fails to form
  • always - adv. at all times; all the time and on every occasion; forever; throughout all time;  at any time or in any event;  seemingly without interruption; often and repeatedly
  • am - noun modulation of the amplitude of the (radio) carrier wave;  a master's degree in arts and sciences;  a radioactive transuranic metallic element; discovered by bombarding uranium with helium atoms
  • ambitious - adj. having a strong desire for success or achievement; requiring full use of your abilities or resources
  • ambulance - noun a vehicle that takes people to and from hospitals
  • ameliorate - verb get better;  to make better
  • amenable - adj. disposed or willing to comply;  liable to answer to a higher authority;  open to being acted upon in a certain way;  readily reacting to suggestions and influences
  • amenorrhoea - noun absence or suppression of normal menstrual flow
  • america - noun North America and South America and Central America;  North American republic containing 50 states - 48 conterminous states in North America plus Alaska in northwest North America and the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean; achieved independence in 1776
  • amide - noun any organic compound containing the group -CONH2
  • amine - noun a compound derived from ammonia by replacing hydrogen atoms by univalent hydrocarbon radicals
  • amino acid - noun organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
  • amino - adj. pertaining to or containing any of a group of organic compounds of nitrogen derived from ammonia;  noun the radical -NH2
  • aminophylline - noun a theophylline derivative that is used as a bronchodilator in the treatment of bronchial asthma, emphysema, and bronchitis
  • amiodarone - noun an antiarrhythmic drug (trade name Cordarone) that has potentially fatal side effects and is used to control serious heart rhythm problems only when safer agents have been ineffective
  • amitriptyline - noun a tricyclic antidepressant drug (trade name Elavil) with serious side effects; interacts with many other medications
  • ammonia - noun a pungent gas compounded of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3);  a water solution of ammonia
  • ammoniacal - adj. pertaining to or containing or similar to ammonia
  • ammonium - noun the ion NH4 derived from ammonia; behaves in many respects like an alkali metal ion
  • amnesia - noun partial or total loss of memory
  • amoebic - adj. pertaining to or resembling amoebae
  • amount - noun how much of something is available;  how much there is of something that you can quantify;  a quantity obtained by the addition of a group of numbers;  a quantity of money;  verb be tantamount or equivalent to;  develop into;  add up in number or quantity
  • amoxicillin - noun an antibiotic; a semisynthetic oral penicillin (trade names Amoxil and Larotid and Polymox and Trimox and Augmentin) used to treat bacterial infections
  • amp - noun the basic unit of electric current adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites;  a nucleotide found in muscle cells and important in metabolism; reversibly convertible to ADP and ATP
  • amphetamine - noun a central nervous system stimulant that increases energy and decreases appetite; used to treat narcolepsy and some forms of depression
  • amphotericin - noun an antibiotic and antifungal agent
  • ampicillin - noun semisynthetic penicillin (trade names Principen and Polycillin and SK-Ampicillin)
  • amplification - noun (electronics) the act of increasing voltage or power or current;  addition of extra material or illustration or clarifying detail;  the amount of increase in signal power or voltage or current expressed as the ratio of output to input
  • amplify - verb increase the volume of;  exaggerate or make bigger; increase in size, volume or significance;  to enlarge beyond bounds or the truth
  • amplitude - noun greatness of magnitude;  the property of copious abundance;  (physics) the maximum displacement of a periodic wave
  • amsterdam - noun an industrial center and the nominal capital of the Netherlands; center of the diamond-cutting industry; seat of an important stock exchange; known for its canals and art museum
  • amyloid - adj. resembling starch;  noun (pathology) a waxy translucent complex protein resembling starch that results from degeneration of tissue;  a non-nitrogenous food substance consisting chiefly of starch; any substance resembling starch
  • amyotrophy - noun progressive wasting of muscle tissues
  • an - noun an associate degree in nursing
  • anabolic - adj. characterized by or promoting constructive metabolism;  of or related to the synthetic phase of metabolism
  • anaemia - noun a deficiency of red blood cells;  a lack of vitality
  • anaemic - adj. lacking vigor or energy;  relating to anemia or suffering from anemia
  • anaerobic - adj. living or active in the absence of free oxygen;  not aerobic
  • anaesthesia - noun loss of bodily sensation with or without loss of consciousness
  • anaesthetic - adj. characterized by insensibility;  noun a drug that causes temporary loss of bodily sensations
  • anaesthetist - noun a specialist who administers an anesthetic to a patient before he is treated
  • analgesia - noun absence of the sense of pain without loss of consciousness
  • analgesic - adj. capable of relieving pain;  noun a medicine used to relieve pain
  • analogous - adj. corresponding in function but not in evolutionary origin;  similar or equivalent in some respects though otherwise dissimilar
  • analogue - adj. of a circuit or device having an output that is proportional to the input;  noun something having the property of being analogous to something else
  • analytical - adj. of a proposition that is necessarily true independent of fact or experience;  using or skilled in using analysis (i.e., separating a whole--intellectual or substantial--into its elemental parts or basic principles)
  • anaphylactic - adj. related to the hypersensitivity known as anaphylaxis
  • anaphylaxis - noun hypersensitivity reaction to the ingestion or injection of a substance (a protein or drug) resulting from prior contact with a substance
  • anatomical - adj. of or relating to the structure of the body;  of or relating to the branch of morphology that studies the structure of organisms;  noun an expression that relates to anatomy
  • anatomically - adv. with respect to anatomy
  • anatomy - noun a detailed analysis;  the branch of morphology that deals with the structure of animals;  alternative names for the body of a human being
  • androgen - noun male sex hormone that is produced in the testes and responsible for typical male sexual characteristics
  • androgenic - adj. of or related to the male hormone androgen
  • androsterone - noun an androgenic hormone that is less active than testosterone
  • anecdotal - adj. having the character of an anecdote;  characterized by or given to telling anecdotes
  • aneurysm - noun a cardiovascular disease characterized by a saclike widening of an artery resulting from weakening of the artery wall
  • anger - noun a strong emotion; a feeling that is oriented toward some real or supposed grievance;  the state of being angry; belligerence aroused by a real or supposed wrong (personified as one of the deadly sins);  verb make angry;  become angry
  • angina - noun any disease of the throat or fauces marked by spasmodic attacks of intense suffocative pain;  a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
  • anginal - adj. of or related to the pain of angina pectoris
  • angiogenesis - noun the formation of new blood vessels
  • angiography - noun roentgenographic examination of blood vessels after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium; produces an angiogram
  • angioplasty - noun an operation to repair a damaged blood vessel or unblock a coronary artery
  • angiotensin ii - noun a potent vasopressor agent formed from angiotensin I
  • angiotensin - noun any of several vasoconstrictor substances (trade name Hypertensin) that cause narrowing of blood vessels
  • animal - adj. of the nature of or characteristic of or derived from an animal or animals;  marked by the appetites and passions of the body;  noun a living organism characterized by voluntary movement
  • anion - noun a negatively charged ion
  • anionic - adj. of or relating to anions;  noun a class of synthetic detergents in which the molecules do not ionize in aqueous solutions
  • ankle - noun a gliding joint between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula and the proximal end of the talus
  • annals - noun a chronological account of events in successive years;  reports of the work of a society or learned body etc
  • anne - noun Queen of England and Scotland and Ireland; daughter if James II and the last of the Stuart monarchs; in 1707 she was the last English ruler to exercise the royal veto over parliament (1665-1714)
  • annual - adj. completing its life cycle within a year;  occurring or payable every year;  noun a reference book that is published regularly once every year;  a plant that completes its entire life cycle within the space of a year
  • annually - adv. without missing a year;  by the year; every year (usually with reference to a sum of money paid or received)
  • anon - adv. (old-fashioned or informal) in a little while;  at another time;  noun sweet pulpy tropical fruit with thick scaly rind and shiny black seeds
  • anorectic - adj. causing loss of appetite;  suffering from anorexia nervosa; pathologically thin;  noun a person suffering from anorexia nervosa
  • anorexia - noun a prolonged disorder of eating due to loss of appetite
  • another - adj. any of various alternatives; some other
  • antacid - adj. acting to neutralize acid (especially in the stomach); noun an agent that counteracts or neutralizes acidity (especially in the stomach)
  • antagonism - noun (biochemistry) interference in or inhibition of the physiological action of a chemical substance by another having a similar structure;  an actively expressed feeling of dislike and hostility;  the relation between opposing principles or forces or factors;  a state of deep-seated ill-will
  • antagonist - noun a drug that neutralizes or counteracts the effects of another drug;  a muscle that relaxes while another contracts; someone who offers opposition
  • antagonistic - adj. incapable of harmonious association;  used especially of drugs or muscles that counteract or neutralize each other's effect;  arousing animosity or hostility;  characterized by antagonism or antipathy;  indicating opposition or resistance
  • antagonize - verb provoke the hostility of;  act in opposition to
  • anterior - adj. earlier in time;  of or near the head end or toward the front plane of the body;  noun a tooth situated at the front of the mouth
  • anterograde - adj. of amnesia; affecting time immediately following trauma
  • anthrax - noun a disease of humans that is not communicable; caused by infection with Bacillus anthracis followed by septicemia;  a highly infectious animal disease (especially cattle and sheep); it can be transmitted to people
  • anti-inflammatory - noun a medicine intended to reduce inflammation
  • anti - adj. not in favor of (an action or proposal etc.);  noun a person who is opposed (to an action or policy or practice etc.)
  • antibacterial - adj. destroying bacteria or inhibiting their growth; noun any drug that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth
  • antibiotic - adj. of or relating to antibiotic drugs;  noun a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections
  • antibody - noun any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response
  • anticholinergic - adj. inhibiting or blocking the action of acetylcholine at a receptor site;  noun a substance that opposes or blocks the action of acetylcholine
  • anticholinesterase - noun a medicine that inhibits cholinesterase by combining with it and so has a cholinergic effect
  • anticipate - verb be a forerunner of or occur earlier than;  realize beforehand;  be excited or anxious about;  act in advance of; deal with ahead of time;  regard something as probable or likely;  make a prediction about; tell in advance
  • anticipated - adj. expected hopefully
  • anticipation - noun something expected (as on the basis of a norm);  pleasurable expectation;  wishing with confidence of fulfillment;  the act of predicting (as by reasoning about the future)
  • anticoagulant - noun medicine that prevents or retards the clotting of blood
  • anticoagulation - noun the administration of an anticoagulant drug to retard coagulation of the blood
  • anticonvulsant - noun a drug used to treat or prevent convulsions (as in epilepsy)
  • antidepressant - noun any of a class of drugs used to treat depression; often have undesirable side effects
  • antidiuretic - noun a drug that limits the formation of urine
  • antidote - noun a remedy that stops or controls the effects of a poison
  • antiemetic - noun a drug that prevents or alleviates nausea and vomiting
  • antiepileptic - noun a drug used to treat or prevent convulsions (as in epilepsy)
  • antifungal - adj. capable of destroying fungi;  noun any agent that destroys or prevents the growth of fungi
  • antigen - noun any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates an immune response in the body (especially the production of antibodies)
  • antigenic - adj. of or relating to antigens
  • antihistamine - noun a medicine used to treat allergies and hypersensitive reactions and colds; works by counteracting the effects of histamine on a receptor site
  • antihypertensive - noun a drug that reduces high blood pressure
  • antimetabolite - noun an antineoplastic drug that inhibits the utilization of a metabolite
  • antimicrobial - adj. capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of disease-causing microorganisms;  noun an agent (as heat or radiation or a chemical) that destroys microorganisms that might carry disease
  • antioxidant - noun substance that inhibits oxidation or inhibits reactions promoted by oxygen or peroxides
  • antipsychotic - noun tranquilizer used to treat psychotic conditions when a calming effect is desired
  • antipyretic - adj. preventing or alleviating fever;  noun any medicine that lowers body temperature to prevent or alleviate fever
  • antispasmodic - noun a drug used to relieve or prevent spasms (especially of the smooth muscles)
  • antithyroid - adj. having the effect of counteracting excessive thyroid activity
  • antitussive - noun any medicine used to suppress or relieve coughing
  • antiviral - adj. inhibiting or stopping the growth and reproduction of viruses;  noun any drug that destroys viruses
  • antrum - noun a natural cavity or hollow in a bone
  • anxiety - noun a vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some (usually ill-defined) misfortune;  a relatively permanent state of anxiety occurring in a variety of mental disorders
  • anxiolytic - adj. anxiety relieving;  noun a tranquilizer used to relieve anxiety and reduce tension and irritability
  • anxious - adj. eagerly desirous;  causing or fraught with or showing anxiety
  • any - adj. one or some or every or all without specification;  adv. to any degree or extent
  • anything - noun a thing of any kind
  • aorta - noun the large trunk artery that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to branch arteries
  • aortic - adj. of or relating to the aorta
  • apathetic - adj. marked by a lack of interest;  showing little or no emotion or animation
  • apathy - noun the trait of lacking enthusiasm for or interest in things generally;  an absence of emotion or enthusiasm
  • apc - noun a drug combination found in some over-the-counter headache remedies (aspirin and phenacetin and caffeine);  (military) an armored vehicle (usually equipped with treads) that is used to transport infantry
  • apex - noun the point on the celestial sphere toward which the sun and solar system appear to be moving relative to the fixed stars;  the highest point (of something)
  • aphrodisiac - adj. exciting sexual desire;  noun a drug or other agent that stimulates sexual desire
  • apical - adj. situated at an apex
  • aplasia - noun failure of some tissue or organ to develop
  • apnoeic - adj. of or relating to apnea
  • apomorphine - noun a morphine derivative that is not as strong as morphine; used as an emetic and in small doses as a sedative
  • apoptosis - noun a type of cell death in which the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself; a cell suicide mechanism that enables metazoans to control cell number and eliminate cells that threaten the animal's survival
  • appalling - adj. causing consternation;  noun an experience that appalls
  • apparatus - noun equipment designed to serve a specific function; (anatomy) a group of body parts that work together to perform a given function
  • apparent - adj. clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment;  appearing as such but not necessarily so
  • apparently - adv. from appearances alone;  unmistakably (`plain' is often used informally for `plainly')
  • appearance - noun the act of appearing in public view;  pretending that something is the case in order to make a good impression; formal attendance (in court or at a hearing) of a party in an action; outward or visible aspect of a person or thing;  a mental representation;  the event of coming into sight
  • appendage - noun a part that is joined to something larger;  a natural prolongation or projection from a part of an organism either animal or plant;  an external body part that projects from the body
  • appendicitis - noun inflammation of the vermiform appendix
  • appendix - noun a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch;  supplementary material that is collected and appended at the back of a book
  • appetite - noun a feeling of craving something
  • applicable - adj. readily applicable or practical;  capable of being applied; having relevance
  • applied - adj. concerned with concrete problems or data rather than with fundamental principles; opposed to theoretical;  put into practice or put to use;  that are used
  • appreciable - adj. enough to be estimated or measured
  • appreciably - adv. to a noticeable degree
  • appreciate - verb increase the value of;  gain in value;  be fully aware of; realize fully;  recognize with gratitude; be grateful for;  hold dear
  • appreciated - adj. fully understood or grasped;  giving pleasure or satisfaction
  • appreciation - noun an increase in price or value;  understanding of the nature or meaning or quality or magnitude of something;  an expression of gratitude;  a favorable judgment;  delicate discrimination (especially of aesthetic values)
  • appropriately - adv. in an appropriate manner
  • approval - noun a message expressing a favorable opinion;  a feeling of liking something or someone good;  acceptance as satisfactory;  the formal act of approving
  • approve - verb judge to be right or commendable; think well of;  give sanction to
  • approved - adj. generally or especially officially judged acceptable or satisfactory;  established by authority; given authoritative approval
  • approximate - adj. located close together;  very close in resemblance;  not quite exact or correct;  verb be close or similar; judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time)
  • approximately - adv. (of quantities) imprecise but fairly close to correct
  • april - noun the month following March and preceding May
  • aqueous - adj. produced by the action of water;  similar to or containing or dissolved in water
  • ar - noun a state in south central United States; one of the Confederate states during the American Civil War;  a unit of surface area equal to 100 square meters;  a colorless and odorless inert gas; one of the six inert gases; comprises approximately 1% of the earth's atmosphere
  • arachis - noun a genus of plants with pods that ripen underground (see peanut)
  • arachnophobia - noun a morbid fear of spiders
  • arb - noun someone who engages in arbitrage (who purchases securities in one market for immediate resale in another in the hope of profiting from the price differential)
  • arbiter - noun someone chosen to judge and decide a disputed issue;  someone with the power to settle matters at will
  • arbitrarily - adv. in a random manner
  • arbitrary - adj. based on or subject to individual discretion or preference or sometimes impulse or caprice
  • are - noun a unit of surface area equal to 100 square meters
  • arginine - noun a bitter tasting amino acid found in proteins and necessary for nutrition; its absence from the diet leads to a reduced production of spermatozoa
  • arguably - adv. as can be shown by argument
  • arise - verb result or issue;  rise to one's feet;  originate or come into being;  get up and out of bed;  move upward;  take part in a rebellion; renounce a former allegiance;  come into existence; take on form or shape
  • arithmetically - adv. with respect to arithmetic
  • armamentarium - noun the collection of equipment and methods used in the practice of medicine
  • arms - noun the official symbols of a family, state, etc.;  weapons considered collectively
  • armstrong - noun United States jazz trumpeter and bandleader (1900-1971);  United States astronaut; the first man to set foot on the moon (July 20, 1969) (1930-)
  • arnold - noun United States general and traitor in the American Revolution; in 1780 his plan to surrender West Point to the British was foiled (1741-1801);  English poet and literary critic (1822-1888)
  • aroma - noun a distinctive odor that is pleasant;  any property detected by the olfactory system
  • aromatic - adj. having a strong pleasant odor;  (chemistry) of or relating to or containing one or more benzene rings
  • arousal - noun the act of arousing;  awakening from sleep;  a state of heightened physiological activity;  mutual sexual fondling prior to sexual intercourse
  • aroused - adj. (of persons) excessively affected by emotion; aroused to action;  feeling great sexual desire;  brought to a state of great tension;  emotionally aroused;  keenly excited (especially sexually) or indicating excitement
  • arranged - adj. deliberately arranged for effect;  planned in advance; disposed or placed in a particular kind of order
  • arranging - noun the act of arranging and adapting a piece of music
  • array - noun an arrangement of aerials spaced to give desired directional characteristics;  especially fine or decorative clothing;  an impressive display;  an orderly arrangement;  verb align oneself with a group or a way of thinking;  lay out orderly or logically in a line or as if in a line
  • arrest - noun the state of inactivity following an interruption;  the act of apprehending (especially apprehending a criminal);  verb hold back, as of a danger or an enemy; check the expansion or influence of;  take into custody;  attract and fix;  cause to stop
  • arrival - noun accomplishment of an objective;  the act of arriving at a certain place;  someone who arrives (or has arrived)
  • arrive - verb reach a destination; arrive by movement or progress; succeed in a big way; get to the top
  • art - noun the creation of beautiful or significant things;  the products of human creativity; works of art collectively;  a superior skill that you can learn by study and practice and observation;  photographs or other visual representations in a printed publication
  • arterial - adj. of or involving or contained in the arteries
  • arteriolar - adj. of or relating to or involving arterioles
  • arteriovenous - adj. connecting an artery to a vein
  • arteritis - noun inflammation of an artery
  • artery - noun a major thoroughfare that bears important traffic;  a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body
  • arthralgia - noun pain in a joint or joints
  • arthritis - noun inflammation of a joint or joints
  • arthropathy - noun a pathology or abnormality of a joint
  • articular - adj. relating to or affecting the joints of the body
  • articulate - adj. expressing yourself easily or characterized by clear expressive language;  consisting of segments held together by joints; verb express or state clearly;  speak, pronounce, or utter in a certain way;  put into words or an expression;  provide with a joint
  • artificial - adj. artificially formal;  contrived by art rather than nature; not arising from natural growth or characterized by vital processes
  • as needed - adv. according to need (physicians use PRN in writing prescriptions)
  • ascending - adj. moving or going or growing upward;  noun the act of changing location in an upward direction
  • ascertain - verb learn or discover with certainty;  be careful or certain to do something; make certain of something;  establish after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study;  find out, learn, or determine with certainty, usually by making an inquiry or other effort
  • ascites - noun accumulation of serous fluid in peritoneal cavity
  • ascot - noun a cravat with wide square ends; secured with an ornamental pin
  • aseptic - adj. free of or using methods to keep free of pathological microorganisms
  • asia - noun the nations of the Asian continent collectively;  the largest continent with 60% of the earth's population; it is joined to Europe on the west to form Eurasia; it is the site of some of the world's earliest civilizations
  • asian - adj. denoting or characteristic of the biogeographic region including southern Asia and the Malay Archipelago as far as the Philippines and Borneo and Java;  of or relating to or characteristic of Asia or the peoples of Asia or their languages or culture;  noun a native or inhabitant of Asia
  • ask - verb make a request or demand for something to somebody; consider obligatory; request and expect;  inquire about;  direct or put; seek an answer to;  address a question to and expect an answer from;  require or ask for as a price or condition;  require as useful, just, or proper
  • asleep - adj. dead;  in a state of sleep;  lacking sensation;  adv. into a sleeping state;  in the sleep of death
  • asparaginase - noun antineoplastic drug (trade name Elspar) sometimes used to treat lymphoblastic leukemia
  • aspect - noun a characteristic to be considered;  a distinct feature or element in a problem;  the beginning or duration or completion or repetition of the action of a verb;  the feelings expressed on a person's face;  the visual percept of a region
  • aspergillus - noun genus of common molds causing food spoilage and some pathogenic to plants and animals
  • aspirate - noun a consonant pronounced with aspiration;  verb suck in (air);  pronounce with aspiration; of stop sounds;  remove as if by suction
  • aspiration - noun a will to succeed;  a manner of articulation involving an audible release of breath;  the act of inhaling; the drawing in of air (or other gases) as in breathing;  a cherished desire
  • aspirin - noun the acetylated derivative of salicylic acid; used as an analgesic anti-inflammatory drug (trade names Bayer and Empirin) usually taken in tablet form; used as an antipyretic; slows clotting of the blood by poisoning platelets
  • assembly - noun the social act of assembling;  a group of machine parts that fit together to form a self-contained unit;  a group of persons gathered together for a common purpose;  the act of constructing something (as a piece of machinery);  a public facility to meet for open discussion
  • assess - verb estimate the value of (property) for taxation;  charge (a person or a property) with a payment, such as a tax or a fine;  place a value on; judge the worth of something;  set or determine the amount of (a payment such as a fine)
  • assessment - noun the market value set on assets;  an amount determined as payable;  the act of judging or assessing a person or situation or event;  the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth
  • assist - noun (sports) the act of enabling another player to make a good play;  the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose;  verb act as an assistant in a subordinate or supportive function;  work for or be a servant to;  give help or assistance; be of service
  • assistance - noun the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose;  a resource
  • assisted - adj. having help; often used as a combining form
  • associated - adj. related to or accompanying;  joined in some kind of relationship (as a colleague or ally or companion etc.)
  • assumed - adj. accepted as real or true without proof;  adopted in order to deceive;  taken as your right without justification
  • assuming - adj. excessively forward
  • assurance - noun freedom from doubt; belief in yourself and your abilities;  a statement intended to inspire confidence;  a binding commitment to do or give or refrain from something;  a British term for some kinds of insurance
  • asthenia - noun an abnormal loss of strength
  • asthma - noun respiratory disorder characterized by wheezing; usually of allergic origin
  • asthmatic - adj. relating to breathing with a whistling sound;  noun a person suffering from asthma
  • astute - adj. marked by practical hardheaded intelligence
  • asymptomatic - adj. having no symptoms of illness or disease
  • asystole - noun absence of systole; failure of the ventricles of the heart to contract (usually caused by ventricular fibrillation) with consequent absence of the heart beat leading to oxygen lack and eventually to death
  • at - noun 100 at equal 1 kip in Laos;  a highly unstable radioactive element (the heaviest of the halogen series); a decay product of uranium and thorium
  • ataxia - noun inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements; unsteady movements and staggering gait
  • atenolol - noun an oral beta blocker (trade name Tenormin) used in treating hypertension and angina; has adverse side effects (depression and exacerbation of congestive heart failure etc.)
  • atherogenesis - noun the formation of atheromas on the walls of the arteries as in atherosclerosis
  • atheroma - noun a fatty deposit in the intima (inner lining) of an artery; can obstruct blood flow
  • atheromatous - adj. of or relating to or resembling atheroma
  • atherosclerosis - noun a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
  • atherosclerotic - adj. of or relating to atherosclerosis
  • atmospheric - adj. relating to or located in the atmosphere
  • atonic - adj. used of syllables;  characterized by a lack of tonus
  • atony - noun lack of normal muscular tension or tonus
  • atopy - noun an allergic reaction that becomes apparent in a sensitized person only minutes after contact
  • atorvastatin - noun an oral drug (trade name Lipitor) that is effective in lowering triglycerides; potent in reducing LDL cholesterol because higher doses can be given
  • atp - noun a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the major source of energy for cellular reactions
  • atrial - adj. of or relating to a cavity or chamber in the body (especially one of the upper chambers of the heart)
  • atrioventricular - adj. relating to or affecting the atria and ventricles of the heart
  • atrium - noun the central area in a building; open to the sky;  any chamber that is connected to other chambers or passageways (especially one of the two upper chambers of the heart)
  • atrophy - noun any weakening or degeneration (especially through lack of use);  a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse;  verb undergo atrophy
  • atropine - noun a poisonous crystalline alkaloid extracted from the nightshade family; used as an antispasmodic and to dilate the eye pupil; also administered in large amounts as an antidote for organophosphate nerve agents or organophosphate insecticides
  • attached - adj. associated in an exclusive sexual relationship;  used of buildings joined by common sidewalls;  fastened together; permanently attached to a substrate; not free to move about;  being joined in close association
  • attained - adj. achieved or reached
  • attainment - noun arrival at a new stage;  the act of achieving an aim;  an ability that has been acquired by training
  • attempt - noun earnest and conscientious activity intended to do or accomplish something;  the act of attacking;  verb enter upon an activity or enterprise;  make an effort or attempt
  • attempted - adj. tried unsuccessfully
  • attendant - adj. being present (at meeting or event etc.);  following as a consequence;  noun a person who is present and participates in a meeting;  someone who waits on or tends to or attends to the needs of another;  an event or situation that happens at the same time as or in connection with another
  • attended - adj. having a caretaker or other watcher;  having accompaniment or companions or escort
  • attitude - noun a theatrical pose created for effect;  a complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways;  position of aircraft or spacecraft relative to a frame of reference (the horizon or direction of motion); the arrangement of the body and its limbs
  • attract - verb exert a force on (a body) causing it to approach or prevent it from moving away;  direct toward itself or oneself by means of some psychological power or physical attributes;  be attractive to
  • attraction - noun the quality of arousing interest; being attractive or something that attracts;  a characteristic that provides pleasure and attracts;  an entertainment that is offered to the public;  the force by which one object attracts another;  an entertainer who attracts large audiences
  • attributable - adj. capable of being attributed
  • attribute - noun an abstraction belonging to or characteristic of an entity;  a construct whereby objects or individuals can be distinguished;  verb attribute or credit to;  decide as to where something belongs in a scheme
  • attribution - noun assigning to a cause or source;  assigning some quality or character to a person or thing
  • attuned - adj. so adjusted as to be appropriate or brought into harmony;  brought to correct pitch
  • atypical - adj. deviating from normal expectations; somewhat odd, strange, or abnormal;  not representative of a group, class, or type
  • auc - noun a terrorist organization in Colombia formed in 1997 as an umbrella for local and regional paramilitary groups; is financed by earnings from narcotics and serves to protect the economic interests of its members
  • audible - adj. heard or perceptible by the ear;  noun a football play is changed orally after both teams have assumed their positions at the line of scrimmage
  • auditory - adj. of or relating to the process of hearing
  • augment - verb enlarge or increase;  grow or intensify
  • augmentation - noun the act of augmenting;  the statement of a theme in notes of greater duration (usually twice the length of the original);  the amount by which something increases
  • augmented - adj. added to or made greater in amount or number or strength
  • aura - noun an indication of radiant light drawn around the head of a saint;  a sensation (as of a cold breeze or bright light) that precedes the onset of certain disorders such as a migraine attack or epileptic seizure;  a distinctive but intangible quality surrounding a person or thing
  • auricular - adj. pertaining to an auricle of the heart;  relating to or perceived by or shaped like the organ of hearing;  of or relating to near the ear
  • australia - noun a nation occupying the whole of the Australian continent; aboriginal tribes are thought to have migrated from southeastern Asia 20,000 years ago; first Europeans were British convicts sent there as a penal colony;  the smallest continent; between the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean
  • author - noun someone who originates or causes or initiates something;  writes (books or stories or articles or the like) professionally (for pay);  verb be the author of
  • authorities - noun the organization that is the governing authority of a political unit
  • autoimmune - adj. of or relating to the immune response of the body against substance normally present in the body
  • autologous - adj. derived from organisms of the selfsame individual
  • automatically - adv. in a reflex manner;  in a mechanical manner; by a mechanism
  • autonomic - adj. relating to or controlled by the autonomic nervous system
  • autopsy - noun an examination and dissection of a dead body to determine cause of death or the changes produced by disease;  verbperform an autopsy on a dead body; do a post-mortem
  • autosomal - adj. of or relating to an autosome
  • autumn - noun the season when the leaves fall from the trees
  • av - noun the eleventh month of the civil year; the fifth month of the ecclesiastical year in the Jewish calendar (in July and August)
  • availability - noun the quality of being at hand when needed
  • available - adj. obtainable or accessible and ready for use or service;  convenient for use or disposal;  not busy; not otherwise committed
  • averting - noun the act of preventing something from occurring;  the act of turning yourself (or your gaze) away
  • avoid - verb stay clear from; keep away from; keep out of the way of someone or something;  refrain from doing something;  refrain from certain foods or beverages;  prevent the occurrence of; prevent from happening;  declare invalid
  • avoidable - adj. capable of being avoided or warded off
  • avoidance - noun deliberately avoiding; keeping away from or preventing from happening
  • awake - adj. not in a state of sleep; completely conscious;  (usually followed by `to') showing acute awareness; mentally perceptive;  not unconscious; especially having become conscious;  verb stop sleeping
  • awakening - noun the act of waking
  • aware - adj. (sometimes followed by `of') having or showing knowledge or understanding or realization or perception;  aware or knowing;  bearing in mind; attentive to
  • awareness - noun having knowledge of;  state of elementary or undifferentiated consciousness
  • axon - noun long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron
  • axonal - adj. of or relating to or resembling an axon
  • az - noun a state in southwestern United States; site of the Grand Canyon;  the azimuth of a celestial body is the angle between the vertical plane containing it and the plane of the meridian
  • azathioprine - noun an immunosuppressive drug (trade name Imuran) used to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ
  • aztreonam - noun an antibiotic (trade name Azactam) used against severe infections; has minimal side effects
  • ba - noun a bachelor's degree in arts and sciences;  a soft silvery metallic element of the alkali earth group; found in barite
  • bacillus - noun aerobic rod-shaped spore-producing bacterium; often occurring in chainlike formations; found primarily in soil
  • backache - noun an ache localized in the back
  • backed - adj. having a back or backing, usually of a specified type; used of film that is coated on the side opposite the emulsion with a substance to absorb light;  having backing
  • bacteria - noun (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants
  • bacterial - adj. relating to or caused by bacteria
  • bactericidal - adj. preventing infection by inhibiting the growth or action of microorganisms
  • bacteriophage - noun a virus that is parasitic in bacteria
  • bacteriostatic - adj. of or relating to or causing bacteriostasis
  • bacterium - noun (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants
  • bacteroides - noun type genus of Bacteroidaceae; genus of Gram-negative rodlike anaerobic bacteria producing no endospores and no pigment and living in the gut of man and animals
  • balanced - adj. total debits and credits are equal;  being in a state of proper balance or equilibrium
  • balding - adj. getting bald
  • baldness - noun the condition of having no hair on the top of the head
  • balloon - noun large tough nonrigid bag filled with gas or heated air; small thin inflatable rubber bag with narrow neck;  verb become inflated;  ride in a hot-air balloon
  • baltimore - noun the largest city in Maryland; a major seaport and industrial center
  • banding - noun an adornment consisting of a strip of a contrasting color or material;  a stripe or stripes of contrasting color
  • banish - verb drive away;  expel, as if by official decree;  expel from a community or group;  ban from a place of residence, as for punishment
  • banned - adj. forbidden by law
  • banting - noun Canadian physiologist who discovered insulin with C. H. Best and who used it to treat diabetes(1891-1941);  wild ox of the Malay Archipelago
  • barbiturate - noun organic compound having powerful soporific effect; overdose can be fatal
  • barium - noun a soft silvery metallic element of the alkali earth group; found in barite
  • barker - noun someone who stands in front of a show (as at a carnival) and gives a loud colorful sales talk to potential customers; informal terms for dogs
  • barrier - noun a structure or object that impedes free movement; any condition that makes it difficult to make progress or to achieve an objective;  anything serving to maintain separation by obstructing vision or access
  • basal - adj. of primary importance;  serving as or forming a base; especially of leaves; located at the base of a plant or stem; especially arising directly from the root or rootstock or a root-like stem
  • based - adj. having a base of operations (often used as a combining form);  having a base;  having a basis; often used as combining terms;  being derived from (often followed by `on' or `upon')
  • basel - noun a city in northwestern Switzerland
  • baseline - noun the lines a baseball player must follow while running the bases;  an imaginary line or standard by which things are measured or compared;  the back line bounding each end of a tennis or handball court; when serving the server must not step over this line
  • basis - noun the fundamental assumptions from which something is begun or developed or calculated or explained;  the most important or necessary part of something;  a relation that provides the foundation for something
  • basle - noun a city in northwestern Switzerland
  • basophil - noun a leukocyte with basophilic granules easily stained by basic stains
  • batch - noun a collection of things or persons to be handled together;  all the loaves of bread baked at the same time;  (often followed by `of') a large number or amount or extent;  verb batch together; assemble or process as a batch
  • batty - adj. informal or slang terms for mentally irregular
  • bd - noun a bachelor's degree in religion
  • beadle - noun a minor parish official who serves as an usher and preserves order at services;  United States biologist who discovered how hereditary characteristics are transmitted by genes (1903-1989)
  • beaker - noun a cup (usually without a handle);  a flatbottomed jar made of glass or plastic; used for chemistry
  • bean - noun any of various edible seeds of plants of the family Leguminosae used for food;  any of various leguminous plants grown for their edible seeds and pods;  any of various seeds or fruits that are beans or resemble beans;  informal terms for a human head; verb hit on the head, especially with a pitched baseball
  • beating - adj. expanding and contracting rhythmically as to the beating of the heart;  noun the act of inflicting corporal punishment with repeated blows;  the act of overcoming or outdoing
  • beats - noun a United States youth subculture of the 1950s; rejected possessions or regular work or traditional dress; for communal living and psychedelic drugs and anarchism; favored modern forms of jazz (e.g., bebop)
  • beautiful - adj. aesthetically pleasing;  delighting the senses or exciting intellectual or emotional admiration;  (of weather) highly enjoyable
  • become - verb enter or assume a certain state or condition;  come into existence;  undergo a change or development;  enhance the appearance of
  • becoming - adj. displaying or setting off to best advantage; according with custom or propriety
  • bedside - noun space by the side of a bed (especially the bed of a sick or dying person)
  • beer - noun a general name for alcoholic beverages made by fermenting a cereal (or mixture of cereals) flavored with hops
  • before - adv. earlier in time; previously;  at or in the front
  • beforehand - adj. being ahead of time or need;  adv. ahead of time; in anticipation
  • beginning - adj. serving to begin;  noun the act of starting something;  the first part or section of something;  the event consisting of the start of something;  the place where something begins, where it springs into being;  the time at which something is supposed to begin
  • behalf - noun as the agent of or on someone's part (usually expressed as "on behalf of" rather than "in behalf of");  for someone's benefit (usually expressed as `in behalf' rather than `on behalf' and usually with a possessive)
  • behavioural - adj. of or relating to behavior
  • behind - adj. having the lower score or lagging position in a contest; adv. in or to or toward the rear;  remaining in a place or condition that has been left or departed from;  in debt;  in or into an inferior position; of timepieces;  noun the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on
  • being - noun the state or fact of existing;  a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently
  • belated - adj. after the expected or usual time; delayed
  • belching - noun the forceful expulsion of something from inside;  a reflex that expels wind noisily from the stomach through the mouth
  • belief - noun any cognitive content held as true;  a vague idea in which some confidence is placed
  • believe - verb accept as true; take to be true;  credit with veracity; follow a credo; have a faith; be a believer;  be confident about something;  judge or regard; look upon; judge
  • belong - verb be owned by; be in the possession of;  be classified with;  be suitable or acceptable;  be in the right place or situation; originate (in)
  • below - adv. at a later place;  in or to a place that is lower;  (in writing) see below;  on a floor below;  further down
  • bender - noun a tool for bending;  a pitch of a baseball that is thrown with spin so that its path curves as it approach the batter;  revelry in drinking; a merry drinking party
  • bending - adj. not remaining rigid or straight;  noun the act of bending something;  movement that causes the formation of a curve; the property of being bent or deflected
  • beneficial - adj. promoting or enhancing well-being;  tending to promote physical well-being; beneficial to health
  • benefit - noun something that aids or promotes well-being;  a performance to raise money for a charitable cause;  financial assistance in time of need;  verb be beneficial for;  derive a benefit from
  • benign - adj. pleasant and beneficial in nature or influence; kindness of disposition or manner;  not dangerous to health; not recurrent or progressive (especially of a tumor)
  • benzocaine - noun a white crystalline ester used as a local anesthetic
  • benzodiazepine - noun any of several similar lipophilic amines used as tranquilizers or sedatives or hypnotics or muscle relaxants; chronic use can lead to dependency
  • benzoquinone - noun any of a class of aromatic yellow compounds including several that are biologically important as coenzymes or acceptors or vitamins; used in making dyes
  • benzylpenicillin - noun the penicillin that constitutes the principal component of many commercial antibiotics
  • bereavement - noun state of sorrow over the death or departure of a loved one
  • berg - noun Austrian composer in Schoenberg's twelve-tone music system (1885-1935);  a large mass of ice floating at sea; usually broken off of a polar glacier
  • beriberi - noun avitaminosis caused by lack of thiamine (vitamin B1)
  • berlin - noun a limousine with a glass partition between the front and back seats;  capital of Germany located in eastern Germany; United States songwriter (born in Russia) who wrote more than 1500 songs and several musical comedies (1888-1989)
  • best-known - adj. most familiar or renowned
  • beta blocker - noun any of various drugs used in treating hypertension or arrhythmia; decreases force and rate of heart contractions by blocking beta-adrenergic receptors of the autonomic nervous system
  • beta-adrenoceptor - noun receptors postulated to exist on nerve cell membranes of the sympathetic nervous system in order to explain the specificity of certain agents that affect only some sympathetic activities (such as vasodilation and increased heart beat)
  • beta-lactamase - noun enzyme produced by certain bacteria that inactivates penicillin and results in resistance to that antibiotic
  • beta - adj. preliminary or testing stage of a software or hardware product;  second in order of importance;  noun the 2nd letter of the Greek alphabet;  beets
  • between - adv. in between;  in the interval
  • beware - verb be on one's guard; be cautious or wary about; be alert to
  • bewildered - adj. perplexed by many conflicting situations or statements; filled with bewilderment
  • bewildering - adj. causing bafflement
  • beyond - adv. in addition;  farther along in space or time or degree; on the farther side from the observer
  • bh - noun a transuranic element
  • bias - adj. slanting diagonally across the grain of a fabric;  noun a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation;  a line or cut across a fabric that is not at right angles to a side of the fabric;  verb cause to be biased;  influence in an unfair way
  • biased - adj. favoring one person or side over another
  • bicarbonate - noun a salt of carbonic acid (containing the anion HCO3) in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced; an acid carbonate
  • bicyclic - adj. having molecules consisting of two fused rings
  • bilateral - adj. having two sides or parts;  affecting or undertaken by two parties;  having identical parts on each side of an axis
  • bilberry - noun blue-black berries similar to American blueberries; erect blueberry of western United States having solitary flowers and somewhat sour berries;  erect European blueberry having solitary flowers and blue-black berries
  • bile salt - noun a salt of bile acid and a base; functions as an emulsifier of lipids and fatty acids
  • bile - noun a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; aids in the digestion of fats
  • biliary - adj. relating to the bile ducts or the gallbladder;  relating to or containing bile
  • bilirubin - noun an orange-yellow pigment in the bile that forms as a product of hemoglobin; excess amounts in the blood produce the yellow appearance observed in jaundice
  • bimodal - adj. of a distribution; having or occurring with two modes
  • binding - adj. causing constipation;  hindering freedom of movement;  executed with proper legal authority;  noun the protective covering on the front, back, and spine of a book;  strip sewn over or along an edge for reinforcement or decoration;  the capacity to attract and hold something;  the act of applying a bandage
  • biochemical - adj. of or relating to biochemistry; involving chemical processes in living organisms
  • biochemically - adv. with respect to biochemistry
  • biochemistry - noun the organic chemistry of compounds and processes occuring in organisms; the effort to understand biology within the context of chemistry
  • biogenic - adj. essential for maintaining the fundamental life processes;  produced by living organisms or biological processes
  • biologic - adj. pertaining to biology or to life and living things
  • biological - adj. of parents and children; related by blood;  pertaining to biology or to life and living things
  • biologically - adv. with respect to biology
  • biology - noun the science that studies living organisms; characteristic life processes and phenomena of living organisms;  all the plant and animal life of a particular region
  • biomedicine - noun the branch of medical science that studies the ability of organisms to withstand environmental stress (as in space travel);  the branch of medical science that applies biological and physiological principles to clinical practice
  • biopsy - noun examination of tissues or liquids from the living body to determine the existence or cause of a disease
  • biosynthesis - noun production of a chemical compound by a living organism
  • biosynthetic - adj. of or relating to biosynthesis
  • biotechnology - noun the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments;  the branch of molecular biology that studies the use of microorganisms to perform specific industrial processes
  • biotin - noun a B vitamin that aids in body growth
  • bipolar - adj. having two poles;  of, pertaining to, or occurring in both polar regions;  of or relating to manic depressive illness
  • birth - noun the event of being born;  the time when something begins (especially life);  the process of giving birth;  the kinship relation of an offspring to the parents;  verb cause_to_be_born
  • bismuth - noun a heavy brittle diamagnetic trivalent metallic element (resembles arsenic and antimony chemically); usually recovered as a by-product from ores of other metals
  • blackening - noun changing to a darker color
  • bladder - noun a bag that fills with air;  a distensible membranous sac (usually containing liquid or gas)
  • blanch - verb cook (vegetables) briefly;  turn pale, as if in fear
  • bland - adj. lacking stimulating characteristics; uninteresting;  lacking taste or flavor or tang;  smoothly agreeable and courteous with a degree of sophistication
  • blanket - adj. broad in scope or content;  noun bedding that keeps a person warm in bed;  a layer of lead surrounding the highly reactive core of a nuclear reactor;  anything that covers;  verb cover as if with a blanket;  form a blanket-like cover (over)
  • blastomyces - noun genus of pathogenic yeastlike fungi
  • blastomycosis - noun any of several infections of the skin or mucous membrane caused by Blastomyces
  • bleak - adj. unpleasantly cold and damp;  offering little or no hope; providing no shelter or sustenance
  • bleed - verb draw blood;  drain of liquid or steam;  get or extort (money or other possessions) from someone;  lose blood from one's body;  be diffused
  • bleeding - noun flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels
  • blepharospasm - noun spasm of the eyelid muscle resulting in closure of the eye
  • blinded - adj. deprived of sight
  • blinding - adj. shining intensely
  • blindness - noun the state of being blind or lacking sight
  • blockade - noun a war measure that isolates some area of importance to the enemy;  prevents access or progress;  verb impose a blockade on;  obstruct access to;  render unsuitable for passage; hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of
  • blocked - adj. completely obstructed or closed off;  closed to traffic
  • blocker - noun a class of drugs that inhibit (block) some biological process;  a football player whose responsibility is to block players attempting to stop an offensive play
  • blocking - noun the act of obstructing or deflecting someone's movements
  • blood pressure - noun the pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels; results from the systole of the left ventricle of the heart; sometimes measured for a quick evaluation of a person's health
  • bloodstream - noun the blood flowing through the circulatory system
  • bloody - adj. having or covered with or accompanied by blood; (used of persons) informal intensifiers;  adv. extremely;  verb cover with blood
  • blot - noun an act that brings discredit to the person who does it;  a blemish made by dirt;  verb dry (ink) with blotting paper;  make a spot or mark onto
  • blue-grey - adj. of grey tinged with blue
  • blurred - adj. unclear in form or expression;  indistinct or hazy in outline
  • bm - noun a euphemism for defecation;  solid excretory product evacuated from the bowels
  • boiling - adv. extremely;  noun cooking in a liquid that has been brought to a boil;  the application of heat to change something from a liquid to a gas
  • bolus - noun a large pill; used especially in veterinary medicine;  a small round soft mass (as of chewed food)
  • bone marrow - noun the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones;  very tender and very nutritious tissue from marrowbones
  • bone - adj. consisting of or made up of bone;  noun a shade of white the color of bleached bones;  rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates;  the porous calcified substance from which bones are made;  verb remove the bones from;  study intensively, as before an exam
  • bones - noun a percussion instrument consisting of a pair of hollow pieces of wood or bone (usually held between the thumb and fingers) that are made to click together (as by Spanish dancers) in rhythm with the dance
  • bony - adj. having bones especially many or prominent bones;  very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold;  composed of or containing bone
  • born - adj. brought into existence;  being talented through inherited qualities;  noun British nuclear physicist (born in Germany) honored for his contributions to quantum mechanics (1882-1970)
  • boston - noun state capital and largest city of Massachusetts; a major center for banking and financial services
  • botanical - adj. of or relating to plants or botany;  noun a drug made from part of a plant (as the bark or root or leaves)
  • both - adj. (used with count nouns) two considered together; the two
  • botulinum - noun anaerobic bacterium producing botulin the toxin that causes botulism
  • bowel - noun the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus
  • bowels - noun the center of the Earth
  • boy - noun (ethnic slur) offensive and disparaging term for Black man;  a friendly informal reference to a grown man;  a youthful male person;  a male human offspring
  • boyfriend - noun a man who is the lover of a girl or young woman
  • brachial - adj. of or relating to an arm
  • bradycardia - noun abnormally slow heartbeat
  • brainstem - noun the part of the brain continuous with the spinal cord and comprising the medulla oblongata and pons and midbrain and parts of the hypothalamus
  • bran - noun food prepared from the husks of cereal grains;  broken husks of the seeds of cereal grains that are separated from the flour by sifting
  • branching - adj. resembling the branches of a tree;  having branches;  noun the act of branching out or dividing into branches
  • brandy - noun distilled from wine or fermented fruit juice
  • breakage - noun the act of breaking something;  reimbursement for goods damaged while in transit or in use;  the quantity broken
  • breakdown - noun an analysis into mutually exclusive categories;  a cessation of normal operation;  a mental or physical breakdown;  the act of disrupting an established order so it fails to continue
  • breakfast - noun the first meal of the day (usually in the morning); verb eat an early morning meal;  provide breakfast for
  • breaking - adj. (of waves) curling over and crashing into surf or spray;  noun the act of breaking something
  • breakthrough - noun making an important discovery;  a penetration of a barrier such as an enemy's defense;  a productive insight
  • breast feeding - noun nourishing at the breast
  • breast - noun the front part of the trunk from the neck to the abdomen;  either of two soft fleshy milk-secreting glandular organs on the chest of a woman;  meat carved from the breast of a fowl; verb reach the summit;  meet at breast level;  confront bodily
  • breath - noun the process of taking in and expelling air during breathing;  a slight movement of the air;  the air that is inhaled and exhaled in respiration;  a short respite;  an indirect suggestion
  • breathing - adj. passing or able to pass air in and out of the lungs normally; sometimes used in combination;  noun the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation; the process of taking in oxygen from inhaled air and releasing carbon dioxide by exhalation
  • breathless - adj. appearing dead; not breathing or having no perceptible pulse;  not breathing or able to breathe except with difficulty;  tending to cause suspension of regular breathing
  • breathlessness - noun a dyspneic condition
  • brief - adj. concise and succinct;  of short duration or distance;  (of clothing) very short;  noun a condensed written summary or abstract; a document stating the facts and points of law of a client's case; verb give essential information to someone
  • briefly - adv. for a short time;  in a concise manner; in a few words
  • brisk - adj. very active;  quick and energetic;  imparting vitality and energy;  verb become brisk
  • britain - noun a monarchy in northwestern Europe occupying most of the British Isles; divided into England and Scotland and Wales and Northern Ireland
  • british - adj. of or relating to or characteristic of Great Britain or its people or culture;  noun the people of Great Britain
  • broad-brimmed - adj. (of hats) having a broad brim
  • broadly - adv. without regard to specific details or exceptions;  in a wide fashion
  • bromide - noun any of the salts of hydrobromic acid; formerly used as a sedative but now generally replaced by safer drugs;  a trite or obvious remark
  • bronchial - adj. relating to or associated with the bronchi
  • bronchitic - adj. suffering from or prone to bronchitis
  • bronchitis - noun inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes
  • bronchodilator - noun a drug that relaxes and dilates the bronchial passageways and improves the passages of air into the lungs
  • bronchospasm - noun a spasm of the bronchi that makes exhalation difficult and noisy; associated with asthma and bronchitis
  • bronchus - noun either of the two main branches of the trachea
  • bruin - noun a conventional name for a bear used in tales following usage in the old epic `Reynard the Fox';  large ferocious bear of Eurasia
  • bruising - adj. brutally forceful and compelling;  causing mental or emotional injury
  • bruit - verb tell or spread rumors
  • buccal - adj. toward the inside of the cheek;  lying within the mouth; of or relating to or toward the cheek
  • building - noun a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place;  the occupants of a building; the act of constructing something;  the commercial activity involved in repairing old structures or constructing new ones
  • built - adj. (used of soaps or cleaning agents) having a substance (an abrasive or filler) added to increase effectiveness;  well or attractively formed with respect to physique;  formed by fitting or joining components together
  • bulbar - adj. involving the medulla oblongata
  • bulimia - noun pathologically insatiable hunger (especially when caused by brain lesions);  a disorder of eating seen among young women who go on eating binges and then feel guilt and depression and self-condemnation
  • bulk - noun the property possessed by a large mass;  the property of something that is great in magnitude;  the property resulting from being or relating to the greater in number of two parts; the main part; verb stick out or up;  cause to bulge or swell outwards
  • bulletin - noun a brief report (especially an official statement issued for immediate publication or broadcast);  verb make public by bulletin
  • bureaucracy - noun any organization in which action is obstructed by insistence on unnecessary procedures and red tape;  a government that is administered primarily by bureaus that are staffed with nonelective officials;  nonelective government officials
  • burns - noun celebrated Scottish poet (1759-1796);  United States comedian and film actor (1896-1996)
  • buspirone - noun a drug (trade name BuSpar) designed specifically for anxiety
  • but - adv. and nothing more
  • buttock - noun either of the two large fleshy masses of muscular tissue that form the human rump
  • buy - noun an advantageous purchase;  verb accept as true;  obtain by purchase; acquire by means of a financial transaction;  acquire by trade or sacrifice or exchange;  be worth or be capable of buying; make illegal payments to in exchange for favors or influence
  • buzz - noun a confusion of activity and gossip;  sound of rapid vibration;  verb call with a buzzer;  fly low;  make a buzzing sound;  be noisy with activity
  • by - adv. so as to pass a given point;  in reserve; not for immediate use
  • bypass - noun a road that takes traffic around the edge of a town;  a surgically created shunt (usually around a damaged part);  a conductor having low resistance in parallel with another device to divert a fraction of the current;  verb avoid something unpleasant or laborious
  • ca - noun a state in the western United States on the Pacific; the 3rd largest state; known for earthquakes;  a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light; the fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust; an important component of most plants and animals
  • cabg - noun open-heart surgery in which the rib cage is opened and a section of a blood vessel is grafted from the aorta to the coronary artery to bypass the blocked section of the coronary artery and improve the blood supply to the heart
  • caecum - noun the cavity in which the large intestine begins and into which the ileum opens
  • caesarean - adj. of or relating to or in the manner of Julius Caesar; relating to abdominal delivery;  noun the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)
  • caffeine - noun a bitter alkaloid found in coffee and tea that is responsible for their stimulating effects
  • calciferol - noun a fat-soluble vitamin that prevents rickets
  • calcitonin - noun thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bone
  • calcium - noun a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light; the fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust; an important component of most plants and animals
  • calculate - verb make a mathematical calculation or computation; judge to be probable;  specifically design a product, event, or activity for a certain public;  have faith or confidence in;  predict in advance; keep an account of
  • calculated - adj. carefully thought out in advance
  • calculation - noun the procedure of calculating; determining something by mathematical or logical methods;  planning something carefully and intentionally;  problem solving that involves numbers or quantities
  • calculus - noun the branch of mathematics that is concerned with limits and with the differentiation and integration of functions;  a hard lump produced by the concretion of mineral salts; found in hollow organs or ducts of the body;  an incrustation that forms on the teeth and gums
  • calibrated - adj. marked with or divided into degrees
  • called - adj. known or spoken of as;  given or having a specified name
  • caloric - adj. of or relating to calories in food;  relating to or associated with heat
  • cambridge - noun a city in eastern England on the River Cam; site of Cambridge University;  a city in Massachusetts just north of Boston; site of Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology;  a university in England
  • canadian - adj. of or relating to Canada or its people;  noun a river rising in northeastern New Mexico and flowing eastward across the Texas panhandle to become a tributary of the Arkansas River in Oklahoma;  a native or inhabitant of Canada
  • cancel - noun a notation cancelling a previous sharp or flat;  verbmake invalid for use;  declare null and void; make ineffective; postpone indefinitely or annul something that was scheduled;  make up for;  remove or make invisible
  • candida - noun any of the yeastlike imperfect fungi of the genus Candida
  • candidiasis - noun an infection caused by fungi of the genus Monilia or Candida (especially Candida albicans)
  • cannabis - noun the most commonly used illicit drug; considered a soft drug, it consists of the dried leaves of the hemp plant; smoked or chewed for euphoric effect;  any plant of the genus Cannabis; a coarse bushy annual with palmate leaves and clusters of small green flowers; yields tough fibers and narcotic drugs
  • cannula - noun a small flexible tube inserted into a body cavity for draining off fluid or introducing medication
  • cannulate - verb introduce a cannula or tube into
  • capable - adj. (usually followed by `of') having capacity or ability; (followed by `of') having the temperament or inclination for;  possibly accepting or permitting;  having the requisite qualities for;  have the skills and qualifications to do things well
  • capacitance - noun an electrical phenomenon whereby an electric charge is stored;  an electrical device characterized by its capacity to store an electric charge
  • capillary - adj. long and slender with a very small internal diameter; of or relating to hair;  noun a tube of small internal diameter; holds liquid by capillary action;  any of the minute blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules
  • capped - adj. covered as if with a cap or crown especially of a specified kind;  used especially of front teeth having artificial crowns
  • capsaicin - noun colorless pungent crystalline compound derived from capsicum; source of the hotness of hot peppers of the genus Capsicum such as chili and cayenne and jalapeno
  • captopril - noun a drug (trade name Capoten) that blocks the formation of angiotensin in the kidneys resulting in vasodilation; used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure
  • carbohydrate - noun an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain
  • carbon atom - noun an atom of carbon
  • carbonate - noun a salt or ester of carbonic acid (containing the anion CO3);  verb treat with carbon dioxide;  turn into a carbonate
  • carbonic - adj. relating to or consisting of or yielding carbon
  • carboxyl - adj. relating to or containing the carboxyl group or carboxyl radical;  noun the univalent radical -COOH; present in and characteristic of organic acids
  • carboxylic - adj. relating to or containing the carboxyl group or carboxyl radical
  • carcinogenic - adj. causing or tending to cause cancer
  • carcinoid - noun a small tumor (benign or malignant) arising from the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract; usually associated with excessive secretion of serotonin
  • carcinoma - noun any malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue; one of the four major types of cancer
  • cardiac - adj. of or relating to the heart
  • cardiogram - noun a graphical recording of the cardiac cycle produced by an electrocardiograph
  • cardiologist - noun a specialist in cardiology; a specialist in the structure and function and disorders of the heart
  • cardiology - noun the branch of medicine dealing with the heart and its diseases
  • cardiomegaly - noun an abnormal enlargement of the heart
  • cardiomyopathy - noun a disorder (usually of unknown origin) of the heart muscle (myocardium)
  • cardiopulmonary - adj. of or pertaining to or affecting both the heart and the lungs and their functions
  • cardiorespiratory - adj. of or pertaining to or affecting both the heart and the lungs and their functions
  • cardiovascular - adj. of or pertaining to or involving the heart and blood vessels
  • career - noun the general progression of your working or professional life;  the particular occupation for which you are trained; verb move headlong at high speed
  • careful - adj. exercising caution or showing care or attention;  with care and dignity;  mindful of the future in spending money;  cautiously attentive;  full of cares or anxiety
  • carefully - adv. taking care or paying attention;  with caution or prudence or tact
  • carmichael - noun United States songwriter (1899-1981)
  • carotene - noun yellow or orange-red fat-soluble pigments in plants; an orange isomer of an unsaturated hydrocarbon found in many plants; is converted into vitamin A in the liver
  • carotid - adj. of or relating to either of the two major arteries supplying blood to the head and neck
  • carry-over - noun the accumulated and undivided profits of a corporation after provision has been made for dividends and reserves;  application of a skill learned in one situation to a different but similar situation
  • cartilage - noun tough elastic tissue; mostly converted to bone in adults
  • carvedilol - noun beta blocker that can reduce the progression of heart failure in individuals whose disease is not advanced
  • cascara - noun dried bark of the cascara buckthorn used as a laxative
  • cassette - noun a container that holds a magnetic tape used for recording or playing sound or video
  • castration - noun surgical removal of the testes or ovaries (usually to inhibit hormone secretion in cases of breast cancer in women or prostate cancer in men);  neutering a male animal by removing the testicles;  the deletion of objectionable parts from a literary work
  • castro - noun Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
  • casualty - noun a decrease of military personnel or equipment; someone injured or killed in an accident;  someone injured or killed or captured or missing in a military engagement;  an accident that causes someone to die
  • catabolism - noun breakdown in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones together with release of energy
  • catalog - noun a book or pamphlet containing an enumeration of things;  a complete list of things; usually arranged systematically; verb make an itemized list or catalog of; classify;  make a catalogue, compile a catalogue
  • catalogue - noun a book or pamphlet containing an enumeration of things;  a complete list of things; usually arranged systematically; verb make an itemized list or catalog of; classify;  make a catalogue, compile a catalogue
  • catalyse - verb change by catalysis or cause to catalyze
  • catalyst - noun something that causes an important event to happen;  (chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
  • catalytic - adj. relating to or causing or involving catalysis
  • cataract - noun a large waterfall; violent rush of water over a precipice;  clouding of the natural lens of the eye
  • catastrophic - adj. extremely harmful; bringing physical or financial ruin
  • catching - adj. (of disease) capable of being transmitted by infection;  noun becoming infected;  (baseball) playing the position of catcher on a baseball team;  the act of detecting something; catching sight of something
  • catecholamine - noun any of a group of chemicals including epinephrine and norepinephrine that are produced in the medulla of the adrenal gland
  • categorized - adj. arranged into categories
  • category - noun a general concept that marks divisions or coordinations in a conceptual scheme;  a collection of things sharing a common attribute
  • cathartic - adj. strongly laxative;  emotionally purging (of e.g. art); emotionally purging;  noun a purging medicine; stimulates evacuation of the bowels
  • catheter - noun a thin flexible tube inserted into the body to permit introduction or withdrawal of fluids or to keep the passageway open
  • catheterization - noun the operation of introducing a catheter into the body
  • cation - noun a positively charged ion
  • cationic - adj. of or relating to cations
  • caucasian - adj. of or relating to Caucasian people;  of or relating to the geographical region of Caucasia;  noun a number of languages spoken in the Caucasus that have no known affiliations to languages spoken elsewhere;  a member of the Caucasoid race
  • causal - adj. involving or constituting a cause; causing
  • causality - noun the relation between causes and effects
  • causally - adv. in a causal fashion
  • causation - noun the act of causing something to happen
  • causative - adj. producing an effect
  • causing - noun the act of causing something to happen
  • caution - noun the trait of being cautious; being attentive to possible danger;  judiciousness in avoiding harm or danger;  a warning against certain acts;  the trait of being circumspect and prudent;  verb warn strongly; put on guard
  • cautious - adj. cautious in attitude and careful in actions; prudent; showing careful forethought;  avoiding excess;  noun people who are fearful and cautious
  • cautiously - adv. with caution or prudence or tact;  in a conservative manner
  • cavity - noun (anatomy) a natural hollow or sinus within the body; soft decayed area in a tooth; progressive decay can lead to the death of a tooth;  space that is surrounded by something;  a sizeable hole (usually in the ground)
  • ce - adv. of the period coinciding with the Christian era; preferred by some writers who are not Christians;  noun a ductile grey metallic element of the lanthanide series; used in lighter flints; the most abundant of the rare-earth group
  • cease - noun (`cease' is a noun only in the phrase `without cease') end;  verb have an end, in a temporal, spatial, or quantitative sense; either spatial or metaphorical;  put an end to a state or an activity
  • cefadroxil - noun a cephalosporin antibiotic (trade name Ultracef)
  • cefotaxime - noun a parenteral cephalosporin (trade name Claforan) used for severe infections of the lungs or throat or ears or urinary tract
  • ceftazidime - noun a parenteral cephalosporin (trade names Fortaz and Tazicef) used to treat moderate infections
  • ceftriaxone - noun a parenteral cephalosporin (trade name Rocephin) used for severe infection of the lungs or throat or ears or urinary tract
  • cefuroxime - noun a cephalosporin that can be given parenterally (trade name Zinacef) or orally by tablets (trade name Ceftin); indicated for infections of the lungs or throat or ears or urinary tract or meninges
  • celecoxib - noun a Cox-2 inhibitor (trade name Celebrex) that relieves pain without harming the digestive tract
  • cellular - adj. characterized by or divided into or containing cells or compartments (the smallest organizational or structural unit of an organism or organization);  relating to cells
  • cellulitis - noun an inflammation of body tissue (especially that below the skin) characterized by fever and swelling and redness and pain
  • cent - noun a fractional monetary unit of several countries;  a coin worth one-hundredth of the value of the basic unit
  • centrally - adv. in or near or toward a center or according to a central role or function
  • centripetal - adj. tending to move toward a center;  of a nerve fiber or impulse originating outside and passing toward the central nervous system;  tending to unify
  • century - noun a period of 100 years
  • cephalexin - noun an oral cephalosporin (trade names Keflex and Keflin and Keftab) commonly prescribe for mild to moderately severe infections of the skin or ears or throat or lungs or urinary tract
  • cephaloridine - noun a broad spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic produced by modifying cephalosporin
  • cephalosporin - noun one of several broad spectrum antibiotic substances obtained from fungi and related to penicillin (trade names Mefoxin); addition of side chains has produced semisynthetic antibiotics with greater antibacterial activity
  • cerebellar - adj. relating to or associated with the cerebellum
  • cerebellum - noun a major division of the vertebrate brain; situated above the medulla oblongata and beneath the cerebrum in humans
  • cerebral - adj. involving intelligence rather than emotions or instinct; of or relating to the cerebrum or brain
  • cerebrospinal - adj. of or relating to the brain and spinal cord
  • cerebrovascular - adj. of or relating to the brain and the blood vessels that supply it
  • cerebrum - noun anterior portion of the brain consisting of two hemispheres; dominant part of the brain in humans
  • cerivastatin - noun an oral drug (trade name Baycol) to reduce blood cholesterol levels
  • certainly - adv. definitely or positively (`sure' is sometimes used informally for `surely')
  • cervical - adj. relating to or associated with the neck;  of or relating to the cervix of the uterus
  • cervix - noun necklike opening to the uterus;  the part of an organism that connects the head to the rest of the body
  • cessation - noun a stopping
  • chains - noun metal shackles; for hands or legs
  • chalky - adj. of something having the color of chalk;  composed of or containing or resembling calcium carbonate or calcite or chalk
  • chamber - noun a natural or artificial enclosed space;  a room where a judge transacts business;  an enclosed volume in the body;  a deliberative or legislative or administrative or judicial assembly;  a room used primarily for sleeping;  verb place in a chamber
  • changed - adj. made or become different in some respect;  made or become different in nature or form;  changed in constitution or structure or composition by metamorphism
  • changing - adj. marked by continuous change or effective action
  • channels - noun official routes of communication
  • chaotic - adj. lacking a visible order or organization;  completely unordered and unpredictable and confusing;  of or relating to a sensitive dependence on initial conditions
  • chapman - noun archaic term for an itinerant peddler;  United States pioneer who planted apple trees as he traveled (1774-1845)
  • chapter - noun a subdivision of a written work; usually numbered and titled;  a series of related events forming an episode;  a local branch of some fraternity or association;  an ecclesiastical assembly of the monks in a monastery or even of the canons of a church;  any distinct period in history or in a person's life
  • characterize - verb be characteristic of;  describe or portray the character or the qualities or peculiarities of
  • characterized - adj. of the meaning of words or concepts; stated precisely
  • charged - adj. of a particle or body or system; having a net amount of positive or negative electric charge;  fraught with great emotion; capable of producing violent emotion or arousing controversy; supplied with carbon dioxide
  • charon - noun (Greek mythology) the ferryman who brought the souls of the dead across the river Styx or the river Acheron to Hades
  • chart - noun a map designed to assist navigation by air or sea;  a visual display of information;  verb plan in detail;  make a chart of; represent by means of a graph
  • cheap - adj. relatively low in price or charging low prices; embarrassingly stingy;  of very poor quality; flimsy;  tastelessly showy
  • cheaply - adv. with little expenditure of money;  in a cheap manner; in a stingy manner
  • checked - adj. patterned with alternating squares of color;  held back from some action especially by force
  • cheese - noun a solid food prepared from the pressed curd of milk; erect or decumbent Old World perennial with axillary clusters of rosy-purple flowers; introduced in United States;  verb wind onto a cheese;  used in the imperative (get away, or stop it)
  • chelate - adj. having or resembling chelae or claws;  relating to or characterized by chelation;  noun a heterocyclic compound having a metal ion attached by coordinate bonds to at least two nonmetal ions;  verb form a chelate, in chemistry
  • chelation - noun the process of forming a ring by forming one or more hydrogen bonds;  (medicine) the process of removing a heavy metal from the bloodstream by means of a chelate as in treating lead or mercury poisoning
  • chemical - adj. relating to or used in chemistry;  of or made from or using substances produced by or used in reactions involving atomic or molecular changes;  noun produced by or used in a reaction involving changes in atoms or molecules
  • chemically - adv. with respect to chemistry;  by the use of chemicals
  • chemist - noun a scientist who specializes in chemistry;  a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs
  • chemistry - noun the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions;  the way two individuals relate to each other
  • chemoreceptor - noun a sensory receptor that responds to chemical stimuli
  • chemotherapeutic - adj. of or relating to chemotherapy
  • chemotherapy - noun the use of chemical agents to treat or control disease (or mental illness)
  • chest - noun box with a lid; used for storage; usually large and sturdy;  furniture with drawers for keeping clothes;  the part of the human torso between the neck and the diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates
  • chewable - adj. easy to cut or chew
  • chewing - noun biting and grinding food in your mouth so it becomes soft enough to swallow
  • chief - adj. most important element;  noun a person who exercises control over workers;  a person who is in charge
  • chiefly - adv. for the most part
  • child-proof - verb make safe against children
  • child - noun a young person of either sex;  a human offspring (son or daughter) of any age;  an immature childish person;  a member of a clan or tribe
  • childbearing - adj. relating to or suitable for childbirth;  noun the parturition process in human beings; having a baby; the process of giving birth to a child
  • childbirth - noun the parturition process in human beings; having a baby; the process of giving birth to a child
  • childhood - noun the state of a child between infancy and adolescence;  the time of person's life when they are a child
  • chin - noun the protruding part of the lower jaw;  Kamarupan languages spoken in western Burma and Bangladesh and easternmost India;  verb raise oneself while hanging from one's hands until one's chin is level with the support bar
  • chlamydia - noun coccoid rickettsia infesting birds and mammals; cause infections of eyes and lungs and genitourinary tract;  a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria of the genus Chlamydia
  • chlamydial - adj. of or pertaining to the sexually transmitted infection or to the parasite
  • chloramphenicol - noun an oral antibiotic (trade name Chloromycetin) used to treat serious infections (especially typhoid fever)
  • chlorhexidine - noun a long-lasting liquid antiseptic; used by surgeons to wash their hands before performing surgery
  • chloride - noun any salt of hydrochloric acid (containing the chloride ion);  any compound containing a chlorine atom
  • chloroform - noun a volatile liquid haloform (CHCl3); formerly used as an anesthetic;  verb anesthetize with chloroform
  • chloroquine - noun an antimalarial drug used to treat malaria and amebic dysentery and systemic lupus erythematosus
  • chlorpromazine - noun a drug (trade name Thorazine) derived from phenothiazine that has antipsychotic effects and is used as a sedative and tranquilizer
  • chlorthalidone - noun a diuretic (trade names Hygroton and Thalidone) used to control hypertension and conditions that cause edema; effective in lowering blood pressure to prevent heart attacks
  • chocolate - noun a medium brown to dark-brown color;  a food made from roasted ground cacao beans;  a beverage made from cocoa powder and milk and sugar; usually drunk hot
  • choice - adj. of superior grade;  appealing to refined taste;  noun the act of choosing or selecting;  the person or thing chosen or selected; one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen
  • cholecystectomy - noun surgical removal of the gall bladder (usually for relief of gallstone pain)
  • cholelithiasis - noun the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder
  • cholestasis - noun a condition in which little or no bile is secreted or the flow of bile into the digestive tract is obstructed
  • cholesterol - noun an animal sterol that is normally synthesized by the liver; the most abundant steroid in animal tissues
  • cholinergic - adj. releasing or activated by acetylcholine or a related compound
  • cholinesterase - noun an enzyme that hydrolyses acetylcholine (into choline and acetic acid)
  • choose - verb pick out, select, or choose from a number of alternatives;  select as an alternative; choose instead; prefer as an alternative;  see fit or proper to act in a certain way; decide to act in a certain way
  • chorea - noun any of several degenerative nervous disorders characterized by spasmodic movements of the body and limbs; chorea in dogs
  • chorionic - adj. of or relating to a chorion
  • choroid - noun a highly vascular membrane in the eye between the retina and the sclera
  • chosen - adj. preferred above all others;  noun an exclusive group of people;  the name for Korea as a Japanese province (1910-1945); one who is the object of choice; who is given preference
  • christ - noun any expected deliverer;  a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for Christianity (circa 4 BC - AD 29)
  • chromatography - noun a process used for separating mixtures by virtue of differences in absorbency
  • chromium - noun a hard brittle multivalent metallic element; resistant to corrosion and tarnishing
  • chromosome - noun a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
  • chronic - adj. being long-lasting and recurrent or characterized by long suffering
  • chronically - adv. in a slowly developing and long lasting manner;  in a habitual and longstanding manner
  • churchill - noun a Canadian town in northern Manitoba on Hudson Bay; important port for shipping grain;  British statesman and leader during World War II; received Nobel prize for literature in 1953 (1874-1965);  English general considered one of the greatest generals in history (1650-1722)
  • chylomicron - noun a microscopic particle of triglycerides produced in the intestines during digestion; in the bloodstream they release their fatty acids into the blood
  • ci - noun a unit of radioactivity equal to the amount of a radioactive isotope that decays at the rate of 37,000,000,000 disintegrations per second
  • cigarette - noun finely ground tobacco wrapped in paper; for smoking
  • ciliary - adj. of or relating to the human eyelash;  of or relating to cilia projecting from the surface of a cell;  relating to the ciliary body and associated structures of the eye
  • cimetidine - noun a drug (trade name Tagamet) used to treat peptic ulcers by decreasing the secretion of stomach acid
  • cinderella - noun a fictional young girl who is saved from her stepmother and stepsisters by her fairy godmother and a handsome prince;  a woman whose merits were not been recognized but who then achieves sudden success and recognition
  • ciprofloxacin - noun an oral antibiotic (trade name Cipro) used against serious bacterial infections of the skin or respiratory tract or urinary tract or bones or joints
  • circadian - adj. of or relating to biological processes occurring at 24-hour intervals
  • circulate - verb cause to become widely known;  move around freely;  move through a space, circuit or system, returning to the starting point;  cause to move in a circuit or system;  cause to be distributed;  cause to move around;  become widely known and passed on;  move in circles
  • circulating - adj. passing from one to another
  • circulatory - adj. relating to circulatory system or to circulation of the blood;  of or relating to circulation
  • circumflex - noun a diacritical mark (^) placed above a vowel in some languages to indicate a special phonetic quality
  • circumscribed - adj. showing or determining a boundary;  subject to limits or subjected to limits
  • circumstances - noun a person's financial situation (good or bad); the state (usually personal) with regard to wealth;  your overall circumstances or condition in life (including everything that happens to you)
  • cirrhosis - noun a chronic disease interfering with the normal functioning of the liver; the major cause is chronic alcoholism
  • citrate - noun a salt or ester of citric acid;  verb cause to form a salt or ester of citric acid
  • citric - adj. of or related to citric acid
  • citron - noun large lemonlike fruit with thick aromatic rind; usually preserved;  thorny evergreen small tree or shrub of India widely cultivated for its large lemonlike fruits that have thick warty rind
  • citrus - noun any of numerous fruits of the genus Citrus having thick rind and juicy pulp; grown in warm regions;  any of numerous tropical usually thorny evergreen trees of the genus Citrus having leathery evergreen leaves and widely cultivated for their juicy edible fruits having leathery aromatic rinds
  • cl - noun a metric unit of volume equal to one hundredth of a liter;  a common nonmetallic element belonging to the halogens; best known as a heavy yellow irritating toxic gas; used to purify water and as a bleaching agent and disinfectant; occurs naturally only as a salt (as in sea water)
  • clarified - adj. free from unwanted solid matter
  • classical - adj. of or characteristic of a form or system felt to be of first significance before modern times;  of recognized authority or excellence;  noun traditional genre of music conforming to an established form and appealing to critical interest and developed musical taste
  • classified - adj. arranged into classes;  official classification of information or documents; withheld from general circulation;  noun a short ad in a newspaper or magazine (usually in small print) and appearing along with other ads of the same type
  • classify - verb arrange or order by classes or categories;  declare unavailable, as for security reasons;  assign to a class or kind
  • claudication - noun disability of walking due to crippling of the legs or feet
  • clear-cut - adj. clearly or sharply defined to the mind;  having had all the trees removed at one time;  clear and distinct to the senses; easily perceptible;  verb remove all the trees at one time
  • clearance - noun permission to proceed;  the distance by which one thing clears another; the space between them;  vertical space available to allow easy passage under something
  • cleared - adj. rid of objects or obstructions such as e.g. trees and brush;  freed from any question of guilt
  • clearing - noun the act of removing solid particles from a liquid;  the act of freeing from suspicion;  a tract of land with few or no trees in the middle of a wooded area
  • clearly - adv. without doubt or question;  in an easily perceptible manner;  clear to the mind; with distinct mental discernment;  in an intelligible manner
  • cleavage - noun the act of cleaving or splitting;  the line formed by a groove between two parts (especially the separation between a woman's breasts);  (embryology) the repeated division of a fertilised ovum;  the breaking of a chemical bond in a molecule resulting in smaller molecules;  the state of being split or cleft
  • cleave - verb separate or cut with a tool, such as a sharp instrument;  make by cutting into;  come or be in close contact with; stick or hold together and resist separation
  • cleft - adj. having one or more incisions reaching nearly to the midrib;  used of hooves;  noun a split or indentation in something (as the palate or chin);  a long narrow opening
  • clegg - noun large swift fly the female of which sucks blood of various animals
  • clerk - noun an employee who performs clerical work (e.g., keeps records or accounts);  a salesperson in a store;  verb work as a clerk, as in the legal business
  • climbing - noun an event that involves rising to a higher point (as in altitude or temperature or intensity etc.)
  • clinic - noun a healthcare facility for outpatient care;  meeting for diagnosis of problems and instruction or remedial work in a particular activity;  a medical establishment run by a group of medical specialists
  • clinical - adj. scientifically detached; unemotional;  relating to a clinic or conducted in or as if in a clinic and depending on direct observation of patients
  • clinically - adv. in a clinical manner
  • clinician - noun a practitioner (of medicine or psychology) who does clinical work instead of laboratory experiments
  • clock - noun a timepiece that shows the time of day;  verb measure the time or duration of an event or action or the person who performs an action in a certain period of time
  • clofibrate - noun a drug (trade name Atromid-S) that reduces lipids in the blood serum; used to treat some cardiovascular diseases
  • clomipramine - noun a tricyclic antidepressant drug
  • clonic - adj. of or relating to abnormal neuromuscular activity characterized by rapidly alternating muscle contraction and relaxation
  • clonidine - noun an antihypertensive (trade name Catapres) that can be administered orally or via transdermal patches
  • cloning - noun a general term for the research activity that creates a copy of some biological entity (a gene or organism or cell)
  • closed - adj. not open or affording passage or access;  used especially of mouth or eyes;  blocked against entry;  (set theory) of an interval that contains both its endpoints;  not having an open mind; not open to the general public;  with shutters closed;  requiring union membership;  not open
  • closely - adv. in a close relation or position in time or space;  in a close manner;  in an attentive manner
  • closing - adj. final or ending;  noun approaching a particular destination; a coming closer; a narrowing of a gap;  a concluding action;  termination of operations;  the act of closing something;  the last section of a communication
  • clostridia - noun spindle-shaped bacterial cell especially one swollen at the center by an endospore
  • clostridium - noun spindle-shaped bacterial cell especially one swollen at the center by an endospore
  • clot - noun a lump of material formed from the content of a liquid; verb change from a liquid to a thickened or solid state;  cause to change from a liquid to a solid or thickened state;  coalesce or unite in a mass;  turn into curds
  • clothing - noun a covering designed to be worn on a person's body
  • clotting - noun the process of forming semisolid lumps in a liquid
  • clouded - adj. mentally disordered;  made troubled or apprehensive or distressed in appearance;  unclear in form or expression;  filled or abounding with clouds
  • clouding - noun the process whereby water particles become visible in the sky
  • clozapine - noun an antipsychotic drug (trade name Clozaril) used as a sedative and for treatment-resistant schizophrenia; know to have few side effects
  • clue - noun evidence that helps to solve a problem;  a slight indication;  verb roll into a ball
  • cluster - noun a grouping of a number of similar things;  verb come together as in a cluster or flock;  gather or cause to gather into a cluster
  • cm - noun a metric unit of length equal to one hundredth of a meter; a radioactive transuranic metallic element; produced by bombarding plutonium with helium nuclei
  • cmv - noun any of a group of herpes viruses that enlarge epithelial cells and can cause birth defects; can affect humans with impaired immunological systems
  • cns - noun the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
  • co-ordinate - noun a number that identifies a position relative to an axis
  • co-ordinated - adj. being dexterous in the use of more than one set of muscle movements;  operating as a unit;  intentionally matched
  • coagulation - noun the process of forming semisolid lumps in a liquid
  • coarctation - noun (biology) a narrowing or constriction of a vessel or canal; especially a congenital narrowing of the aorta;  tight or narrow compression
  • coarse - adj. conspicuously and tastelessly indecent;  lacking refinement or cultivation or taste;  of textures that are rough to the touch or substances consisting of relatively large particles;  of low or inferior quality or value
  • coast - noun the area within view;  a slope down which sleds may coast;  the act of moving smoothly along a surface while remaining in contact with it;  the shore of a sea or ocean;  verb move effortlessly; by force of gravity
  • coat - noun growth of hair or wool or fur covering the body of an animal;  an outer garment that has sleeves and covers the body from shoulder down; worn outdoors;  a thin layer covering something;  verbcover or provide with a coat;  form a coat over;  put a coat on; cover the surface of; furnish with a surface
  • coated - adj. having or dressed in a coat;  having a coating; covered with an outer layer or film; often used in combination
  • coating - noun a thin layer covering something;  a heavy fabric suitable for coats;  a decorative texture or appearance of a surface (or the substance that gives it that appearance);  the work of applying something
  • cobalt - noun a hard ferromagnetic silver-white bivalent or trivalent metallic element; a trace element in plant and animal nutrition
  • cocaine - noun a narcotic (alkaloid) extracted from coca leaves; used as a surface anesthetic or taken for pleasure; can become powerfully addictive
  • coccidioidomycosis - noun an infection of the lungs and skin characterized by excessive sputum and nodules
  • coccidiomycosis - noun an infection of the lungs and skin characterized by excessive sputum and nodules
  • cochlear - adj. of or relating to the cochlea of the ear
  • cockcroft - noun British physicist who (with Ernest Walton in 1931) first split an atom (1897-1967)
  • cocktail - noun an appetizer served as a first course at a meal;  a short mixed drink
  • coconut - noun large hard-shelled oval nut with a fibrous husk containing thick white meat surrounding a central cavity filled (when fresh) with fluid or milk;  the edible white meat a coconut; often shredded for use in e.g. cakes and curries;  tall palm tree bearing coconuts as fruits; widely planted throughout the tropics
  • codeine - noun derivative of opium; used as an antitussive (to relieve coughing) and an analgesic (to relive pain)
  • coding - noun act of writing in code or cipher
  • codon - noun a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
  • coefficient - noun a constant number that serves as a measure of some property or characteristic
  • coeliac - adj. of or in or belonging to the cavity of the abdomen
  • coenzyme - noun a small molecule (not a protein but sometimes a vitamin) essential for the activity of some enzymes
  • coexist - verb exist together;  coexist peacefully, as of nations
  • coexisting - adj. existing at the same time
  • cofactor - noun a substance (as a coenzyme) that must join with another to produce a given result
  • coffee - noun a beverage consisting of an infusion of ground coffee beans;  any of several small trees and shrubs native to the tropical Old World yielding coffee beans;  a medium brown to dark-brown color;  a seed of the coffee tree; ground to make coffee
  • cognition - noun the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning
  • cognitive - adj. of or being or relating to or involving cognition
  • cohn - noun German botanist who is generally recognized as founding bacteriology when he recognized bacteria as plants
  • cohort - noun a band of warriors (originally a unit of a Roman Legion);  a company of companions or supporters;  a group people having approximately the same age
  • cohosh - noun a plant of the genus Actaea having acrid poisonous berries
  • coincident - adj. matching point for point;  occurring or operating at the same time
  • coincidental - adj. occurring or operating at the same time
  • coincidentally - adv. happening at the same time
  • cold water - noun disparagement of a plan or hope or expectation
  • colic - noun acute abdominal pain (especially in infants)
  • colitis - noun inflammation of the colon
  • collaborate - verb work together on a common enterprise of project; cooperate as a traitor
  • collaborative - adj. accomplished by collaboration
  • collagen - noun a fibrous scleroprotein in bone and cartilage and tendon and other connective tissue; yields gelatin on boiling
  • collate - verb compare critically; of texts;  to assemble in proper sequence
  • collateral - adj. descended from a common ancestor but through different lines;  situated or running side by side;  accompany, concomitant;  serving to support or corroborate;  noun a security pledged for the repayment of a loan
  • colleague - noun a person who is member of your class or profession;  an associate you work with
  • collected - adj. in full control of your faculties;  brought together in one place;  brought together into a group or crowd
  • collecting - noun the act of gathering something together
  • collection - noun the act of gathering something together;  a publication containing a variety of works;  several things grouped together or considered as a whole;  request for a sum of money
  • collectively - adv. in conjunction with; combined
  • college - noun a complex of buildings in which an institution of higher education is housed;  British slang for prison;  the body of faculty and students of a college;  an institution of higher education created to educate and grant degrees; often a part of a university
  • collier - noun someone who works in a coal mine
  • collins - noun tall iced drink of liquor (usually gin) with fruit juice; English writer noted for early detective novels (1824-1889)
  • collision - noun a conflict of opposed ideas or attitudes or goals;  an accident resulting from violent impact of a moving object;  (physics) an brief event in which two or more bodies come together
  • colloid - noun a mixture with properties between those of a solution and fine suspension
  • colloidal - adj. of or relating to or having the properties of a colloid
  • colonic - adj. of or relating to the colon;  noun a water enema given to flush out the colon
  • colonization - noun the act of colonizing; the establishment of colonies
  • colonize - verb settle as colonists or establish a colony (in);  settle as a colony; of countries in the developing world
  • colonoscopy - noun visual examination of the colon (with a colonoscope) from the cecum to the rectum; requires sedation
  • colorectal - adj. relating to or affecting the colon and the rectum
  • colostomy - noun a surgical operation that creates an opening from the colon to the surface of the body to function as an anus
  • coloured - adj. having skin rich in melanin pigments;  having color or a certain color; sometimes used in combination;  (used of color) artificially produced; not natural;  favoring one person or side over another
  • colourless - adj. weak in color; not colorful;  lacking in variety and interest
  • colours - noun a flag that shows its nationality;  a distinguishing emblem
  • coma - noun a state of deep and often prolonged unconsciousness; usually the result of disease or injury;  (astronomy) the luminous cloud of particles surrounding the frozen nucleus of a comet; forms as the comet approaches the sun and is warmed;  a usually terminal tuft of hairs especially on a seed
  • comatose - adj. in a state of deep and usually prolonged unconsciousness; unable to respond to external stimuli;  relating to or associated with a coma
  • combat - noun an engagement fought between two military forces; the act of fighting; any contest or struggle;  verb battle or contend against in or as if in a battle
  • combinatorial - adj. relating to the combination and arrangement of elements in sets;  relating to or involving combinations
  • combined - adj. made or joined or united into one;  involving the joint activity of two or more
  • combining - noun an occurrence that results in things being united; the act of combining things to form a new whole
  • comfort - noun a feeling of freedom from worry or disappointment;  a state of being relaxed and feeling no pain;  the act of consoling; giving relief in affliction;  a freedom from financial difficulty that promotes a comfortable state;  verb lessen pain or discomfort; alleviate;  give moral or emotional strength to
  • comfortable - adj. providing or experiencing physical well-being or relief (`comfy' is informal);  free from stress or conducive to mental ease; having or affording peace of mind;  in fortunate circumstances financially; moderately rich;  sufficient to provide comfort;  more than adequate
  • coming - adj. yet to come;  of the relatively near future;  noun arrival that has been awaited (especially of something momentous);  the moment of most intense pleasure in sexual intercourse;  the act of drawing spatially closer to something;  the temporal property of becoming nearer in time
  • commence - verb take the first step or steps in carrying out an action;  set in motion, cause to start;  get off the ground
  • commencement - noun an academic exercise in which diplomas are conferred;  the act of starting something;  the time at which something is supposed to begin
  • commercial - adj. connected with or engaged in or sponsored by or used in commerce or commercial enterprises;  of the kind or quality used in commerce; average or inferior;  of or relating to commercialism;  noun a commercially sponsored ad on radio or television
  • commercially - adv. in a commercial manner
  • commissioning - noun the act of granting authority to undertake certain functions
  • committee - noun a special group delegated to consider some matter;  a self-constituted organization to promote something
  • common sense - noun sound practical judgment
  • commonly - adv. under normal conditions
  • communication - noun something that is communicated by or to or between people or groups;  the activity of communicating; the activity of conveying information;  a connection allowing access between persons or places
  • communications - noun the discipline that studies the principles of transmiting information and the methods by which it is delivered (as print or radio or television etc.)
  • companion - noun one paid to accompany or assist or live with another;  a person who is frequently in the company of another;  a traveler who accompanies you;  verb be a companion to somebody
  • comparable - adj. able to be compared or worthy of comparison; conforming in every respect
  • comparative - adj. having significance only in relation to something else;  relating to or based on or involving comparison;  noun the comparative form of an adjective
  • comparatively - adv. in a relative manner; by comparison to something else
  • compare - noun qualities that are comparable;  verb examine and note the similarities or differences of;  consider or describe as similar, equal, or analogous;  to form the comparative or superlative form on an adjective or adverb;  be comparable
  • comparing - noun examining resemblances or differences
  • comparison - noun examining resemblances or differences; qualities that are comparable;  relation based on similarities and differences
  • compartment - noun a partitioned section or separate room within a larger enclosed area;  a small space or subdivision for storage
  • compelling - adj. tending to persuade by forcefulness of argument; driving or forcing
  • compensate - verb make payment to; compensate;  make amends for; pay compensation for;  adjust for;  do or give something to somebody in return;  make reparations or amends for;  make up for shortcomings or a feeling of inferiority by exaggerating good qualities
  • compensation - noun something (such as money) given or received as payment or reparation (as for a service or loss or injury); (psychiatry) a defense mechanism that conceals your undesirable shortcomings by exaggerating desirable behaviors;  the act of compensating for service or loss or injury
  • compete - verb compete for something; engage in a contest; measure oneself against others
  • competing - adj. being in competition
  • competition - noun the act of competing as for profit or a prize;  a business relation in which two parties compete to gain customers; an occasion on which a winner is selected from among two or more contestants;  the contestant you hope to defeat
  • competitive - adj. showing a fighting disposition;  subscribing to capitalistic competition;  involving competition or competitiveness
  • competitively - adv. in competition
  • complaining - adj. expressing pain or dissatisfaction of resentment
  • complementary - adj. of words or propositions so related that each is the negation of the other;  acting as or providing a complement (something that completes the whole);  noun either one of two chromatic colors that when mixed together give white (in the case of lights) or grey (in the case of pigments)
  • completed - adj. caught;  (of a marriage) completed by the first act of sexual intercourse after the ceremony;  successfully completed or brought to an end
  • completely - adv. so as to be complete; with everything necessary; to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole' is often used informally for `wholly')
  • completeness - noun (logic) an attribute of a logical system that is so constituted that a contradiction arises if any proposition is introduced that cannot be derived from the axioms of the system; the state of being complete and entire; having everything that is needed
  • completing - adj. acting as or providing a complement (something that completes the whole)
  • completion - noun a concluding action;  (American football) a successful forward pass in football
  • complexity - noun the quality of being intricate and compounded
  • compliance - noun happy friendly agreement;  the act of submitting; usually surrendering power to another;  acting according to certain accepted standards;  a disposition or tendency to yield to the will of others
  • compliant - adj. disposed or willing to comply
  • complicate - verb make more complex, intricate, or richer;  make more complicated
  • complicated - adj. difficult to analyze or understand
  • complication - noun the act or process of complicating;  a development that complicates a situation;  a situation or condition that is complex or confused;  any disease or disorder that occurs during the course of (or because of) another disease;  puzzling complexity
  • comply - verb act in accordance with someone's rules, commands, or wishes
  • component - noun an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up; especially a part that can be separated from or attached to a system;  an abstract part of something;  something determined in relation to something that includes it
  • composed - adj. serenely self-possessed and free from agitation especially in times of stress;  made up of individual elements
  • compounded - adj. combined into or constituting a chemical compound
  • comprehensive - adj. including all or everything;  broad in scope; noun an intensive examination testing a student's proficiency in some special field of knowledge
  • comprehensively - adv. in an all-inclusive manner
  • compressed - adj. reduced in volume by pressure;  pressed tightly together;  flattened laterally along the whole length (e.g., certain leafstalks or flatfishes)
  • compression - noun applying pressure;  encoding information while reducing the bandwidth or bits required;  the process or result of becoming smaller or pressed together;  an increase in the density of something
  • comprise - verb form or compose;  include or contain; have as a component;  be composed of
  • compromise - noun a middle way between two extremes;  an accommodation in which both sides make concessions;  verb settle by concession;  make a compromise; arrive at a compromise; expose or make liable to danger, suspicion, or disrepute
  • compulsive - adj. strongly motivated to succeed;  caused by or suggestive of psychological compulsion;  noun a person with a compulsive disposition; someone who feels compelled to do certain things
  • computer - noun a machine for performing calculations automatically;  an expert at calculation (or at operating calculating machines)
  • computerized - adj. stored, processed, analyzed, or generated by computer
  • conceal - verb hold back; keep from being perceived by others; prevent from being seen or discovered
  • concentrated - adj. gathered together or made less diffuse;  of or relating to a solution whose dilution has been reduced;  intensely focused;  being the most concentrated solution possible at a given temperature; unable to dissolve still more of a substance;  (of light) transmitted directly from a pointed light source
  • concept - noun an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances
  • conception - noun the act of becoming pregnant; fertilization of an ovum by a spermatozoon;  the creation of something in the mind;  an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances; the event that occurred at the beginning of something
  • concerned - adj. feeling or showing worry or solicitude;  involved in or affected by or having a claim to or share in;  in relation (or in regard) to; especially as in the phrases;  culpably involved
  • concise - adj. expressing much in few words
  • concluded - adj. having come or been brought to a conclusion
  • conclusive - adj. forming an end or termination; especially putting an end to doubt or question;  final and deciding;  expressing finality with no implication of possible change
  • concomitant - adj. following as a consequence;  noun an event or situation that happens at the same time as or in connection with another
  • concordance - noun an index of all main words in a book along with their immediate contexts;  agreement of opinions;  a harmonious state of things in general and of their properties (as of colors and sounds); congruity of parts with one another and with the whole
  • concordant - adj. being of the same opinion;  in keeping
  • concurrent - adj. occurring or operating at the same time
  • concurrently - adv. overlapping in duration
  • condom - noun contraceptive device consisting of a sheath of thin rubber or latex that is worn over the penis during intercourse
  • conductance - noun a material's capacity to conduct electricity; measured as the reciprocal of electrical resistance
  • conducting - noun the direction of an orchestra or choir;  the way of administering a business
  • conduction - noun the transmission of heat or electricity or sound
  • conduit - noun a passage (a pipe or tunnel) through which water or electric wires can pass
  • confer - verb have a conference in order to talk something over; present
  • conferred - adj. given formally or officially
  • confidence - noun a secret that is confided or entrusted to another; a feeling of trust (in someone or something);  a trustful relationship;  a state of confident hopefulness that events will be favorable;  freedom from doubt; belief in yourself and your abilities
  • confident - adj. not liable to error in judgment or action;  having or marked by confidence or assurance;  persuaded of; very sure
  • confidently - adv. in a confident manner
  • confined - adj. not free to move about;  not invading healthy tissue; enclosed by a confining fence;  deprived of liberty; especially placed under arrest or restraint;  in captivity
  • confirm - verb make more firm;  establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts;  strengthen or make more firm;  administer the rite of confirmation to;  support a person for a position
  • confirmatory - adj. serving to support or corroborate
  • confirmed - adj. having a habit of long standing;  of persons; not subject to change;  having been established or made firm or received the rite of confirmation
  • confirming - adj. indicating existence or presence of a suspected condition or pathogen;  serving to support or corroborate
  • conflicting - adj. on bad terms;  in disagreement
  • conform - verb be similar, be in line with;  adapt or conform oneself to new or different conditions
  • conforming - adj. adhering to established customs or doctrines (especially in religion)
  • conformity - noun acting according to certain accepted standards; correspondence in form or appearance;  orthodoxy in thoughts and belief;  hardened conventionality;  concurrence of opinion
  • confound - verb mistake one thing for another;  be confusing or perplexing to; cause to be unable to think clearly
  • confounded - adj. perplexed by many conflicting situations or statements; filled with bewilderment
  • confounding - adj. that confounds or contradicts or confuses
  • confused - adj. mentally confused; unable to think with clarity or act intelligently;  lacking orderly continuity;  having lost your bearings; confused as to time or place or personal identity;  thrown into a state of disarray or confusion;  perplexed by many conflicting situations or statements; filled with bewilderment
  • confusing - adj. lacking clarity of meaning; causing confusion or perplexity;  causing confusion or disorientation
  • congener - noun an animal or plant that bears a relationship to another (as related by common descent or by membership in the same genus)
  • congenital - adj. present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development
  • congestion - noun excessive crowding;  excessive accumulation of blood or other fluid in a body part
  • congestive - adj. relating to or affected by an abnormal collection of blood or other fluid
  • congress - noun the legislature of the United States government;  a meeting of elected or appointed representatives;  a national legislative assembly;  the act of sexual procreation between a man and a woman; the man's penis is inserted into the woman's vagina and excited until orgasm and ejaculation occur
  • conjugated - adj. of an organic compound; containing two or more double bonds each separated from the other by a single bond; formed by the union of two compounds;  joined together especially in a pair or pairs
  • conjugation - noun a class of verbs having the same inflectional forms;  the complete set of inflected forms of a verb;  the inflection of verbs;  the act of making or becoming a single unit;  the act of pairing a male and female for reproductive purposes;  the state of being joined together
  • conjunctival - adj. of or relating to the conjunctiva
  • conjunctivitis - noun inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye
  • conn - verb conduct or direct the steering of a ship or plane
  • connecting - adj. syntactically connecting sentences or elements of a sentence
  • connective - adj. connecting or tending to connect;  noun an instrumentality that connects;  an uninflected function word that serves to conjoin words or phrases or clauses or sentences
  • conscious - adj. (followed by `of') showing realization or recognition of something;  knowing and perceiving; having awareness of surroundings and sensations and thoughts;  intentionally conceived
  • consciousness - noun an alert cognitive state in which you are aware of yourself and your situation;  having knowledge of
  • consecutive - adj. in regular succession without gaps;  one after the other;  successive (without a break);  adv. in a consecutive manner
  • consecutively - adv. in a consecutive manner
  • consent - noun permission to do something;  verb give an affirmative reply to; respond favorably to
  • consequence - noun having important effects or influence;  the outcome of an event especially as relative to an individual;  a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon
  • consequent - adj. following as an effect or result
  • consequently - adv. (sentence connectors) because of the reason given;  as a consequence
  • conservation - noun the preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources;  (physics) the maintenance of a certain quantities unchanged during chemical reactions or physical transformations;  an occurrence of improvement by virtue of preventing loss or injury or other change
  • conservative - adj. resistant to change;  opposed to liberal reforms; conforming to the standards and conventions of the middle class; unimaginatively conventional;  avoiding excess;  noun a person who has conservative ideas or opinions
  • conserve - noun fruit preserved by cooking with sugar;  verbpreserve with sugar;  use cautiously and frugally;  keep in safety and protect from harm, decay, loss, or destruction;  keep constant through physical or chemical reactions or evolutionary change
  • considerable - adj. large or relatively large in number or amount or extent or degree
  • considerably - adv. to a great extent or degree
  • consideration - noun a considerate and thoughtful act;  kind and considerate regard for others;  the process of giving careful thought to something;  a discussion of a topic (as in a meeting);  information that should be kept in mind when making a decision;  a fee charged in advance to retain the services of someone
  • considered - adj. carefully weighed;  resulting from careful thought
  • consist - verb be composed of;  be consistent in form, tenor, or character; be congruous;  have its essential character; be comprised or contained in; be embodied in;  originate (in)
  • consistent - adj. (sometimes followed by `with') in agreement or consistent or reliable;  the same throughout in structure or composition;  marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts;  capable of being reproduced
  • consistently - adv. in a systematic or consistent manner
  • consolidation - noun the act of combining into an integral whole; combining into a solid mass;  something that has consolidated into a compact mass
  • constable - noun a lawman with less authority and jurisdiction than a sheriff;  a police officer of the lowest rank;  English landscape painter (1776-1837)
  • constantly - adv. without interruption;  seemingly uninterrupted; without variation or change
  • constipation - noun irregular and infrequent or difficult evacuation of the bowels; can be a symptom of intestinal obstruction or diverticulitis;  the act of making something futile and useless (as by routine)
  • constitute - verb form or compose;  set up or lay the groundwork for; create and charge with a task or function;  to compose or represent:"This wall forms the background of the stage setting"
  • constituted - adj. brought about or set up or accepted; especially long established
  • constitutive - adj. constitutional in the structure of something (especially your physical makeup)
  • constrict - verb become tight or as if tight;  squeeze or press together
  • constricting - adj. (of circumstances) tending to constrict freedom; hindering freedom of movement
  • constriction - noun the action or process of compressing;  a tight feeling in some part of the body;  tight or narrow compression;  a narrowing that reduces the flow through a channel
  • consult - verb advise professionally;  seek information from;  get or ask advice from;  have a conference in order to talk something over
  • consultant - noun an expert who gives advice
  • consultation - noun a conference between two or more people to consider a particular question;  a conference (usually with someone important);  the act of referring or consulting
  • consume - verb engage fully;  serve oneself to, or consume regularly;  use up (resources or materials);  spend extravagantly; destroy completely;  eat immoderately
  • consumed - adj. completely used up
  • consuming - adj. very intense
  • consumption - noun the act of consuming something;  the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating); (economics) the utilization of economic goods to satisfy needs or in manufacturing;  involving the lungs with progressive wasting of the body
  • contain - verb be capable of holding or containing;  be divisible by; hold back, as of a danger or an enemy; check the expansion or influence of;  lessen the intensity of; temper; hold in restraint; hold or keep within limits;  include or contain; have as a component;  contain or hold; have within
  • contained - adj. gotten under control;  controlled
  • container - noun any object that can be used to hold things (especially a large metal boxlike object of standardized dimensions that can be loaded from one form of transport to another)
  • contamination - noun the act of contaminating or polluting; including (either intentionally or accidentally) unwanted substances or factors;  the state of being contaminated;  a substance that contaminates
  • contents - noun a list of divisions (chapters or articles) and the pages on which they start
  • context - noun discourse that surrounds a language unit and helps to determine its interpretation;  the set of facts or circumstances that surround a situation or event
  • continuation - noun the act of continuing an activity without interruption;  the consequence of being lengthened in duration;  a Gestalt principle of organization holding that there is an innate tendency to perceive a line as continuing its established direction;  a part added to a book or play that continues and extends it
  • continued - adj. without stop or interruption
  • continuing - adj. remaining in force or being carried on without letup
  • continuous - adj. continuing in time or space without interruption;  of a function or curve; extending without break or irregularity
  • continuously - adv. at every point;  with unflagging resolve
  • continuum - noun a continuous nonspatial whole or extent or succession in which no part or portion is distinct of distinguishable from adjacent parts
  • contraception - noun birth control by the use of devices (diaphragm or intrauterine device or condom) or drugs or surgery
  • contraceptive - adj. capable of preventing conception or impregnation;  noun an agent or device intended to prevent conception
  • contracted - adj. reduced in size or pulled together
  • contractile - adj. capable of contracting or being contracted
  • contractility - noun the capability or quality of shrinking or contracting, especially by muscle fibers and even some other forms of living matter
  • contracting - noun becoming infected
  • contraindicate - verb make a treatment inadvisable
  • contraindication - noun (medicine) a reason that makes it inadvisable to prescribe a particular drug or employ a particular procedure or treatment
  • contralateral - adj. on or relating to the opposite side (of the body)
  • contribute - verb contribute to some cause;  be conducive to; provide;  bestow a quality on
  • contributing - adj. tending to bring about; being partly responsible for
  • contributory - adj. tending to bring about; being partly responsible for
  • controlled - adj. restrained or managed or kept within certain bounds;  curbed or regulated
  • controller - noun a mechanism that controls the operation of a machine;  someone who maintains and audits business accounts;  a person who directs and restrains
  • controlling - adj. able to control or determine policy
  • controversial - adj. marked by or capable of arousing controversy
  • controversy - noun a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement
  • convenience - noun the quality of being useful and convenient;  the state of being suitable or opportune;  a device or control that is very useful for a particular job;  a toilet that is available to the public
  • convenient - adj. easy to reach;  suited to your comfort or purpose or needs;  large and roomy (`convenient' is archaic in this sense)
  • conveniently - adv. in a convenient manner
  • convention - noun the act of convening;  something regarded as a normative example;  (diplomacy) an international agreement;  a large formal assembly;  orthodoxy as a consequence of being conventional
  • conventionally - adv. in a conventional manner
  • converge - verb come together so as to form a single product;  move or draw together at a certain location;  be adjacent or come together; approach a limit as the number of terms increases without limit
  • convergence - noun the act of converging (coming closer);  the approach of an infinite series to a finite limit;  the occurrence of two or more things coming together;  a representation of common ground between theories or phenomena
  • converse - adj. turned about in order or relation;  of words so related that one reverses the relation denoted by the other;  noun a proposition obtained by conversion;  verb carry on a conversation
  • conversely - adv. with the terms of the relation reversed
  • converted - adj. spiritually reborn or converted
  • convey - verb make known; pass on, of information;  transmit a title or property;  transfer to another;  serve as a means for expressing something;  go or come after and bring or take back;  take something or somebody with oneself somewhere;  transmit or serve as the medium for transmission
  • convinced - adj. persuaded of; very sure;  having a strong belief or conviction
  • convincing - adj. causing one to believe the truth of something
  • convoluted - adj. rolled or coiled together;  highly complex or intricate
  • convulsion - noun a physical disturbance such as an earthquake or upheaval;  a violent disturbance;  violent uncontrollable contractions of muscles;  a sudden uncontrollable attack
  • cooling - noun the process of becoming cooler; a falling temperature;  a mechanism for keeping something cool
  • coon - noun an eccentric or undignified rustic;  North American raccoon;  (ethnic slur) extremely offensive name for a Black person
  • coordinated - adj. being dexterous in the use of more than one set of muscle movements;  operating as a unit;  intentionally matched
  • coordination - noun the regulation of diverse elements into an integrated and harmonious operation;  the skillful and effective interaction of movements;  the grammatical relation of two constituents having the same grammatical form
  • cope - noun brick that is laid sideways at the top of a wall;  verbcome to terms or deal successfully with
  • copious - adj. large in number or quantity (especially of discourse); affording an abundant supply
  • copyright - noun a document granting exclusive right to publish and sell literary or musical or artistic work;  verb secure a copyright on a written work
  • cord - noun a line made of twisted fibers or threads;  a cut pile fabric with vertical ribs; usually made of cotton;  a light insulated conductor for household use;  a unit of amount of wood cut for burning; 128 cubic feet;  verb bind or tie with a cord;  stack in cords
  • corneal - adj. of or related to the cornea
  • cornerstone - noun a stone at the outer corner of two intersecting masonry walls;  a stone in the exterior of a large and important building; usually carved with a date and laid with appropriate ceremonies;  the fundamental assumptions from which something is begun or developed or calculated or explained
  • corneum - noun the outermost layer of the epidermis consisting of dead cells that slough off
  • coronary - adj. surrounding like a crown (especially of the blood vessels surrounding the heart);  noun obstruction of blood flow in a coronary artery by a blood clot (thrombus)
  • corpus - noun the main part of an organ or other bodily structure;  a collection of writings;  capital as contrasted with the income derived from it
  • corpuscular - adj. of or relating to corpuscles
  • corrected - adj. having something undesirable neutralized; punished for misbehavior
  • corrections - noun the social control of offenders through a system of imprisonment and rehabilitation and probation and parole;  the department of local government that is responsible for managing the treatment of convicted offenders
  • correctly - adv. in a correct manner
  • correlate - adj. mutually related;  noun either of two correlated variables;  verb bring into a mutual, complementary, or reciprocal relation;  to bear a reciprocal or mutual relation
  • correlated - adj. mutually related
  • correspond - verb exchange messages;  be equivalent or parallel, in mathematics;  be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics;  take the place of or be parallel or equivalent to
  • corresponding - adj. agreeing in amount, magnitude, or degree; accompanying;  similar especially in position or purpose;  conforming in every respect
  • correspondingly - adv. in a corresponding manner
  • cortex - noun the tissue forming the outer layer of an organ or structure in plant or animal;  the layer of unmyelinated neurons (the grey matter) forming the cortex of the cerebrum
  • cortical - adj. of or relating to a cortex
  • corticosteroid - noun a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex or synthesized; administered as drugs they reduce swelling and decrease the body's immune response
  • corticotropin - noun a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex
  • cortisol - noun an adrenal-cortex hormone (trade names Hydrocortone or Cortef) that is active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism
  • cortisone - noun a corticosteroid hormone (trade name Cortone Acetate) normally produced by the adrenal cortex; is converted to hydrocortisone
  • cosmetic - adj. serving an aesthetic purpose in beautifying the body;  serving an esthetic rather than a useful purpose;  noun a toiletry designed to beautify the body
  • cost-effective - adj. productive relative to the cost
  • costs - noun pecuniary reimbursement to the winning party for the expenses of litigation
  • cot - noun a small bed that folds up for storage or transport;  baby bed with high sides made of slats;  a sheath worn to protect a finger
  • cotton - noun fabric woven from cotton fibers;  thread made of cotton fibers;  erect bushy mallow plant or small tree bearing bolls containing seeds with many long hairy fibers;  soft silky fibers from cotton plants in their raw state;  verb take a liking to
  • cough - noun the act of exhaling air suddenly with a noise;  sudden expulsion of air from the lungs that clears the air passages; a common symptom of upper respiratory infection or bronchitis or pneumonia or tuberculosis;  verb exhale abruptly, as when one has a chest cold or congestion
  • coughing - noun the act of exhaling air suddenly with a noise; sudden expulsion of air from the lungs that clears the air passages; a common symptom of upper respiratory infection or bronchitis or pneumonia or tuberculosis
  • council - noun a meeting of people for consultation;  a body serving in an administrative capacity;  (Christianity) an assembly or theologians and bishops and other representative of different churches or dioceses that is convened to regulate matters of discipline or doctrine
  • counselling - noun something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action
  • counteract - verb oppose and mitigate the effects of by contrary actions;  destroy property or hinder normal operations;  act in opposition to;  oppose or check by a counteraction
  • coupled - adj. connected by a link, as railway cars or trailer trucks; joined together especially in a pair or pairs
  • covalent - adj. of or relating to or characterized by covalence
  • covered - adj. overlaid or spread or topped with or enclosed within something; sometimes used as a combining form
  • covering - noun the act of protecting something by covering it;  an artifact that covers something else (usually to protect or shelter or conceal it);  a natural object that covers or envelops;  the work of applying something;  the act of concealing the existence of something by obstructing the view of it
  • cox - noun the helmsman of a ship's boat or a racing crew;  either of two related enzymes that control the production of prostaglandins and are blocked by aspirin;  verb act as the coxswain, in a boat race
  • cpr - noun an emergency procedure consisting of external cardiac massage and artificial respiration; the first treatment for a person who has collapsed and has no pulse and has stopped breathing; attempts to restore circulation of the blood and prevent death or brain damage due to lack of oxygen
  • cr - noun a hard brittle multivalent metallic element; resistant to corrosion and tarnishing
  • cranberry - noun very tart red berry used for sauce or juice;  any of numerous shrubs of genus Vaccinium bearing cranberries
  • cranial - adj. of or relating to the cranium which encloses the brain
  • craving - noun an intense desire for some particular thing
  • creatine - noun an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates both in the free form and as phosphocreatine; supplies energy for muscle contraction
  • credited - adj. (usually followed by `to') given credit for
  • crescendo - adj. gradually increasing in volume;  noun (music) a gradual increase in loudness;  verb grow louder
  • criminally - adv. in violation of the law; in a criminal manner;  in a shameful manner
  • crisis - noun a crucial stage or turning point in the course of something;  an unstable situation of extreme danger or difficulty
  • critically - adv. in a critical manner
  • criticism - noun a serious examination and judgment of something; a written evaluation of a work of literature;  disapproval expressed by pointing out faults or shortcomings
  • crocus - noun any of numerous low-growing plants of the genus Crocus having slender grasslike leaves and white or yellow or purple flowers; native chiefly to the Mediterranean region but widely cultivated
  • crohn - noun United States physician who specialized in diseases of the intestines; he was the first to describe regional ileitis which is now known as Crohn's disease (1884-1983)
  • crp - noun a byproduct of inflammation; a globulin that is found in the blood in some cases of acute inflammation
  • crucial - adj. of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis;  having the power or quality of deciding;  having crucial relevance;  of the greatest importance
  • cruciferous - adj. of or relating to or belonging to the plant family Cruciferae
  • crushed - adj. treated so as to have a permanently wrinkled appearance;  subdued or brought low in condition or status
  • cryptococcosis - noun a fungal infection characterized by nodular lesions--first in the lungs and spreading to the nervous system
  • crystallization - noun a mental synthesis that becomes fixed or concrete by a process resembling crystal formation;  the formation of crystals;  a rock formed by the solidification of a substance; has regularly repeating internal structure; external plane faces
  • culinary - adj. of or relating to or used in cooking
  • culprit - noun someone who perpetrates wrongdoing
  • cultural - adj. denoting or deriving from or distinctive of the ways of living built up by a group of people;  relating to the raising of plants or animals;  of or relating to the shared knowledge and values of a society;  of or relating to the arts and manners that a group favors
  • cultured - adj. marked by refinement in taste and manners
  • cumbersome - adj. difficult to handle or use especially because of size or weight;  not elegant or graceful in expression
  • cumulative - adj. increasing by successive addition
  • cupboard - noun a small room (or recess) or cabinet used for storage space
  • cupping - noun a treatment in which evacuated cups are applied to the skin to draw blood through the surface
  • curative - adj. tending to cure or restore to health;  noun a medicine or therapy that cures disease or relieve pain
  • cure - noun a medicine or therapy that cures disease or relieve pain; verb prepare by drying, salting, or chemical processing in order to preserve;  be or become preserved;  make (substances) hard and improve their usability;  provide a cure for, make healthy again
  • current - adj. occurring in or belonging to the present time;  noun a steady flow (usually from natural causes);  a flow of electricity through a conductor;  dominant course (suggestive of running water) of successive events or ideas
  • currently - adv. at this time or period; now
  • curriculum - noun an integrated course of academic studies
  • curry - noun (East Indian cookery) a pungent dish of vegetables or meats flavored with curry powder and usually eaten with rice;  verbtreat by incorporating fat;  season with a mixture of spices; typical of Indian cooking;  give a neat appearance to
  • cushing - noun United States neurologist noted for his study of the brain and pituitary gland and who identified Cushing's syndrome (1869-1939)
  • cutaneous - adj. relating to or existing on or affecting the skin
  • cutis - noun a natural protective body covering and site of the sense of touch
  • cyanide - noun an extremely poisonous salt of hydrocyanic acid; any of a class of organic compounds containing the cyano radical -CN
  • cyanosis - noun a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes; a sign that oxygen in the blood is dangerously diminished (as in carbon monoxide poisoning)
  • cyclic - adj. recurring in cycles;  of a compound having atoms arranged in a ring structure;  botany; forming a whorl or having parts arranged in a whorl;  marked by repeated cycles;  conforming to the Carnot cycle
  • cyclical - adj. recurring in cycles
  • cycling - noun the sport of traveling on a bicycle or motorcycle
  • cyclooxygenase - noun either of two related enzymes that control the production of prostaglandins and are blocked by aspirin
  • cycloserine - noun an antibiotic that is especially active against the tubercle bacillus
  • cyproheptadine - noun an antihistamine (trade name Periactin) used to treat some allergic reactions
  • cysteine - noun an amino acid containing sulfur that is found in most proteins; oxidizes on exposure to air to form cystine
  • cystic - adj. of or relating to or resembling a cyst;  of or relating to a normal cyst (as the gallbladder or urinary bladder)
  • cystitis - noun inflammation of the urinary bladder and ureters
  • cytochrome - noun (biochemistry) a class of hemoprotein whose principle biological function is electron transfer (especially in cellular respiration)
  • cytokine - noun any of various proteins secreted by cells of the immune system that serve to regulate the immune system
  • cytomegalovirus - noun any of a group of herpes viruses that enlarge epithelial cells and can cause birth defects; can affect humans with impaired immunological systems
  • cytoplasm - noun the protoplasm of a cell excluding the nucleus; is full of proteins that control cell metabolism
  • cytoplasmic - adj. of or relating to cytoplasm
  • cytosol - noun the aqueous part of the cytoplasm within which various particles and organelles are suspended
  • cytotoxic - adj. of or relating to substances that are toxic to cells
  • d - noun the 4th letter of the Roman alphabet;  a fat-soluble vitamin that prevents rickets
  • da - noun an official prosecutor for a judicial district
  • dahl - noun small highly nutritious seed of the tropical pigeon-pea plant;  tropical woody herb with showy yellow flowers and flat pods; much cultivated in the tropics
  • daily - adj. occurring or done each day;  measured by the day or happening every day;  adv. without missing a day;  gradually and progressively;  noun a newspaper that is published every day
  • dairy - noun a farm where dairy products are produced
  • dale - noun an open river valley (in a hilly area)
  • damage - noun the act of damaging something or someone;  loss of military equipment;  the occurrence of a change for the worse;  any harm or injury resulting from a violation of a legal right;  the amount of money needed to purchase something;  verb inflict damage upon
  • damaged - adj. harmed or injured or spoiled;  especially of reputation;  being unjustly brought into disrepute
  • damages - noun a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury
  • damaging - adj. designed or tending to discredit, especially without positive or helpful suggestions;  (sometimes followed by `to') causing harm or injury
  • dampen - verb lessen in force or effect;  check; keep in check (a fire);  make vague or obscure or make (an image) less visible; reduce the amplitude (of oscillations or waves);  make moist; smother or suppress;  deaden (a sound or noise), especially by wrapping
  • damper - noun a depressing restraint;  a device that decreases the amplitude of electronic, mechanical, acoustical, or aerodynamic oscillations;  a movable iron plate that regulates the draft in a stove or chimney or furnace
  • danger - noun a dangerous place;  the condition of being susceptible to harm or injury;  a cause of pain or injury or loss;  a venture undertaken without regard to possible loss or injury
  • dangerous - adj. causing fear or anxiety by threatening great harm; involving or causing danger or risk; liable to hurt or harm
  • dangerously - adv. in a dangerous manner
  • dapsone - noun antibacterial drug used to treat leprosy and some kinds of skin diseases
  • darkened - adj. become or made dark by lack of light;  (of fabrics and paper) grown dark in color over time
  • dartmouth - noun a college in New Hampshire
  • dashed - adj. having gaps or spaces
  • data - noun a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn
  • database - noun an organized body of related information
  • daughter - noun a female human offspring
  • days - noun the time during which someone's life continues
  • daytime - noun the time after sunrise and before sunset while it is light outside
  • dc - noun the district occupied entirely by the city of Washington; chosen by George Washington as the site of the nation's capital and created out of land ceded by Maryland and Virginia;  an electric current that flows in one direction steadily
  • dd - noun a doctor's degree in religion
  • ddt - noun an insecticide that is also toxic to animals and humans; banned in the United States since 1972
  • de - noun a Mid-Atlantic state; one of the original 13 colonies
  • deafness - noun partial or complete loss of hearing
  • dealing - noun method or manner of conduct in relation to others; the act of transacting within or between groups (as carrying on commercial activities)
  • deaminate - verb remove the amino radical (usually by hydrolysis) from an amino compound; to perform deamination
  • deamination - noun removal of the amino radical from an amino acid or other amino compound
  • dean - noun an administrator in charge of a division of a university or college;  (Roman Catholic Church) the head of the College of Cardinals;  a man who is the senior member of a group;  United States film actor whose moody rebellious roles made him a cult figure (1931-1955)
  • debilitated - adj. lacking strength or vigor
  • debilitating - adj. impairing the strength and vitality
  • debility - noun the state of being weak in health or body (especially from old age)
  • decarboxylase - noun any of the enzymes that hydrolize the carboxyl group
  • decarboxylation - noun the process of removing a carboxyl group from a chemical compound (usually replacing it with hydrogen)
  • december - noun the last (12th) month of the year
  • decide - verb reach, make, or come to a decision about something; bring to an end; settle conclusively;  cause to decide;  influence or determine
  • decided - adj. recognizable; marked
  • deciding - adj. having the power or quality of deciding;  noun the cognitive process of reaching a decision
  • decision making - noun the cognitive process of reaching a decision
  • decision - noun the act of making up your mind about something;  a position or opinion or judgment reached after consideration;  the outcome of a game or contest;  (boxing) a victory won on points when no knockout has occurred;  the trait of resoluteness as evidenced by firmness of character or purpose
  • decompression - noun relieving pressure;  restoring compressed information to its normal form for use or display
  • decongestant - noun a drug that decreases pulmonary congestion
  • decrease - noun the act of decreasing or reducing something;  the amount by which something decreases;  a change downward;  a process of becoming smaller or shorter;  verb decrease in size, extent, or range;  make smaller
  • decreased - adj. made less in size or amount or degree
  • decreasing - adj. becoming less or smaller;  music
  • dedicated - adj. devoted to a cause or ideal or purpose;  solemnly dedicated to or set apart for a high purpose
  • deep-seated - adj. (used especially of ideas or principles) deeply rooted; firmly fixed or held
  • deepening - adj. accumulating and becoming more intense;  noun a process of becoming deeper and more profound
  • defecation - noun the elimination of fecal waste through the anus
  • defect - noun a failing or deficiency;  an imperfection in a bodily system;  an imperfection in a device or machine;  a mark or flaw that spoils the appearance of something (especially on a person's body); verb desert (a cause, a country or an army), often in order to join the opposing cause, country, or army
  • defective - adj. markedly subnormal in structure or function or intelligence or behavior;  having a defect;  not working properly
  • defibrillation - noun treatment by stopping fibrillation of heart muscles (usually by electric shock delivered by a defibrillator)
  • defibrillator - noun an electronic device that administers an electric shock of preset voltage to the heart through the chest wall in an attempt to restore the normal rhythm of the heart during ventricular fibrillation
  • deficiency - noun lack of an adequate quantity or number;  the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable
  • deficient - adj. inadequate in amount or degree;  falling short of some prescribed norm;  of a quantity not able to fulfill a need or requirement
  • deficit - noun the property of being an amount by which something is less than expected or required;  an excess of liabilities over assets (usually over a certain period);  (sports) the score by which a team or individual is losing;  a deficiency or failure in neurological or mental functioning
  • define - verb give a definition for the meaning of a word;  determine the nature of;  show the form or outline of;  determine the essential quality of
  • defined - adj. clearly characterized or delimited;  clearly defined; showing clearly the outline or profile or boundary
  • defining - noun any process serving to define the shape of something
  • definite - adj. known for certain;  precise; explicit and clearly defined
  • definitely - adv. without question and beyond doubt
  • definition - noun clarity of outline;  a concise explanation of the meaning of a word or phrase or symbol
  • definitive - adj. supplying or being a final or conclusive settlement; clearly defined or formulated;  of recognized authority or excellence
  • deformation - noun alteration in the shape or dimensions of an object as a result of the application of stress to it;  the act of twisting or deforming the shape of something (e.g., yourself);  a change for the worse
  • deformed - adj. so badly formed or out of shape as to be ugly
  • deformity - noun an affliction in which some part of the body is misshapen or malformed;  an appearance that has been spoiled or is misshapen
  • degeneration - noun passing from a more complex to a simpler biological form;  the process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality;  the state of being degenerate in mental or moral qualities
  • degenerative - adj. (of illness) marked by gradual deterioration of organs and cells along with loss of function
  • degradation - noun changing to a lower state (a less respected state);  a low or downcast state
  • degrade - verb lower the grade of something; reduce its worth; reduce the level of land, as by erosion;  reduce in worth or character, usually verbally
  • degraded - adj. lowered in value;  unrestrained by convention or morality
  • dehydration - noun the process of extracting moisture;  depletion of bodily fluids;  dryness resulting from the removal of water
  • dehydroretinol - noun a viscous alcohol that is less active in mammals than is vitamin A1
  • delay - noun the act of delaying; inactivity resulting in something being put off until a later time;  time during which some action is awaited;  verb cause to be slowed down or delayed;  act later than planned, scheduled, or required;  slow the growth or development of; stop or halt
  • delayed - adj. caused to be slower or later;  not as far along as normal in development
  • deleterious - adj. harmful to living things
  • deletion - noun the act of deleting something written or printed;  the omission that is made when an editorial change shortens a written passage;  (genetics) the loss or absence of one or more nucleotides from a chromosome;  any process whereby sounds are left out of spoken words or phrases
  • deliberate - adj. by conscious design or purpose;  marked by careful consideration or reflection;  with care and dignity;  produced or marked by conscious design or premeditation;  carefully thought out in advance;  verb discuss the pros and cons of an issue;  think about carefully; weigh
  • deliberately - adv. with intention; in an intentional manner;  in a deliberate unhurried manner
  • delineate - adj. represented accurately or precisely;  verb describe in vivid detail;  trace the shape of;  make a mark or lines on a surface; determine the essential quality of;  show the form or outline of
  • delirious - adj. marked by uncontrolled excitement or emotion; experiencing delirium
  • delirium - noun a usually brief state of excitement and mental confusion often accompanied by hallucinations;  state of violent mental agitation
  • dell - noun a small wooded hollow
  • delta - noun the 4th letter of the Greek alphabet;  a low triangular area where a river divides before entering a larger body of water
  • deltoid - adj. of a leaf shape; suggesting a capital delta, with a point at the apex;  noun a large triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint and serving to abduct and flex and extend and rotate the arm
  • demanding - adj. requiring more than usually expected or thought due; especially great patience and effort and skill
  • demented - adj. affected with madness or insanity
  • dementia - noun mental deterioration of organic or functional origin
  • demonstrate - verb march in protest; take part in a demonstration; establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment;  provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one's behavior, attitude, or external attributes;  show or demonstrate something to an interested audience
  • demonstrated - adj. having been demonstrated or verified beyond doubt
  • dempsey - noun United States prizefighter who was world heavyweight champion (1895-1983)
  • demulcent - adj. having a softening or soothing effect especially to the skin;  noun a medication (in the form of an oil or salve etc.) that soothes inflamed or injured skin
  • den - noun a room that is comfortable and secluded;  a unit of 8 to 10 cub scouts;  a hiding place; usually a remote place used by outlaws;  the habitation of wild animals
  • density - noun the amount per unit size;  the spatial property of being crowded together
  • dental - adj. of or relating to the teeth;  of or relating to dentistry; noun a consonant articulated with the tip of the tongue near the gum ridge
  • dentistry - noun the branch of medicine dealing with the anatomy and development and diseases of the teeth
  • department - noun a specialized sphere of knowledge;  a specialized division of a large organization;  the territorial and administrative division of some countries (such as France)
  • depend - verb be contingent upon (something that is elided);  have faith or confidence in
  • dependence - noun lack of independence or self-sufficiency;  being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming (especially alcohol or narcotic drugs)
  • dependency - noun a geographical area politically controlled by a distant country;  lack of independence or self-sufficiency;  being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming (especially alcohol or narcotic drugs)
  • depleted - adj. having resources completely depleted;  no longer sufficient
  • depletion - noun the act of decreasing something markedly;  the state of being depleted
  • depolarization - noun a loss of polarity or polarization
  • depolarize - verb eliminate the polarization of
  • deposition - noun the act of deposing someone; removing a powerful person from a position or office;  (law) a pretrial interrogation of a witness; usually conducted in a lawyer's office;  the natural process of laying down a deposit of something;  the act of putting something somewhere
  • depot - noun a depository for goods;  station where transport vehicles load or unload passengers or goods
  • depress - verb lessen the activity or force of;  lower someone's spirits; make downhearted;  lower (prices or markets);  press down; cause to drop or sink
  • depressant - adj. capable of depressing physiological or psychological activity or response by a chemical agent;  noun a drug that reduces excitability and calms a person
  • depressed - adj. having the central portion lower than the margin; lower than previously;  flattened downward as if pressed from above or flattened along the dorsal and ventral surfaces;  low in spirits
  • depressing - adj. causing or suggestive of sorrow or gloom;  causing dejection
  • depressive - adj. causing or suggestive of sorrow or gloom;  nounsomeone suffering psychological depression
  • deprivation - noun act of depriving someone of food or money or rights;  the disadvantage that results from losing something;  a state of extreme poverty
  • deprived - adj. marked by deprivation especially of the necessities of life or healthful environmental influences
  • depth - noun degree of psychological or intellectual profundity; extent downward or backward or inward;  (usually plural) the deepest and most remote part;  (usually plural) a low moral state;  the intellectual ability to penetrate deeply into ideas
  • derangement - noun a state of mental disturbance and disorientation;  the act of disturbing the mind or body
  • derivative - adj. resulting from or employing derivation;  noun(linguistics) a word that is derived from another word;  the result of mathematical differentiation; the instantaneous change of one quantity relative to another; df(x)/dx;  a financial instrument whose value is based on another security
  • derive - verb develop or evolve from a latent or potential state; come from;  obtain;  come from; be connected by a relationship of blood, for example;  reason by deduction; establish by deduction
  • derived - adj. formed or developed from something else; not original
  • dermal - adj. of or relating to or located in the dermis;  relating to or existing on or affecting the skin;  of or relating to a cuticle or cuticula
  • dermatitis - noun inflammation of the skin; skin becomes itchy and may develop blisters
  • desalination - noun the removal of salt (especially from sea water)
  • descending - adj. coming down or downward
  • descent - noun the act of changing your location in a downward direction;  a movement downward;  a downward slope or bend;  the kinship relation between an individual and the individual's progenitors;  properties attributable to your ancestry;  the descendants of one individual
  • describe - verb give a description of;  identify as in botany or biology, for example;  to give an account or representation of in words;  make a mark or lines on a surface
  • described - adj. represented in words especially with sharpness and detail
  • desensitization - noun the process of reducing sensitivity
  • designated - adj. selected or named for a duty
  • designed - adj. done or made or performed with purpose and intent; planned or created in an artistic or skilled manner;  carefully practiced or designed or premeditated;  organized so as to give configuration to
  • designer - noun a person who devises plots or intrigues;  someone who creates plans to be used in making something (such as buildings);  someone who designs clothing;  a person who specializes in designing architectural interiors and their furnishings
  • designing - adj. concealing crafty designs for advancing your own interest;  noun the act of working out the form of something (as by making a sketch or outline or plan)
  • desirable - adj. worth having or seeking or achieving;  worthy of being chosen especially as a spouse
  • desire - noun an inclination to want things;  the feeling that accompanies an unsatisfied state;  something that is desired;  verbfeel or have a desire for; want strongly;  express a desire for;  expect and wish
  • desired - adj. greatly desired;  wanted intensely
  • despite - noun contemptuous disregard;  lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike
  • desquamation - noun loss of bits of outer skin by peeling or shedding or coming off in scales
  • dessertspoonful - noun as much as a dessertspoon will hold
  • destroy - verb put to death;  destroy completely; damage irreparably;  do away with, cause the destruction or undoing of; defeat soundly
  • destruction - noun the termination of something by causing so much damage to it that it cannot be repaired or no longer exists;  an event (or the result of an event) that completely destroys something; a final state
  • detail - noun an isolated fact that is considered separately from the whole;  extended treatment of particulars;  a crew of workers selected for a particular task;  a small part that can be considered separately from the whole;  a temporary military unit;  verb assign to a specific task;  provide details for
  • detailed - adj. developed or executed with care and in minute detail
  • details - noun true confidential information
  • detect - verb discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of
  • detectable - adj. easily seen or detected;  capable of being detected
  • detected - adj. perceived with the mind;  perceived or discerned
  • detecting - noun a police investigation to determine the perpetrator
  • detection - noun the act of detecting something; catching sight of something;  a police investigation to determine the perpetrator;  the perception that something has occurred or some state exists;  the detection that a signal is being received
  • deterioration - noun process of changing to an inferior state;  a symptom of reduced quality or strength
  • determinant - adj. having the power or quality of deciding;  noun a determining or causal element or factor;  a square matrix used to solve simultaneous equations;  the site on the surface of an antigen molecule to which an antibody attaches itself
  • determination - noun the act of determining the properties of something;  the quality of being determined to do or achieve something;  the act of making up your mind about something;  a position or opinion or judgment reached after consideration
  • determined - adj. having been learned or found or determined especially by investigation;  characterized by great determination; determined or decided upon as by an authority;  devoting full strength and concentrated attention to;  strongly motivated to succeed
  • determining - adj. having the power or quality of deciding
  • detrimental - adj. (sometimes followed by `to') causing harm or injury
  • devastating - adj. wreaking or capable of wreaking complete destruction;  physically or spiritually devastating; often used in combination;  making light of
  • developed - adj. being changed over time so as to be e.g. stronger or more complete or more useful;  (of real estate) made more useful and profitable as by building or laying out roads;  (used of societies) having high industrial development
  • developmental - adj. of or relating to or constituting development
  • deviation - noun deviate behavior;  the error of a compass due to local magnetic disturbances;  the difference between an observed value and the expected value of a variable or function;  a variation that deviates from the standard or norm;  a turning aside (of your course or attention or concern)
  • device - noun any clever maneuver;  an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose;  an emblematic design (especially in heraldry); any ornamental pattern or design (as in embroidery);  something in an artistic work designed to achieve a particular effect
  • devices - noun an inclination or desire; used in the plural in the phrase `left to your own devices'
  • devoid - adj. completely lacking;  completely wanting or lacking
  • dexamethasone - noun a corticosteroid drug (trade names Decadron or Dexamethasone Intensol or Dexone or Hexadrol or Oradexon) used to treat allergies or inflammation
  • dextrose - noun an isomer of glucose that is found in honey and sweet fruits
  • diabetes - noun any of several metabolic disorders marked by excessive urination and persistent thirst
  • diabetic - adj. suffering from diabetes;  of or relating to or causing diabetes;  noun someone who has diabetes
  • diacetylmorphine - noun a narcotic that is considered a hard drug; a highly addictive morphine derivative; intravenous injection provides the fastest and most intense rush
  • diagnose - verb determine or distinguish the nature of a problem or an illness through a diagnostic analysis;  subject to a medical analysis
  • diagnosing - noun identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon
  • diagnosis - noun identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon
  • diagnostic - adj. characteristic or indicative of e.g. a disease; concerned with diagnosis; used for furthering diagnosis
  • dialysis - noun separation of substances in solution by means of their unequal diffusion through semipermeable membranes
  • dialyzer - noun a medical instrument for separating substances in solution by unequal diffusion through semipermeable membranes
  • diameter - noun the length of a straight line passing through the center of a circle and connecting two points on the circumference;  a straight line connecting the center of a circle with two points on its perimeter (or the center of a sphere with two points on its surface)
  • diamine - noun any organic compound containing two amino groups
  • diarrhoea - noun frequent and watery bowel movements; can be a symptom of infection or food poisoning or colitis or a gastrointestinal tumor
  • diarrhoeal - adj. of or relating to diarrhea
  • diastole - noun the widening of the chambers of the heart between two contractions when the chambers fill with blood
  • diastolic - adj. of or relating to a diastole or happening during a diastole
  • diathesis - noun constitutional predisposition to a particular disease or abnormality
  • diazepam - noun a tranquilizer (trade name Valium) used to relieve anxiety and relax muscles; acts by enhancing the inhibitory actions of the neurotransmitter GABA; can also be used as an anticonvulsant drug in cases of nerve agent poisoning
  • dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane.
  • dietary - adj. of or relating to the diet;  noun a regulated daily food allowance
  • diethylstilbestrol - noun a potent estrogen used in medicine and in feed for livestock and poultry
  • differ - verb be different;  be of different opinions
  • difference - noun the quality of being unlike or dissimilar;  a significant change;  a disagreement or argument about something important;  a variation that deviates from the standard or norm;  the number that remains after subtraction; the number that when added to the subtrahend gives the minuend
  • different - adj. differing from all others; not ordinary;  unlike in nature or quality or form or degree;  distinctly separate from the first;  distinct or separate;  marked by dissimilarity
  • differentiated - adj. made different (especially in the course of development) or shown to be different;  exhibiting biological specialization; adapted during development to a specific function or environment
  • differentiation - noun the mathematical process of obtaining the derivative of a function;  a discrimination between things as different and distinct;  (biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function
  • differently - adv. in another and different manner
  • difficult - adj. not easy; requiring great physical or mental effort to accomplish or comprehend or endure;  requiring much effort and trouble;  difficult to manage or control
  • difficulty - noun the quality of being difficult;  a factor causing trouble in achieving a positive result or tending to produce a negative result; a condition or state of affairs almost beyond one's ability to deal with and requiring great effort to bear or overcome;  an effort that is inconvenient
  • diffuse - adj. spread out; not concentrated in one place;  lacking conciseness;  (of light) transmitted from a broad light source or reflected;  verb move outward;  cause to become widely known; spread or diffuse through
  • diffusely - adv. in a diffuse manner
  • diffusion - noun the spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to another;  (physics) the process of diffusing; the intermingling of molecules in gases and liquids as a result of random thermal agitation;  the act of dispersing or diffusing something;  the property of being diffused or dispersed
  • digested - adj. capable of undergoing digestion
  • digestion - noun learning and coming to understand ideas and information;  the organic process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed into the body;  the process of decomposing organic matter (as in sewage) by bacteria or by chemical action or heat
  • digestive - adj. relating to or having the power to cause or promote digestion;  noun any substance that promotes digestion
  • digital - adj. of a circuit or device that represents magnitudes in digits;  relating to or performed with the fingers;  displaying numbers rather than scale positions
  • digitalis - noun a powerful cardiac stimulant obtained from foxglove; any of several plants of the genus Digitalis
  • digitalization - noun the administration of digitalis for the treatment of certain heart disorders
  • dignity - noun the quality of being worthy of esteem or respect; formality in bearing and appearance;  high office or rank or station
  • digoxin - noun digitalis preparation (trade name Lanoxin) used to treat congestive heart failure or cardiac arrhythmia; helps the heart beat more forcefully
  • dilatation - noun the state of being stretched beyond normal dimensions;  the act of expanding an aperture
  • dilate - verb become wider;  add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing
  • dilated - adj. made wider or larger in all dimensions
  • dilation - noun the act of expanding an aperture;  a lengthy discussion (spoken or written) on a particular topic
  • diltiazem - noun a calcium blocker (trade name Cardizem) used in treating hypertension or angina or heart failure
  • diluent - noun a diluting agent
  • dilute - adj. reduced in strength or concentration or quality or purity; verb lessen the strength or flavor of a solution or mixture;  corrupt, debase, or make impure by adding a foreign or inferior substance; often by replacing valuable ingredients with inferior ones
  • diluted - adj. reduced in strength or concentration or quality or purity;  made less strong or severe
  • dilution - noun weakening (reducing the concentration) by the addition of water or a thinner;  a diluted solution
  • dimer - noun a compound whose molecules are composed of two identical monomers
  • diminish - verb lessen the authority, dignity, or reputation of; decrease in size, extent, or range
  • diminished - adj. (of musical intervals) reduction by a semitone of any perfect or minor musical interval;  impaired by diminution;  (of an organ or body part) diminished in size or strength as a result of disease or injury or lack of use;  made to seem smaller or less (especially in worth)
  • dioxide - noun an oxide containing two atoms of oxygen in the molecule
  • dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine.
  • diphtheria - noun acute contagious infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae; marked by the formation of a false membrane in the throat and other air passages causing difficulty in breathing
  • diplopia - noun visual impairment in which an object is seen as two objects
  • directed - adj. manageable by a supervising agent;  (often used in combination) having a specified direction
  • directly - adv. without deviation;  in a forthright manner; candidly or frankly;  without anyone or anything intervening;  without delay or hesitation; with no time intervening
  • disability - noun the condition of being unable to perform as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness
  • disabled - adj. markedly unable to function as a consequence of injury or illness;  so badly injured as to be excused from continuing; noun people collectively who are crippled or otherwise physically handicapped
  • disabling - adj. depriving of legal right; rendering legally disqualified;  that cripples or disables or incapacitates
  • disaccharide - noun any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield two monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
  • disadvantage - noun the quality of having an inferior or less favorable position;  verb put at a disadvantage; hinder, harm
  • disadvantageous - adj. constituting a disadvantage
  • disappear - verb get lost, as without warning or explanation; become less intense and fade away gradually;  cease to exist; become invisible or unnoticeable
  • disappearance - noun the act of leaving secretly or without explanation;  the event of passing out of sight;  ceasing to exist; gradually ceasing to be visible
  • disappointing - adj. not up to expectations
  • disappointingly - adv. in a disappointing manner
  • disaster - noun an act that has disastrous consequences;  an event resulting in great loss and misfortune;  a state of extreme (usually irremediable) ruin and misfortune
  • discharged - adj. having lost your job;  set free as from prison or duty
  • discipline - noun training to improve strength or self-control;  the act of punishing;  the trait of being well behaved;  a system of rules of conduct or method of practice;  a branch of knowledge;  verb punish in order to gain control or enforce obedience;  train by instruction and practice; especially to teach self-control
  • disclaimer - noun (law) a voluntary repudiation of a person's legal claim to something;  denial of any connection with or knowledge of
  • discoloration - noun the act of changing the natural color of something by making it duller or dingier or unnatural or faded;  a soiled or discolored appearance
  • discolouration - noun the act of changing the natural color of something by making it duller or dingier or unnatural or faded;  a soiled or discolored appearance
  • discomfort - noun an uncomfortable feeling of mental painfulness or distress;  the state of being tense and feeling pain
  • disconcerting - adj. causing an emotional disturbance
  • discontinuation - noun the act of discontinuing or breaking off; an interruption (temporary or permanent)
  • discontinue - verb put an end to a state or an activity;  come or be at an end;  prevent completion
  • discontinued - adj. stopped permanently or temporarily
  • discourage - verb deprive of courage or hope; take away hope from; cause to feel discouraged;  admonish or counsel in terms of someone's behavior;  try to prevent; show opposition to
  • discouraged - adj. lacking in resolution;  made less hopeful or enthusiastic
  • discovered - adj. no longer concealed; uncovered as by opening a curtain; `discovered' is archaic and primarily a theater term; discovered or determined by scientific observation
  • discovery - noun the act of discovering something;  a productive insight;  something that is discovered;  (law) compulsory pretrial disclosure of documents relevant to a case; enables one side in a litigation to elicit information from the other side concerning the facts in the case
  • discreditable - adj. tending to bring discredit or disrepute; blameworthy
  • discrepant - adj. not in agreement;  not compatible with other facts; not in accord
  • discretion - noun the trait of judging wisely and objectively;  knowing how to avoid embarrassment or distress;  freedom to act or judge on one's own;  the power of making free choices unconstrained by external agencies;  refined taste; tact
  • discriminate - adj. marked by the ability to see or make fine distinctions;  noting distinctions with nicety;  verb recognize or perceive the difference;  distinguish;  treat differently on the basis of sex or race
  • discriminating - adj. showing or indicating careful judgment and discernment especially in matters of taste;  marked by the ability to see or make fine distinctions;  having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions
  • discuss - verb speak with others about (something); talk (something) over in detail; have a discussion;  to consider or examine in speech or writing
  • discussion - noun an extended communication (often interactive) dealing with some particular topic;  an exchange of views on some topic
  • disease - noun an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
  • diseased - adj. caused by or altered by or manifesting disease or pathology
  • disgracefully - adv. in a dishonorable manner or to a dishonorable degree
  • disintegration - noun total destruction;  the spontaneous disintegration of a radioactive substance along with the emission of ionizing radiation;  separation into component parts;  in a decomposed state
  • disorder - noun a disturbance of the peace or of public order; condition in which there is a disturbance of normal functioning;  a condition in which things are not in their expected places;  verb bring disorder to;  disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be worried or alarmed
  • disordered - adj. not arranged in order;  lacking orderly continuity; thrown into a state of disarray or confusion
  • disorientation - noun confusion (usually transient) about where you are and how to proceed; uncertainty as to direction;  a wild delusion (especially one induced by a hallucinogenic drug)
  • dispersed - adj. distributed or spread over a considerable extent
  • dispersion - noun the act of dispersing or diffusing something; spreading widely or driving off;  the spatial property of being scattered about over an area or volume
  • disposal - noun the act or means of getting rid of something;  a kitchen appliance for disposing of garbage;  the power to use something or someone;  a method of tending to (especially business) matters
  • disposition - noun your usual mood;  a natural or acquired habit or characteristic tendency in a person or thing;  the act or means of getting rid of something;  an attitude of mind especially one that favors one alternative over others
  • disproportionate - adj. not proportionate;  out of proportion
  • disproportionately - adv. to a disproportionate degree;  out of proportion
  • disregarded - adj. not noticed inadvertently
  • disrupt - verb throw into disorder;  interfere in someone else's activity;  make a break in
  • disrupted - adj. marked by breaks or gaps
  • disruption - noun the act of causing disorder;  an act of delaying or interrupting the continuity;  an event that results in a displacement or discontinuity;  a disorderly outburst or tumult
  • dissatisfaction - noun the feeling of being displeased and discontent
  • dissected - adj. having one or more incisions reaching nearly to the midrib
  • dissociation - noun the act of removing from association; (chemistry) the temporary or reversible process in which a molecule or ion is broken down into smaller molecules or ions;  a state in which some integrated part of a person's life becomes separated from the rest of the personality and functions independently
  • dissociative - adj. tending to produce dissociation
  • dissolution - noun the termination or disintegration of a relationship (between persons or nations);  separation into component parts;  the termination of a meeting;  dissolute indulgence in sensual pleasure; the process of going into solution
  • dissolved - adj. (of solid matter) reduced to a liquid form
  • distal - adj. situated farthest from point of attachment or origin, as of a limb or bone;  directed away from the midline or mesial plane of the body
  • distant - adj. apart in space;  separate or apart in time;  separated in space or coming from or going to a distance;  far apart in relevance or relationship;  remote in manner
  • distended - adj. abnormally expanded or increased in size; (`swollen' is sometimes used in combination);  abnormally distended especially by fluids or gas
  • distension - noun the act of expanding by pressure from within;  the state of being stretched beyond normal dimensions
  • distention - noun the act of expanding by pressure from within;  the state of being stretched beyond normal dimensions
  • distinct - adj. recognizable; marked;  easy to perceive; especially clearly outlined;  (often followed by `from') not alike; different in nature or quality;  clearly or sharply defined to the mind;  constituting a separate entity or part
  • distinction - noun a distinguishing difference;  a distinguishing quality;  a discrimination between things as different and distinct; high status importance owing to marked superiority
  • distinctive - adj. of a feature that helps to distinguish a person or thing;  capable of being classified
  • distinctively - adv. in an identifiably distinctive manner
  • distinguish - verb mark as different;  be a distinctive feature, attribute, or trait; sometimes in a very positive sense;  identify as in botany or biology, for example;  make conspicuous or noteworthy; detect with the senses
  • distinguishable - adj. capable of being perceived as different or distinct;  (often followed by `from') not alike; different in nature or quality
  • distinguishing - adj. serving to distinguish or identify a species or group
  • distress - noun the seizure and holding of property as security for payment of a debt or satisfaction of a claim;  psychological suffering; extreme physical pain;  a state of adversity (danger or affliction or need);  verb cause mental pain to
  • distressed - adj. facing or experiencing financial trouble or difficulty; generalized feeling of distress;  afflicted with or marked by anxious uneasiness or trouble or grief;  suffering severe physical strain or distress
  • distressing - adj. causing distress or worry or anxiety;  bad; unfortunate
  • distributed - adj. spread out or scattered about or divided up
  • disturbed - adj. emotionally unstable and having difficulty coping with personal relationships;  having the place or position changed; affected with madness or insanity;  afflicted with or marked by anxious uneasiness or trouble or grief
  • disturbing - adj. causing distress or worry or anxiety
  • disulfiram - noun a drug (trade name Antabuse) used in the treatment of alcoholism; causes nausea and vomiting if alcohol is ingested
  • diuresis - noun increased secretion of urine; if not due to increased liquid intake or to the action of a diuretic drug it can be a symptom of diabetes mellitus
  • diuretic - noun any substance that tends to increase the flow of urine
  • diurnal - adj. having a daily cycle or occurring every day;  belonging to or active during the day
  • divalent - adj. having a valence of two or having two valences
  • diverse - adj. distinctly dissimilar or unlike;  many and different
  • diversion - noun a turning aside (of your course or attention or concern);  an activity that diverts or amuses or stimulates;  an attack calculated to draw enemy defense away from the point of the principal attack
  • diversity - noun the condition or result of being changed;  noticeable heterogeneity
  • diverting - adj. providing enjoyment; pleasantly entertaining
  • divided - adj. distributed in portions (often equal) on the basis of a plan or purpose;  having a median strip or island between lanes of traffic moving in opposite directions;  separated into parts or pieces
  • dizziness - noun a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall
  • dj - noun a person who announces and plays popular recorded music;  verb comment on music to be played
  • dkl - noun a metric unit of volume or capacity equal to 10 liters
  • dl - noun a metric unit of volume equal to one tenth of a liter
  • dm - noun a metric unit of length equal to one tenth of a meter; diabetes caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and characterized by polyuria
  • dna - noun (biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix; associated with the transmission of genetic information
  • documented - adj. furnished with or supported by documents; officially documented;  established as genuine
  • dollar - noun a symbol of commercialism or greed;  a United States coin worth one dollar;  a piece of paper money worth one dollar;  the basic monetary unit in many countries; equal to 100 cents
  • dominant - adj. exercising influence or control;  (of genes) producing the same phenotype whether its allele is identical or dissimilar;  noun(music) the fifth note of the diatonic scale;  an allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different
  • done - adj. cooked until ready to serve;  having finished or arrived at completion
  • donor - noun person who makes a gift of property;  (medicine) someone who gives blood or tissue or an organ to be used in another person (the host)
  • doomed - adj. marked for certain death;  (usually followed by `to') determined by tragic fate;  marked by or promising bad fortune;  in danger of the eternal punishment of hell;  noun people who are destined to die soon
  • dopa - noun amino acid that is formed in the liver and converted into dopamine in the brain
  • dopamine - noun a monoamine neurotransmitter found in the brain and essential for the normal functioning of the central nervous system; as a drug (trade names Dopastat and Intropin) it is used to treat shock and hypotension
  • dorsal - adj. belonging to or on or near the back or upper surface of an animal or organ or part;  facing away from the axis of an organ or organism
  • dosage - noun the quantity of an active agent (substance or radiation) taken in or absorbed at any one time
  • dotted - adj. having a pattern of dots;  having gaps or spaces
  • double blind - noun a test procedure in which the identity of those receiving the intervention is concealed from both the administrators and the subjects until after the test is completed; designed to reduce or eliminate bias in the results
  • doubled - adj. twice as great or many
  • doubles - noun tennis played with two players on each side; badminton played with two players on each side
  • doubling - noun raising the stakes in a card game by a factor of 2; increase by a factor of two
  • doubt - noun uncertainty about the truth or factuality of existence of something;  the state of being unsure of something;  verb consider unlikely or have doubts about;  lack confidence in or have doubts about
  • doubtful - adj. fraught with uncertainty or doubt;  open to doubt or suspicion;  unsettled in mind or opinion
  • doughnut-shaped - adj. shaped like a ring
  • download - verb transfer a file or program from a central computer to a smaller computer or to a computer at a remote location
  • downstream - adj. in the direction of a stream's current;  adv. away from the source or with the current
  • downward - adj. extending or moving from a higher to a lower place;  adv. spatially or metaphorically from a higher to a lower level or position
  • doxepin - noun a tricyclic antidepressant (trade names Adapin and Sinequan) with numerous side effects (dry mouth and sedation and gastrointestinal disturbances)
  • doxorubicin - noun an antibiotic used as an anticancer drug
  • doxycycline - noun an antibiotic derived from tetracycline that is effective against many infections
  • dphil - noun a British doctorate
  • drainage - noun emptying something accomplished by allowing liquid to run out of it
  • drake - noun adult male of a wild or domestic duck;  English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596)
  • dramatic - adj. suitable to or characteristic of drama;  sensational in appearance or thrilling in effect;  used of a singer or singing voice that is marked by power and expressiveness and a histrionic or theatrical style;  pertaining to or characteristic of drama
  • dramatically - adv. in a dramatic manner;  with respect to dramatic value;  in a very impressive manner
  • drastically - adv. in a drastic manner
  • drawn - adj. having the curtains or draperies closed or pulled shut; used of vehicles pulled forward (often used in combination);  showing the wearing effects of overwork or care or suffering
  • dreaming - noun a series of mental images and emotions occurring during sleep;  imaginative thoughts indulged in while awake
  • dried - adj. preserved by removing natural moisture;  not still wet
  • drinking - noun the act of consuming liquids;  the act of drinking alcoholic beverages to excess
  • drip - noun (architecture) a projection from a cornice or sill designed to protect the area below from rainwater (as over a window or doorway);  the sound of a liquid falling drop by drop;  flowing in drops; the formation and falling of drops of liquid;  verb fall in drops;  let or cause to fall in drops
  • driving - adj. having the power of driving or impelling;  acting with vigor;  noun the act of controlling and steering the movement of a vehicle or animal;  hitting a golf ball off of a tee with a driver
  • drop out - verb give up in the face of defeat of lacking hope; admit defeat;  leave school or an educational program prematurely
  • dropping - adj. coming down freely under the influence of gravity
  • dropsy - noun swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
  • drowsiness - noun a very sleepy state
  • drowsy - adj. showing lack of attention or boredom;  half asleep
  • drug - noun a substance that is used as a medicine or narcotic;  verbadminister a drug to;  use recreational drugs
  • dryness - noun the condition of not containing or being covered by a liquid (especially water);  objectivity and detachment;  moderation in or abstinence from alcohol or other drugs
  • ds - noun an honorary degree in science;  the bureau in the State Department that is responsible for the security of diplomats and embassies overseas;  a radioactive transuranic element
  • dubious - adj. not convinced;  fraught with uncertainty or doubt; open to doubt or suspicion
  • duct - noun an enclosed conduit for a fluid;  a bodily passage or tube lined with epithelial cells and conveying a secretion or other substance;  a continuous tube formed by a row of elongated cells lacking intervening end walls
  • due - adj. owed and payable immediately or on demand;  suitable to or expected in the circumstances;  scheduled to arrive;  adv. directly or exactly; straight;  noun that which is deserved or owed;  a payment that is due (e.g., as the price of membership)
  • dullness - noun without sharpness or clearness of edge or point; lack of sensibility;  a lack of visual brightness;  the quality of lacking interestingness;  the quality of being slow to understand
  • dummy - adj. having the appearance of being real but lacking capacity to function;  noun a figure representing the human form;  a person who does not talk;  a cartridge containing an explosive charge but no bullet;  an ignorant or foolish person;  verb make a dummy of
  • duncan - noun United States dancer and pioneer of modern dance (1878-1927)
  • duodenal - adj. in or relating to the duodenum
  • duodenum - noun the part of the small intestine between the stomach and the jejunum
  • duplication - noun the act of copying or making a duplicate (or duplicates) of something;  a copy that corresponds to an original exactly
  • duration - noun continuance in time;  the property of enduring or continuing in time;  the period of time during which something continues
  • dwarfism - noun a genetic abnormality resulting in short stature
  • dysarthria - noun impaired articulatory ability resulting from defects in the peripheral motor nerves or in the speech musculature
  • dyschezia - noun difficulty in defecating (usually as a consequence of long continued voluntary suppression of the urge to defecate)
  • dyscrasia - noun an abnormal or physiologically unbalanced state of the body
  • dysentery - noun an infection of the intestines marked by severe diarrhea
  • dysfunction - noun (medicine) any disturbance in the function of an organ or body part
  • dyskinesia - noun abnormality in performing voluntary muscle movements
  • dyspepsia - noun a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea
  • dysphagia - noun condition in which swallowing is difficult or painful
  • dysphonia - noun speech disorder attributable to a disorder of phonation
  • dysphoria - noun abnormal depression and discontent
  • dysplasia - noun abnormal development (of organs or cells) or an abnormal structure resulting from such growth
  • dyspnoea - noun difficult or labored respiration
  • dyspnoeic - adj. not breathing or able to breathe except with difficulty
  • dystrophy - noun any degenerative disorder resulting from inadequate or faulty nutrition;  any of several hereditary diseases of the muscular system characterized by weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles
  • dysuria - noun painful or difficult urination
  • each - adj. (used of count nouns) every one considered individually; adv. to or from every one of two or more (considered individually)
  • ear - noun the sense organ for hearing and equilibrium;  good hearing;  attention to what is said;  fruiting spike of a cereal plant especially corn;  the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear
  • earlier - adj. (comparative and superlative of `early') more early than; most early;  adv. earlier in time; previously;  before now; comparatives of `soon' or `early'
  • earliest - adj. (comparative and superlative of `early') more early than; most early;  adv. with the least delay
  • easily - adv. without question;  with ease (`easy' is sometimes used informally for `easily');  indicating high probability; in all likelihood
  • east - adj. situated in or facing or moving toward the east;  adv. to, toward, or in the east;  noun the countries of Asia;  the region of the United States lying north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River;  the cardinal compass point that is at 90 degrees
  • eat - verb eat a meal; take a meal;  take in solid food;  worry or cause anxiety in a persistent way;  cause to deteriorate due to the action of water, air, or an acid;  use up (resources or materials);  take in food; used of animals only
  • eating - noun the act of consuming food
  • ec - noun an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
  • ecg - noun a graphical recording of the cardiac cycle produced by an electrocardiograph
  • echinacea - noun small genus of North American coarse perennial herbs
  • echo - noun the persistence of a sound after its source has stopped; a reply that repeats what has just been said;  (Greek mythology) a nymph who was spurned by Narcissus and pined away until only her voice remained;  verb call to mind;  to say again or imitate;  ring or echo with sound
  • echocardiogram - noun a graphical image of the heart produced by an echocardiograph
  • echocardiography - noun a noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses ultrasound to study to structure and motions of the heart
  • eclampsia - noun a toxic condition characterized by convulsions and possibly coma during or immediately after pregnancy
  • ecological - adj. of or relating to the science of ecology; characterized by the interdependence of living organisms in an environment
  • economical - adj. avoiding waste;  using the minimum of time or resources necessary for effectiveness;  of or relating to an economy, the system of production and management of material wealth
  • economically - adv. with respect to economic science;  with respect to the economic system
  • ecstasy - noun a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion;  a state of elated bliss;  street names for methylenedioxymethamphetamine
  • ect - noun the administration of a strong electric current that passes through the brain to induce convulsions and coma
  • ectopic - adj. exhibiting ectopia
  • eczema - noun generic term for inflammatory conditions of the skin; particularly with vesiculation in the acute stages
  • ed - noun impotence resulting from a man's inability to have or maintain an erection of his penis
  • edinburgh - noun the capital of Scotland; located in the Lothian Region on the south side of the Firth of Forth
  • edition - noun the form in which a text (especially a printed book) is published;  an issue of a newspaper;  all of the identical copies of something offered to the public at the same time;  something a little different from others of the same type
  • editor - noun a person responsible for the editorial aspects of publication; the person who determines the final content of a text (especially of a newspaper or magazine);  (computer science) a program designed to perform such editorial functions as rearrangement or modification or deletion of data
  • editorial - adj. of or relating to an article stating opinions or giving perspectives;  relating to or characteristic of an editor;  noun an article giving opinions or perspectives
  • eds - noun a rapid automatic system to detect plastic explosives in passengers' luggage using X-ray technology and computers; designed for use in airports
  • edwards - noun American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)
  • eeg - noun a graphical record of electrical activity of the brain; produced by an electroencephalograph
  • effected - adj. settled securely and unconditionally
  • effective - adj. existing in fact; not theoretical; real;  able to accomplish a purpose; functioning effectively;  exerting force or influence;  producing or capable of producing an intended result or having a striking effect;  works well as a means or remedy;  ready for service
  • effectively - adv. in actuality or reality or fact;  in an effective manner
  • effectiveness - noun power to be effective; the quality of being able to bring about an effect;  capacity to produce strong physiological or chemical effects
  • effector - noun an organ (a gland or muscle) that becomes active in response to nerve impulses;  a nerve fiber that terminates on a muscle or gland and stimulates contraction or secretion;  one who brings about a result or event; one who accomplishes a purpose
  • effects - noun property of a personal character that is portable but not used in business
  • efferent - adj. of nerves and nerve impulses; conveying information away from the CNS;  noun a nerve that conveys impulses toward or to muscles or glands
  • effervescent - adj. (of a liquid) giving off bubbles;  marked by high spirits or excitement;  used of wines and waters; charged naturally or artificially with carbon dioxide
  • efficacious - adj. marked by qualities giving the power to produce an intended effect;  producing or capable of producing an intended result or having a striking effect
  • efficacy - noun capacity or power to produce a desired effect
  • efficiency - noun skillfulness in avoiding wasted time and effort;  the ratio of the output to the input of any system
  • efficient - adj. being effective without wasting time or effort or expense;  able to accomplish a purpose; functioning effectively
  • efficiently - adv. in an efficient manner
  • efflux - noun the process of flowing out
  • effort - noun use of physical or mental energy; hard work;  a notable achievement;  earnest and conscientious activity intended to do or accomplish something;  a series of actions advancing a principle or tending toward a particular end
  • egger - noun moth having nonfunctional mouthparts as adults; larvae feed on tree foliage and spin egg-shaped cocoons
  • eggs - noun oval reproductive body of a fowl (especially a hen) used as food
  • eight-day - adj. lasting for eight days
  • eight - adj. being one more than seven;  noun the cardinal number that is the sum of seven and one;  a group of United States painters founded in 1907 and noted for their realistic depictions of sordid aspects of city life
  • eighth - adj. coming next after the seventh and just before the ninth in position;  noun position eight in a countable series of things;  one part in eight equal parts
  • either - adv. after a negative statement used as an intensive meaning something like `likewise' or `also'
  • ejaculation - noun an abrupt emphatic exclamation expressing emotion;  the discharge of semen in males
  • ejection - noun the act of forcing out someone or something;  the act of expelling or projecting or ejecting
  • el - noun a railway that is powered by electricity and that runs on a track that is raised above the street level;  angular distance above the horizon (especially of a celestial object)
  • elapsed - adj. (of time) having passed or slipped by
  • elastase - noun a pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of elastin
  • elastic - adj. capable of resuming original shape after stretching or compression; springy;  able to adjust readily to different conditions; noun a fabric made of yarns containing an elastic material;  a narrow band of elastic rubber used to hold things (such as papers) together
  • elation - noun a feeling of joy and pride;  an exhilarating psychological state of pride and optimism; an absence of depression
  • elderly - adj. advanced in years; (`aged' is pronounced as two syllables);  noun people who are old collectively
  • elective - adj. subject to popular election;  not compulsory;  noun a course that the student can select from among alternatives
  • electric - adj. affected by emotion as if by electricity; thrilling;  (of a situation) exceptionally tense;  using or providing or producing or transmitting or operated by electricity;  noun a car that is powered by electricity
  • electrical - adj. relating to or concerned with electricity;  using or providing or producing or transmitting or operated by electricity
  • electrocardiogram - noun a graphical recording of the cardiac cycle produced by an electrocardiograph
  • electrocardiographic - adj. of or relating to an electrocardiograph
  • electrocardiography - noun diagnostic procedure consisting of recording the activity of the heart electronically with a cardiograph (and producing a cardiogram)
  • electrode - noun a conductor used to make electrical contact with some part of a circuit
  • electroencephalogram - noun a graphical record of electrical activity of the brain; produced by an electroencephalograph
  • electrolyte - noun a solution that conducts electricity
  • electromechanical - adj. of or relating to or involving an electrically operated mechanical device
  • electromyography - noun diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders with the use of an electromyograph
  • electron - noun an elementary particle with negative charge
  • electronic - adj. of or relating to electronics; concerned with or using devices that operate on principles governing the behavior of electrons;  of or concerned with electrons
  • elemental - adj. relating to or being an element;  relating to severe atmospheric conditions;  of or being the essential or basic part
  • elements - noun violent or severe weather (viewed as caused by the action of the four elements)
  • elevate - verb raise in rank or condition;  raise from a lower to a higher position;  give a promotion to or assign to a higher position
  • elevated - adj. raised above the ground;  raised above ground level; on elevated rails;  noun a railway that is powered by electricity and that runs on a track that is raised above the street level
  • elicit - verb derive by reason;  deduce (a principle) or construe (a meaning);  call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
  • eliminate - verb kill in large numbers;  terminate or take out;  remove (an unknown variable) from two or more equations;  remove from a contest or race;  eliminate from the body;  dismiss from consideration or a contest;  do away with
  • elixir - noun a substance believed to cure all ills;  a sweet flavored liquid (usually containing a small amount of alcohol) used in compounding medicines to be taken by mouth in order to mask an unpleasant taste;  a hypothetical substance that the alchemists believed to be capable of changing base metals into gold
  • ellison - noun United States novelist who wrote about a young Black man and his struggles in American society (1914-1994)
  • elongation - noun the act of lengthening something;  an addition to the length of something;  the quality of being elongated
  • else - adj. other than what is under consideration or implied;  adv.(usually used with `or') if not, then;  additional to or different from this one or place or time or manner
  • elsewhere - adv. in or to another place
  • em - noun a linear unit (1/6 inch) used in printing;  the square of a body of any size of type
  • embolism - noun occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus (a loose clot or air bubble or other particle);  an insertion into a calendar
  • embolus - noun an abnormal particle (e.g. an air bubble or part of a clot) circulating in the blood
  • embryo - noun an animal organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that in higher forms merge into fetal stages but in lower forms terminate in commencement of larval life;  (botany) a minute rudimentary plant contained within a seed or an archegonium
  • embryonic - adj. in an early stage of development;  of an organism prior to birth or hatching
  • emergence - noun the act of emerging;  the becoming visible;  the gradual beginning or coming forth;  the act of coming (or going) out; becoming apparent
  • emergency - noun a sudden unforeseen crisis (usually involving danger) that requires immediate action;  a state in which martial law applies;  a brake operated by hand; usually operates by mechanical linkage
  • emerging - adj. coming to maturity;  coming into view;  coming into existence
  • emeritus - adj. honorably retired from assigned duties and retaining your title along with the additional title `emeritus' as in `professor emeritus'; `retired from assigned duties' need not imply that one is inactive;  noun a professor or minister who is retired from assigned duties
  • emesis - noun the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
  • emetic - noun a medicine that induces nausea and vomiting
  • emission - noun the act of emitting; causing to flow forth;  the occurrence of a flow of water (as from a pipe);  the release of electrons from parent atoms;  any of several bodily processes by which substances go out of the body;  a substance that is emitted or released
  • emotion - noun any strong feeling
  • emotional - adj. of more than usual emotion;  determined or actuated by emotion rather than reason;  of or pertaining to emotion; (of persons) excessively affected by emotion;  extravagantly demonstrative
  • emphasis - noun special and significant stress by means of position or repetition e.g.;  special importance or significance;  intensity or forcefulness of expression;  the relative prominence of a syllable or musical note (especially with regard to stress or pitch)
  • emphasize - verb to stress, single out as important;  give extra weight to (a communication)
  • emphasized - adj. spoken with emphasis
  • emphysema - noun an abnormal condition of the lungs marked by decreased respiratory function; associated with smoking or chronic bronchitis or old age
  • empirical - adj. derived from experiment and observation rather than theory;  relying on medical quackery
  • empirically - adv. in an empirical manner
  • empiricism - noun the application of empirical methods in any art or science;  (philosophy) the doctrine that knowledge derives from experience;  medical practice and advice based on observation and experience in ignorance of scientific findings
  • employ - noun the state of being employed or having a job;  verb put into service; make work or employ (something) for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose;  engage or hire for work
  • employed - adj. having your services engaged for; or having a job especially one that pays wages or a salary;  put to use
  • emptying - noun the act of removing the contents of something
  • empyema - noun a collection of pus in a body cavity (especially in the lung cavity)
  • emulsion - noun a light-sensitive coating on paper or film; consists of fine grains of silver bromide suspended in a gelatin;  (chemistry) a colloid in which both phases are liquids
  • enable - verb render capable or able for some task
  • enabling - adj. providing legal power or sanction
  • enalapril - noun an ACE inhibitor (trade name Vasotec) that blocks the formation of angiotensin in the kidney and so results in vasodilation; administered after heart attacks
  • enantiomer - noun either one of a pair of compounds (crystals or molecules) that are mirror images on each other but are not identical
  • encainide - noun antiarrhythmic drug (trade name Enkaid) used to treat life-threatening arrhythmias but increases the risk of sudden death in heart attack patients
  • encephalopathy - noun any disorder or disease of the brain
  • encoding - noun the activity of converting from plain text into code
  • encourage - verb spur on;  inspire with confidence; give hope or courage to;  contribute to the progress or growth of
  • encouraged - adj. inspired with confidence
  • encouragement - noun the expression of approval and support;  the feeling of being encouraged;  the act of giving hope or support to someone
  • encouraging - adj. giving courage or confidence or hope;  furnishing support and encouragement
  • encyclopaedic - adj. broad in scope or content
  • end point - noun a place where something ends or is complete;  the final point in a process
  • end product - noun final product; the things produced
  • end-plate - noun the flattened end of a motor neuron that transmits neural impulses to a muscle
  • endless - adj. having the ends united so as to form a continuous whole;  infinitely great in number;  tiresomely long; seemingly without end;  occurring so frequently as to seem ceaseless or uninterrupted; having no known beginning and presumably no end
  • endocarditis - noun inflammation of the endocardium and heart valves
  • endocrine - adj. of or belonging to endocrine glands or their secretions;  noun any of the glands of the endocrine system that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream;  the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
  • endocrinology - noun the branch of medicine dealing with the endocrine glands and their secretions
  • endogenous - adj. derived or originating internally;  of or resembling an endogen
  • endolymph - noun the bodily fluid that fills the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear
  • endometrial - adj. of or relating to the endometrium
  • endometriosis - noun the presence of endometrium elsewhere than in the lining of the uterus; causes premenstrual pain and dysmenorrhea
  • endometrium - noun (pregnancy) the mucous membrane that lines the uterus; thickens under hormonal control and (if pregnancy does not occur) is shed in menstruation; if pregnancy occurs it is shed along with the placenta at parturition
  • endorphin - noun a neurochemical occurring naturally in the brain and having analgesic properties
  • endorsed - adj. formally supported especially by public statement
  • endorsement - noun the act of endorsing;  a signature that validates something;  a promotional statement (as found on the dust jackets of books);  formal and explicit approval;  a speech seconding a motion
  • endoscopic - adj. of or relating to endoscopy
  • endoscopy - noun visual examination of the interior of a hollow body organ by use of an endoscope
  • endothelial - adj. of or relating to or located in the endothelium
  • endothelium - noun an epithelium of mesoblastic origin; a thin layer of flattened cells that lines the inside of some body cavities
  • endplate - noun the flattened end of a motor neuron that transmits neural impulses to a muscle
  • enema - noun injection of a liquid through the anus to stimulate evacuation; sometimes used for diagnostic purposes
  • england - noun a division of the United Kingdom
  • engorgement - noun eating ravenously or voraciously to satiation; congestion with blood
  • enhance - verb increase;  make better or more attractive
  • enhanced - adj. increased or intensified in value or beauty or quality
  • enhancement - noun an improvement that makes something more agreeable
  • enjoy - verb have benefit from;  derive or receive pleasure from; get enjoyment from; take pleasure in;  have for one's benefit;  take delight in;  get pleasure from
  • enlarged - adj. expanded in scope;  larger than normal;  (of an organ or body part) excessively enlarged as a result of increased size in the constituent cells;  enlarged to an abnormal degree;  as of a photograph; made larger
  • enlargement - noun a photographic print that has been enlarged; the state of being enlarged;  the act of increasing (something) in size or volume or quantity or scope;  a discussion that provides additional information
  • enormous - adj. extraordinarily large in size or extent or amount or power or degree
  • enormously - adv. extremely
  • enough - adj. enough to meet a purpose;  adv. as much as necessary;  noun an adequate quantity; a quantity that is large enough to achieve a purpose
  • enquire - verb have a wish or desire to know something;  inquire about;  conduct an inquiry or investigation of
  • enquiry - noun a systematic investigation of a matter of public interest;  a search for knowledge;  an instance of questioning
  • enrichment - noun act of making fuller or more meaningful or rewarding;  a gift that significantly increases the recipient's wealth
  • ensue - verb issue or terminate (in a specified way, state, etc.); end
  • ensuing - adj. following immediately and as a result of what went before
  • ensure - verb be careful or certain to do something; make certain of something;  make certain of
  • enter - verb become a participant; be involved in;  come on stage;  to come or go into;  set out on (an enterprise or subject of study);  make a record of; set down in permanent form;  put or introduce into something;  take on duties or office;  register formally as a participant or member;  be or play a part of or in
  • enteric - adj. of or relating to the enteron;  of or relating to or inside the intestines
  • entering - noun the act of entering;  a movement into or inward
  • enteritis - noun inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine); usually characterized by diarrhea
  • enterobacteriaceae - noun a large family of Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria of the order Eubacteriales
  • enteropathy - noun a disease of the intestinal tract
  • entertained - adj. pleasantly occupied
  • enthusiasm - noun a lively interest;  a feeling of excitement; overflowing with eager enjoyment or approval
  • enthusiastic - adj. having or showing great excitement and interest
  • entire - adj. constituting the full quantity or extent; complete;  (used of domestic animals) sexually competent;  (of leaves or petals) having a smooth edge; not broken up into teeth or lobes;  constituting the undiminished entirety; lacking nothing essential especially not damaged;  noun uncastrated adult male horse
  • entirely - adv. without any others being included or involved;  to a complete degree or to the full or entire extent (`whole' is often used informally for `wholly')
  • entity - noun that which is perceived or known or inferred to have its own distinct existence (living or nonliving)
  • enuresis - noun inability to control the flow of urine and involuntary urination
  • environment - noun the area in which something exists or lives;  the totality of surrounding conditions
  • environmental - adj. concerned with the ecological effects of altering the environment;  of or relating to the external conditions or surroundings
  • enzymatic - adj. of or relating to or produced by an enzyme
  • enzyme - noun any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
  • eosinophil - noun a leukocyte readily stained with eosin
  • eosinophilia - noun a symptom of allergic states; increased eosinophils in the blood
  • eosinophilic - adj. of or relating to eosinophil
  • ephedrine - noun white odorless powdered or crystalline alkaloid from plants of the genus Ephedra (especially Ephedra sinica) or made synthetically; used as a bronchodilator to treat bronchitis and asthma
  • ephesus - noun the third ecumenical council in 431 which declared Mary as mother of God and condemned Pelagius;  an ancient Greek city on the western shore of Asia Minor in what is now Turkey; site of the Temple of Artemis; was a major trading center and played an important role in early Christianity
  • epidemic - adj. (especially of medicine) of disease or anything resembling a disease; attacking or affecting many individuals in a community or a population simultaneously;  noun a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease; many people are infected at the same time
  • epidemiological - adj. of or relating to epidemiology
  • epidemiology - noun the branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of disease
  • epidermal - adj. of or relating to a cuticle or cuticula
  • epidural - adj. on or outside the dura mater;  noun regional anesthesia resulting from injection of an anesthetic into the epidural space of the spinal cord; sensation is lost in the abdominal and genital and pelvic areas; used in childbirth and gynecological surgery
  • epigastric - adj. lying on or over the stomach;  of or relating to the anterior walls of the abdomen
  • epiglottitis - noun inflammation of the epiglottis; characterized by fever and a severe sore throat and difficulty in swallowing
  • epilepsy - noun a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of consciousness and convulsions
  • epileptic - adj. of or relating to or characteristic of epilepsy;  noun a person who has epilepsy
  • epinephrine - noun a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin); stimulates autonomic nerve action
  • episode - noun a brief section of a literary or dramatic work that forms part of a connected series;  a part of a broadcast serial;  a happening that is distinctive in a series of related events;  film consisting of a succession of related shots that develop a given subject in a movie
  • episodic - adj. limited in duration to a single episode;  occurring or appearing at usually irregular intervals;  of writing or narration; divided into or composed of episodes
  • epithelial - adj. of or belonging to the epithelium
  • epithelium - noun membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body
  • epitope - noun the site on the surface of an antigen molecule to which an antibody attaches itself
  • equal - adj. well matched; having the same quantity, value, or measure as another;  equal in amount or value;  noun a person who is of equal standing with another in a group;  verb make equal, uniform, corresponding, or matching;  be identical or equivalent to; be equal to in quality or ability
  • equally - adv. to the same degree (often followed by `as');  in equal amounts or shares; in a balanced or impartial way
  • equation - noun the act of regarding as equal;  a mathematical statement that two expressions are equal;  a state of being essentially equal or equivalent; equally balanced
  • equilibrium - noun a sensory system located in structures of the inner ear that registers the orientation of the head;  a stable situation in which forces cancel one another;  a chemical reaction and its reverse proceed at equal rates;  equality of distribution
  • equipment - noun an instrumentality needed for an undertaking or to perform a service
  • equipotent - adj. having equal strength or efficacy
  • equivalent - adj. being essentially equal to something;  equal in amount or value;  noun the atomic weight of an element that has the same combining capacity as a given weight of another element; the standard is 8 for oxygen;  a person or thing equal to another in value or measure or force or effect or significance etc
  • er - noun a room in a hospital or clinic staffed and equipped to provide emergency care to persons requiring immediate medical treatment;  a trivalent metallic element of the rare earth group; occurs with yttrium
  • eradicate - verb kill in large numbers;  destroy completely, as if down to the roots
  • eradication - noun the complete destruction of every trace of something
  • erectile - adj. filled with vascular sinuses and capable of becoming distended and rigid as the result of being filled with blood;  capable of being raised to an upright position
  • erection - noun a structure that has been erected;  an erect penis; the act of building or putting up
  • erg - noun a cgs unit of work or energy; the work done by a force of one dyne acting over a distance of one centimeter
  • ergocalciferol - noun a fat-soluble vitamin that prevents rickets
  • ergosterol - noun a plant sterol that is converted into vitamin D by ultraviolet radiation
  • ergot - noun a fungus that infects various cereal plants forming compact black masses of branching filaments that replace many grains of the plant; source of medicinally important alkaloids and of lysergic acid;  a plant disease caused by the ergot fungus
  • ergotamine - noun an alkaloid derived from ergot that is less toxic than ergot; causes constriction of blood vessels and is used to treat migraine
  • ernst - noun painter (born in Germany, resident of France and the United States) who was a cofounder of dadaism; developed the technique of collage (1891-1976)
  • erosion - noun (geology) the mechanical process of wearing or grinding something down (as by particles washing over it);  a gradual decline of something;  condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind;  erosion by chemical action
  • erosive - adj. wearing away by friction;  of a substance, especially a strong acid; capable of destroying or eating away by chemical action
  • erroneous - adj. containing or characterized by error
  • erythema - noun abnormal redness of the skin resulting from dilation of blood vessels (as in sunburn or inflammation)
  • erythrocyte - noun a mature blood cell that contains hemoglobin to carry oxygen to the bodily tissues; a biconcave disc that has no nucleus
  • erythroid - adj. relating to erythrocytes
  • erythromycin - noun an antibiotic (trade name Erythrocin or E-Mycin or Ethril or Ilosone or Pediamycin) obtained from the actinomycete Streptomyces erythreus; effective against many Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negative
  • erythropoietin - noun a glycoprotein secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells
  • escherichia - noun a genus of enteric bacteria
  • esmolol - noun intravenous beta blocker (trade name Brevibloc) that acts for only a short time; used primarily for cardiac arrhythmias
  • especially - adv. to a distinctly greater extent or degree than is common;  in a special manner
  • esr - noun microwave spectroscopy in which there is resonant absorption of radiation by a paramagnet;  the rate at which red blood cells settle out in a tube of blood under standardized conditions; a high rate usually indicates the presence of inflammation
  • essentially - adv. at bottom or by one's (or its) very nature
  • establish - verb use as a basis for; found on;  set up or lay the groundwork for;  bring about;  set up or found;  establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment;  institute, enact, or establish;  place;  build or establish something abstract
  • established - adj. introduced from another region and persisting without cultivation;  brought about or set up or accepted; especially long established;  shown to be valid beyond a reasonable doubt; securely established;  conforming with accepted standards;  settled securely and unconditionally
  • ester - noun formed by reaction between an acid and an alcohol with elimination of water
  • estimation - noun a judgment of the qualities of something or somebody;  an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth;  the respect with which a person is held;  a document appraising the value of something (as for insurance or taxation)
  • estradiol - noun the most powerful female hormone that occurs naturally; synthesized and used to treat estrogen deficiency and breast cancer
  • estriol - noun a naturally occurring estrogenic hormone; a synthetic form is used to treat estrogen deficiency
  • ethanol - noun the intoxicating agent in fermented and distilled liquors; used pure or denatured as a solvent or in medicines and colognes and cleaning solutions and rocket fuel; proposed as a renewable clean-burning additive to gasoline
  • ethereal - adj. characterized by unusual lightness and delicacy;  of or containing or dissolved in ether;  characterized by lightness and insubstantiality; as impalpable or intangible as air;  of heaven or the spirit
  • ethical - adj. conforming to accepted standards of social or professional behavior;  adhering to ethical and moral principles;  of or relating to the philosophical study of ethics
  • ethically - adv. in an ethical manner; from an ethical point of view; according to ethics
  • ethics - noun the philosophical study of moral values and rules; motivation based on ideas of right and wrong
  • ethnic - adj. not acknowledging the God of Christianity and Judaism and Islam;  denoting or deriving from or distinctive of the ways of living built up by a group of people;  noun a person who is a member of an ethnic group
  • ethnicity - noun an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties
  • ethosuximide - noun an anticonvulsant drug (trade names Emeside and Zarontin) used to treat petit mal epilepsy
  • ethylene - noun a flammable colorless gaseous alkene; obtained from petroleum and natural gas and used in manufacturing many other chemicals; sometimes used as an anesthetic
  • eukaryotic - adj. having cells with `good' or membrane-bound nuclei
  • euphoria - noun a feeling of great (usually exaggerated) elation
  • european - adj. of or relating to or characteristic of Europe or the people of Europe;  noun a native or inhabitant of Europe
  • eutectic - noun a mixture of substances having a minimum melting point
  • ev - noun a unit of energy equal to the work done by an electron accelerated through a potential difference of 1 volt
  • evacuate - verb excrete or discharge from the body;  empty completely;  create a vacuum in (a bulb, flask, reaction vessel);  move out of an unsafe location into safety;  move people from their homes or country
  • evacuation - noun the act of evacuating; leaving a place in an orderly fashion; especially for protection;  the act of removing the contents of something;  the bodily process of discharging waste matter
  • evaluate - verb form a critical opinion of;  place a value on; judge the worth of something
  • evaluation - noun act of ascertaining or fixing the value or worth of; an appraisal of the value of something
  • evans - noun British archaeologist who excavated the palace of Knossos in Crete to find what he called Minoan civilization (1851-1941);  United States anatomist who identified four pituitary hormones and discovered vitamin E (1882-1971)
  • evening - noun the latter part of the day (the period of decreasing daylight from late afternoon until nightfall);  the early part of night (from dinner until bedtime) spent in a special way;  a later concluding time period
  • evenly - adv. in a level and regular way;  in equal amounts or shares; in a balanced or impartial way
  • event - noun something that happens at a given place and time;  a phenomenon located at a single point in space-time; the fundamental observational entity in relativity theory;  a special set of circumstances;  a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon
  • eventual - adj. expected to follow in the indefinite future from causes already operating
  • eventually - adv. within an indefinite time or at an unspecified future time;  after a long period of time or an especially long delay
  • ever - adv. at any time;  (intensifier for adjectives) very;  at all times; all the time and on every occasion
  • every - adj. (used of count nouns) each and all of the members of a group considered singly and without exception;  each and all of a series of entities or intervals as specified
  • evidenced - adj. supported by evidence
  • evident - adj. capable of being seen or noticed;  clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment
  • evoke - verb call to mind;  summon into action or bring into existence, often as if by magic;  deduce (a principle) or construe (a meaning);  evoke or provoke to appear or occur;  call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
  • evoked - adj. called forth from a latent or potential state by stimulation
  • evolution - noun (biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms;  a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage)
  • ex - adj. out of fashion;  noun the 24th letter of the Roman alphabet; a woman who was formerly a particular man's wife;  a man who was formerly a certain woman's husband
  • exacerbate - verb exasperate or irritate;  make worse
  • exacerbating - adj. making worse
  • exacerbation - noun violent and bitter exasperation;  action that makes a problem or a disease (or its symptoms) worse
  • exact - adj. marked by strict and particular and complete accordance with fact;  (of ideas, images, representations, expressions) characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth ; strictly correct;  verb take as an undesirable consequence of some event or state of affairs;  claim as due or just
  • exactly - adv. indicating exactness or preciseness;  in a precise manner;  just as it should be
  • exaggerated - adj. enlarged beyond truth or reasonableness; enlarged to an abnormal degree;  represented as greater than is true or reasonable
  • exam - noun a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge
  • example - noun an item of information that is representative of a type;  punishment intended as a warning to others;  a task performed or problem solved in order to develop skill or understanding; something to be imitated;  a representative form or pattern;  an occurrence of something
  • exceed - verb go beyond;  go beyond;  be or do something to a greater degree
  • exceeding - adj. far beyond what is usual in magnitude or degree
  • excellence - noun the quality of excelling; possessing good qualities in high degree;  an outstanding feature; something in which something or someone excels
  • excellent - adj. of the highest quality
  • except - verb prevent from being included or considered or accepted;  take exception to
  • exception - noun a deliberate act of omission;  an instance that does not conform to a rule or generalization;  grounds for adverse criticism
  • exceptional - adj. deviating widely from a norm of physical or mental ability; used especially of children below normal in intelligence;  surpassing what is common or usual or expected;  far beyond what is usual in magnitude or degree
  • exceptionally - adv. to an exceptional degree
  • excess - adj. more than is needed, desired, or required;  nounimmoderation as a consequence of going beyond sufficient or permitted limits;  a quantity much larger than is needed;  excessive indulgence;  the state of being more than full
  • excessive - adj. beyond normal limits;  unrestrained, especially with regard to feelings
  • excessively - adv. to an excessive degree
  • exchanged - adj. changed for (replaced by) something different
  • excitability - noun being easily excited;  excessive sensitivity of an organ or body part
  • excitable - adj. easily excited;  capable of responding to stimuli
  • excitation - noun something that agitates and arouses;  the neural or electrical arousal of an organ or muscle or gland;  the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up
  • excitatory - adj. (of drugs e.g.) able to excite or stimulate
  • excited - adj. in an aroused state;  (of persons) excessively affected by emotion;  (of e.g. a molecule) made reactive or more reactive; marked by uncontrolled excitement or emotion
  • excitement - noun the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up;  disturbance usually in protest;  something that agitates and arouses;  the feeling of lively and cheerful joy
  • exciting - adj. creating or arousing excitement;  stimulating interest and discussion
  • exclude - verb prevent from being included or considered or accepted;  prevent from entering; shut out;  lack or fail to include; prevent from entering; keep out;  put out or expel from a place
  • exclusion - noun the state of being excluded;  the act of forcing out someone or something;  a deliberate act of omission;  the state of being excommunicated
  • exclusively - adv. without any others being included or involved
  • excrete - verb eliminate from the body
  • excretion - noun the bodily process of discharging waste matter; waste matter (as urine or sweat but especially feces) discharged from the body
  • excruciating - adj. extremely painful
  • excursion - noun a journey taken for pleasure;  wandering from the main path of a journey
  • executive - adj. having the function of carrying out plans or orders etc.;  noun persons who administer the law;  a person responsible for the administration of a business;  someone who manages a government agency or department
  • exert - verb put to use;  make a great effort at a mental or physical task;  have and exercise
  • exertion - noun use of physical or mental energy; hard work
  • exfoliation - noun the peeling off in flakes or scales of bark or dead skin;  a thin flake of dead epidermis shed from the surface of the skin
  • exhalation - noun the act of expelling air from the lungs;  exhaled breath
  • exhaustion - noun the act of exhausting something entirely; extreme fatigue;  serious weakening and loss of energy
  • exhibit - noun an object or statement produced before a court of law and referred to while giving evidence;  something shown to the public;  verb show an attribute, property, knowledge, or skill;  walk ostentatiously;  to show, make visible or apparent;  show or demonstrate something to an interested audience
  • exist - verb have an existence, be extant;  support oneself
  • existing - adj. presently existing;  existing in something specified; having existence or being or actuality
  • exocrine - adj. of or relating to exocrine glands or their secretions; noun a gland that secretes externally through a duct
  • exogenous - adj. derived or originating externally
  • exophthalmos - noun protrusion of the eyeball from the socket
  • exotic - adj. strikingly strange or unusual;  being or from or characteristic of another place or part of the world
  • expanded - adj. increased in extent or size or bulk or scope
  • expansion - noun the act of increasing (something) in size or volume or quantity or scope;  adding information or detail;  a discussion that provides additional information
  • expect - verb look forward to the birth of a child;  consider reasonable or due;  regard something as probable or likely;  look forward to the probable occurrence of;  be pregnant with;  consider obligatory; request and expect
  • expectancy - noun something expected (as on the basis of a norm); pleasurable expectation
  • expectation - noun belief about (or mental picture of) the future;  the feeling that something is about to happen;  the sum of the values of a random variable divided by the number of values;  wishing with confidence of fulfillment
  • expected - adj. considered likely or probable to happen or arrive; expected to become or be; in prospect;  looked forward to as probable
  • expectoration - noun the process of coughing up and spitting out; the act of spitting (forcefully expelling saliva)
  • expenditure - noun the act of consuming something;  the act of spending money for goods or services;  money paid out
  • expense - noun a detriment or sacrifice;  amounts paid for goods and services that may be currently tax deductible (as opposed to capital expenditures);  money spent to perform work and usually reimbursed by an employer
  • expensive - adj. high in price or charging high prices
  • experienced - adj. having experience; having knowledge or skill from observation or participation
  • experiment - noun the act of conducting a controlled test or investigation;  a venture at something new or different;  the testing of an idea;  verb to conduct a test or investigation;  try something new, as in order to gain experience
  • experimental - adj. relying on observation or experiment;  of the nature of or undergoing an experiment;  relating to or based on experiment
  • experimentally - adv. in an experimental fashion
  • expert - adj. having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude; noun a person with special knowledge or ability who performs skillfully
  • expertise - noun skillfulness by virtue of possessing special knowledge
  • expiratory - adj. of or relating to the breathing out phase of respiration
  • expired - adj. having come to an end or become void after passage of a period of time
  • explain - verb make plain and comprehensible;  define;  serve as a reason or cause or justification of
  • explanation - noun thought that makes something comprehensible; a statement that makes something comprehensible by describing the relevant structure or operation or circumstances etc.;  the act of explaining; making something plain or intelligible
  • exploit - noun a notable achievement;  verb use or manipulate to one's advantage;  draw from; make good use of;  work excessively hard
  • exploited - adj. developed or used to greatest advantage;  of persons; taken advantage of
  • exploratory - adj. serving in or intended for exploration or discovery
  • explore - verb examine (organs) for diagnostic purposes;  examine minutely;  travel to or penetrate into;  inquire into
  • exponential - adj. of or involving exponents;  noun a function in which an independent variable appears as an exponent
  • exponentially - adv. in an exponential manner
  • exposed - adj. not covered with clothing;  with no protection or shield
  • expressed - adj. communicated in words;  precisely and clearly expressed or readily observable; leaving nothing to implication
  • exquisitely - adv. in a delicate manner
  • extended - adj. beyond the literal or primary sense;  fully extended or stretched forth;  large in spatial extent or range or scope or quantity;  drawn out or made longer spatially;  relatively long in duration; tediously protracted
  • extensive - adj. large in spatial extent or range or scope or quantity; of agriculture; increasing productivity by using large areas with minimal outlay and labor;  broad in scope or content
  • extensively - adv. in a widespread way
  • extent - noun the distance or area or volume over which something extends;  the point or degree to which something extends
  • external - adj. happening or arising or located outside or beyond some limits or especially surface;  purely outward or superficial;  from or between other countries;  coming from the outside;  noun outward features
  • extinct - adj. (of e.g. volcanos) permanently inactive;  being out or having grown cold;  no longer in existence; lost or especially having died out leaving no living representatives
  • extra - adj. further or added;  added to a regular schedule;  more than is needed, desired, or required;  adv. unusually or exceptionally; noun something additional of the same kind;  an additional edition of a newspaper (usually to report a crisis);  a minor actor in crowd scenes
  • extracellular - adj. located or occurring outside a cell or cells
  • extraction - noun the act of pulling out (as a tooth);  the process of obtaining something from a mixture or compound by chemical or physical or mechanical means;  properties attributable to your ancestry
  • extradural - adj. on or outside the dura mater
  • extraneous - adj. not essential;  not pertinent to the matter under consideration;  not belonging to that in which it is contained; introduced from an outside source;  coming from the outside
  • extraordinarily - adv. extremely
  • extrapolate - verb gain knowledge of (an area not known or experienced) by extrapolating;  estimate the value of;  draw from specific cases for more general cases
  • extrapolated - adj. that are estimated
  • extrapolation - noun an inference about the future (or about some hypothetical situation) based on known facts and observations; (mathematics) calculation of the value of a function outside the range of known values
  • extreme - adj. most distant in any direction;  of the greatest possible degree or extent or intensity;  far beyond a norm in quantity or amount or degree; to an utmost degree;  beyond a norm in views or actions;  noun the furthest or highest degree of something;  the point located farthest from the middle of something
  • extremely - adv. to an extreme degree;  to a high degree or extent; favorably or with much respect;  to an extreme degree or extent;  to an extreme degree
  • extrinsic - adj. not forming an essential part of a thing or arising or originating from the outside
  • extrusion - noun squeezing out by applying pressure;  something that bulges out or is protuberant or projects from its surroundings
  • exudate - noun a substance that oozes out from plant pores;  verbrelease (a liquid) in drops or small quantities
  • eye-drop - noun a drop from an eye dropper
  • eye - noun a small hole or loop (as in a needle);  the organ of sight; good discernment (either visually or as if visually);  attention to what is seen;  an area that is approximately central within some larger region;  verb look at
  • eyes - noun opinion or judgment
  • faced - adj. having a face or facing especially of a specified kind or number; often used in combination
  • facial - adj. of or pertaining to the outside surface of an object;  of or concerning the face;  noun care for the face that usually involves cleansing and massage and the application of cosmetic creams; cranial nerve that supplies facial muscles
  • facilitate - verb make easier;  increase the likelihood of (a response);  be of use
  • facilitated - adj. freed from difficulty or impediment
  • facilitation - noun act of assisting or making easier the progress or improvement of something;  (neurophysiology) phenomenon that occurs when two or more neural impulses that alone are not enough to trigger a response in a neuron combine to trigger an action potential;  the condition of being made easy (or easier)
  • fact - noun a piece of information about circumstances that exist or events that have occurred;  a concept whose truth can be proved;  a statement or assertion of verified information about something that is the case or has happened;  an event known to have happened or something known to have existed
  • faecal - adj. foul with waste matter; of or relating to feces
  • faeces - noun solid excretory product evacuated from the bowels
  • failed - adj. unable to meet financial obligations
  • failing - adj. below acceptable in performance;  unable to meet financial obligations;  noun failure to reach a minimum required performance;  a flaw or weak point
  • failure - noun an unexpected omission;  an act that fails;  an event that does not accomplish its intended purpose;  a person with a record of failing; someone who loses consistently;  loss of ability to function normally;  lack of success;  inability to discharge all your debts as they come due
  • fairly - adv. without favoring one party, in a fair evenhanded manner; in conformity with the rules or laws and without fraud or cheating;  to a moderately sufficient extent or degree
  • faith - noun loyalty or allegiance to a cause or a person;  complete confidence in a person or plan etc;  a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny;  an institution to express belief in a divine power
  • fallen - adj. killed in battle;  having lost your chastity;  having fallen in or collapsed;  having dropped by the force of gravity
  • falling - adj. becoming lower or less in degree or value;  decreasing in amount or degree;  coming down freely under the influence of gravity
  • falls - noun the petals or sepals of a flower that bend downward (especially the outer perianth of an iris);  a steep descent of the water of a river
  • falsely - adv. in an incorrect manner;  in an insincerely false manner
  • familial - adj. tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity;  relating to or having the characteristics of a family
  • familiarization - noun the experience of becoming familiar with something
  • famine - noun a severe shortage of food (as through crop failure) resulting in violent hunger and starvation and death;  an acute insufficiency
  • famotidine - noun a histamine blocker (trade name Pepcid) used to treat peptic ulcers and gastritis and esophageal reflux
  • famously - adv. in a manner or to an extent that is well known;  in a splendid manner
  • fasciculation - noun muscular twitching of contiguous groups of muscle fibers
  • fashion - noun characteristic or habitual practice;  consumer goods (especially clothing) in the current mode;  the latest and most admired style in clothes and cosmetics and behavior;  how something is done or how it happens;  verb make out of components (often in an improvising manner)
  • fasting - noun abstaining from food
  • fat-soluble - adj. soluble in fats
  • fatal - adj. controlled or decreed by fate; predetermined;  bringing death;  having momentous consequences; of decisive importance; (of events) having extremely unfortunate or dire consequences; bringing ruin
  • fatality - noun the quality of being able to cause death or fatal disasters;  a death resulting from an accident or a disaster
  • fatty - adj. containing or composed of fat;  noun a rotund individual
  • faulty - adj. characterized by errors;  having a defect
  • favism - noun anemia resulting from eating fava beans; victims have an inherited blood abnormality and enzyme deficiency
  • favourable - adj. favoring or bringing good luck;  occurring at a convenient or suitable time;  (of winds or weather) tending to promote or facilitate;  encouraging or approving or pleasing
  • favourably - adv. showing approval
  • fda - noun a federal agency in the Department of Health and Human Services established to regulate the release of new foods and health-related products
  • fe - noun a heavy ductile magnetic metallic element; is silver-white in pure form but readily rusts; used in construction and tools and armament; plays a role in the transport of oxygen by the blood
  • feasible - adj. capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances as they are
  • febrile - adj. of or relating to or characterized by fever
  • fed - noun the central bank of the United States; incorporates 12 Federal Reserve branch banks and all national banks and state charted commercial banks and some trust companies;  any federal law-enforcement officer
  • feedback - noun response to an inquiry or experiment;  the process in which part of the output of a system is returned to its input in order to regulate its further output
  • feeding - noun the act of supplying food and nourishment;  the act of consuming food
  • feelings - noun emotional or moral sensitivity (especially in relation to personal principles or dignity)
  • feminization - noun the process of becoming feminized; the development of female characteristics (loss of facial hair or breast enlargement) in a male because of hormonal disorders or castration
  • femoral - adj. of or relating to or near the femur or thigh
  • fermentation - noun a process in which an agent causes an organic substance to break down into simpler substances; especially, the anaerobic breakdown of sugar into alcohol;  a state of agitation or turbulent change or development
  • ferrous - adj. of or relating to or containing iron
  • fertile - adj. capable of reproducing;  marked by great fruitfulness; bearing in abundance especially offspring;  intellectually productive
  • fertility - noun the state of being fertile; capable of producing offspring;  the property of producing abundantly and sustaining vigorous and luxuriant growth;  the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 population per year
  • fertilization - noun making fertile as by applying fertilizer or manure; creation by the physical union of male and female gametes; of sperm and ova in an animal or pollen and ovule in a plant
  • fetal - adj. of or relating to a fetus
  • fetoprotein - noun any of several antigens that occur naturally in the fetus and sometimes in adults with cancer
  • fetus - noun an unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal
  • fever - noun intense nervous anticipation;  a rise in the temperature of the body; frequently a symptom of infection
  • few - adj. a quantifier that can be used with count nouns and is often preceded by `a'; a small but indefinite number;  noun a small elite group;  an indefinite but relatively small number
  • fewer - adj. (comparative of `few' used with count nouns) quantifier meaning a smaller number of
  • fewest - adj. (superlative of `few' used with count nouns and usually preceded by `the') quantifier meaning the smallest in number
  • fibre - noun a leatherlike material made by compressing layers of paper or cloth;  the inherent complex of attributes that determine a persons moral and ethical actions and reactions;  a slender and greatly elongated solid substance
  • fibrillation - noun act or process of forming fibrils;  muscular twitching involving individual muscle fibers acting without coordination
  • fibrin - noun a white insoluble fibrous protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen when blood clots; it forms a network that traps red cells and platelets
  • fibrinogen - noun a protein present in blood plasma; converts to fibrin when blood clots
  • fibrinolysis - noun a normal ongoing process that dissolves fibrin and results in the removal of small blood clots
  • fibrosis - noun development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ
  • fibrous - adj. (of meat) full of sinews; especially impossible to chew; having or resembling fibers especially fibers used in making cordage such as those of jute
  • fields - noun United States comedian and film actor (1880-1946)
  • fifth - adj. coming next after the fourth and just before the sixth in position;  noun the musical interval between one note and another five notes away from it;  a quantity of liquor equal to one fifth of a United States gallon;  position five in a countable series of things; one part in five equal parts
  • filtrate - noun the product of filtration; a gas or liquid that has been passed through a filter;  verb remove by passing through a filter
  • filtration - noun the act of changing a fluid by passing it through a filter;  the process whereby fluids pass through a filter or a filtering medium
  • final - adj. not to be altered or undone;  conclusive in a process or progression;  occurring at or forming an end or termination;  noun the final match between the winners of all previous matches in an elimination tournament;  an examination administered at the end of an academic term
  • finally - adv. after a long period of time or an especially long delay; as the end result of a succession or process;  the item at the end
  • finding - noun the decision of a court on issues of fact or law; something that is found;  the act of determining the properties of something
  • findings - noun a collection of tools and other articles used by an artisan to make jewelry or clothing or shoes
  • firing - noun the act of discharging a gun;  the termination of someone's employment (leaving them free to depart);  the act of setting something on fire;  the act of firing weapons or artillery at an enemy
  • firmly - adv. with resolute determination;  with firmness;  in a secure manner; in a manner free from danger
  • first degree - noun a degree of one
  • firth - noun a long narrow estuary (especially in Scotland);  English linguist who contributed to linguistic semantics and to prosodic phonology and who was noted for his insistence on studying both sound and meaning in context (1890-1960)
  • fishy - adj. not as expected;  of or relating to or resembling fish
  • fistula - noun an abnormal passage leading from a suppurating cavity to the body surface;  a chronic inflammation of the withers of a horse
  • fitted - adj. being the right size and shape to fit as desired
  • fitter - adj. improved in health or physical condition;  noun someone who fits a garment to a particular person
  • fitzgerald - noun United States scat singer (born in 1918);  United States novelist (1896-1940);  English poet remembered primarily for his free translation of the poetry of Omar Khayyam (1809-1883)
  • five-fold - adj. having five units or components
  • five - adj. being one more than four;  noun the cardinal number that is the sum of four and one;  a team that plays basketball
  • fixed - adj. incapable of being changed or moved or undone; e.g. "frozen prices";  (of a number) having a fixed and unchanging value; securely placed or fastened or set;  fixed and unmoving;  (of taxes) not increasing as the amount taxed increases
  • fl - noun a state in southeastern United States between the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; one of the Confederate states during the American Civil War
  • flammable - adj. easily ignited
  • flashing - adj. emitting light in sudden short or intermittent bursts; noun sheet metal shaped and attached to a roof for strength and weatherproofing;  a short vivid experience
  • flatten - verb lower the pitch of (musical notes);  become flat or flatter;  make flat or flatter
  • flatulence - noun a state of excessive gas in the alimentary canal; pompously embellished language
  • flatus - noun a reflex that expels intestinal gas through the anus
  • flecainide - noun oral antiarrhythmic medication (trade name Tambocor) used as a last resort in treating arrhythmias; increases the risk of sudden death in heart attack patients
  • fleming - noun a native of Flanders or a Flemish-speaking Belgian; English bacteriologist who discovered penicillin (1881-1955);  British writer famous for writing spy novels about secret agent James Bond (1908-1964)
  • flesh - noun the soft tissue of the body of a vertebrate: mainly muscle tissue and fat;  alternative names for the body of a human being;  a soft moist part of a fruit;  verb remove adhering flesh from (hides) when preparing leather manufacture
  • flexible - adj. bending and snapping back readily without breaking; able to flex; able to bend easily;  capable of being changed;  making or willing to make concessions;  able to adjust readily to different conditions
  • flexor - noun a skeletal muscle whose contraction bends a joint
  • floppy - adj. hanging limply;  noun a small plastic magnetic disk enclosed in a stiff envelope with a radial slit; used to store data or programs for a microcomputer
  • flora - noun a living organism lacking the power of locomotion;  all the plant life in a particular region or period
  • florey - noun British pathologist who isolated and purified penicillin, which had been discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming (1898-1968)
  • florid - adj. inclined to a healthy reddish color often associated with outdoor life;  elaborately or excessively ornamented
  • florida - noun a state in southeastern United States between the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico; one of the Confederate states during the American Civil War
  • flour - noun fine powdery foodstuff obtained by grinding and sifting the meal of a cereal grain;  verb convert grain into flour;  cover with flour
  • flourish - noun (music) a short lively tune played on brass instruments;  the act of waving;  a display of ornamental speech or language;  a showy gesture;  an ornamental embellishment in writing; verb grow stronger;  move or swing back and forth;  gain in wealth
  • flower - noun reproductive organ of angiosperm plants especially one having showy or colorful parts;  a plant cultivated for its blooms or blossoms;  the period of greatest prosperity or productivity;  verbproduce or yield flowers
  • flowering - adj. having a flower or bloom;  noun the time and process of budding and unfolding of blossoms;  a developmental process
  • flu - noun an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease
  • fluctuate - verb be unstable;  move or sway in a rising and falling or wavelike pattern;  cause to fluctuate or move in a wavelike pattern
  • fluctuating - adj. having unpredictable ups and downs
  • fluidity - noun a changeable quality;  the property of flowing easily
  • fluoride - noun a salt of hydrofluoric acid
  • fluorine - noun a nonmetallic univalent element belonging to the halogens; usually a yellow irritating toxic flammable gas; a powerful oxidizing agent; recovered from fluorite or cryolite or fluorapatite
  • fluorouracil - noun an antimetabolite used to treat certain cancers
  • fluoxetine - noun a selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor commonly prescribed as an antidepressant (trade name Prozac)
  • fluphenazine - noun tranquilizer used to treat psychotic disorders
  • fm - noun modulation of the frequency of the (radio) carrier wave;  a radioactive transuranic metallic element produced by bombarding plutonium with neutrons
  • foam - noun a mass of small bubbles formed in or on a liquid;  a lightweight material in cellular form; made by introducing gas bubbles during manufacture;  verb form bubbles
  • focal - adj. having or localized centrally at a focus;  of or relating to a focus
  • focused - adj. of an optical system (e.g. eye or opera glasses) adjusted to produce a clear image;  (of light rays) converging on a point;  being in focus or brought into focus;  concentrated on or clustered around a central point or purpose
  • focussed - adj. (of light rays) converging on a point;  being in focus or brought into focus
  • folate - noun a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction
  • follicle - noun any small spherical group of cells containing a cavity
  • follicular - adj. of or relating to or constituting a follicle
  • followers - noun a group of followers or enthusiasts
  • following - adj. about to be mentioned or specified;  immediately following in time or order;  going or proceeding or coming after in the same direction;  in the desired direction;  noun a group of followers or enthusiasts;  the act of pursuing in an effort to overtake or capture
  • food - noun any substance that can be metabolized by an organism to give energy and build tissue;  anything that provides mental stimulus for thinking;  any solid substance (as opposed to liquid) that is used as a source of nourishment
  • foolproof - adj. not liable to failure;  verb proof against human misuse or error
  • forced - adj. made necessary by an unexpected situation or emergency;  forced or compelled;  produced by or subjected to forcing;  lacking spontaneity; not natural
  • forearm - noun the part of the superior limb between the elbow and the wrist;  verb arm in advance of a confrontation
  • forebrain - noun the anterior portion of the brain; the part of the brain that develops from the anterior part of the neural tube
  • forerunner - noun an indication of the approach of something or someone;  a person who goes before or announces the coming of another;  anything that precedes something similar in time
  • foreword - noun a short introductory essay preceding the text of a book
  • forget - verb be unable to remember;  dismiss from the mind; stop remembering;  leave behind unintentionally;  forget to do something
  • formation - noun the fabrication of something in a particular shape; creation by mental activity;  a particular spatial arrangement;  an arrangement of people or things acting as a unit;  natural process that causes something to form;  the act of forming something; (geology) the geological features of the earth
  • formed - adj. fully developed as by discipline or training;  having taken on a definite arrangement;  having or given a form or shape; clearly defined;  formed in the mind
  • former - adj. referring to the first of two things or persons mentioned (or the earlier one or ones of several);  (used especially of persons) of the immediate past;  belonging to the distant past;  belonging to some prior time;  noun the first of two or the first mentioned of two
  • formerly - adv. at a previous time
  • formulary - adj. of or relating to or of the nature of a formula;  noun(pharmacology) a book containing a compilation of pharmaceutical products with their formulas and methods of preparation
  • formulate - verb prepare according to a formula;  elaborate, as of theories and hypotheses;  put into words or an expression;  come up with (an idea, plan, explanation, theory, or principle) after a mental effort
  • formulated - adj. devised; developed according to an orderly plan
  • formulation - noun the style of expressing yourself;  a substance prepared according to a formula;  inventing or contriving an idea or explanation and formulating it mentally
  • fortification - noun the addition of an ingredient for the purpose of enrichment (as the addition of alcohol to wine or the addition of vitamins to food);  defensive structure consisting of walls or mounds built around a stronghold to strengthen it;  the art or science of strengthening defenses
  • fortnightly - adj. occurring every two weeks;  adv. every two weeks
  • fortunately - adv. by good fortune
  • forty - adj. being ten more than thirty;  noun the cardinal number that is the product of ten and four
  • fossa - noun largest carnivore of Madagascar; intermediate in some respects between cats and civets;  monotypic genus of Madagascar civets closely related to palm civets;  a concavity in a surface (especially an anatomical depression)
  • found - adj. come upon unexpectedly or after searching;  noun food and lodging provided in addition to money;  verb use as a basis for; found on;  set up or lay the groundwork for;  set up or found
  • founded - adj. having a basis; often used as combining terms
  • four - adj. being one more than three;  noun the cardinal number that is the sum of three and one
  • fourth - adj. coming next after the third and just before the fifth in position or time or degree or magnitude;  adv. in the fourth place; noun the musical interval between one note and another four notes away from it;  following the third position; number four in a countable series;  one of four equal parts
  • foxglove - noun any of several plants of the genus Digitalis
  • fraction - noun a small part or item forming a piece of a whole;  the quotient of two rational numbers;  a component of a mixture that has been separated by a fractional process;  verb perform a division
  • fractional - adj. constituting or comprising a part or fraction of a possible whole or entirety
  • fracture - noun the act of cracking something;  breaking of hard tissue such as bone;  (geology) a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other;  verbfracture a bone of;  break (a bone);  become fractured;  violate or abuse;  break into pieces;  interrupt, break, or destroy
  • fragment - noun an incomplete piece;  a piece broken off or cut off of something else;  a broken piece of a brittle artifact;  verb break or cause to break into pieces
  • frail - adj. physically weak;  easily broken or damaged or destroyed; having the attributes of man as opposed to e.g. divine beings;  nouna basket for holding dried fruit (especially raisins or figs);  the weight of a frail (basket) full of raisins or figs; between 50 and 75 pounds
  • free radical - noun an atom or group of atoms with at least one unpaired electron; in the body it is usually an oxygen molecule than has lost an electron and will stabilize itself by stealing an electron from a nearby molecule
  • freedman - noun a person who has been freed from slavery
  • freedom - noun the condition of being free; the power to act or speak or think without externally imposed restraints;  immunity from an obligation or duty
  • freely - adv. in a free manner
  • freeman - noun a person who is not a serf or a slave
  • freezing - noun the withdrawal of heat to change something from a liquid to a solid
  • frequency - noun the number of observations in a given statistical category;  the ratio of the number of observations in a statistical category to the total number of observations;  the number of occurrences within a given time period
  • frequent - adj. frequently encountered;  coming at short intervals or habitually;  verb be a regular or frequent visitor to a certain place;  do one's shopping at; do business with; be a customer or client of
  • frequently - adv. many times at short intervals
  • freshwater - noun water that is not salty
  • friable - adj. (used of soil) loose and large-grained in consistency; easily broken into small fragments or reduced to powder
  • fringe - noun edging consisting of hanging threads or tassels;  a social group holding marginal or extreme views;  a part of the city far removed from the center;  the outside boundary or surface of something;  verb decorate with or as if with a surrounding fringe; adorn with a fringe
  • frontal - adj. belonging to the front part;  of or adjacent to the forehead or frontal bone;  meeting front to front;  of or relating to the front of an advancing mass of air;  noun a drapery that covers the front of an altar;  the face or front of a building;  an adornment worn on the forehead
  • fruit - noun the consequence of some effort or action;  the ripened reproductive body of a seed plant;  an amount of a product;  verbbear fruit;  cause to bear fruit
  • fsh - noun a gonadotropic hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary and stimulates growth of Graafian follicles in female mammals, and activates the cells in male mammals that form sperm
  • ft - noun a linear unit of length equal to 12 inches or a third of a yard
  • fulfil - verb fill or meet a want or need;  put in effect;  fulfil the requirements or expectations of
  • full-length - adj. complete;  representing the full height of the human figure;  accommodating the full height of the human figure
  • fuller - noun a workman who fulls (cleans and thickens) freshly woven cloth for a living;  United States architect who invented the geodesic dome (1895-1983);  United States jurist and chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1833-1910)
  • fullness - noun the property of a sensation that is rich and pleasing; greatness of volume;  the condition of being filled to capacity; completeness over a broad scope
  • fully - adv. to the greatest degree or extent; completely or entirely; (`full' in this sense is used as a combining form);  sufficiently; more than adequately;  referring to a quantity
  • fulminant - adj. sudden and severe
  • functionally - adv. with respect to function
  • functioning - adj. performing or able to perform its regular function; noun process or manner of functioning or operating
  • fundamentals - noun principles from which other truths can be derived
  • funding - noun the act of financing;  financial resources provided to make some project possible
  • fundus - noun (anatomy) the base of a hollow organ or that part of the organ farthest from its opening
  • fungal - adj. of or relating to fungi
  • fungi - noun (pun) the one who buys the drinks;  the taxonomic kingdom of lower plants
  • fungicidal - adj. capable of destroying fungi
  • fungus - noun a parasitic plant lacking chlorophyll and leaves and true stems and roots and reproducing by spores
  • funny - adj. experiencing odd bodily sensations;  beyond or deviating from the usual or expected;  arousing or provoking laughter;  not as expected;  noun an account of an amusing incident (usually with a punch line)
  • furosemide - noun commonly used diuretic (trade name Lasix) used to treat hypertension and edema
  • furthermore - adv. in addition
  • futile - adj. producing no result or effect;  unproductive of success
  • gaba - noun an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter
  • gale - noun a strong wind moving 45-90 knots; force 7 to 10 on Beaufort scale
  • gallstone - noun a calculus formed in the gall bladder or its ducts
  • gamma globulin - noun a plasma protein containing the immunoglobulins that are responsible for immune responses
  • gamut - noun a complete extent or range: "a face that expressed a gamut of emotions";  the entire scale of musical notes
  • ganglion - noun an encapsulated neural structure consisting of a collection of cell bodies or neurons
  • gangrene - noun necrotic tissue; a mortified or gangrenous part or mass;  the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply);  verb undergo necrosis
  • garlic - noun aromatic bulb used as seasoning;  bulbous herb of southern Europe widely naturalized; bulb breaks up into separate strong-flavored cloves
  • gaseous - adj. existing as or having characteristics of a gas
  • gastrectomy - noun surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
  • gastric - adj. relating to or involving the stomach
  • gastrin - noun polypeptide hormone secreted by the mucous lining of the stomach; induces the secretion of gastric juice
  • gastritis - noun inflammation of the lining of the stomach; nausea and loss of appetite and discomfort after eating
  • gastroenteritis - noun inflammation of the stomach and intestines; can be caused by Salmonella enteritidis
  • gastroenterologist - noun a physician who specializes in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
  • gastroenterology - noun the branch of medicine that studies the gastrointestinal tract and its diseases
  • gastroenterostomy - noun surgical creation of an opening between the stomach wall and the small intestines; performed when the normal opening has been eliminated
  • gastrointestinal - adj. of or relating to the stomach and intestines
  • gastroscopy - noun visual examination of the stomach by means of a gastroscope inserted through the esophagus
  • gates - noun United States computer entrepreneur whose software company made him the youngest multi-billionaire in the history of the United States (born in 1955)
  • gaze - noun a long fixed look;  verb look at with fixed eyes
  • gd - noun a ductile silvery-white ductile ferromagnetic trivalent metallic element of the rare earth group;  a nerve agent easily absorbed into the body; a lethal cholinesterase inhibitor that is highly toxic when inhaled
  • gdp - noun measure of the United States economy adopted in 1991; the total market values of goods and services by produced by workers and capital within the United States borders during a given period (usually 1 year)
  • gel - noun a colloid in a more solid form than a sol;  a thin translucent membrane used over stage lights for color effects;  verb become a gel;  apply a styling gel to
  • gelatin - noun a thin translucent membrane used over stage lights for color effects;  an edible jelly (sweet or pungent) made with gelatin and used as a dessert or salad base or a coating for foods;  a colorless water-soluble glutinous protein obtained from animal tissues such as bone and skin
  • gemfibrozil - noun medication (trade name Lopid) used to lower the levels of triglyceride in the blood
  • gene - noun (genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it can include regions preceding and following the coding DNA as well as introns between the exons; it is considered a unit of heredity
  • generality - noun the quality of being general or widespread or having general applicability;  an idea or conclusion having general application
  • generalization - noun (psychology) transfer of a response learned to one stimulus to a similar stimulus;  reasoning from detailed facts to general principles;  an idea or conclusion having general application; the process of formulating general concepts by abstracting common properties of instances
  • generalized - adj. spread throughout a body or system;  not biologically differentiated or adapted to a specific function or environment
  • generally - adv. without distinction of one from others;  usually; as a rule;  without regard to specific details or exceptions
  • generate - verb bring into existence;  produce (energy);  make children;  give or supply
  • generous - adj. more than adequate;  willing to give and share unstintingly;  not petty in character and mind
  • genesis - noun the first book of the Old Testament: tells of creation; Adam and Eve; the Fall of Man; Cain and Abel; Noah and the flood; God's covenant with Abraham; Abraham and Isaac; Jacob and Esau; Joseph and his brothers;  a coming into being
  • genetic - adj. of or relating to the science of genetics;  pertaining to or referring to origin;  tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity;  of or relating to or produced by or being a gene
  • genetically - adv. by genetic mechanisms
  • genetics - noun the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
  • geneva - noun gin made in the Netherlands;  a city in southwestern Switzerland at the western end of Lake Geneva; it is the headquarters of various international organizations
  • genital - adj. of or relating to the external sex organs
  • genome - noun the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism; the full DNA sequence of an organism
  • genomics - noun the branch of genetics that studies organisms in terms of their genomes (their full DNA sequences)
  • genotype - noun the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism;  a group of organisms sharing a specific genetic constitution
  • genotypic - adj. of or relating to or constituting a genotype
  • gentamicin - noun an antibiotic (trade name Garamycin) that is derived from an actinomycete; used in treating infections of the urinary tract
  • genteel - adj. marked by refinement in taste and manners
  • genus - noun a general kind of something;  (biology) taxonomic group containing one or more species
  • geographical - adj. determined by geography;  of or relating to the science of geography
  • geriatric - adj. of or relating to or practicing geriatrics;  of or relating to the aged
  • germ - noun a small apparently simple structure (as a fertilized egg) from which new tissue can develop into a complete organism;  a minute life form (especially a disease-causing bacterium); the term is not in technical use;  anything that provides inspiration for later work
  • germany - noun a republic in central Europe; split into East German and West Germany after World War II and reunited in 1990
  • germinal - adj. containing seeds of later development;  noun seventh month of the Revolutionary calendar (March and April); the month of buds
  • gestation - noun the conception and development of an idea or plan;  the period during which an embryo develops (about 266 days in humans);  the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus
  • gestational - adj. of or relating to gestation
  • getting - noun the act of acquiring something
  • gi - adj. of or relating to the stomach and intestines;  noun a unit of magnetomotive force equal to 0.7958 ampere-turns;  verb clean in preparation for inspection
  • giardiasis - noun infection of the intestines with protozoa found in contaminated food and water; characterized by diarrhea and nausea and flatulence and abdominal discomfort
  • gibson - noun United States tennis player who was the first Black woman player to win all the major world singles titles (1927-2003); Australian actor (born in the United States in 1956);  United States illustrator remembered for his creation of the `Gibson girl' (1867-1944)
  • giddiness - noun an impulsive scatterbrained manner;  a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall
  • gigantism - noun excessive largeness of stature;  excessive size; usually caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland
  • gingivitis - noun inflammation of the gums
  • gingko - noun deciduous dioecious Chinese tree having fan-shaped leaves and fleshy yellow seeds; exists almost exclusively in cultivation especially as an ornamental street tree
  • ginkgo - noun deciduous dioecious Chinese tree having fan-shaped leaves and fleshy yellow seeds; exists almost exclusively in cultivation especially as an ornamental street tree
  • ginseng - noun Chinese herb with palmately compound leaves and small greenish flowers and forked aromatic roots believed to have medicinal powers;  aromatic root of ginseng plants
  • girl - noun a young woman;  a friendly informal reference to a grown woman;  a female human offspring;  a youthful female person;  a girl or young woman with whom a man is romantically involved
  • given - adj. acknowledged as a supposition;  having possession delivered or transferred without compensation;  (usually followed by `to') naturally disposed toward;  noun an assumption that is taken for granted
  • giving - adj. given or giving freely;  noun disposing of property by voluntary transfer without receiving value in return;  the act of giving; the imparting of news or promises etc.
  • gland - noun any of various organs that synthesize substances needed by the body and release it through ducts or directly into the bloodstream
  • glandular - adj. relating to or affecting or functioning as a gland
  • glaucoma - noun increased pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor; damages the optic disc and impairs vision (sometimes progressing to blindness)
  • glial - adj. of or relating to neuroglia
  • global - adj. involving the entire earth; not limited or provincial in scope;  having the shape of a sphere or ball
  • globalization - noun growth to a global or worldwide scale
  • globally - adv. throughout the world
  • globulin - noun a family of proteins found in blood and milk and muscle and in plant seed
  • glomerular - adj. of or relating to glomeruli
  • glomerulonephritis - noun nephritis marked by inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney; characterized by decreased production of urine and by the presence of blood and protein in the urine and by edema
  • glomerulus - noun a small intertwined group of capillaries in the malpighian body; it filters the blood during urine formation
  • gloomy - adj. characterized by hopelessness; filled with gloom; depressingly dark;  causing dejection;  reflecting gloom;  causing or suggestive of sorrow or gloom
  • glossitis - noun inflammation of the tongue
  • glossopharyngeal - adj. pertaining to the tongue and throat
  • glove - noun handwear: covers the hand and wrist;  the handwear used by fielders in playing baseball;  boxing equipment consisting of big and padded coverings for the fists of the fighters; worn for the sport of boxing
  • glucagon - noun a hormone secreted by the pancreas; stimulates increases in blood sugar levels in the blood (thus opposing the action of insulin)
  • glucocorticoid - noun a steroid hormone that is produced by the adrenal cortex of animals; affects functioning of gonads and has anti-inflammatory activity
  • glucose - noun a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms; an important source of physiological energy
  • glucoside - noun a glycoside derived from glucose
  • glue - noun cement consisting of a sticky substance that is used as an adhesive;  verb be fixed as if by glue;  join or attach with or as if with glue
  • glut - noun the quality of being so overabundant that prices fall;  verbovereat or eat immodestly; make a pig of oneself;  supply with an excess of
  • glutamate - noun a salt or ester of glutamic acid
  • glutamine - noun a crystalline amino acid occurring in proteins; important in protein metabolism
  • gluteal - adj. of or relating to or near the gluteus muscles
  • gluten - noun a protein substance that remains when starch is removed from cereal grains; gives cohesiveness to dough
  • gluteus - noun any one of three large skeletal muscles that form the buttock and move the thigh
  • glyburide - noun an oral antidiabetic drug (trade names DiaBeta and Micronase) that stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreas
  • glycerine - noun a sweet syrupy trihydroxy alcohol obtained by saponification of fats and oils
  • glycerol - noun a sweet syrupy trihydroxy alcohol obtained by saponification of fats and oils
  • glyceryl - noun a trivalent radical derived from glycerol by removing the three hydroxyl radicals
  • glycine - noun genus of Asiatic erect or sprawling herbs: soya bean; the simplest amino acid found in proteins and the principal amino acid in sugar cane
  • glycogen - noun one form in which body fuel is stored; stored primarily in the liver and broken down into glucose when needed by the body
  • glycol - noun any of a class of alcohols having 2 hydroxyl groups in each molecule;  a sweet but poisonous syrupy liquid used as an antifreeze and solvent
  • glycolysis - noun a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
  • glycoprotein - noun a conjugated protein having a carbohydrate component
  • glycosuria - noun the presence of abnormally high levels of sugar in the urine
  • gm - noun a metric unit of weight equal to one thousandth of a kilogram
  • going - adj. in full operation;  noun advancing toward a goal;  act of departing;  euphemistic expressions for death
  • goitre - noun abnormally enlarged thyroid gland; can result from underproduction or overproduction of hormone or from a deficiency of iodine in the diet
  • goldberg - noun United States cartoonist who drew intricate diagrams of very complicated and impractical contraptions that accomplished little or nothing (1883-1970)
  • gonadal - adj. of or relating to the gonads
  • gonadotrophin - noun hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and placenta; stimulates the gonads and controls reproductive activity
  • gone - adj. having all been spent;  no longer retained;  dead; destroyed or killed;  well in the past; former;  not present; having left
  • goodman - noun United States clarinetist who in 1934 formed a big band (including Black as well as White musicians) and introduced a kind of jazz known as swing (1909-1986)
  • gout - noun a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism resulting in deposits of the acid and its salts in the blood and joints
  • governed - noun the body of people who are citizens of a particular government
  • gp - noun a physician who is not a specialist but treats all illnesses
  • graded - adj. arranged in a sequence of grades or ranks
  • gradient - noun the property possessed by a line or surface that departs from the horizontal;  a graded change in the magnitude of some physical quantity or dimension
  • gradual - adj. proceeding in small stages;  (of a topographical gradient) not steep or abrupt;  noun (Roman Catholic Church) an antiphon (usually from the Book of Psalms) immediately after the epistle at Mass
  • gradually - adv. in a gradual manner
  • graduated - adj. (of taxes) increasing as the amount taxed increases;  (of taxes) decreasing as the amount taxed increases; taking place by degrees;  marked with or divided into degrees
  • grafting - noun the act of grafting something onto something else
  • graham - noun United States dancer and choreographer whose work was noted for its austerity and technical rigor (1893-1991); United States evangelical preacher famous as a mass evangelist (born in 1918);  flour made by grinding the entire wheat berry including the bran; (`whole meal flour' is British usage)
  • grail - noun (legend) chalice used by Christ at the last supper;  the object of any prolonged endeavor
  • gram-negative - adj. (of bacteria) being of or relating to a bacterium that does not retain the violet stain used in Gram's method
  • gram-positive - adj. (of bacteria) being or relating to a bacterium that retains the violet stain used in Gram's method
  • gram - noun Danish physician and bacteriologist who developed a method of staining bacteria to distinguish among them (1853-1938); a metric unit of weight equal to one thousandth of a kilogram
  • granted - adj. given as a grant;  acknowledged as a supposition
  • granulocyte - noun a leukocyte that has granules in its cytoplasm
  • grape - noun any of various juicy fruit of the genus Vitis with green or purple skins; grow in clusters;  any of numerous woody vines of genus Vitis bearing clusters of edible berries
  • grapefruit - noun large yellow fruit with somewhat acid juicy pulp; usual serving consists of a half;  citrus tree bearing large round edible fruit having a thick yellow rind and juicy somewhat acid pulp
  • graph - noun a visual representation of the relations between certain quantities plotted with reference to a set of axes;  verb represent by means of a graph;  plot upon a graph
  • grasping - adj. immoderately desirous of acquiring e.g. wealth; noun the act of gripping something firmly with the hands; understanding with difficulty
  • grateful - adj. feeling or showing gratitude;  affording comfort or pleasure
  • graves - noun English writer known for his interest in mythology and in the classics (1895-1985)
  • greater - adj. greater in size or importance or degree
  • greatest - adj. highest in quality
  • greatly - adv. to an extraordinary extent or degree
  • greek - adj. of or relating to or characteristic of Greece or the Greeks;  noun the Hellenic branch of the Indo-European family of languages;  a native or inhabitant of Greece
  • greengrocer - noun a grocer who sells fresh fruits and vegetables
  • grief - noun something that causes great unhappiness;  intense sorrow caused by loss of a loved one (especially by death)
  • griffin - noun winged monster with the head of an eagle and the body of a lion
  • griseofulvin - noun a kind of penicillin (a fungicidal antibiotic with the trade name Fulvicin) produced by molds of the genus Penicillium
  • grounds - noun a tract of land cleared for some special purposes (recreation or burial etc.);  the enclosed land around a house or other building;  your basis for belief or disbelief; knowledge on which to base belief;  a justification for something existing or happening; sediment that has settled at the bottom of a liquid
  • group - noun any number of entities (members) considered as a unit;  a set that is closed, associative, has an identity element and every element has an inverse;  (chemistry) two or more atoms bound together as a single unit and forming part of a molecule;  verbarrange into a group or groups;  form a group or group together
  • grouped - adj. arranged into groups
  • grown - adj. (of animals) fully developed
  • gruesome - adj. shockingly repellent; inspiring horror
  • gu - adj. of or related to the genital and urinary organs or their functions;  noun the largest and southernmost island in the Marianas which is administered as a territory of the United States; it was ceded by Spain to the United States in 1898
  • guanine - noun a purine base found in DNA and RNA; pairs with cytosine
  • guanosine - noun a nucleoside component of DNA; composed of guanine and deoxyribose
  • guar - noun drought-tolerant herb grown for forage and for its seed which yield a gum used as a thickening agent or sizing material
  • guess - noun an estimate based on little or no information;  a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence;  verbguess correctly; solve by guessing;  put forward, of a guess, in spite of possible refutation;  expect, believe, or suppose;  judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time)
  • guidance - noun the act of guiding or showing the way;  something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action; the act of setting and holding a course
  • guided - adj. subject to guidance or control especially after launching
  • guideline - noun a light line that is used in lettering to help align the letters;  a rule or principle that provides guidance to appropriate behavior;  a detailed plan or explanation to guide you in setting standards or determining a course of action
  • gut - noun a narrow channel or strait;  a strong cord made from the intestines of sheep and used in surgery;  the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus;  verb remove the guts of; empty completely; destroy the inside of
  • guthrie - noun United States folk singer and songwriter (1912-1967)
  • guy - noun a rope or cable that is used to brace something (especially a tent);  an effigy of Guy Fawkes that is burned on a bonfire on Guy Fawkes Day;  an informal term for a youth or man; verb steady or support with a guy wire or cable;  subject to laughter or ridicule
  • gynaecological - adj. of or relating to or practicing gynecology
  • ha - noun (astronomy) the angular distance of a celestial point measured westward along the celestial equator from the zenith crossing; the right ascension for an observer at a particular location and time of day
  • habit - noun a pattern of behavior acquired through frequent repetition;  a distinctive attire (as the costume of a religious order); an established custom;  excessive use of drugs;  verb put a habit on
  • haem - noun a complex red organic pigment containing iron and other atoms to which oxygen binds
  • haematocrit - noun a measuring instrument to determine (usually by centrifugation) the relative amounts of corpuscles and plasma in the blood;  the ratio of the volume occupied by packed red blood cells to the volume of the whole blood as measured by a hematocrit
  • haematological - adj. of or relating to or involved in hematology
  • haematologist - noun a doctor who specializes in diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs
  • haematology - noun the branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs
  • haematoma - noun a localized swelling filled with blood
  • haematopoietic - adj. pertaining to the formation of blood or blood cells
  • haematuria - noun the presence of blood in the urine; often a symptom of urinary tract disease
  • haemodialysis - noun dialysis of the blood to remove toxic substances or metabolic wastes from the bloodstream; used in the case of kidney failure
  • haemoglobin - noun a hemoprotein composed of globin and heme that gives red blood cells their characteristic color; function primarily to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues
  • haemolysis - noun lysis of erythrocytes with the release of hemoglobin
  • haemolytic - adj. relating to or involving or causing hemolysis
  • haemophilia - noun congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding; usually affects males and is transmitted from mother to son
  • haemopoietic - adj. pertaining to the formation of blood or blood cells
  • haemoptysis - noun coughing up blood from the respiratory tract; usually indicates a severe infection of the bronchi or lungs
  • haemorrhage - noun flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels
  • haemorrhagic - adj. of or relating to a hemorrhage
  • haemostasis - noun surgical procedure of stopping the flow of blood (as with a hemostat)
  • half-life - noun the time required for something to fall to half its initial value (in particular, the time for half the atoms in a radioactive substance to disintegrate)
  • half - adj. consisting of one of two equivalent parts in value or quantity;  (of siblings) related through one parent only;  partial;  adv.partially or to the extent of a half;  noun in various games or performances: either of two periods of play separated by an interval; one of two equal parts of a divisible whole
  • halibut - noun marine food fish of the northern Atlantic or northern Pacific; the largest flatfish and one of the largest teleost fishes;  lean flesh of very large flatfish of Atlantic or Pacific
  • halitosis - noun offensive breath
  • hallucination - noun an object perceived during a hallucinatory episode;  illusory perception; a common symptom of severe mental disorder;  a mistaken or unfounded opinion or idea
  • haloperidol - noun tranquilizer (trade name Haldol) used to treat some psychotic disorders and Tourette's syndrome
  • halothane - noun a nonflammable inhalation anesthetic that produces general anesthesia; used along with analgesics and muscle relaxants for many types of surgical procedures
  • halve - verb divide by two; divide into halves
  • ham - noun meat cut from the thigh of a hog (usually smoked);  an unskilled actor who overacts;  a licensed amateur radio operator; (Old Testament) son of Noah;  verb exaggerate one's acting
  • hampshire - noun British breed of hornless dark-faced mutton sheep;  a county of southern England on the English Channel
  • handbook - noun a concise reference book providing specific information about a subject or location
  • handful - noun the quantity that can be held in the hand;  a small number or amount
  • handled - adj. having a usually specified type of handle
  • handling - noun the action of touching with the hands (or the skillful use of the hands) or by the use of mechanical means;  manual (or mechanical) carrying or moving or delivering or working with something;  the management of someone or something
  • hands - noun (with `in') guardianship over; in divorce cases it is the right to house and care for and discipline a child;  the force of workers available
  • handwriting - noun the activity of writing by hand;  something written by hand
  • hangover - noun something that has survived from the past; disagreeable aftereffects from the use of drugs (especially alcohol); an official who remains in office after his term
  • happen - verb come to pass;  come into being; become reality; happen, occur, or be the case in the course of events or by chance; chance to be or do something, without intention or causation;  come upon, as if by accident; meet with
  • happy - adj. well expressed and to the point;  enjoying or showing or marked by joy or pleasure or good fortune;  marked by good fortune; eagerly disposed to act or to be of service
  • hardly - adv. almost not;  by a small margin
  • hare - noun swift timid long-eared mammal larger than a rabbit having a divided upper lip and long hind legs; young born furred and with open eyes;  flesh of any of various rabbits or hares (wild or domesticated) eaten as food;  verb run quickly, like a hare
  • harm - noun the act of damaging something or someone;  the occurrence of a change for the worse;  any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.;  verb cause or do harm to
  • harmful - adj. causing or capable of causing harm;  able or likely to do harm;  constituting a disadvantage;  tending to cause great harm; contrary to your interests or welfare;  injurious to physical or mental health
  • harmless - adj. not threatening to life or health; not malignant;  not causing or capable of causing harm;  unlikely to harm or disturb anyone;  not producing any toxic effects;  not injurious to physical or mental health
  • harmonisation - noun singing in harmony;  a piece of harmonized music
  • harmonization - noun singing in harmony;  a piece of harmonized music
  • hat - noun an informal term for a person's role;  headdress that protects the head from bad weather; has shaped crown and usually a brim;  verb put on or wear a hat;  furnish with a hat
  • hawaii - noun a state in the United States in the central Pacific on the Hawaiian Islands;  the largest and southernmost of the Hawaii islands; has several volcanic peaks
  • hay - noun grass mowed and cured for use as fodder;  verb convert (plant material) into hay
  • hays - noun a town in central Kansas;  United States lawyer involved in several famous court trials (1881-1954);  United States lawyer and politician who formulated a production code that prescribed the moral content of United States films from 1930 to 1966 (1879-1954)
  • hazardous - adj. involving risk or danger
  • hb - noun a hemoprotein composed of globin and heme that gives red blood cells their characteristic color; function primarily to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues
  • hcg - noun hormone produced early in pregnancy by the placenta; detection in the urine and serum is the basis for one kind of pregnancy test
  • hdl - noun a lipoprotein that transports cholesterol in the blood; composed of a high proportion of protein and relatively little cholesterol; high levels are thought to be associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis
  • he - noun the 5th letter of the Hebrew alphabet;  a very light colorless element that is one of the six inert gasses; the most difficult gas to liquefy; occurs in economically extractable amounts in certain natural gases (as those found in Texas and Kansas)
  • headache - noun pain in the head caused by dilation of cerebral arteries or muscle contractions or a reaction to drugs;  something or someone that causes anxiety; a source of unhappiness
  • heal - verb get healthy again;  provide a cure for, make healthy again;  heal or recover
  • healed - adj. freed from illness or injury
  • healing - adj. tending to cure or restore to health;  noun the natural process by which the body repairs itself
  • health - noun the general condition of body and mind;  a healthy state of wellbeing free from disease
  • healthcare - noun the preservation of mental and physical health by preventing or treating illness through services offered by the health profession
  • healthy - adj. having or indicating good health in body or mind; free from infirmity or disease;  exercising or showing good judgment; financially secure and functioning well;  promoting health; healthful; physically and mentally sound or healthy
  • heartburn - noun a painful burning sensation in the chest caused by gastroesophageal reflux (backflow from the stomach irritating the esophagus); symptomatic of an ulcer or a diaphragmatic hernia or other disorder
  • heated - adj. made warm or hot (`het' is a dialectal variant of `heated');  marked by emotional heat; vehement
  • heed - noun paying particular notice (as to children or helpless people);  verb pay close attention to; give heed to
  • height - noun the vertical dimension of extension; distance from the base of something to the top;  (of a standing person) the distance from head to foot;  elevation especially above sea level or above the earth's surface;  the highest level or degree attainable; the highest stage of development
  • held - adj. occupied or in the control of; often used in combination
  • helpful - adj. showing a willingness to cooperate;  providing assistance or serving a useful function;  of service or assistance
  • helsinki - noun the capital and largest city of Finland; located in southern Finland; a major port and commercial and cultural center
  • hemodialysis - noun dialysis of the blood to remove toxic substances or metabolic wastes from the bloodstream; used in the case of kidney failure
  • hemodynamics - noun the branch of physiology that studies the circulation of the blood and the forces involved
  • hence - adv. from this time;  from this place;  (used to introduce a logical conclusion) from that fact or reason or as a result
  • heparin - noun a polysaccharide produced in basophils (especially in the lung and liver) and that inhibits the activity of thrombin in coagulation of the blood; it (trade names Lipo-Hepin and Liquaemin) is used as an anticoagulant in the treatment of thrombosis and in heart surgery
  • hepatic - adj. pertaining to or affecting the liver;  noun any of numerous small green nonvascular plants of the class Hepaticopsida growing in wet places and resembling green seaweeds or leafy mosses
  • hepatitis - noun inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or a toxin
  • hepatotoxic - adj. toxic to the liver
  • herb - noun aromatic potherb used in cookery for its savory qualities;  a plant lacking a permanent woody stem; many are flowering garden plants or potherbs; some having medicinal properties; some are pests
  • herbal - adj. of or relating to herbs;  noun tea-like drink made of leaves of various herbs
  • herder - noun someone who drives a herd;  German philosopher who advocated intuition over reason (1744-1803)
  • hereditary - adj. inherited or inheritable by established rules (usually legal rules) of descent;  tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity
  • heroin - noun a narcotic that is considered a hard drug; a highly addictive morphine derivative; intravenous injection provides the fastest and most intense rush
  • herpes - noun any of the animal viruses that cause painful blisters on the skin;  viral diseases causing eruptions of the skin or mucous membrane
  • heterogeneity - noun the quality of being diverse and not comparable in kind
  • heterologous - adj. derived from organisms of a different but related species;  not corresponding in structure or evolutionary origin
  • heterozygous - adj. having dissimilar alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci
  • hg - noun 100 grams;  a heavy silvery toxic univalent and bivalent metallic element; the only metal that is liquid at ordinary temperatures
  • hiccup - noun (usually plural) the state of having reflex spasms of the diaphragm accompanied by a rapid closure of the glottis producing an audible sound; sometimes a symptom of indigestion; verb breathe spasmodically, and make a sound
  • high frequency - noun 3 to 30 megahertz;  a pitch that is perceived as above other pitches
  • high-performance - adj. modified to give superior performance
  • high-risk - adj. not financially safe or secure
  • higher - adj. of education beyond the secondary level;  advanced in complexity or elaboration
  • highlight - noun an area of lightness in a picture;  the most interesting or memorable part;  verb apply a highlighter to one's cheeks or eyebrows in order to make them more prominent;  move into the foreground to make more visible or prominent
  • highlighting - noun an area of lightness in a picture
  • highly - adv. in a high position or level or rank;  to a high degree or extent; favorably or with much respect;  at a high rate or wage
  • hill - noun a local and well-defined elevation of the land;  risque English comedian (1925-1992);  United States railroad tycoon (1838-1916);  structure consisting of an artificial heap or bank usually of earth or stones;  (baseball) the slight elevation on which the pitcher stands;  verb form into a hill
  • hippocratic - adj. of or relating to Hippocrates or the school of medicine that took his name
  • hirsutism - noun excessive hairiness
  • histamine - noun amine formed from histidine that stimulates gastric secretions and dilates blood vessels; released by the human immune system during allergic reactions
  • histocompatibility - noun condition in which the cells of one tissue can survive in the presence of cells of another tissue
  • histogram - noun a bar chart representing a frequency distribution; heights of the bars represent observed frequencies
  • historical - adj. having once lived or existed or taken place in the real world as distinct from being legendary;  of or relating to the study of history;  belonging to the past; of what is important or famous in the past;  used of the study of a phenomenon (especially language) as it changes through time
  • historically - adv. with respect to history;  throughout history
  • hiv - noun infection by the human immunodeficiency virus;  the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); it replicates in and kills the helper T cells
  • hl - noun a metric unit of volume or capacity equal to 100 liters
  • hm - noun a metric unit of length equal to 100 meters
  • ho - noun a trivalent metallic element of the rare earth group; occurs together with yttrium; forms highly magnetic compounds
  • hoarse - adj. deep and harsh sounding as if from shouting or illness or emotion
  • hoarseness - noun a throaty harshness
  • hoffman - noun versatile United States film actor (born in 1937); United States sculptor (1887-1966)
  • holding - noun the act of retaining something;  something owned; any tangible or intangible possession that is owned by someone
  • holiday - noun a day on which work is suspended by law or custom; leisure time away from work devoted to rest or pleasure;  verb spend or take a vacation
  • holy - adj. belonging to or derived from or associated with a divine power;  noun a sacred place of pilgrimage
  • homeopathic - adj. of or relating to the practice of homeopathy
  • homeopathy - noun a method of treating disease with small amounts of remedies that, in large amounts in healthy people, produce symptoms similar to those being treated
  • homeostasis - noun (physiology) metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes
  • homeostatic - adj. related to or characterized by homeostasis
  • homogeneity - noun the quality of being similar or comparable in kind or nature;  the quality of being of uniform throughout in composition or structure
  • homogenous - adj. all of the same or similar kind or nature
  • homologous - adj. corresponding or similar in position or structure or function or characteristics; especially derived from an organism of the same species;  having the same evolutionary origin but serving different functions
  • homology - noun the quality of being similar or corresponding in position or value or structure or function
  • homozygous - adj. having identical alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci
  • honeymoon - noun a holiday taken by a newly married couple;  the early (usually calm and harmonious) period of a relationship; business or political;  verb spend a holiday after one's marriage
  • honorary - adj. given as an honor without the normal duties
  • hopefully - adv. it is hoped;  with hope; in a hopeful manner
  • hormonal - adj. of or relating to or caused by hormones
  • hormone - noun the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
  • hospital - noun a health facility where patients receive treatment;  a medical institution where sick or injured people are given medical or surgical care
  • hospitalization - noun placing in medical care in a hospital;  the condition of being treated as a patient in a hospital;  a period of time when you are confined to a hospital;  insurance that pays all or part of a patient's hospital expense
  • hotel - noun a building where travelers can pay for lodging and meals and other services
  • hour - noun distance measured by the time taken to cover it;  a period of time equal to 1/24th of a day;  clock time;  a special and memorable period
  • hourly - adj. occurring every hour or payable by the hour;  adv. every hour
  • hours - noun an indefinite period of time;  a period of time assigned for work
  • howard - noun Queen of England as the fifth wife of Henry VIII who was accused of adultery and executed (1520-1542);  English actor of stage and screen (1893-1943)
  • however - adv. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession);  in whatever way or manner;  to whatever degree or extent;  by contrast; on the other hand
  • hp - noun a unit of power equal to 746 watts
  • hr - noun a period of time equal to 1/24th of a day
  • hrt - noun hormones (estrogen and progestin) are given to postmenopausal women; believed to protect them from heart disease and osteoporosis
  • hs - noun a radioactive transuranic element
  • http - noun a protocol (utilizing TCP) to transfer hypertext requests and information between servers and browsers
  • huge - adj. unusually great in size or amount or degree or especially extent or scope
  • human - adj. having human form or attributes as opposed to those of animals or divine beings;  characteristic of humanity;  relating to a person;  noun any living or extinct member of the family Hominidae characterized by superior intelligence, articulate speech, and erect carriage
  • humans - noun all of the living human inhabitants of the earth
  • humble - adj. marked by meekness or modesty; not arrogant or prideful;  used of unskilled work (especially domestic work);  low or inferior in station or quality;  of low birth or station (`base' is archaic in this sense);  verb cause to be unpretentious;  cause to feel shame; hurt the pride of
  • humoral - adj. of or relating to bodily fluids
  • hurry - noun a condition of urgency making it necessary to hurry; the act of moving hurriedly and in a careless manner;  overly eager speed (and possible carelessness);  verb urge to an unnatural speed;  act or move at high speed;  move very fast
  • husband - noun a married man; a woman's partner in marriage; verb use cautiously and frugally
  • hydralazine - noun an antihypertensive drug (trade name Apresoline) that dilates blood vessels; used (often with a diuretic) to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure
  • hydrated - adj. containing combined water (especially water of crystallization as in a hydrate)
  • hydration - noun the process of combining with water; usually reversible
  • hydrocarbon - noun an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
  • hydrochloride - noun a complex consisting of an organic base in association with hydrogen chloride
  • hydrochlorothiazide - noun a diuretic drug (trade name Esidrix and HydroDIURIL) used in the treatment of hypertension
  • hydrocortisone - noun an adrenal-cortex hormone (trade names Hydrocortone or Cortef) that is active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism
  • hydrogen - noun a nonmetallic univalent element that is normally a colorless and odorless highly flammable diatomic gas; the simplest and lightest and most abundant element in the universe
  • hydrolysis - noun a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds; involves the splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion from the water
  • hydrophilic - adj. having a strong affinity for water; tending to dissolve in, mix with, or be wetted by water
  • hydrophobic - adj. abnormally afraid of water;  lacking affinity for water; tending to repel and not absorb water; tending not to dissolve in or mix with or be wetted by water
  • hydroxide - noun a chemical compound containing the hydroxyl group;  a compound of an oxide with water
  • hydroxy - adj. being or containing a hydroxyl group
  • hydroxychloroquine - noun anti-inflammatory drug (trade name Plaquenil) used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and malaria and lupus erythematosus
  • hydroxyl - noun the monovalent group -OH in such compounds as bases and some acids and alcohols
  • hydroxyproline - noun a crystalline amino acid obtained from gelatin or collagen
  • hyoscine - noun an alkaloid with anticholinergic effects that is used as a sedative and to treat nausea and to dilate the pupils in ophthalmic procedures
  • hyperacidity - noun excessive acidity
  • hyperactive - adj. more active than normal
  • hyperactivity - noun a condition characterized by excessive restlessness and movement
  • hyperaldosteronism - noun a condition caused by overproduction of aldosterone
  • hyperbolic - adj. of or relating to a hyperbola;  enlarged beyond truth or reasonableness
  • hypercalcaemia - noun the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; usually the result of excessive bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism or Paget's disease
  • hypercalciuria - noun the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the urine; usually the result of excessive bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism or osteoporosis
  • hypercarbia - noun the presence of an abnormally high level of carbon dioxide in the circulating blood
  • hypercholesterolemia - noun the presence of an abnormal amount of cholesterol in the cells and plasma of the blood; associated with the risk of atherosclerosis
  • hyperglycaemia - noun abnormally high blood sugar usually associated with diabetes
  • hypericum - noun large almost cosmopolitan genus of evergreen or deciduous shrubs and herbs with often showy yellow flowers; cosmopolitan except tropical lowlands and arctic or high altitudes and desert regions
  • hyperkalemia - noun higher than normal levels of potassium in the circulating blood; associated with kidney failure or sometimes with the use of diuretic drugs
  • hyperlipidaemia - noun presence of excess lipids in the blood
  • hyperparathyroidism - noun excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; can affect many systems of the body (especially causing bone resorption and osteoporosis)
  • hyperplasia - noun abnormal increase in number of cells
  • hyperpyrexia - noun extremely high fever (especially in children)
  • hypersecretion - noun excessive secretion
  • hypersensitivity - noun extreme sensitivity;  pathological sensitivity
  • hypersomnia - noun an inability to stay awake
  • hypertension - noun a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
  • hypertensive - adj. having abnormally high blood pressure;  noun a person who has abnormally high blood pressure
  • hyperthermia - noun abnormally high body temperature; sometimes induced (as in treating some forms of cancer)
  • hyperthyroidism - noun an overactive thyroid gland; pathologically excessive production of thyroid hormones or the condition resulting from excessive production of thyroid hormones
  • hypertonia - noun (of muscular tissue) the state of being hypertonic
  • hypertrophy - noun abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ; verb undergo hypertrophy
  • hyperventilation - noun an increased depth and rate of breathing greater than demanded by the body needs; can cause dizziness and tingling of the fingers and toes and chest pain if continued
  • hypervitaminosis - noun an abnormal condition resulting from taking vitamins excessively; can be serious for vitamins A or D or K
  • hypnosis - noun a state that resembles sleep but that is induced by suggestion
  • hypnotic - adj. attracting and holding interest as if by a spell;  of or relating to hypnosis;  noun a drug that induces sleep
  • hypo - noun a compound used as a fixing agent in photographic developing;  a piston syringe that is fitted with a hypodermic needle for giving injections
  • hypoadrenalism - noun a glandular disorder caused by failure of function of the cortex of the adrenal gland and marked by anemia and prostration with brownish skin
  • hypocalcaemia - noun abnormally low level of calcium in the blood; associated with hypoparathyroidism or kidney malfunction or vitamin D deficiency
  • hypochondria - noun chronic and abnormal anxiety about imaginary symptoms and ailments
  • hypochondriacal - adj. suffering from hypochondria
  • hypoglycaemia - noun abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet
  • hypoglycaemic - adj. of or relating to hypoglycemia
  • hypoglycemic - adj. of or relating to hypoglycemia
  • hypogonadism - noun incompetence of the gonads (especially in the male with low testosterone); results in deficient development of secondary sex characteristics and (in prepubertal males) a body with long legs and a short trunk
  • hypoparathyroidism - noun inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood
  • hypoplasia - noun underdevelopment of an organ because of a decrease in the number of cells
  • hypospadias - noun an abnormal condition in males in which the urethra opens on the under surface of the penis
  • hypotension - noun abnormally low blood pressure
  • hypotensive - adj. having abnormally low blood pressure;  noun a person who has abnormally low blood pressure
  • hypothalamic - adj. of or relating to the hypothalamus
  • hypothalamus - noun a basal part of the diencephalon governing autonomic nervous system
  • hypothermia - noun subnormal body temperature
  • hypothermic - adj. of or relating to or affected by hypothermia
  • hypothesis - noun a tentative theory about the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena;  a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations;  a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence
  • hypothyroidism - noun an underactive thyroid gland; a glandular disorder resulting from insufficient production of thyroid hormones
  • hypotonia - noun (of muscular tissue) the state of being hypotonic
  • hypotonic - adj. (of a solution) having a lower osmotic pressure than a comparison solution;  (of living tissue) lacking normal tone or tension
  • hypotonicity - noun (of a solution) the extent to which a solution has a lower osmotic pressure than some other;  (of muscular tissue) the state of being hypotonic
  • hypovolaemia - noun a blood disorder consisting of a decrease in the volume of circulating blood
  • hypovolaemic - adj. of or relating to a decrease in the volume of circulating blood
  • hypoxia - noun a very strong drive resulting from a deficiency of available oxygen in the blood and bodily tissues (short of anoxia)
  • hysterical - adj. marked by excessive or uncontrollable emotion; characterized by or arising from psychoneurotic hysteria
  • i - noun the 9th letter of the Roman alphabet;  a nonmetallic element belonging to the halogens; used especially in medicine and photography and in dyes; occurs naturally only in combination in small quantities (as in sea water or rocks)
  • ia - noun a state in midwestern United States
  • iatrogenic - adj. induced by a physician's words or therapy (used especially of a complication resulting from treatment)
  • ibuprofen - noun a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicine (trade names Advil and Motrin and Nuprin) used to relieve the pain of arthritis and as an analgesic and antipyretic
  • icu - noun a hospital unit staffed and equipped to provide intensive care
  • idea - noun the content of cognition; the main thing you are thinking about;  a personal view;  an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth;  your intention; what you intend to do;  (music) melodic subject of a musical composition
  • ideally - adv. in an ideal manner
  • identical - adj. (of twins) derived from a single egg or ovum; coinciding exactly when superimposed;  having properties with uniform values along all axes;  exactly alike; incapable of being perceived as different;  being the exact same one; not any other:
  • identified - adj. having the identity known or established
  • idiopathic - adj. (of diseases) arising from an unknown cause
  • idiosyncratic - adj. peculiar to the individual
  • ige - noun one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; present primarily in the skin and mucous membranes
  • igg - noun one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; the main antibody defense against bacteria
  • igm - noun one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; involved in fighting blood infections and in triggering production of immunoglobulin G
  • ignorance - noun the lack of knowledge or education
  • il - noun a Midwest state in north-central United States
  • ileostomy - noun surgical procedure that creates an opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall to function as an anus; performed in cases of cancer of the colon or ulcerative colitis
  • ileum - noun the part of the small intestine between the jejunum and the cecum
  • ileus - noun blockage of the intestine (especially the ileum) that prevents the contents of the intestine from passing to the lower bowel
  • ill-defined - adj. poorly stated or described
  • illicit - adj. contrary to accepted morality (especially sexual morality) or convention;  contrary to or forbidden by law
  • illicitly - adv. in an illegal manner;  in a manner disapproved or not allowed by custom
  • illness - noun impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism
  • illusory - adj. based on or having the nature of an illusion
  • illustrate - verb supply with illustrations;  depict with an illustration; clarify by giving an example of
  • imagine - verb form a mental image of something that is not present or that is not the case;  expect, believe, or suppose
  • imaging - noun (medicine) obtaining pictures of the interior of the body;  the ability to form mental images of things or events
  • imbalance - noun a lack of balance or state of disequilibrium; (mathematics) a lack of symmetry
  • imidazole - noun an organic base C3H4N2; a histamine inhibitor
  • imipramine - noun a tricyclic antidepressant (trade names Imavate and Tofranil) used to treat clinical depression
  • immature - adj. lacking in development;  not yet mature; characteristic of a lack of maturity;  (of birds) not yet having developed feathers;  not fully developed or mature; not ripe;  (used of living things especially persons) in an early period of life or development or growth
  • immaturity - noun not having reached maturity
  • immeasurably - adv. to an immeasurable degree; beyond measurement;  without bounds
  • immediate - adj. having no intervening medium;  performed with little or no delay;  immediately before or after as in a chain of cause and effect;  of the present time and place;  very close or connected in space or time
  • immediately - adv. without delay or hesitation; with no time intervening;  near or close by;  bearing an immediate relation
  • imminent - adj. close in time; about to occur
  • immobilization - noun the act of limiting movement or making incapable of movement;  fixation (as by a plaster cast) of a body part in order to promote proper healing
  • immune - adj. (usually followed by `to') not affected by a given influence;  relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection); secure against;  relating to the condition of immunity;  noun a person who is immune to a particular infection
  • immunocompromised - adj. unable to develop a normal immune response usually because of malnutrition or immunodeficiency or immunosuppressive therapy
  • immunodeficiency - noun immunological disorder in which some part of the body's immune system is inadequate and resistance to infectious diseases is reduced
  • immunoglobulin - noun a class of proteins produced in lymph tissue in vertebrates and that function as antibodies in the immune response
  • immunological - adj. of or relating to immunology
  • immunology - noun the branch of medical science that studies the body's immune system
  • immunosuppressant - noun a drug that lowers the body's normal immune response
  • immunosuppressed - adj. of persons whose immune response is inadequate
  • immunosuppression - noun lowering the body's normal immune response to invasion by foreign substances; can be deliberate (as in lowering the immune response to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ) or incidental (as a side effect of radiotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer)
  • immunosuppressive - adj. of or relating to a substance that lowers the body's normal immune response and induces immunosuppression;  noun a drug that lowers the body's normal immune response
  • immunotherapy - noun therapy designed to produce immunity to a disease or to enhance resistance by the immune system
  • impact - noun the striking of one body against another;  a forceful consequence; a strong effect;  influencing strongly;  the violent interaction of individuals or groups entering into combat;  verb press or wedge together; pack together;  have an effect upon
  • impacted - adj. wedged or packed in together
  • impaction - noun a disorder in which a tooth is so crowded in its socket that it cannot erupt normally;  a disorder in which feces are impacted in the lower colon;  the condition of being pressed closely together and firmly fixed;  a sharp collision produced by striking or dashing against something
  • impair - verb make worse or less effective;  make imperfect
  • impaired - adj. diminished in strength, quality, or utility;  mentally or physically unfit
  • impairment - noun damage that results in a reduction of strength or quality;  the act of making something futile and useless (as by routine);  the occurrence of a change for the worse;  the condition of being unable to perform as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness;  a symptom of reduced quality or strength
  • impenetrable - adj. impossible to understand;  not admitting of penetration or passage into or through;  permitting little if any light to pass through because of denseness of matter
  • impermeable - adj. preventing especially liquids to pass or diffuse through
  • implant - noun a prosthesis placed permanently in tissue;  verbbecome attached to and embedded in the uterus;  fix or set securely or deeply;  put firmly in the mind
  • implantation - noun a surgical procedure that places something in the human body;  the act of planting or setting in the ground; (embryology) the organic process whereby a fertilized egg becomes implanted in the lining of the uterus of placental mammals
  • implanted - adj. (used especially of ideas or principles) deeply rooted; firmly fixed or held
  • implicated - adj. culpably involved
  • imply - verb express or state indirectly;  suggest as a logically necessary consequence; in logic;  have as a necessary feature or consequence; entail;  have as a logical consequence;  suggest that someone is guilty
  • importance - noun the quality of being important and worthy of note;  a prominent status
  • important - adj. of great significance or value;  having or suggesting a consciousness of high position;  of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis;  having authority or ascendancy or influence; important in effect or meaning
  • importantly - adv. in an important way;  in an important way or to an important degree
  • impossible - adj. not capable of occurring or being accomplished or dealt with;  totally unlikely;  used of persons or their behavior;  nounsomething that cannot be done
  • impotence - noun an inability (usually of the male animal) to copulate;  the quality of lacking strength or power; being weak and feeble
  • impotent - adj. lacking power or ability;  (of a male) unable to copulate
  • impractical - adj. not practical; not workable or not given to practical matters;  not practical or realizable; speculative
  • imprecisely - adv. in an imprecise manner
  • impressive - adj. producing a strong effect;  making a strong or vivid impression
  • improper - adj. not suitable or right or appropriate;  not conforming to legality, moral law, or social convention;  not appropriate for a purpose or occasion
  • improve - verb get better;  to make better
  • improved - adj. become or made better in quality;  made more desirable or valuable or profitable; especially made ready for use or marketing;  (of land) made ready for development or agriculture by clearing of trees and brush
  • improvement - noun the act of improving something;  a change for the better; progress in development;  a condition superior to an earlier condition
  • improving - adj. getting higher or more vigorous
  • impulse - noun the act of applying force suddenly;  an impelling force or strength;  the electrical discharge that travels along a nerve fiber;  (electronics) a sharp transient wave in the normal electrical state (or a series of such transients);  a sudden desire;  an instinctive motive
  • in - adj. currently fashionable;  directed or bound inward;  holding office;  adv. to or toward the inside of;  noun a state in midwestern United States;  a unit of length equal to one twelfth of a foot;  a rare soft silvery metallic element; occurs in small quantities in sphalerite
  • inability - noun lacking the power to perform;  lack of ability (especially mental ability) to do something
  • inaccessible - adj. capable of being reached only with great difficulty or not at all;  not capable of being obtained
  • inactivate - verb make inactive;  release from military service or remove from the active list of military service
  • inactivation - noun the process of rendering inactive;  breaking up a military unit (by transfers or discharges)
  • inactivity - noun being inactive; being less active;  a disposition to remain inactive or inert;  the state of being inactive
  • inadequate - adj. (sometimes followed by `to') not meeting the requirements especially of a task;  not sufficient to meet a need
  • inadequately - adv. in an inadequate manner or to an inadequate degree
  • inadvertent - adj. without intention (especially resulting from heedless action)
  • inadvertently - adv. without knowledge or intention
  • inappropriate - adj. not suitable for a particular occasion etc;  not in keeping with what is correct or proper
  • inappropriately - adv. in an inappropriate manner
  • inattention - noun lack of attention
  • inborn - adj. normally existing at birth;  present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development
  • inc - noun a heterogeneous collection of groups united in their opposition to Saddam Hussein's government of Iraq; formed in 1992 it is comprised of Sunni and Shiite Arabs and Kurds who hope to build a new government
  • incapable - adj. not meeting requirements;  (followed by `of') lacking capacity or ability;  (followed by `of') not having the temperament or inclination for;  lacking the necessary skill or knowledge etc.;  not being susceptible to or admitting of something (usually followed by `of')
  • incapacitating - adj. that cripples or disables or incapacitates
  • incidence - noun the striking of a light beam on a surface;  the relative frequency of occurrence of something
  • incidentally - adv. in an incidental manner;  introducing a different topic;  by the way
  • incipient - adj. only partly in existence; imperfectly formed
  • incised - adj. cut into with a sharp instrument;  sharply and deeply indented;  cut or impressed into a surface
  • include - verb add as part of something else; put in as part of a set, group, or category;  consider as part of something;  have as a part, be made up out of;  allow participation in or the right to be part of; permit to exercise the rights, functions, and responsibilities of
  • included - adj. enclosed in the same envelope or package
  • inclusion - noun the act of including;  the relation of comprising something;  the state of being included;  any small intracellular body found within another (characteristic of certain diseases)
  • incompatibility - noun the quality of being unable to exist or work in congenial combination;  the relation between propositions that cannot both be true at the same time;  (immunology) the degree to which the body's immune system will try to reject foreign material (as transfused blood or transplanted tissue)
  • incompetent - adj. not qualified or suited for a purpose;  not doing a good job;  not meeting requirements;  showing lack of skill or aptitude;  noun someone who is not competent to take effective action
  • incomplete - adj. not complete or total; not completed;  not yet finished
  • incompletely - adv. not to a full degree or extent
  • inconclusive - adj. not conclusive; not putting an end to doubt or question;  leading to no final results or outcome
  • incontinence - noun involuntary urination or defecation;  indiscipline with regard to sensuous pleasures
  • incontinent - adj. not having control over urination and defecation
  • inconvenience - noun the quality of not being useful or convenient; an inconvenient discomfort;  a difficulty that causes anxiety;  verb to cause inconvenience or discomfort to
  • inconveniently - adv. in an inconvenient manner
  • incoordination - noun a lack of coordination of movements
  • incorporated - adj. introduced into as a part of the whole;  organized and maintained as a legal corporation;  formed or united into a whole
  • incorporation - noun including by incorporating;  consolidating two or more things; union in (or into) one body;  learning (of values or attitudes etc.) that is incorporated within yourself
  • incorrect - adj. not correct; not in conformity with fact or truth
  • incorrectly - adv. in an incorrect manner;  in an incorrect manner
  • increase - noun the act of increasing something;  the amount by which something increases;  a change resulting in an increase;  a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important;  a quantity that is added;  verb make bigger or more; become bigger or greater in amount
  • increased - adj. made greater in size or amount or degree
  • increasing - adj. becoming greater or larger;  music
  • increasingly - adv. advancing in amount or intensity
  • indeed - adv. (used as an interjection) an expression of surprise or skepticism or irony etc.;  in truth (often tends to intensify)
  • indefinitely - adv. to an indefinite extent; for an indefinite time
  • indexer - noun someone who provides an index
  • india - noun a republic in the Asian subcontinent in southern Asia; second most populous country in the world; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1947
  • indicate - verb indicate a place, direction, person, or thing; either spatially or figuratively;  to state or express briefly;  suggest the necessity of an intervention; in medicine;  give evidence of;  be a signal for or a symptom of
  • indigestion - noun a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea
  • indinavir - noun a protease inhibitor (trade name Crixivan) used for treating HIV
  • indirectly - adv. not in a forthright manner
  • indiscriminately - adv. in a random manner;  in an indiscriminate manner
  • indistinguishable - adj. not capable of being distinguished or differentiated;  exactly alike; incapable of being perceived as different
  • individual - adj. being or characteristic of a single thing or person; separate and distinct from others of the same kind;  concerning one person exclusively;  characteristic of or meant for a single person or thing;  noun a single organism;  a human being
  • individualization - noun discriminating the individual from the generic group or species
  • individualized - adj. made for or directed or adjusted to a particular individual
  • indoors - adv. within a building
  • induce - verb reason or establish by induction;  cause to do; cause to act in a specified manner;  cause to arise;  cause to occur rapidly; produce electric current by electrostatic or magnetic processes
  • induced - adj. brought about or caused; not spontaneous
  • inducer - noun an agent capable of activating specific genes; someone who tries to persuade or induce or lead on
  • inducing - noun act of bringing about a desired result
  • industrialized - adj. made industrial; converted to industrialism
  • industry - noun the organized action of making of goods and services for sale;  the people or companies engaged in a particular kind of commercial enterprise;  persevering determination to perform a task
  • ineffective - adj. lacking the ability or skill to perform effectively; inadequate;  not producing an intended effect;  lacking in power or forcefulness
  • ineffectiveness - noun lacking the power to be effective
  • inefficient - adj. not producing desired results; wasteful;  lacking the ability or skill to perform effectively; inadequate
  • inequality - noun lack of equality
  • inert - adj. slow and apathetic;  unable to move or resist motion; having only a limited ability to react chemically; chemically inactive
  • inevitable - adj. incapable of being avoided or prevented;  invariably occurring or appearing;  noun an unavoidable event
  • inevitably - adv. in such a manner as could not be otherwise;  by necessity
  • inexpensive - adj. relatively low in price or charging low prices
  • inexperienced - adj. lacking practical experience or training
  • infancy - noun the earliest state of immaturity;  the early stage of growth or development
  • infant - noun a very young child (birth to 1 year) who has not yet begun to walk or talk
  • infantile - adj. being or befitting or characteristic of an infant;  of or relating to infants or infancy;  indicating a lack of maturity
  • infarct - noun localized necrosis resulting from obstruction of the blood supply
  • infarction - noun localized necrosis resulting from obstruction of the blood supply
  • infected - adj. containing or resulting from disease-causing organisms
  • infectious - adj. easily spread;  caused by infection or capable of causing infection;  of or relating to infection
  • infective - adj. able to cause disease;  caused by infection or capable of causing infection
  • infer - verb believe to be the case;  guess correctly; solve by guessing;  reason by deduction; establish by deduction;  conclude by reasoning; in logic;  draw from specific cases for more general cases
  • infertility - noun the state of being unable to produce offspring; in a woman it is an inability to conceive; in a man it is an inability to impregnate
  • infiltrate - verb pass through an enemy line; in a military conflict; pass into or through by filtering or permeating;  cause (a liquid) to enter by penetrating the interstices;  enter a group or organization in order to spy on the members
  • inflamed - adj. adorned with tongues of flame;  resulting from inflammation; hot and swollen and reddened;  lighted with red light as if with flames
  • inflammation - noun arousal to violent emotion;  a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat;  the act of setting something on fire;  the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up
  • inflammatory - adj. characterized or caused by inflammation; arousing to action or rebellion
  • inflate - verb fill with gas or air;  exaggerate or make bigger; increase the amount or availability of, creating a rise in value;  cause prices to rise by increasing the available currency or credit;  become inflated
  • infliximab - noun an anti-TNF compound (trade name Remicade) consisting of an antibody directed against TNF; it is given intravenously at one-month to three-month intervals; used in treatment of regional enteritis and rheumatoid arthritis
  • influenza - noun an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease
  • influx - noun the process of flowing in
  • information - noun (communication theory) a numerical measure of the uncertainty of an outcome;  knowledge acquired through study or experience or instruction;  a message received and understood; formal accusation of a crime;  a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn
  • informed - adj. having much knowledge or education
  • infrequent - adj. not frequent; not occurring regularly or at short intervals
  • infrequently - adv. not many times
  • ingest - verb take up mentally;  serve oneself to, or consume regularly
  • ingestion - noun the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)
  • ingredient - noun a component of a mixture or compound;  food that is a component of a mixture in cooking;  an abstract part of something
  • inh - noun antibacterial drug (trade name Nydrazid) used to treat tuberculosis
  • inhalation - noun the act of inhaling; the drawing in of air (or other gases) as in breathing;  a medication to be taken by inhaling it
  • inhaler - noun a dispenser that produces a chemical vapor to be inhaled in order to relieve nasal congestion
  • inherent - adj. in the nature of something though not readily apparent;  existing as an essential constituent or characteristic
  • inherit - verb obtain from someone after their death;  receive by genetic transmission;  receive from a predecessor
  • inherited - adj. tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity
  • inhibit - verb limit the range or extent of;  to put down by force or authority
  • inhibited - adj. held back or restrained or prevented
  • inhibition - noun (psychology) the conscious exclusion of unacceptable thoughts or desires;  the quality of being inhibited; (physiology) the process whereby nerves can retard or prevent the functioning of an organ or part;  the action of prohibiting or inhibiting or forbidding (or an instance thereof)
  • inhibitor - noun a substance that retards or stops an activity
  • inhibitory - adj. restrictive of action
  • initial - adj. occurring at the beginning;  noun the first letter of a word (especially a person's name);  verb mark with one's initials
  • initially - adv. at the beginning
  • initiation - noun the act of starting something for the first time; introducing something new;  a formal entry into an organization or position or office;  an act that sets in motion some course of events; wisdom as evidenced by the possession of knowledge
  • initiative - adj. serving to set in motion;  noun the first of a series of actions;  readiness to embark on bold new ventures
  • injectable - adj. (used of drugs) capable of being injected
  • injection - noun the forceful insertion of a substance under pressure;  the act of putting a liquid into the body by means of a syringe;  any solution that is injected (as into the skin)
  • injudicious - adj. lacking or showing lack of judgment or discretion; unwise
  • injure - verb cause injuries or bodily harm to;  cause damage or affect negatively;  hurt the feelings of
  • injured - adj. usually used of physical or mental injury to persons
  • injury - noun an act that injures someone;  an accident that results in physical damage or hurt;  any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.;  a casualty to military personnel resulting from combat
  • inner - adj. inside or closer to the inside of the body;  located or occurring within or closer to a center;  located inward;  innermost or essential;  exclusive to a center; especially a center of influence; confined to an exclusive group
  • innocuous - adj. not injurious to physical or mental health;  not causing disapproval;  lacking intent or capacity to injure;  unlikely to harm or disturb anyone
  • innovator - noun someone who helps to open up a new line of research or technology or art
  • inoperable - adj. not suitable for surgery;  not able to perform its normal function
  • inorganic - adj. relating or belonging to the class of compounds not having a carbon basis;  lacking the properties characteristic of living organisms
  • inosine - noun a nucleoside that is formed by the deamination of adenosine; used in kidney transplantation to provide a temporary source of sugar
  • inositol - noun an optically inactive alcohol that is a component of the vitamin B complex
  • input - noun a component of production; something that goes into the production of output;  any stimulating information or event; acts to arouse action;  signal going into an electronic system;  verb enter (data or a program) into a computer
  • inr - noun an agency that is the primary source in the State Department for interpretive analyses of global developments and focal point for policy issues and activities of the Intelligence Community
  • insensitive - adj. not responsive to physical stimuli;  deficient in human sensibility; not mentally or morally sensitive
  • insensitivity - noun the inability to respond to affective changes in your interpersonal environment
  • insertion - noun the act of putting one thing into another;  a message (spoken or written) that is introduced or inserted
  • insidious - adj. working or spreading in a hidden and usually injurious way;  intended to entrap;  beguiling but harmful
  • insidiously - adv. in a harmfully insidious manner
  • insignificant - adj. not large enough to consider or notice;  not worthy of notice;  of little importance or influence or power; of minor status;  signifying nothing;  not important or noteworthy
  • insist - verb assert to be true;  be emphatic or resolute and refuse to budge;  beg persistently and urgently
  • insoluble - adj. without hope of solution;  (of a substance) incapable of being dissolved;  admitting of no solution or explanation
  • insomnia - noun an inability to sleep; chronic sleeplessness
  • inspection - noun a formal or official examination
  • inspired - adj. being of such surpassing excellence as to suggest inspiration by the gods
  • instability - noun the quality or attribute of being unstable and irresolute;  unreliability attributable to being unstable;  an unstable order;  a lack of balance or state of disequilibrium
  • instance - noun an item of information that is representative of a type;  an occurrence of something;  verb clarify by giving an example of
  • instantaneously - adv. without any delay
  • instead - adv. in place of, or as an alternative to;  on the contrary
  • instigation - noun deliberate and intentional triggering (of trouble or discord);  the verbal act of urging on
  • institute - noun an association organized to promote art or science or education;  verb advance or set forth in court;  set up or lay the groundwork for
  • institutional - adj. organized as or forming an institution;  relating to or constituting or involving an institution
  • instruct - verb give instructions or directions for some task;  make aware of;  impart skills or knowledge to
  • instructions - noun a manual usually accompanying a technical device and explaining how to install or operate it
  • instructive - adj. serving to instruct of enlighten or inform
  • instrumental - adj. relating to or designed for or performed on musical instruments;  serving or acting as a means or aid
  • insufficiency - noun lack of an adequate quantity or number; (pathology) inability of a bodily part or organ to function normally;  a lack of competence
  • insufficient - adj. of a quantity not able to fulfill a need or requirement
  • insulin - noun hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; regulates storage of glycogen in the liver and accelerates oxidation of sugar in cells
  • insurance - noun promise of reimbursement in the case of loss; paid to people or companies so concerned about hazards that they have made prepayments to an insurance company;  written contract or certificate of insurance;  protection against future loss
  • intact - adj. undamaged in any way; whole;  not impaired or diminished in any way;  (of a woman) having the hymen unbroken; constituting the undiminished entirety; lacking nothing essential especially not damaged;  (used of domestic animals) sexually competent
  • intake - noun an opening through which fluid is admitted to a tube or container;  the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)
  • integral - adj. constituting the undiminished entirety; lacking nothing essential especially not damaged;  existing as an essential constituent or characteristic;  noun the result of a mathematical integration; F(x) is the integral of f(x) if dF/dx = f(x)
  • integrating - noun the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community
  • integrity - noun moral soundness;  an undivided or unbroken completeness or totality with nothing wanting
  • integument - noun an outer protective covering such as the skin of an animal or a cuticle or seed coat or rind or shell
  • intended - adj. future; betrothed;  intentional or planned
  • intense - adj. (of color) having the highest saturation;  in an extreme degree;  extremely sharp or intense
  • intensify - verb become more intense;  make more intense, stronger, or more marked;  make the chemically affected part of (a negative) denser or more opaque in order produce a stronger contrast between light and dark;  increase in extent or intensity
  • intensity - noun high level or degree; the property of being intense; the amount of energy transmitted (as by acoustic or electromagnetic radiation);  chromatic purity: freedom from dilution with white and hence vivid in hue;  the magnitude of sound (usually in a specified direction)
  • intensive - adj. characterized by a high degree or intensity; often used as a combining form;  of agriculture; intended to increase productivity of a fixed area by expending more capital and labor; tending to give force or emphasis;  noun a modifier that has little meaning except to intensify the meaning it modifies
  • intention - noun an act of intending; a volition that you intend to carry out;  (usually plural) the goal with respect to a marriage proposal;  an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions
  • intentionally - adv. with intention; in an intentional manner
  • interact - verb act together or towards others or with others
  • interaction - noun a mutual or reciprocal action; interacting; (physics) the transfer of energy between elementary particles or between an elementary particle and a field or between fields; mediated by gauge bosons
  • intercept - noun the point at which a line intersects a coordinate axis;  verb seize on its way;  tap a telephone or telegraph wire to get information
  • intercollegiate - adj. used of competition between colleges or universities
  • interconnected - adj. reciprocally connected;  operating as a unit
  • intercourse - noun communication between individuals;  the act of sexual procreation between a man and a woman; the man's penis is inserted into the woman's vagina and excited until orgasm and ejaculation occur
  • interesting - adj. arousing or holding the attention
  • interestingly - adv. in an interesting manner
  • interfere - verb come between so as to be hindrance or obstacle; get involved, so as to alter or hinder an action, or through force or threat of force
  • interference - noun (American football) blocking a player's path with your body;  the act of hindering or obstructing or impeding;  any obstruction that impedes or is burdensome;  a policy of intervening in the affairs of other countries;  electrical or acoustic activity that can disturb communication
  • interfering - adj. intrusive in a meddling or offensive manner
  • interferon - noun an antiviral protein produced by cells that have been invaded by a virus; inhibits replication of the virus
  • interim - adj. serving during an intermediate interval of time;  nounthe time between one event, process, or period and another
  • interleukin - noun any of several lymphokines that promote macrophages and killer T cells and B cells and other components of the immune system
  • interlocking - adj. linked or locked closely together as by dovetailing;  noun the act of interlocking or meshing;  contact by fitting together
  • intermediary - noun a negotiator who acts as a link between parties
  • intermediate - adj. lying between two extremes in time or space or degree;  around the middle of a scale of evaluation of physical measures;  noun a substance formed during a chemical process before the desired product is obtained;  verb act between parties with a view to reconciling differences
  • intermittent - adj. stopping and starting at irregular intervals; stopping and starting at regular intervals
  • intermittently - adv. in an intermittent manner
  • internal - adj. happening or arising or located within some limits or especially surface;  occurring within an institution or community; located inward;  inside the country;  innermost or essential
  • international - adj. concerning or belonging to all or at least two or more nations;  from or between other countries;  noun any of several international socialist organizations
  • internationally - adv. throughout the world
  • interpersonal - adj. occurring among or involving several people
  • interplay - noun reciprocal action and reaction
  • interpretation - noun an explanation of something that is not immediately obvious;  a mental representation of the meaning or significance of something;  an explanation that results from interpreting something;  the act of interpreting something as expressed in an artistic performance
  • interpreted - adj. understood in a certain way; made sense of
  • interrupt - noun a signal that temporarily stops the execution of a program so that another procedure can be carried out;  verbterminate;  destroy the peace or tranquility of;  interfere in someone else's activity;  make a break in
  • interrupted - adj. discontinued temporarily;  intermittently stopping and starting
  • interruption - noun some abrupt occurrence that interrupts an ongoing activity;  an act of delaying or interrupting the continuity;  a time interval during which there is a temporary cessation of something
  • intersex - noun one having both male and female sexual characteristics and organs; at birth an unambiguous assignment of male or female cannot be made
  • interstitial - adj. of or relating to interstices
  • interval - noun the distance between things;  a set containing all points (or all real numbers) between two given endpoints;  the difference in pitch between two notes;  a definite length of time marked off by two instants
  • intervening - adj. standing between or separating two objects or areas;  occurring or falling between events or points in time
  • intestinal - adj. of or relating to or inside the intestines
  • intestine - noun the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus
  • intima - noun the innermost membrane of an organ (especially the inner lining of an artery or vein or lymphatic vessel)
  • intimal - adj. of or relating to the intima
  • intimately - adv. with great or especially intimate knowledge;  in a close manner
  • intolerable - adj. incapable of being put up with
  • intolerance - noun impatience with annoyances;  unwillingness to recognize and respect differences in opinions or beliefs
  • intolerant - adj. unwilling to tolerate difference of opinion;  narrow-minded about cherished opinions
  • intoxication - noun excitement and elation beyond the bounds of sobriety;  a temporary state resulting from excessive consumption of alcohol;  the physiological state produced by a poison or other toxic substance
  • intracellular - adj. located or occurring within a cell or cells
  • intracerebral - adj. within the brain
  • intracranial - adj. within the skull
  • intractable - adj. not tractable; difficult to manage or mold
  • intradermal - adj. relating to areas between the layers of the skin
  • intradermally - adv. into the skin
  • intramural - adj. carried on within the bounds of an institution or community
  • intramuscular - adj. within a muscle
  • intramuscularly - adv. in an intramuscular way
  • intrauterine - adj. within the womb
  • intravenous - adj. within or by means of a vein
  • intravenously - adv. in an intravenous manner
  • intrinsic - adj. situated within or belonging solely to the organ or body part on which it acts;  belonging to a thing by its very nature
  • intrinsically - adv. with respect to its inherent nature
  • intubate - verb introduce a cannula or tube into
  • intubation - noun the insertion of a cannula or tube into a hollow body organ
  • intuitively - adv. in an intuitive manner
  • invalid - adj. no longer valid;  having no cogency or legal force;  nounsomeone who is incapacitated by a chronic illness or injury;  verbforce to retire, remove from active duty, as of firemen;  injure permanently
  • invaluable - adj. having incalculable monetary, intellectual, or spiritual worth
  • invariable - adj. not liable to or capable of change;  noun a quantity that does not vary
  • invariably - adv. in an invariable manner
  • invasive - adj. marked by a tendency to spread especially into healthy tissue;  relating to a technique in which the body is entered by puncture or incision;  gradually intrusive without right or permission;  involving invasion or aggressive attack
  • inverse - adj. reversed (turned backward) in order or nature or effect;  opposite in nature or effect or relation to another quantity; noun something inverted in sequence or character or effect
  • inversely - adv. in an inverse or contrary manner
  • investigate - verb conduct an inquiry or investigation of;  investigate scientifically
  • investigating - noun the work of inquiring into something thoroughly and systematically
  • investigation - noun the work of inquiring into something thoroughly and systematically;  an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities
  • investigative - adj. designed to find information or ascertain facts
  • investigator - noun someone who investigates;  a police officer who investigates crimes;  a scientist who devotes himself to doing research
  • invoke - verb cite as an authority; resort to;  request earnestly (something from somebody); ask for aid or protection;  summon into action or bring into existence, often as if by magic
  • involuntary - adj. not subject to the control of the will;  controlled by the autonomic nervous system; without conscious control
  • involve - verb make complex or intricate or complicated;  occupy or engage the interest of;  wrap;  contain as a part;  connect closely and often incriminatingly;  engage as a participant;  require as useful, just, or proper;  have as a necessary feature or consequence; entail
  • involved - adj. emotionally involved;  entangled or hindered as if e.g. in mire;  connected by participation or association or use;  enveloped; highly complex or intricate
  • involvement - noun a connection of inclusion or containment;  the act of sharing in the activities of a group;  a sense of concern with and curiosity about someone or something;  the condition of sharing in common with others (as fellows or partners etc.);  a usually secretive or illicit sexual relationship
  • iodide - noun a salt or ester of hydriodic acid
  • iodinated - adj. treated with iodine
  • iodine - noun a nonmetallic element belonging to the halogens; used especially in medicine and photography and in dyes; occurs naturally only in combination in small quantities (as in sea water or rocks);  a tincture consisting of a solution of iodine in ethyl alcohol; applied topically to wounds as an antiseptic
  • iodized - adj. treated with iodine
  • iodothyronine - noun thyronine with iodine added
  • ion exchange - noun a process in which ions are exchanged between a solution and an insoluble (usually resinous) solid; widely used in industrial processing
  • ion - noun a particle that is electrically charged (positive or negative); an atom or molecule or group that has lost or gained one or more electrons
  • ionization - noun the process of ionizing; the formation of ions by separating atoms or molecules or radicals or by adding or subtracting electrons from atoms by strong electric fields in a gas; the condition of being dissociated into ions (as by heat or radiation or chemical reaction or electrical discharge)
  • ionized - adj. converted totally or partly into ions
  • ir - noun a board of the British government that administers and collects major direct taxes;  a heavy brittle metallic element of the platinum group; used in alloys; occurs in natural alloys with platinum or osmium
  • irrational - adj. not consistent with or using reason;  real but not expressible as the quotient of two integers;  noun a real number that cannot be expressed as a rational number
  • irregularly - adv. in an irregular manner;  in an irregular manner;  in an irregular manner;  having an irregular form
  • irrelevant - adj. having no bearing on or connection with the subject at issue
  • irrespective - adv. in spite of everything; without regard to drawbacks
  • irreversible - adj. incapable of being reversed
  • irreversibly - adv. in an irreversible manner
  • irritability - noun an irritable petulant feeling;  a disposition to exhibit uncontrolled anger;  excessive sensitivity of an organ or body part
  • irritable - adj. abnormally sensitive to a stimulus;  easily irritated or annoyed;  capable of responding to stimuli
  • irritant - noun something that causes irritation and annoyance
  • irritate - verb excite to an abnormal condition, of chafe or inflame; excite to some characteristic action or condition, such as motion, contraction, or nervous impulse, by the application of a stimulus; cause annoyance in; disturb, especially by minor irritations
  • irritating - adj. causing physical discomfort;  (used of physical stimuli) serving to stimulate or excite;  causing irritation or annoyance
  • isaac - noun (Old Testament) the second patriarch; son of Abraham and Sarah who was offered by Abraham as a sacrifice to God; father of Jacob and Esau
  • ischaemia - noun local anemia in a given body part sometimes resulting from vasoconstriction or thrombosis or embolism
  • ischaemic - adj. relating to or affected by ischemia
  • isis - noun Egyptian goddess of fertility; daughter of Geb; sister and wife of Osiris
  • islet - noun a small island
  • isocarboxazid - noun a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (trade name Marplan) that is used to treat clinical depression
  • isoflurane - noun a widely used inhalation anesthetic
  • isolated - adj. not close together in time;  under forced isolation especially for health reasons;  cut off or left behind;  remote and separate physically or socially;  being or feeling set or kept apart from others;  marked by separation of or from usually contiguous elements
  • isomer - noun a compound that exists in forms having different arrangements of atoms but the same molecular weight
  • isoniazid - noun antibacterial drug (trade name Nydrazid) used to treat tuberculosis
  • isosorbide - noun drug (trade name Isordil) used to treat angina pectoris and congestive heart failure
  • isotonic - adj. of or involving muscular contraction in which tension is constant while length changes;  (used of solutions) having the same or equal osmotic pressure;  of two or more muscles; having equal tension;  relating to or characterized by the equal intervals of a musical scale
  • isotope - noun one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons
  • it - noun the branch of engineering that deals with the use of computers and telecommunications to retrieve and store and transmit information
  • italy - noun a republic in southern Europe on the Italian Peninsula; was the core of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire between the 4th century BC and the 5th century AD
  • itching - noun an irritating cutaneous sensation that produces a desire to scratch
  • itchy - adj. causing an irritating cutaneous sensation; being affect with an itch;  unable to relax or be still
  • itraconazole - noun an oral antifungal drug (trade name Sporanox) taken for cases of fungal nail disease
  • iud - noun contraceptive device consisting of a piece of bent plastic or metal that is inserted through the vagina into the uterus
  • iv - noun administration of nutrients through a vein
  • j - noun the 10th letter of the Roman alphabet;  a unit of electrical energy equal to the work done when a current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second
  • jacobs - noun Dutch physician who opened the first birth control clinic in the world in Amsterdam (1854-1929);  United States writer and critic of urban planning (born in 1916);  English writer of macabre short stories (1863-1943)
  • japanese - adj. of or relating to or characteristic of Japan or its people or their culture or language;  noun the language (usually considered to be Altaic) spoken by the Japanese;  a native or inhabitant of Japan
  • jaundice - noun yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood; can be a symptom of gallstones or liver infection or anemia;  a rough and bitter manner;  verb affect with, or as if with, jaundice;  distort adversely
  • jaundiced - adj. showing or affected by prejudice or envy or distaste;  affected by jaundice which causes yellowing of skin etc
  • jerking - adj. not having a steady rhythm;  noun an abrupt spasmodic movement
  • ji - noun a clandestine group of southeast Asian terrorists organized in 1993 and trained by al-Qaeda; supports militant Muslims in Indonesia and the Philippines and has cells in Singapore and Malaysia and Indonesia
  • johns - noun United States artist and proponent of pop art (born in 1930)
  • johnston - noun Confederate general in the American Civil War; led the Confederate troops in the West (1807-1891)
  • joined - adj. of or relating to two people who are married to each other;  connected by a link, as railway cars or trailer trucks
  • joining - noun the act of bringing two things into contact (especially for communication)
  • jointly - adv. in conjunction with; combined;  in collaboration or cooperation
  • jonathan - noun red late-ripening apple; primarily eaten raw
  • jong - noun United States writer (born in 1942)
  • journal - noun the part of the axle contained by a bearing;  a record book as a physical object;  a periodical dedicated to a particular subject;  a daily written record of (usually personal) experiences and observations;  a ledger in which transactions have been recorded as they occurred
  • jr - noun a son who has the same first name as his father
  • judges - noun a book of the Old Testament that tells the history of Israel under the leaders known as judges
  • judicious - adj. marked by the exercise of good judgment or common sense in practical matters
  • jugular - adj. relating to or located in the region of the neck or throat;  noun a vital part that is vulnerable to attack;  veins in the neck that return blood from the head
  • juice - noun any of several liquids of the body;  the liquid part that can be extracted from plant or animal tissue;  electric current; energetic vitality
  • junction - noun an act of joining or adjoining things;  the place where two or more things come together;  something that joins or connects; the state of being joined together;  the shape or manner in which things come together and a connection is made
  • june - noun the month following May and preceding July
  • justification - noun the act of defending or explaining or making excuses for by reasoning;  something (such as a fact or circumstance) that shows an action to be reasonable or necessary; a statement in explanation of some action or belief
  • justified - adj. having words so spaced that lines have straight even margins
  • justify - verb adjust the spaces between words;  show to be right by providing justification or proof;  show to be reasonable or provide adequate ground for;  defend, explain, clear away, or make excuses for by reasoning;  let off the hook
  • kaolin - noun a fine usually white clay formed by the weathering of aluminous minerals (as feldspar); used in ceramics and as an absorbent and as a filler (e.g., in paper)
  • kava - noun an alcoholic drink made from the aromatic roots of the kava shrub
  • kb - noun a unit of information equal to one thousand (1024) bytes
  • keeping - noun conformity or harmony;  the act of retaining something;  the responsibility of a guardian or keeper
  • kelly - noun United States dancer who performed in many musical films (1912-1996);  United States film actress who retired when she married into the royal family of Monaco (1928-1982);  United States circus clown (1898-1979)
  • kennedy - noun a large airport on Long Island east of New York City;  35th President of the United States; established the Peace Corps; assassinated in Dallas (1917-1963)
  • kept - adj. (especially of promises or contracts) not violated or disregarded
  • keratinization - noun organic process by which keratin is deposited in cells and the cells become horny (as in nails and hair)
  • keratitis - noun inflammation of the cornea causing watery painful eyes and blurred vision
  • keratomalacia - noun softening and drying and ulceration of the cornea resulting from vitamin A deficiency; symptom of cystic fibrosis or sprue
  • kernicterus - noun an abnormal accumulation of bile pigment in the brain and other nerve tissue; causes yellow staining and tissue damage
  • ketamine - noun a general anesthetic and tranquilizer (not a barbiturate) that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly; used mainly by veterinarians or for minor surgery with geriatric or pediatric patients; taken in large doses it causes hallucinations similar to those associated with the use of PCP
  • ketoacidosis - noun acidosis with an accumulation of ketone bodies; occurs primarily in diabetes mellitus
  • ketone - noun any of a class of organic compounds having a carbonyl group linked to a carbon atom in each of two hydrocarbon radicals
  • ketoprofen - noun nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (trade names Orudis or Orudis KT or Oruvail)
  • ketorolac - noun nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (trade name Torodal) that is given only orally
  • ketosis - noun an abnormal increase of ketone bodies in the blood as in diabetes mellitus
  • kg - noun one thousand grams; the basic unit of mass adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites
  • khan - noun a title given to rulers or other important people in Asian countries;  an inn in some eastern countries with a large courtyard that provides accommodation for caravans
  • ki - noun goddess personifying earth; counterpart of Akkadian Aruru; the circulating life energy that in Chinese philosophy is thought to be inherent in all things; in traditional Chinese medicine the balance of negative and positive forms in the body is believed to be essential for good health
  • kidney - noun either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine
  • killing - adj. very funny;  noun the act of terminating a life;  an event that causes someone to die;  a very large profit
  • kilogram - noun one thousand grams; the basic unit of mass adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites
  • kinase - noun an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of a proenzyme to an active enzyme
  • kind - adj. tolerant and forgiving under provocation;  agreeable, conducive to comfort;  having or showing a tender and considerate and helpful nature; used especially of persons and their behavior; noun a category of things distinguished by some common characteristic or quality
  • kindly - adj. pleasant and agreeable;  showing or motivated by sympathy and understanding and generosity;  adv. in a kind manner or out of kindness
  • kinetic - adj. characterized by motion;  relating to the motion of material bodies and the forces associated therewith;  supplying motive force
  • kinetics - noun the branch of mechanics concerned with the forces that cause motions of bodies
  • kinin - noun any of a class of plant hormones that promote cell division and delay the senescence of leaves
  • klebsiella - noun a genus of nonmotile rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria; some cause respiratory and other infections
  • klein - noun United States fashion designer noted for understated fashions (born in 1942);  United States psychoanalyst (born in Austria) who was the first to specialize in the psychoanalysis of small children (1882-1960);  German mathematician who created the Klein bottle (1849-1925)
  • km - noun a metric unit of length equal to 1000 meters (or 0.621371 miles)
  • knee - noun the part of a trouser leg that provides the cloth covering for the knee;  hinge joint in the human leg connecting the tibia and fibula with the femur and protected in front by the patella;  joint between the femur and tibia in a quadruped; corresponds to the human knee
  • knowing - adj. evidencing the possession of inside information; highly educated; having extensive information or understanding; alert and fully informed;  by conscious design or purpose;  noun a clear and certain mental apprehension
  • knowledge - noun the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning
  • known - adj. apprehended with certainty
  • koopmans - noun United States economist (born in the Netherlands) (1910-1985)
  • kt - noun the unit of measurement for the proportion of gold in an alloy; 18-karat gold is 75% gold; 24-karat gold is pure gold
  • l-dopa - noun the levorotatory form of dopa (trade names Bendopa and Brocadopa and Larodopa); as a drug it is used to treat Parkinson's disease
  • labelled - adj. bearing or marked with a label or tag
  • labetalol - noun antihypertensive drug (trade names Trandate and Normodyne) that blocks alpha and beta-adrenergic receptors of the sympathetic nervous system (leading to a decrease in blood pressure)
  • labial - adj. relating to or near the female labium;  of or relating to the lips of the mouth;  noun a consonant whose articulation involves movement of the lips
  • labile - adj. open to change; liable to change;  (chemistry, physics, biology) readily undergoing change or breakdown
  • laboratory - noun a workplace for the conduct of scientific research; a region resembling a laboratory inasmuch as it offers opportunities for observation and practice and experimentation
  • labyrinth - noun complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost;  a complex system of interconnecting cavities; concerned with hearing and equilibrium
  • labyrinthine - adj. resembling a labyrinth in form or complexity; relating to or affecting or originating in the inner ear
  • labyrinthitis - noun inflammation of the inner ear; can cause vertigo and vomiting
  • lachrymation - noun shedding tears
  • lack - noun the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable;  verb be without
  • lacking - adj. not existing;  inadequate in amount or degree
  • lacrimation - noun shedding tears
  • lactate - noun a salt or ester of lactic acid;  verb give suck to
  • lactating - adj. producing or secreting milk
  • lactation - noun the production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands;  the period following birth during which milk is secreted;  feeding an infant by giving suck at the breast
  • lactic - adj. of or relating to or obtained from milk (especially sour milk or whey)
  • lactobacillus - noun Gram-positive rod-shaped bacteria that produce lactic acid especially in milk
  • lactose - noun a sugar comprising one glucose molecule linked to a galactose molecule; occurs only in milk
  • ladder - noun steps consisting of two parallel members connected by rungs; for climbing up or down;  ascending stages by which somebody or something can progress;  a row of unravelled stitches; verb come unraveled or undone as if by snagging
  • lady - noun a woman of the peerage in Britain;  a polite name for any woman;  a woman of refinement
  • lake - noun a body of (usually fresh) water surrounded by land;  any of numerous bright translucent organic pigments;  a purplish red pigment prepared from lac or cochineal
  • lamivudine - noun a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is very effective in combination with zidovudine in treating AIDS and HIV
  • lancet - noun a surgical knife with a pointed double-edged blade; used for punctures and small incisions;  an acutely pointed Gothic arch, like a lance
  • lansoprazole - noun antacid (trade name Prevacid) that suppresses acid secretion in the stomach
  • laparotomy - noun surgical incision into the abdominal wall; often done to examine abdominal organs
  • laplace - noun French mathematician and astronomer who formulated the nebular hypothesis concerning the origins of the solar system and who developed the theory of probability (1749-1827)
  • large-scale - adj. unusually large in scope;  constructed or drawn to a big scale
  • largely - adv. in large part; mainly or chiefly;  on a large scale
  • larger - adj. large or big relative to something else
  • laryngeal - adj. of or relating to or situated in the larynx
  • larynx - noun a cartilaginous structure at the top of the trachea; contains elastic vocal cords that are the source of the vocal tone in speech
  • laser - noun an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; an optical device that produces an intense monochromatic beam of coherent light
  • lassitude - noun weakness characterized by a lack of vitality or energy;  a feeling of lack of interest or energy;  a state of comatose torpor (as found in sleeping sickness)
  • lasting - adj. lasting a long time without change;  existing for a long time;  continuing or enduring without marked change in status or condition or place;  retained; not shed
  • latent - adj. not presently active;  potentially existing but not presently evident or realized
  • later - adj. coming at a subsequent time or stage;  at or toward an end or late period or stage of development;  adv. comparative of the adverb `late';  happening at a time subsequent to a reference time;  at some eventual time in the future
  • lateral - adj. lying away from the median and sagittal plane of a body;  situated at or extending to the side;  noun a pass to a receiver upfield from the passer
  • latest - adj. in the current fashion or style;  up to the immediate present; most recent or most up-to-date;  noun the most recent news or development
  • latter - adj. referring to the second of two things or persons mentioned (or the last one or ones of several);  noun the second of two or the second mentioned of two
  • laxative - adj. stimulating evacuation of feces;  noun a mild cathartic
  • layer - noun thin structure composed of a single thickness of cells;  a hen that lays eggs;  single thickness of usually some homogeneous substance;  a relatively thin sheetlike expanse or region lying over or under another;  an abstract place usually conceived as having depth; verb make or form a layer
  • lazarus - noun the diseased beggar in Jesus' parable of the rich man and the beggar;  the person who Jesus raised from the dead after four days in the tomb; this miracle caused the enemies of Jesus to begin the plan to put him to death
  • laziness - noun relaxed and easy activity;  apathy and inactivity in the practice of virtue (personified as one of the deadly sins); inactivity resulting from a dislike of work
  • ldl - noun a lipoprotein that transports cholesterol in the blood; composed of moderate amount of protein and a large amount of cholesterol; high levels are thought to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis
  • leader - noun a person who rules or guides or inspires others;  a featured article of merchandise sold at a loss in order to draw customers
  • leaf - noun hinged or detachable flat section (as of a table or door); a sheet of any written or printed material (especially in a manuscript or book);  the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants;  verb produce leaves, of plants;  turn over pages;  look through a book or other written material
  • leakage - noun the unwanted discharge of a fluid from some container
  • learn - verb gain knowledge or skills;  get to know or become aware of, usually accidentally;  be a student of a certain subject;  commit to memory; learn by heart;  impart skills or knowledge to;  find out, learn, or determine with certainty, usually by making an inquiry or other effort
  • learned - adj. acquired by learning;  highly educated; having extensive information or understanding;  established by conditioning or learning;  having or showing profound knowledge
  • learning - noun the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge;  profound scholarly knowledge
  • least - adj. the superlative of `little' that can be used with mass nouns and is usually preceded by `the'; a quantifier meaning smallest in amount or extent or degree;  adv. used to form the superlative;  noun something that is of no importance
  • leaving - noun act of departing
  • lebanon - noun an Asian republic at east end of Mediterranean
  • lecture - noun teaching by giving a discourse on some subject (typically to a class);  a lengthy rebuke;  a speech that is open to the public;  verb deliver a lecture or talk;  censure severely or angrily
  • led - noun diode such that light emitted at a p-n junction is proportional to the bias current; color depends on the material used
  • leech - noun carnivorous or bloodsucking aquatic or terrestrial worms typically having a sucker at each end;  a follower who hangs around a host (without benefit to the host) in hope of gain or advantage;  verb draw blood
  • left-hand - adj. located on or directed toward the left;  intended for the left hand
  • legal - adj. allowed by official rules;  established by or founded upon law or official or accepted rules;  having legal efficacy or force;  of or relating to jurisprudence;  relating to or characteristic of the profession of law
  • legibly - adv. in a legible manner
  • legionella - noun the motile aerobic rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium that thrives in central heating and air conditioning systems and can cause Legionnaires' disease
  • legislation - noun the act of making or enacting laws;  law enacted by a legislative body
  • length - noun a section of something that is long and narrow;  the linear extent in space from one end to the other; the longest horizontal dimension of something that is fixed in place;  the property of being the extent of something from beginning to end;  continuance in time;  size of the gap between two places
  • lengthened - adj. drawn out or made longer spatially
  • leprosy - noun chronic granulomatous communicable disease occurring in tropical and subtropical regions; characterized by inflamed nodules beneath the skin and wasting of body parts; caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae
  • leptospirosis - noun an infectious disease cause by leptospira and transmitted to humans from domestic animals; characterized by jaundice and fever
  • lesion - noun any visible abnormal structural change in a bodily part;  any break in the skin or an organ caused by violence or surgical incision
  • lessened - adj. decreased in severity; made less harsh;  impaired by diminution
  • lesser - adj. smaller in size or amount or value;  of less size or importance
  • lethal - adj. of an instrument of certain death
  • lethargy - noun a state of comatose torpor (as found in sleeping sickness);  inactivity; showing an unusual lack of energy;  weakness characterized by a lack of vitality or energy
  • letters - noun the literary culture;  scholarly attainment
  • leukaemia - noun malignant neoplasm of blood-forming tissues; characterized by abnormal proliferation of leukocytes; one of the four major types of cancer
  • leukemia - noun malignant neoplasm of blood-forming tissues; characterized by abnormal proliferation of leukocytes; one of the four major types of cancer
  • leukocyte - noun blood cells that engulf and digest bacteria and fungi; an important part of the body's defense system
  • leukopenia - noun an abnormal lowering of the white blood cell count
  • lever - noun a rigid bar pivoted about a fulcrum;  a flat metal tumbler in a lever lock;  a simple machine that gives a mechanical advantage when given a fulcrum;  verb to move or force, especially in an effort to get something open
  • levodopa - noun the levorotatory form of dopa (trade names Bendopa and Brocadopa and Larodopa); as a drug it is used to treat Parkinson's disease
  • lh - noun a gonadotropic hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary; stimulates ovulation in female mammals and stimulates androgen release in male mammals
  • li - noun Chinese distance measure; approximately 0.5 kilometers;  a soft silver-white univalent element of the alkali metal group; the lightest metal known; occurs in several minerals
  • liability - noun the quality of being something that holds you back; the state of being legally obliged and responsible;  an obligation to pay money to another party
  • liable - adj. held legally responsible;  (often followed by `to') likely to be affected with;  subject to legal action;  at risk of or subject to experiencing something usually unpleasant
  • liaison - noun a channel for communication between groups;  a usually secretive or illicit sexual relationship
  • liberate - verb grant freedom to;  grant freedom to; free from confinement;  give equal rights to; of women and minorities
  • liberated - adj. (of a gas e.g.) released from chemical combination; free from traditional social restraints;  freed from bondage
  • liberation - noun the act of liberating someone or something;  the attempt to achieve equal rights or status;  the termination of someone's employment (leaving them free to depart)
  • libido - noun (psychoanalysis) a Freudian term for sexual urge or desire
  • licence - noun a legal document giving official permission to do something;  freedom to deviate deliberately from normally applicable rules or practices (especially in behavior or speech);  excessive freedom; lack of due restraint;  verb authorize officially
  • license - noun the act of giving a formal (usually written) authorization;  a legal document giving official permission to do something;  freedom to deviate deliberately from normally applicable rules or practices (especially in behavior or speech);  excessive freedom; lack of due restraint;  verb authorize officially
  • licensed - adj. given official approval to act
  • lid - noun a movable top or cover (hinged or separate) for closing the opening of a container;  headdress that protects the head from bad weather; has shaped crown and usually a brim;  either of two folds of skin that can be moved to cover or open the eye
  • lidocaine - noun a local anesthetic (trade names Lidocaine and Xylocaine) used topically on the skin and mucous membranes
  • life-style - noun a manner of living that reflects the person's values and attitudes
  • life-threatening - adj. causing fear or anxiety by threatening great harm
  • lifelong - adj. continuing through life
  • lifestyle - noun a manner of living that reflects the person's values and attitudes
  • lifetime - noun the period during which something is functional (as between birth and death)
  • ligand - noun an atom or molecule or radical or ion that forms a complex around a central atom
  • lighting - noun the craft of providing artificial light;  apparatus for supplying artificial light effects for the stage or a film;  the act of setting something on fire;  having abundant light or illumination
  • likelihood - noun the probability of a specified outcome
  • likely - adj. within the realm of credibility;  has a good chance of being the case or of coming about;  likely but not certain to be or become true or real;  expected to become or be; in prospect;  adv.with considerable certainty; without much doubt
  • likewise - adv. in addition;  equally;  in like or similar manner
  • limbic - adj. of or relating to or forming a limbus
  • limitation - noun an act of limiting or restricting (as by regulation); the quality of being limited or restricted;  (law) a time period after which suits cannot be brought;  a principle that limits the extent of something;  the greatest amount of something that is possible or allowed
  • limited - adj. including only a part;  not unlimited;  having a specific function or scope;  small in range or scope;  not excessive;  mediocre; subject to limits or subjected to limits;  noun public transport consisting of a fast train or bus that makes only a few scheduled stops
  • limiting - adj. strictly limiting the reference of a modified word or phrase;  restricting the scope or freedom of action;  noun the grammatical relation that exists when a word qualifies the meaning of the phrase
  • lin - noun United States sculptor and architect whose public works include the memorial to veterans of the Vietnam War in Washington (born in 1959)
  • lindsay - noun United States poet who traveled the country trading his poems for room and board (1879-1931);  United States playwright who collaborated with Russel Crouse on several musicals (1889-1931)
  • linear - adj. of or in or along or relating to a line; involving a single dimension;  designating or involving an equation whose terms are of the first degree;  measured lengthwise;  of a leaf shape; long and narrow;  of a circuit or device having an output that is proportional to the input
  • linearly - adv. in a linear manner
  • lining - noun the act of attaching an inside lining (to a garment or curtain etc.);  providing something with a surface of a different material;  a protective covering that protects an inside surface;  a piece of cloth that is used as the inside surface of a garment
  • linked - adj. connected by a link, as railway cars or trailer trucks
  • links - noun a golf course that is built on sand ground near a shore
  • lip - noun fleshy folds of tissue as those surrounding the mouth;  the top edge of a vessel or other container;  an impudent or insolent rejoinder
  • lipase - noun an enzyme secreted in the digestive tract that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream
  • lipid - noun an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents; essential structural component of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates)
  • lipophilic - adj. having an affinity for lipids
  • lipoprotein - noun a conjugated protein having a lipid component; the principal means for transporting lipids in the blood
  • liquorice - noun a black candy flavored with the dried root of the licorice plant;  deep-rooted coarse-textured plant native to the Mediterranean region having blue flowers and pinnately compound leaves; widely cultivated in Europe for its long thick sweet roots
  • lisinopril - noun an ACE inhibiting drug (trade names Prinival or Zestril) administered as an antihypertensive and after heart attacks
  • list - noun a database containing an ordered array of items (names or topics);  the property possessed by a line or surface that departs from the vertical;  verb give or make a list of; name individually; give the names of;  tilt to one side;  cause to lean to the side;  include in a list;  enumerate
  • listed - adj. on a list;  officially entered in a roll or list
  • literature - noun the profession or art of a writer;  the humanistic study of a body of literature;  creative writing of recognized artistic value;  published writings in a particular style on a particular subject
  • lithium - noun a soft silver-white univalent element of the alkali metal group; the lightest metal known; occurs in several minerals
  • livedo - noun skin disorder characterized by patchy bluish discolorations on the skin
  • livestock - noun not used technically; any animals kept for use or profit
  • livingstone - noun Scottish missionary and explorer who discovered the Zambezi River and Victoria Falls (1813-1873)
  • lloyd - noun United States comic actor in silent films; he used physical danger as a source of comedy (1893-1971)
  • lm - noun a unit of luminous flux equal to the amount of light given out through a solid angle of 1 steradian by a point source of 1 candela intensity radiating uniformly in all directions
  • loaded - adj. (of statements or questions) charged with associative significance and often meant to mislead or influence;  (of weapons) charged with ammunition;  very drunk;  filled with a great quantity; having an abundant supply of money or possessions of value
  • loading - noun the labor of putting a load of something on or in a vehicle or ship or container etc.;  the ratio of the gross weight of an airplane to some factor determining its lift;  goods carried by a large vehicle;  weight to be borne or conveyed;  a quantity that can be processed or transported at one time
  • lobar - adj. of or relating to or affecting a lobe
  • lobby - noun a group of people who try actively to influence legislation;  the people who support some common cause or business or principle or sectional interest;  a large entrance or reception room or area;  verb detain in conversation by or as if by holding on to the outer garments of; as for political or economic favors
  • lobe - noun a rounded projection that is part of a larger structure; (anatomy) a somewhat rounded subdivision of a bodily organ or part;  the enhanced response of an antenna in a given direction as indicated by a loop in its radiation pattern;  (botany) a part into which a leaf is divided
  • localized - adj. made local or oriented locally;  confined or restricted to a particular location
  • locally - adv. by a particular locality;  to a restricted area of the body
  • located - adj. situated in a particular spot or position
  • location - noun a point or extent in space;  a workplace away from a studio at which some or all of a movie may be made;  a determination of the place where something is;  the act of putting something in a certain place
  • locker - noun a fastener that locks or closes;  a storage compartment for clothes and valuables; usually it has a lock;  a trunk for storing personal possessions; usually kept at the foot of a bed (as in a barracks)
  • locum - noun someone (physician or clergyman) who substitutes temporarily for another member of the same profession
  • loestrin - noun trade name for an oral contraceptive containing estradiol and norethindrone
  • logarithmic - adj. of or relating to or using logarithms
  • logging - noun the work of cutting down trees for timber
  • logical - adj. capable of or reflecting the capability for correct and valid reasoning;  marked by an orderly, logical, and aesthetically consistent relation of parts;  capable of thinking and expressing yourself in a clear and consistent manner;  based on known statements or events or conditions
  • logically - adv. in a logical manner;  according to logical reasoning
  • logistic - adj. of or relating to logistics
  • loin - noun either side of the backbone between the hipbone and the ribs in humans as well as quadrupeds;  a cut of meat taken from the side and back of an animal between the ribs and the rump
  • lomotil - noun trade name of an antidiarrheal
  • london - noun the capital and largest city of England; located on the Thames in southeastern England; financial and industrial and cultural center;  United States writer of novels based on experiences in the Klondike gold rush (1876-1916)
  • long-acting - adj. active over a long period of time
  • long-lasting - adj. existing for a long time
  • long-standing - adj. having existed or continued for a long time
  • long-term - adj. relating to or extending over a relatively long time
  • longer - adv. for more time;  noun a person with a strong desire for something
  • longest - adv. for the most time
  • longevity - noun the property of being long-lived;  duration of service
  • longitudinal - adj. over an extended time;  running lengthwise;  of or relating to lines of longitude
  • longitudinally - adv. with respect to longitude;  across time;  in the direction of the length
  • longstanding - adj. having existed for a long time;  having existed or continued for a long time
  • look-alike - adj. resembling closely;  noun someone who closely resembles a famous person (especially an actor)
  • loosen - verb become loose or looser or less tight;  make loose or looser;  make less dense;  cause to become loose;  disentangle and raise the fibers of;  become less severe or strict;  make less severe or strict
  • lorazepam - noun tranquilizer (trade name Ativan) used to treat anxiety and tension and insomnia
  • losses - noun something lost (especially money lost at gambling)
  • lovastatin - noun an oral drug (trade name Mevacor) to reduce blood cholesterol levels; used when dietary changes have proved inadequate
  • low-density - adj. having low concentration;  having low relative density or specific gravity
  • lower - noun the lower of two berths;  verb set lower;  cause to drop or sink;  move something or somebody to a lower position;  look angry or sullen, wrinkle one's forehead, as if to signal disapproval; make lower or quieter
  • lowered - adj. below the surround or below the normal position
  • lowering - adj. darkened by clouds;  noun the act of causing something to move to a lower level;  the act of causing to become less
  • lowest - adj. lowest in rank or importance;  adv. in the lowest position; nearest the ground
  • lp - noun a long-playing phonograph record; designed to be played at 33.3 rpm
  • lsd - noun a powerful hallucinogenic drug manufactured from lysergic acid
  • lu - noun a trivalent metallic element of the rare earth group; usually occurs in association with yttrium
  • lubricate - verb make slippery or smooth through the application of a lubricant;  apply a lubricant to;  have lubricating properties
  • lull - noun a period of calm weather;  a pause during which things are calm or activities are diminished;  verb become quiet or less intensive;  calm by deception;  make calm or still
  • lumen - noun a cavity or passage in a tubular organ;  a unit of luminous flux equal to the amount of light given out through a solid angle of 1 steradian by a point source of 1 candela intensity radiating uniformly in all directions
  • luminal - noun a long-acting barbiturate used as a sedative
  • lunatic - adj. insane and believed to be affected by the phases of the moon;  noun an insane person;  a reckless impetuous irresponsible person
  • lung - noun either of two saclike respiratory organs in the chest of vertebrates; serves to remove carbon dioxide and provide oxygen to the blood
  • lupus - noun a constellation in the southern hemisphere near Centaurus;  any of several forms of ulcerative skin disease
  • luteal - adj. of or relating to the corpus luteum
  • lying - adj. given to lying;  noun the deliberate act of deviating from the truth
  • lymph node - noun the source of lymph and lymphocytes
  • lymph - noun a thin coagulable fluid (similar to plasma but) containing white blood cells (lymphocytes) and chyle; is conveyed to the blood stream by lymphatic vessels
  • lymphadenopathy - noun chronic abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes (usually associated with disease)
  • lymphatic - adj. of or relating to or produced by lymph
  • lymphocyte - noun an agranulocytic leukocyte that normally makes up a quarter of the white blood cell count but increases in the presence of infection
  • lymphocytic - adj. of or relating to lymphocytes
  • lymphoid - adj. resembling lymph or lymphatic tissues
  • lymphoma - noun a neoplasm of lymph tissue that is usually malignant; one of the four major types of cancer
  • lysine - noun an essential amino acid found in proteins; occurs especially in gelatin and casein
  • lysis - noun (biochemistry) dissolution or destruction of cells such as blood cells or bacteria;  recuperation in which the symptoms of an acute disease gradually subside
  • m - noun the 13th letter of the Roman alphabet;  concentration measured by the number of moles of solute per liter of solution;  the basic unit of length adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites (approximately 1.094 yards)
  • ma - noun informal terms for a mother;  a master's degree in arts and sciences;  a state in New England; one of the original 13 colonies; one thousandth of an ampere
  • mac - noun a waterproof raincoat made of rubberized fabric
  • machinery - noun machines or machine systems collectively;  a system of means and activities whereby a social institution functions
  • macrolide-lincosamidestreptogramin.
  • macromolecular - adj. relating to or consisting of or characterized by macromolecules
  • macromolecule - noun any very large complex molecule; found only in plants and animals
  • macrophage - noun a large phagocyte; some are fixed and other circulate in the blood stream
  • macroscopic - adj. large enough to be visible to the naked eye
  • made - adj. produced by a manufacturing process;  (of a bed) having the sheets and blankets set in order;  successful or assured of success
  • magic - adj. possessing or using or characteristic of or appropriate to supernatural powers;  noun any art that invokes supernatural powers;  an illusory feat; considered magical by naive observers
  • magnesium - noun a light silver-white ductile bivalent metallic element; in pure form it burns with brilliant white flame; occurs naturally only in combination (as in magnesite and dolomite and carnallite and spinel and olivine)
  • magnetic - adj. having the properties of a magnet; i.e. of attracting iron or steel;  determined by earth's magnetic fields;  capable of being magnetized;  of or relating to or caused by magnetism;  possessing an extraordinary ability to attract;  having the properties of a magnet; the ability to draw or pull
  • maidenhead - noun a fold of tissue that partly covers the entrance to the vagina of a virgin
  • main - adj. of force; of the greatest possible intensity;  (of a clause) capable of standing syntactically alone as a complete sentence; most important element;  noun a principal pipe in a system that distributes water or gas or electricity or that collects sewage;  any very large body of (salt) water
  • mainland - noun the main land mass of a country or continent; as distinguished from an island or peninsula
  • mainly - adv. for the most part
  • mainstay - noun the forestay that braces the mainmast;  a central cohesive source of support and stability;  a prominent supporter
  • mainstream - noun the prevailing current of thought
  • maintained - adj. kept in good condition;  continued in your keeping or use or memory
  • majority - noun the property resulting from being or relating to the greater in number of two parts; the main part;  (elections) more than half of the votes;  the age at which persons are considered competent to manage their own affairs
  • making - noun (usually plural) the components needed for making or doing something;  the act that results in something coming to be; an attribute that must be met or complied with and that fits a person for something
  • malabsorption - noun abnormal absorption of nutrients from the digestive tract
  • malaise - noun physical discomfort (as mild sickness or depression)
  • malaria - noun an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito; marked by paroxysms of chills and fever
  • malformation - noun something abnormal or anomalous;  an affliction in which some part of the body is misshapen or malformed
  • malformed - adj. so badly formed or out of shape as to be ugly
  • malignancy - noun (medicine) a malignant state; progressive and resistant to treatment and tending to cause death;  quality of being disposed to evil; intense ill will
  • malignant - adj. dangerous to health; characterized by progressive and uncontrolled growth (especially of a tumor)
  • malnourished - adj. not being provided with adequate nourishment
  • malnutrition - noun a state of poor nutrition; can result from insufficient or excessive or unbalanced diet or from inability to absorb foods
  • mammal - noun any warm-blooded vertebrate having the skin more or less covered with hair; young are born alive except for the small subclass of monotremes and nourished with milk
  • mammalian - adj. of or relating to the class Mammalia;  noun any warm-blooded vertebrate having the skin more or less covered with hair; young are born alive except for the small subclass of monotremes and nourished with milk
  • mammary - adj. of or relating to the milk-giving gland of the female
  • manage - verb be in charge of, act on, or dispose of;  watch and direct;  be successful; achieve a goal;  carry on or manage;  achieve something by means of trickery or devious methods;  come to terms or deal successfully with
  • management - noun the act of managing something;  those in charge of running a business
  • mandatory - adj. required by rule;  noun a territory surrendered by Turkey or Germany after World War I and put under the tutelage of some other European power until they are able to stand by themselves;  the recipient of a mandate
  • manganese - noun a hard brittle grey polyvalent metallic element that resembles iron but is not magnetic; used in making steel; occurs in many minerals
  • mania - noun an irrational but irresistible motive for a belief or action;  a mood disorder; an affective disorder in which the victim tends to respond excessively and sometimes violently
  • manic - adj. affected with or marked by frenzy or mania uncontrolled by reason
  • manifest - adj. clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment;  noun a customs document listing the contents put on a ship or plane;  verb reveal its presence or make an appearance; record in a ship's manifest;  provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one's behavior, attitude, or external attributes
  • manifestation - noun a manifest indication of the existence or presence or nature of some person or thing;  a clear appearance;  a public display of group feelings (usually of a political nature); expression without words;  an appearance in bodily form (as of a disembodied spirit)
  • manipulation - noun exerting shrewd or devious influence especially for one's own advantage;  the action of touching with the hands (or the skillful use of the hands) or by the use of mechanical means
  • manner - noun a way of acting or behaving;  how something is done or how it happens;  a kind
  • mannitol - noun a diuretic (trade name Osmitrol) used to promote the excretion of urine
  • manual - adj. requiring human effort;  doing or requiring physical work;  of or relating to the hands;  noun a small handbook;  (military) a prescribed drill in handling a rifle
  • manufacture - noun the organized action of making of goods and services for sale;  the act of making something (a product) from raw materials;  verb put together out of components or parts;  make up something artificial or untrue
  • manufactured - adj. produced in a large-scale industrial operation
  • many - adj. a quantifier that can be used with count nouns and is often preceded by `as' or `too' or `so' or `that'; amounting to a large but indefinite number
  • mao - noun Chinese communist leader (1893-1976);  an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of many body compounds (e.g., epinephrine and norepinephrine and serotonin)
  • maoi - noun any of a group of antidepressant drugs that inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase in the brain and so allow monoamines to accumulate
  • marginal - adj. being close to a lower limit or or of lower class; producing at a rate that barely covers production costs;  of a bare living gained by great labor;  at or constituting a border or edge;  of questionable or minimal quality;  just barely adequate or within a lower limit
  • marginally - adv. in a marginal manner
  • marijuana - noun a strong-smelling plant from whose dried leaves a number of euphoriant and hallucinogenic drugs are prepared;  the most commonly used illicit drug; considered a soft drug, it consists of the dried leaves of the hemp plant; smoked or chewed for euphoric effect
  • marked - adj. singled out for notice or especially for a dire fate; strongly marked; easily noticeable;  having or as if having an identifying mark or a mark as specified; often used in combination
  • markedly - adv. in a clearly noticeable manner
  • marker - noun some conspicuous object used to distinguish or mark something;  a writing implement for making a mark;  a distinguishing symbol
  • marketing - noun shopping at a market;  the commercial processes involved in promoting and selling and distributing a product or service;  the exchange of goods for an agreed sum of money
  • marsh - noun low-lying wet land with grassy vegetation; usually is a transition zone between land and water;  New Zealand writer of detective stories (1899-1982);  United States painter (1898-1954)
  • martin - noun any of various swallows with squarish or slightly forked tail and long pointed wings; migrate around Martinmas; United States singer (1917-1995);  United States actress (1913-1990);  United States actor and comedian (born in 1945);  French bishop who is a patron saint of France (died in 397)
  • masculinization - noun the abnormal development of male sexual characteristics in a female (usually as the result of hormone therapies or adrenal malfunction)
  • masculinize - verb produce virilism in or cause to assume masculine characteristics, as through a hormonal imbalance or hormone therapy;  give a masculine appearance or character to
  • mask - noun activity that tries to conceal something;  a covering to disguise or conceal the face;  a protective covering worn over the face;  a party of guests wearing costumes and masks;  verb put a mask on or cover with a mask;  shield from light;  cover with a sauce; hide under a false appearance
  • massachusetts - noun a state in New England; one of the original 13 colonies;  one of the British colonies that formed the United States;  the Algonquian language of the Massachuset;  a member of the Algonquian people who formerly lived around Massachusetts Bay
  • massage - noun kneading and rubbing parts of the body to increase circulation and promote relaxation;  verb give a massage to; manually manipulate (someone's body), usually for medicinal or relaxation purposes
  • masses - noun the common people generally
  • massive - adj. consisting of great mass; containing a great quantity of matter;  imposing in size or bulk or solidity;  imposing in scale or scope or degree or power;  being the same substance throughout
  • mast - noun a vertical spar for supporting sails;  any sturdy upright pole;  nuts of forest trees used as feed for swine;  nuts of forest trees (as beechnuts and acorns) accumulated on the ground; used especially as food for swine
  • mastalgia - noun pain in the breast
  • matched - adj. provided with a worthy adversary or competitor; going well together; possessing harmonizing qualities
  • materialize - verb come into being; become reality
  • maternal - adj. characteristic of a mother;  relating to or derived from one's mother;  relating to or characteristic of or befitting a parent; related on the mother's side
  • mathematical - adj. characterized by the exactness or precision of mathematics;  statistically possible though highly improbable;  beyond question;  of or pertaining to or of the nature of mathematics;  relating to or having ability to think in or work with numbers
  • mathematically - adv. with respect to mathematics
  • matter - noun (used with negation) having consequence;  a vaguely specified concern;  a problem;  written works (especially in books or magazines);  that which has mass and occupies space;  some situation or event that is thought about;  verb have weight; have import, carry weight
  • matured - adj. fully considered and perfected;  fully ripe; at the height of bloom
  • max - noun street names for gamma hydroxybutyrate
  • maximal - adj. the greatest or most complete or best possible
  • maximize - verb make as big or large as possible;  make the most of
  • maximizing - adj. making as great as possible
  • maximum - adj. the greatest or most complete or best possible; noun the point on a curve where the tangent changes from positive on the left to negative on the right;  the largest possible quantity;  the greatest possible degree
  • may - noun the month following April and preceding June;  thorny Eurasian shrub of small tree having dense clusters of white to scarlet flowers followed by deep red berries; established as an escape in eastern North America
  • mb - noun (a British degree) a bachelor's degree in medicine;  a unit of information equal to one million (1,048,576) bytes
  • mc - noun one million periods per second
  • mcg - noun one millionth (1/1,000,000) gram
  • md - noun a doctor's degree in medicine;  a Mid-Atlantic state; one of the original 13 colonies;  a licensed medical practitioner;  a radioactive transuranic element synthesized by bombarding einsteinium with alpha particles (Md is the current symbol for mendelevium but Mv was formerly the symbol)
  • mdma - noun a stimulant drug that is chemically related to mescaline and amphetamine and is used illicitly for its euphoric and hallucinogenic effects; it was formerly used in psychotherapy but in 1985 it was declared illegal in the United States
  • me - noun a state in New England
  • meal - noun coarsely ground foodstuff; especially seeds of various cereal grasses or pulse;  the food served and eaten at one time;  any of the occasions for eating food that occur by custom or habit at more or less fixed times
  • meaning - adj. rich in significance or implication;  noun the idea that is intended;  the message that is intended or expressed or signified
  • meaningless - adj. having no meaning or direction or purpose
  • means - noun how a result is obtained or an end is achieved;  an instrumentality for accomplishing some end;  considerable capital (wealth or income)
  • measurable - adj. of distinguished importance;  capable of being measured
  • measured - adj. determined by measurement;  the rhythmic arrangement of syllables;  with care and dignity;  carefully thought out in advance
  • measurement - noun the act or process of assigning numbers to phenomena according to a rule
  • measuring - noun the act or process of assigning numbers to phenomena according to a rule
  • meat - noun the flesh of animals (including fishes and birds and snails) used as food;  the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience;  the inner and usually edible part of a seed or grain or nut or fruit stone
  • mechanical - adj. using (or as if using) mechanisms or tools or devices;  relating to or governed by or in accordance with mechanics;  relating to or concerned with machinery or tools
  • mechanically - adv. in a machinelike manner; without feeling;  in a mechanical manner; by a mechanism
  • meclofenamate - noun a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (trade name Meclomen) used to treat arthritis
  • median - adj. relating to or situated in or extending toward the middle;  relating to or constituting the middle value of an ordered set of values (or the average of the middle two in a set with an even number of values);  dividing an animal into right and left halves;  nounthe value below which 50% of the cases fall
  • mediate - adj. acting through or dependent on an intervening agency;  being neither at the beginning nor at the end in a series; verb occupy an intermediate or middle position or form a connecting link or stage between two others;  act between parties with a view to reconciling differences
  • mediated - adj. acting or brought about through an intervening agency
  • mediator - noun a negotiator who acts as a link between parties
  • medical - adj. requiring or amenable to treatment by medicine especially as opposed to surgery;  relating to the study or practice of medicine;  of or belonging to Aesculapius or the healing art;  noun a thorough physical examination; includes a variety of tests depending on the age and sex and health of the person
  • medically - adv. involving medical practice
  • medication - noun the act of treating with medicines or remedies; (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease
  • medicinal - adj. having the properties of medicine
  • meditation - noun continuous and profound contemplation or musing on a subject or series of subjects of a deep or abstruse nature;  (religion) contemplation of spiritual matters (usually on religious or philosophical subjects)
  • mediterranean - adj. of or relating to or characteristic of or located near the Mediterranean Sea;  noun the largest inland sea; between Europe and Africa and Asia
  • medroxyprogesterone - noun a progestin compound (trade name Provera) used to treat menstrual disorders
  • medulla - noun the inner part of an organ or structure in plant or animal;  lower or hindmost part of the brain; continuous with spinal cord; (`bulb' is an old term for medulla oblongata);  a white fatty substance that forms a medullary sheath around the axis cylinder of some nerve fibers
  • medullary - adj. of or relating to the medulla of any body part;  of or relating to the medulla oblongata;  containing or consisting of or resembling bone marrow
  • meeting - noun the social act of assembling for some common purpose;  a casual or unexpected convergence;  a formally arranged gathering;  a small informal social gathering;  the act of joining together as one;  a place where things merge or flow together (especially rivers)
  • megacolon - noun an abnormal enlargement of the colon; can be congenital (as in Hirschsprung's disease) or acquired (as when children refuse to defecate)
  • megaloblastic - adj. of or relating to megaloblasts
  • melaena - noun abnormally dark tarry feces containing blood (usually from gastrointestinal bleeding)
  • melancholic - adj. characterized by or causing or expressing sadness;  noun someone subject to melancholia
  • melanin - noun insoluble pigments that account for the color of e.g. skin and scales and feathers
  • melanoma - noun any of several malignant neoplasms (usually of the skin) consisting of melanocytes
  • melanosis - noun a condition characterized by abnormal deposits of melanin (especially in the skin)
  • melatonin - noun hormone secreted by the pineal gland
  • membrane - noun a thin pliable sheet of material;  a pliable sheet of tissue that covers or lines or connects organs or cells of animals
  • memorize - verb commit to memory; learn by heart
  • memory - noun an electronic memory device;  the power of retaining and recalling past experience;  the cognitive processes whereby past experience is remembered;  something that is remembered;  the area of cognitive psychology that studies memory processes
  • men - noun the force of workers available
  • menarche - noun the first occurrence of menstruation in a woman
  • mendelian - adj. of or relating to Gregor Mendel or in accord with Mendel's laws;  noun a follower of Mendelism
  • meninges - noun a membrane (one of 3) that envelops the brain and spinal cord
  • meningitis - noun infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection; symptoms include headache and stiff neck and fever and nausea
  • menopausal - adj. of or relating to the menopause
  • menopause - noun the time in a woman's life in which the menstrual cycle ends
  • menorrhagia - noun abnormally heavy or prolonged menstruation; can be a symptom of uterine tumors and can lead to anemia if prolonged
  • menses - noun the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus of nonpregnant women from puberty to menopause
  • menstrual - adj. of or relating to menstruation or the menses
  • menstruation - noun the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus of nonpregnant women from puberty to menopause
  • mental - adj. affected by a disorder of the mind;  involving the mind or an intellectual process;  of or relating to the chin- or liplike structure in insects and certain mollusks;  of or relating to the mind; of or relating to the chin or median part of the lower jaw
  • mentally - adv. in your mind
  • menthol - noun a lotion containing menthol which gives it the smell of mint;  a crystalline compound that has the cool and minty taste and odor that occurs naturally in peppermint oil; used as a flavoring and in medicine to relieve itching, pain, and nasal congestion
  • meperidine - noun a synthetic narcotic drug (trade name Demerol) used to treat pain
  • meq - noun one-thousandth of an equivalent
  • mercaptopurine - noun a drug (trade name Purinethol) that interferes with the metabolism of purine and is used to treat acute lymphocytic leukemia
  • mercy - noun alleviation of distress; showing great kindness toward the distressed;  something for which to be thankful;  leniency and compassion shown toward offenders by a person or agency charged with administering justice;  a disposition to be kind and forgiving;  the feeling that motivates compassion
  • merely - adv. and nothing more
  • merit - noun any admirable quality or attribute;  the quality of being deserving (e.g., deserving assistance);  verb be worthy or deserving
  • meriting - adj. having sufficient worth
  • mesenteric - adj. of or relating to or located in a mesentery
  • messenger - noun a person who carries a message
  • mestranol - noun a synthetic form of estrogen used in combination with a progestin in oral contraceptives
  • metabolic - adj. undergoing metamorphosis;  of or relating to metabolism
  • metabolism - noun the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life;  the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals
  • metabolite - noun any substance involved in metabolism (either as a product of metabolism or as necessary for metabolism)
  • metabolize - verb produce by metabolism
  • metallic - adj. containing or made of or resembling or characteristic of a metal;  noun a yarn made partly or entirely of metal;  a fabric made of a yarn that is partly or entirely of metal
  • metastatic - adj. relating to or affected by metastasis
  • metformin - noun an antidiabetic drug (trade name Glucophage) prescribed to treat type II diabetes
  • methacholine - noun parasympathomimetic drug (trademark Mecholyl) that stimulates secretions and smooth muscle activity
  • methadone - noun synthetic narcotic drug similar to morphine but less habit-forming; used in narcotic detoxification and maintenance of heroin addiction
  • methionine - noun a crystalline amino acid containing sulfur; found in most proteins and essential for nutrition
  • method - noun a way of doing something, especially a systematic way; implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps);  an acting technique introduced by Stanislavsky in which the actor recalls emotions or reactions from his or her own life and uses them to identify with the character being portrayed
  • methodology - noun the system of methods followed in a particular discipline;  the branch of philosophy that analyzes the principles and procedures of inquiry in a particular discipline
  • methotrexate - noun toxic antimetabolite that limits cellular reproduction by acting as an antagonist to folic acid; used to treat certain cancers and psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis
  • methyl - noun the univalent radical CH3- derived from methane
  • methylated - adj. having received a methyl group
  • methyldopa - noun antihypertensive drug (trade name Aldomet) used in the treatment of high blood pressure
  • methyltestosterone - noun an androgenic compound contained in drugs that are used to treat testosterone deficiency and female breast cancer and to stimulate growth and weight gain
  • meticulous - adj. marked by extreme care in treatment of details; marked by precise accordance with details
  • meticulously - adv. in a meticulous manner
  • metoprolol - noun beta blocker (trade name Lopressor) used in treating hypertension and angina and arrhythmia and acute myocardial infarction; has adverse side effects (depression and exacerbation of congestive heart failure etc.)
  • metronidazole - noun antiprotozoal medication (trade name Flagyl) used to treat trichomoniasis and giardiasis
  • mexiletine - noun antiarrhythmic drug (trade name Mexitil) used to treat ventricular arrhythmias
  • mg - noun one thousandth (1/1,000) gram;  a light silver-white ductile bivalent metallic element; in pure form it burns with brilliant white flame; occurs naturally only in combination (as in magnesite and dolomite and carnallite and spinel and olivine)
  • michael - noun (Old Testament) the guardian archangel of the Jews
  • miconazole - noun an antifungal agent usually administered in the form of a nitrate (trade name Monistat)
  • microbial - adj. of or involving or caused by or being microbes
  • microbiology - noun the branch of biology that studies microorganisms and their effects on humans
  • microcephaly - noun an abnormally small head and underdeveloped brain
  • microscopy - noun research with the use of microscopes
  • microsomal - adj. of or relating to microsomes
  • microtubule - noun a microscopically small tubule
  • micturition - noun the discharge of urine
  • mid - adj. used in combination to denote the middle
  • midazolam - noun an injectable form of benzodiazepine (trade name Versed) useful for sedation and for reducing pain during uncomfortable medical procedures
  • midbrain - noun the middle portion of the brain
  • middle ear - noun the main cavity of the ear; between the eardrum and the inner ear
  • middle-aged - adj. being roughly between 45 and 65 years old
  • mifepristone - noun an abortion-inducing drug (trade name RU_486) developed in France; when taken during the first five weeks of pregnancy it blocks the action of progesterone so that the uterus sloughs off the embryo
  • might - noun physical strength
  • migraine - noun a severe recurring vascular headache; occurs more frequently in women than men
  • migrate - verb move from one country or region to another and settle there;  move periodically or seasonally
  • mild - adj. moderate in type or degree or effect or force; far from extreme;  mild and pleasant;  humble in spirit or manner; suggesting retiring mildness or even cowed submissiveness
  • mildly - adv. to a moderate degree;  in a gentle manner
  • milky - adj. resembling milk in color or cloudiness; not clear
  • milligram - noun one thousandth (1/1,000) gram
  • million - adj. (in Roman numerals, M written with a macron over it) denoting a quantity consisting of 1,000,000 items or units;  noun the number that is represented as a one followed by 6 zeros;  a very large indefinite number (usually hyperbole)
  • millisecond - noun one thousandth (10^-3) of a second
  • mimic - adj. constituting an imitation;  noun someone who mimics (especially an actor or actress);  verb imitate (a person or manner), especially for satirical effect
  • min - noun any of the forms of Chinese spoken in Fukien province; an Egyptian god of procreation;  a unit of time equal to 60 seconds or 1/60th of an hour
  • mineralocorticoid - noun hormone that is one of the steroids of the adrenal cortex that influences the metabolism of sodium and potassium
  • miniature - adj. being on a very small scale;  noun copy that reproduces something in greatly reduced size;  painting or drawing included in a book (especially in illuminated medieval manuscripts)
  • minimal - adj. the least possible
  • minimize - verb make small or insignificant;  cause to seem less serious; play down;  represent as less significant or important
  • minimized - adj. reduced to the smallest possible size or amount or degree
  • minimum - adj. the least possible;  noun the point on a curve where the tangent changes from negative on the left to positive on the right;  the smallest possible quantity
  • minister - noun the job of a head of a government department;  a diplomat representing one government to another; ranks below ambassador;  a person appointed to a high office in the government; a person authorized to conduct religious worship;  verb work as a minister;  attend to the wants and needs of others
  • minocycline - noun tetracycline antibiotic (trade name Minocin) used to treat a variety of bacterial and rickettsial infections
  • minority - noun being or relating to the smaller in number of two parts;  a group of people who differ racially or politically from a larger group of which it is a part;  any age prior to the legal age
  • minoxidil - noun a vasodilator (trade name Loniten) used to treat severe hypertension; one side effect is hirsutism so it is also sold (trade name Rogaine) as a treatment for male-patterned baldness
  • minutes - noun a written account of what transpired at a meeting
  • miscellaneous - adj. constituting a grab-bag category;  consisting of a haphazard assortment of different kinds (even to the point of incongruity)
  • misleading - adj. designed to deceive or mislead either deliberately or inadvertently
  • misplaced - adj. put in the wrong place or position;  lost temporarily; as especially put in an unaccustomed or forgotten place
  • missed - adj. not caught with the senses or the mind
  • missing - adj. not able to be found;  not existing
  • mistake - noun a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention;  an understanding of something that is not correct;  part of a statement that is not correct;  verb identify incorrectly;  to make a mistake or be incorrect
  • mistaken - adj. arising from error;  wrong in e.g. opinion or judgment
  • mitotic - adj. of or relating to or undergoing mitosis
  • mitral - adj. of or relating to or located in or near the mitral valve; relating to or resembling the miter worn by some clerics
  • mixed - adj. consisting of a haphazard assortment of different kinds (even to the point of incongruity);  involving or composed of different races;  caused to combine or unite
  • ml - noun a metric unit of volume equal to one thousandth of a liter
  • mm - noun a metric unit of length equal to one thousandth of a meter
  • mobility - noun the quality of moving freely
  • mobilization - noun act of assembling and putting into readiness for war or other emergency: "mobilization of the troops";  act of marshaling and organizing and making ready for use or action
  • mobilize - verb cause to move around;  make ready for action or use;  get ready for war;  call to arms; of military personnel
  • modality - noun a method of therapy that involves physical or electrical therapeutic treatment;  a particular sense;  a classification of propositions on the basis of whether they claim necessity or possibility or impossibility;  verb inflections that express how the action or state is conceived by the speaker
  • modelling - noun the act of representing something (usually on a smaller scale);  a preliminary sculpture in wax or clay from which a finished work can be copied
  • moderately - adv. in a moderate manner;  to a moderately sufficient extent or degree
  • modifiable - adj. capable of being modified in form or character or strength (especially by making less extreme)
  • modification - noun slightly modified copy; not an exact copy;  the grammatical relation that exists when a word qualifies the meaning of the phrase;  the act of making something different (as e.g. the size of a garment);  an event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another
  • modified - adj. changed in form or character;  mediocre
  • modify - verb make less severe or harsh or extreme;  add a modifier to a constituent;  cause to change; make different; cause a transformation
  • modulate - verb vary the frequency, amplitude, phase, or other characteristic of (electromagnetic waves);  adjust the pitch, tone, or volume of;  change the key of, in music;  fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of;  vary the pitch of one's speech
  • moiety - noun one of two basic subdivisions of a tribe;  one of two (approximately) equal parts
  • mol - noun the molecular weight of a substance expressed in grams; the basic unit of amount of substance adopted under the Systeme International d'Unites
  • molar - adj. pertaining to large units of behavior;  containing one mole of a substance;  designating a solution containing one mole of solute per liter of solution;  of or pertaining to the grinding teeth in the back of a mammal's mouth;  noun grinding tooth with a broad crown; located behind the premolars
  • molecular - adj. relating to simple or elementary organization; relating to or produced by or consisting of molecules
  • molecule - noun (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound;  (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything
  • molybdenum - noun a polyvalent metallic element that resembles chromium and tungsten in its properties; used to strengthen and harden steel
  • momentous - adj. of very great significance
  • money - noun wealth reckoned in terms of money;  the most common medium of exchange; functions as legal tender;  the official currency issued by a government or national bank
  • monitoring - noun the act of observing something (and sometimes keeping a record of it)
  • monoamine - noun a molecule containing one amine group (especially one that is a neurotransmitter)
  • monoclonal - adj. forming or derived from a single clone;  noun any of a class of antibodies produced in the laboratory by identical offspring of a hybridoma; very specific for a particular location in the body
  • monogenic - adj. of or relating to an inheritable character that is controlled by a single pair of genes
  • mononucleosis - noun an acute disease characterized by fever and swollen lymph nodes and an abnormal increase of mononuclear leucocytes or monocytes in the bloodstream; not highly contagious; some believe it can be transmitted by kissing
  • monovalent - adj. having a valence of 1;  containing only one kind of antibody
  • monoxide - noun an oxide containing just one atom of oxygen in the molecule
  • month - noun a time unit of approximately 30 days;  one of the twelve divisions of the calendar year
  • monthly - adj. occurring or payable every month;  adv. without missing a month;  noun a periodical that is published every month (or 12 issues per year)
  • mood - noun verb inflections that express how the action or state is conceived by the speaker;  a characteristic (habitual or relatively temporary) state of feeling;  the prevailing psychological state
  • morbid - adj. suggesting an unhealthy mental state;  caused by or altered by or manifesting disease or pathology;  suggesting the horror of death and decay
  • morbidity - noun an abnormally gloomy or unhealthy state of mind; the relative incidence of a particular disease;  the quality of being unhealthful and generally bad for you
  • moreover - adv. in addition
  • morning - noun the time period between dawn and noon;  a conventional expression of greeting or farewell;  the earliest period; the first light of day
  • morphia - noun an alkaloid narcotic drug extracted from opium; a powerful, habit-forming narcotic used to relieve pain
  • morphine - noun an alkaloid narcotic drug extracted from opium; a powerful, habit-forming narcotic used to relieve pain
  • morphogenesis - noun differentiation and growth of the structure of an organism (or a part of an organism)
  • morphologically - adv. in a morphological manner; with regard to morphology
  • morphology - noun the branch of biology that deals with the structure of animals and plants;  the branch of geology that studies the characteristics and configuration and evolution of rocks and land forms;  the admissible arrangement of sounds in words;  studies of the rules for forming admissible words
  • mortality - noun the quality or state of being mortal;  the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year
  • mostly - adv. in large part; mainly or chiefly;  usually; as a rule
  • motility - noun ability to move spontaneously and independently;  a change of position that does not entail a change of location
  • motivate - verb give an incentive for action
  • motivated - adj. provided with a motive or given incentive for action
  • motor - adj. causing or able to cause motion;  conveying information to the muscles from the CNS;  noun machine that converts other forms of energy into mechanical energy and so imparts motion;  a nonspecific agent that imparts motion;  verb travel or be transported in a vehicle
  • mountain - noun a land mass that projects well above its surroundings; higher than a hill;  a large number or amount
  • mounted - adj. decorated with applied ornamentation; often used in combination;  assembled for use; especially by being attached to a support
  • mouthwash - noun a medicated solution used for gargling and rinsing the mouth
  • moving - adj. arousing or capable of arousing deep emotion;  in motion;  used of a series of photographs presented so as to create the illusion of motion
  • mp - noun a military corps that enforces discipline and guards prisoners;  a member of the military police who polices soldiers and guards prisoners
  • mr - noun a form of address for a man
  • mri - noun the use of nuclear magnetic resonance of protons to produce proton density images
  • mrna - noun the template for protein synthesis; the form of RNA that carries information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome sites of protein synthesis in the cell
  • mrs - noun a form of address for a married woman
  • msh - noun a hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that controls the degree of pigmentation in melanocytes
  • much - adj. (quantifier used with mass nouns) great in quantity or degree or extent;  adv. (degree adverb used before a noun phrase) for all practical purposes but not completely;  very;  to a great degree or extent;  frequently or in great quantities;  to a very great degree or extent;  noun a great amount or extent
  • mucocutaneous - adj. of or relating to the mucous membranes and skin
  • mucoid - adj. relating to or resembling mucus;  noun any of several glycoproteins similar to mucin
  • mucopolysaccharide - noun complex polysaccharides containing an amino group; occur chiefly as components of connective tissue
  • mucosa - noun mucus-secreting membrane lining all body cavities or passages that communicate with the exterior
  • mucosal - adj. of or relating to mucous membranes
  • mucous - adj. of or secreting or covered with or resembling mucus
  • mucus - noun protective secretion of the mucous membranes; in the gut it lubricates the passage of food and protects the epithelial cells; in the nose and throat and lungs it can make it difficult for bacteria to penetrate the body through the epithelium
  • multifactorial - adj. involving or depending on several factors or causes (especially pertaining to a condition or disease resulting from the interaction of many genes)
  • multiple - adj. having or involving or consisting of more than one part or entity or individual;  noun the product of a quantity by an integer
  • multiplication - noun an arithmetic operation that is the inverse of division; the product of two numbers is computed;  a multiplicative increase;  the act of producing offspring or multiplying by such production
  • multiply - adv. in several ways; in a multiple manner;  verb combine or increase by multiplication;  combine by multiplication;  have offspring or young;  have young (animals)
  • murine - adj. of or relating to or transmitted by a member of the family Muridae (rats and mice);  noun a rodent that is a member of the family Muridae
  • muscle relaxant - noun a drug that reduces muscle contractility by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses or by decreasing the excitability of the motor end plate or by other actions
  • muscle - noun authority or power or force (especially when used in a coercive way);  animal tissue consisting predominantly of contractile cells;  one of the contractile organs of the body; possessing muscular strength;  a bully employed as a thug or bodyguard;  verb make one's way by force
  • musculature - noun the muscular system of an organism
  • musculoskeletal - adj. relating to muscles and skeleton
  • museum - noun a depository for collecting and displaying objects having scientific or historical or artistic value
  • must - adj. highly recommended;  noun grape juice before or during fermentation;  a necessary or essential thing;  the quality of smelling or tasting old or stale or mouldy
  • mutation - noun a change or alteration in form or qualities; (genetics) any event that changes genetic structure; any alteration in the inherited nucleic acid sequence of the genotype of an organism; (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration
  • mutual - adj. concerning each of two or more persons or things; especially given or done in return;  common to or shared by two or more parties
  • myalgia - noun pain in a muscle or group of muscles
  • myalgic - adj. of or relating to myalgia
  • myasthenia - noun any muscular weakness;  a chronic progressive disease characterized by chronic fatigue and muscular weakness (especially in the face and neck); caused by a deficiency of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions
  • mycobacteria - noun rod-shaped bacteria some saprophytic or causing diseases
  • mycobacterium - noun rod-shaped bacteria some saprophytic or causing diseases
  • mycoplasma - noun any of a group of small parasitic bacteria that lack a cell walls and can survive without oxygen; can cause pneumonia and urinary tract infection
  • mydriasis - noun reflex pupillary dilation as a muscle pulls the iris outward; occurs in response to a decrease in light or certain drugs
  • myelinated - adj. (of neurons) covered with a layer of myelin
  • myeloma - noun a tumor of the bone marrow (usually malignant) composed of cells normally found in bone marrow
  • mynah - noun tropical Asian starlings
  • myocardial - adj. of or relating to the myocardium
  • myocarditis - noun inflammation of the myocardium (the muscular tissue of the heart)
  • myocardium - noun the middle muscular layer of the heart wall
  • myoclonus - noun a clonic spasm of a muscle or muscle group
  • myopathy - noun any pathology of the muscles that is not attributable to nerve dysfunction
  • myosin - noun the commonest protein in muscle; a globulin that combines with actin to form actomyosin
  • myositis - noun inflammation of muscle tissue
  • myxoedema - noun hypothyroidism marked by dry skin and swellings around lips and nose as well as mental deterioration
  • na - noun a silvery soft waxy metallic element of the alkali metal group; occurs abundantly in natural compounds (especially in salt water); burns with a yellow flame and reacts violently in water; occurs in sea water and in the mineral halite (rock salt)
  • nad - noun a coenzyme present in most living cells and derived from the B vitamin nicotinic acid; serves as a reductant in various metabolic processes
  • nadolol - noun a beta-adrenergic blocking agent (trade name Corgard) that is used to treat hypertension and angina
  • nadp - noun a coenzyme similar to NAD and present in most living cells but serves as a reductant in different metabolic processes
  • nafcillin - noun a penicillinase-resistant form of penicillin (trade name Nafcil) used (usually in the form of its sodium salt) to treat infections caused by penicillin-resistant strains of staphylococci
  • naked - adj. lacking any cover;  devoid of elaboration or diminution or concealment; bare and pure;  having no protecting or concealing cover;  (of the eye or ear e.g.) without the aid of an optical or acoustical device or instrument;  completely unclothed
  • naloxone - noun a potent narcotic antagonist (trade name Narcan) especially effective with morphine
  • naltrexone - noun an oral antagonist against the action of opiates
  • named - adj. bearing the author's name;  given or having a specified name
  • names - noun verbal abuse; a crude substitute for argument
  • nandrolone - noun an androgen (trade names Durabolin or Kabolin) that is used to treat testosterone deficiency or breast cancer or osteoporosis
  • naphthalene - noun a white crystalline strong-smelling hydrocarbon made from coal tar or petroleum and used in organic synthesis and as a fumigant in mothballs
  • napkin - noun a small piece of table linen that is used to wipe the mouth and to cover the lap in order to protect clothing;  garment consisting of a folded cloth drawn up between the legs and fastened at the waist; worn by infants to catch excrement
  • nappy - adj. of hair in small tight curls;  noun garment consisting of a folded cloth drawn up between the legs and fastened at the waist; worn by infants to catch excrement
  • naproxen - noun a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (trade name Naprosyn) used in the treatment of arthritis and musculoskeletal inflammation and moderate pain
  • narcotic - adj. inducing mental lethargy;  inducing stupor or narcosis; of or relating to or designating narcotics;  noun a drug that produces numbness or stupor; often taken for pleasure or to reduce pain; extensive use can lead to addiction
  • narrowed - adj. having the opening reduced squeezed;  made narrow; limited in breadth;  reduced in size as by squeezing together
  • narrowing - adj. (of circumstances) tending to constrict freedom; becoming gradually narrower;  noun the act of making something narrower;  an instance of becoming narrow;  a decrease in width
  • narrowly - adv. in a narrow manner; not allowing for exceptions
  • nasal - adj. sounding as if the nose were pinched;  of or in or relating to the nose;  noun an elongated rectangular bone that forms the bridge of the nose;  a consonant produced through the nose with the mouth closed
  • nasopharyngeal - adj. of or relating to or located near the nasopharynx
  • native - adj. belonging to one by birth;  characteristic of or existing by virtue of geographic origin;  characteristic of or relating to people inhabiting a region from the beginning;  as found in nature in the elemental form;  noun a person who was born in a particular place; an indigenous person
  • natriuresis - noun the presence of abnormally large amounts of sodium in the urine
  • natriuretic - adj. of or relating to natriuresis
  • naturally - adv. as might be expected;  according to nature; by natural means; without artificial help;  in a natural or normal manner; through inherent nature
  • naturalness - noun the likeness of a representation to the thing represented;  the quality of being natural or based on natural principles;  the quality of innocent naivete
  • nausea - noun disgust so strong it makes you feel sick;  the state that precedes vomiting
  • nauseated - adj. feeling nausea; feeling about to vomit
  • naval - adj. connected with or belonging to or used in a navy
  • nd - noun a state of north central United States bordering on Canada;  a yellow trivalent metallic element of the rare earth group; occurs in monazite and bastnasite in association with cerium and lanthanum and praseodymium
  • ne - noun a midwestern state on the Great Plains;  the compass point midway between north and east; at 45 degrees;  a colorless odorless gaseous element that give a red glow in a vacuum tube; one of the six inert gasses; occurs in the air in small amounts
  • nearby - adj. close at hand;  adv. not far away in relative terms
  • nearly - adv. (of actions or states) slightly short of or not quite accomplished;  in a close manner
  • neat - adj. without water;  free from what is tawdry or unbecoming; clean or orderly;  showing care in execution;  free from clumsiness; precisely or deftly executed;  very good
  • nebulizer - noun a dispenser that turns a liquid (such as perfume) into a fine mist
  • necessarily - adv. in an essential manner;  as a highly likely consequence;  in such a manner as could not be otherwise
  • necessary - adj. unavoidably determined by prior circumstances; absolutely essential;  noun anything indispensable
  • necessitate - verb require as useful, just, or proper;  cause to be a concomitant
  • neck - noun an opening in a garment for the neck of the wearer; a part of the garment near the wearer's neck;  the part of an organism that connects the head to the rest of the body;  a cut of meat from the neck of an animal;  a narrow elongated projecting strip of land;  verbkiss, embrace, or fondle with sexual passion
  • necrolysis - noun disintegration and dissolution of dead tissue
  • necrosis - noun the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply)
  • needed - adj. necessary for relief or supply
  • needle - noun a sharp pointed implement (usually steel);  a slender pointer for indicating the reading on the scale of a measuring instrument;  a stylus that formerly made sound by following a groove in a phonograph record;  as the leaf of a conifer;  verb goad or provoke,as by constant criticism;  prick with a needle
  • needs - adv. in such a manner as could not be otherwise
  • nefazodone - noun an antidepressant drug (trade name Serzone)
  • negate - verb prove negative; show to be false;  make ineffective by counterbalancing the effect of;  deny the truth of;  be in contradiction with
  • negative feedback - noun feedback in opposite phase with (decreasing) the input
  • negatively - adv. in a negative way;  in a harmful manner
  • negativity - noun an amount less than zero;  characterized by habitual skepticism and a disagreeable tendency to deny or oppose or resist suggestions or commands;  the character of the negative electric pole;  (chemistry) the tendency of an atom or radical to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond
  • negligent - adj. marked by insufficient care or attention; characterized by neglect and undue lack of concern
  • negligible - adj. so small as to be meaningless; insignificant;  not worth considering
  • nelfinavir - noun a protease inhibitor (trade name Viracept) used in treating HIV usually in combination with other drugs
  • nelson - noun English admiral who defeated the French fleets of Napoleon but was mortally wounded at Trafalgar (1758-1805)
  • neomycin - noun an antibiotic obtained from an actinomycete and used (as a sulphate under the trade name Neobiotic) as an intestinal antiseptic in surgery
  • neonatal - adj. relating to or affecting the infant during the first month after birth
  • neonate - noun a baby from birth to four weeks
  • neoplasm - noun an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose
  • neoplastic - adj. of or related to or having the properties of a neoplasm
  • neostigmine - noun a cholinergic drug (trade name Prostigmin) used to treat some ophthalmic conditions and to treat myasthenia gravis
  • nepenthes - noun pitcher plants
  • nephrectomy - noun surgical removal of a kidney
  • nephritis - noun an inflammation of the kidney
  • nephrology - noun the branch of medicine concerned with the kidney - its development and anatomy and physiology and disorders
  • nephron - noun any of the small tubules that are the excretory units of the vertebrate kidney
  • nephropathy - noun a disease affecting the kidneys
  • nephrotoxic - adj. toxic to the kidney
  • nerve - noun any bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body;  impudent aggressiveness;  the courage to carry on;  verb get ready for something difficult or unpleasant
  • nerves - noun control of your emotions;  an uneasy psychological state
  • nervous - adj. easily agitated;  of or relating to the nervous system; unpredictably excitable (especially of horses);  excited in anticipation; causing or fraught with or showing anxiety
  • nervousness - noun a sensitive or highly strung temperament;  an uneasy psychological state;  the anxious feeling you have when you have the jitters
  • neural tube - noun a tube of ectodermal tissue in the embryo from which the brain and spinal cord develop
  • neural - adj. of or relating to neurons;  of or relating to the nervous system
  • neuralgia - noun acute spasmodic pain along the course of one or more nerves
  • neuritis - noun inflammation of a nerve accompanied by pain and sometimes loss of function
  • neurochemical - noun any organic substance that occurs in neural activity
  • neuroendocrine - adj. of or relating to the nervous and endocrine systems (especially as they function together)
  • neuroglia - noun sustentacular tissue that surrounds and supports neurons in the central nervous system; glial and neural cells together compose the tissue of the central nervous system
  • neuroleptic - noun tranquilizer used to treat psychotic conditions when a calming effect is desired
  • neurological - adj. of or relating to or used in or practicing neurology
  • neurologist - noun a medical specialist in the nervous system and the disorders affecting it
  • neurology - noun (neurology) the branch of medicine that deals with the nervous system and its disorders;  the branch of medical science that deals with the nervous system
  • neuromuscular - adj. affecting or characteristic of both neural and muscular tissue
  • neuronal - adj. of or relating to neurons
  • neuropathy - noun any pathology of the peripheral nerves
  • neuropsychiatric - adj. of or relating to neuropsychiatry
  • neuroscience - noun the scientific study of the nervous system
  • neurosurgery - noun any surgery that involves the nervous system (brain or spinal cord or peripheral nerves)
  • neurotoxic - adj. poisonous to nerves or nerve cells
  • neurotoxin - noun any toxin that affects neural tissues
  • neurotransmitter - noun transmits nerve impulses across a synapse
  • neutralize - verb make chemically neutral;  make ineffective by counterbalancing the effect of;  make incapable of military action;  get rid of (someone who may be a threat) by killing;  make politically neutral and thus inoffensive;  oppose and mitigate the effects of by contrary actions
  • neutropenia - noun leukopenia in which the decrease is primarily in number of neutrophils (the chief phagocytic leukocyte)
  • neutrophil - noun the chief phagocytic leukocyte; stains with either basic or acid dyes
  • never - adv. not ever; at no time in the past or future;  not at all; certainly not; not in any circumstances
  • nevertheless - adv. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession)
  • nevirapine - noun a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (trade name Viramune) used to treat AIDS and HIV
  • newborn - adj. having just or recently arisen or come into existence; recently borne;  noun a baby from birth to four weeks
  • newcastle - noun a port city in northeastern England on the River Tyne; a center for coal exports (giving rise to the expression `carry coals to Newcastle' meaning to do something unnecessary)
  • newly - adv. very recently
  • next - adj. immediately following in time or order;  nearest in space or position; immediately adjoining without intervening space;  (of elected officers) elected but not yet serving;  adv. at the time or occasion immediately following
  • ng - noun one billionth (1/1,000,000,000) gram
  • nh - noun a state in New England; one of the original 13 colonies
  • ni - noun a hard malleable ductile silvery metallic element that is resistant to corrosion; used in alloys; occurs in pentlandite and smaltite and garnierite and millerite
  • niacin - noun a B vitamin essential for the normal function of the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract
  • niche - noun (ecology) the status of an organism within its environment and community (affecting its survival as a species);  a position particularly well suited to the person who occupies it;  an enclosure that is set back or indented;  a small concavity
  • nickel - noun a United States coin worth one twentieth of a dollar; five dollars worth of a drug;  a hard malleable ductile silvery metallic element that is resistant to corrosion; used in alloys; occurs in pentlandite and smaltite and garnierite and millerite;  verb plate with nickel
  • nicotine - noun an alkaloid poison that occurs in tobacco; used in medicine and as an insecticide
  • nicotinic-receptor-antagonist.
  • nifedipine - noun calcium blocker (trade name Procardia); appears to increase the risk of recurrent heart attacks
  • nigra - noun (ethnic slur) extremely offensive name for a Black person
  • nih - noun an agency in the Department of Health and Human Services whose mission is to employ science in the pursuit of knowledge to improve human health; is the principal biomedical research agency of the federal government
  • nil - noun a quantity of no importance
  • nine-fold - adj. having nine units or components
  • nine - adj. denoting a quantity consisting of one more than eight and one less than ten;  noun the cardinal number that is the sum of eight and one;  a team of professional baseball players who play and travel together
  • nineteenth - adj. coming next after the eighteenth in position;  nounposition 19 in a countable series of things
  • nitrate - noun any compound containing the nitrate group (such as a salt or ester of nitric acid);  verb treat with nitric acid, so as to change an organic compound into a nitrate
  • nitrazepam - noun a hypnotic and sedative drug of the benzodiazepine type
  • nitric - adj. of or containing nitrogen
  • nitrofurantoin - noun derivative of nitrofuran used as an antibacterial medicine (trade name Macrodantin) effective against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; used to treat infections of the urinary tract
  • nitrogen - noun a common nonmetallic element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless inert diatomic gas; constitutes 78 percent of the atmosphere by volume; a constituent of all living tissues
  • nitrogenous - adj. of or relating to or containing nitrogen
  • nitroglycerin - noun a heavy yellow poisonous oily explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol; used in making explosives and medically as a vasodilator (trade names Nitrospan and Nitrostat)
  • nitrous - adj. of or containing nitrogen
  • nj - noun a Mid-Atlantic state on the Atlantic; one of the original 13 colonies
  • nobody - noun a person of no influence
  • nociceptive - adj. caused by or in response to pain
  • nocturia - noun excessive urination at night; especially common in older men
  • nocturnal - adj. belonging to or active during the night;  of or relating to or occurring in the night
  • nodular - adj. having nodules or occurring in the form of nodules; relating to or characterized by or having nodules
  • nomenclature - noun a system of words used to name things in a particular discipline
  • nomogram - noun a graphic representation of numerical relations
  • non - adv. negation of a word or group of words
  • none - adj. not any;  adv. not at all or in no way;  noun a service in the Roman Catholic Church formerly read or chanted at 3 PM (the ninth hour counting from sunrise) but now somewhat earlier;  a canonical hour that is the ninth hour of the day counting from sunrise
  • nonessential - adj. not of prime or central importance;  nounanything that is not essential
  • nonetheless - adv. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession)
  • nonspecific - adj. not caused by a specific agent; used also of staining in making microscope slides
  • nonsteroidal - adj. not steroidal or not having the effects of steroid hormones;  noun an organic compound that does no contain a steroid
  • noradrenaline - noun a catecholamine precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and also released at synapses
  • norepinephrine - noun a catecholamine precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and also released at synapses
  • norgestrel - noun synthetic progestin used in oral contraceptives
  • normal - adj. conforming with or constituting a norm or standard or level or type or social norm; not abnormal;  being approximately average or within certain limits in e.g. intelligence and development; in accordance with scientific laws;  forming a right angle;  nounsomething regarded as a normative example
  • normally - adv. under normal conditions
  • norman - adj. of or relating to or characteristic of the Normans;  of or relating to or characteristic of Normandy;  noun an inhabitant of Normandy;  Australian golfer (born in 1955);  United States operatic soprano (born in 1945)
  • normotensive - adj. having normal blood pressure
  • nortriptyline - noun a tricyclic antidepressant drug (trade name Pamelor) used along with psychotherapy to treat dysthymic depression; may interact dangerously if taken with other drugs
  • not - adv. negation of a word or group of words
  • notable - adj. widely known and esteemed;  worthy of notice;  noun a celebrity who is an inspiration to others
  • notably - adv. to a notable extent
  • noted - adj. worthy of notice or attention;  widely known and esteemed
  • nothing - adv. in no way; to no degree;  noun a nonexistent thing;  a quantity of no importance
  • notification - noun a request for payment;  an accusation of crime made by a grand jury on its own initiative;  informing by words
  • notoriously - adv. to a notorious degree
  • novel - adj. pleasantly new or different;  original and of a kind not seen before;  noun a printed and bound book that is an extended work of fiction;  a extended fictional work in prose; usually in the form of a story
  • nowadays - adv. in these times;  noun the period of time that is happening now; any continuous stretch of time including the moment of speech
  • noxious - adj. injurious to physical or mental health
  • np - noun a registered nurse who has received special training and can perform many of the duties of a physician;  a radioactive transuranic metallic element; found in trace amounts in uranium ores; a by-product of the production of plutonium
  • nsaid - noun an anti-inflammatory drug that does not contain steroids
  • nt - noun an organization concerned to preserve historic monuments and buildings and places of historical interest or natural beauty; founded in 1895 and supported by endowment and private subscription
  • ntis - noun an agency in the Technology Administration that is a primary resource for government-funded scientific and technical and engineering and business related information
  • nuclear - adj. constituting or like a nucleus;  (weapons) deriving destructive energy from the release of atomic energy;  of or relating to or constituting the nucleus of an atom;  of or relating to or constituting the nucleus of a cell
  • nucleoside - noun a glycoside formed by partial hydrolysis of a nucleic acid
  • nucleotide - noun a phosphoric ester of a nucleoside; the basic structural unit of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA)
  • null - adj. lacking any legal or binding force;  noun a quantity of no importance
  • numb - adj. so frightened as to be unable to move; stunned or paralyzed with terror;  lacking sensation;  (followed by `to') not showing human feeling or sensitivity; unresponsive;  verb make numb or insensitive
  • numbers - noun the fourth book of the Old Testament; contains a record of the number of Israelites who followed Moses out of Egypt; an illegal daily lottery
  • numbness - noun partial or total lack of sensation in a part of the body; a symptom of nerve damage or dysfunction;  the trait of lacking enthusiasm for or interest in things generally
  • numeral - adj. of or relating to or denoting numbers;  noun a symbol used to represent a number
  • numerous - adj. amounting to a large indefinite number
  • nursery - noun a child's room for a baby;  a building with glass walls and roof; for the cultivation and exhibition of plants under controlled conditions
  • nursing - noun the work of caring for the sick or injured or infirm; nourishing at the breast;  the profession of a nurse
  • nutrition - noun the scientific study of food and drink (especially in humans);  (physiology) the organic process of nourishing or being nourished; the processes by which an organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance;  a source of materials to nourish the body
  • nutritional - adj. of or relating to or providing nutrition
  • nutritionally - adv. with regard to nutrition
  • nuts - adj. informal or slang terms for mentally irregular
  • nw - noun the compass point midway between north and west; at 315 degrees
  • nystagmus - noun involuntary movements of the eyeballs; its presence or absence is used to diagnose a variety of neurological and visual disorders
  • nystatin - noun an antifungal and antibiotic (trade names Mycostatin and Nystan) discovered in New York State; derived from soil fungi actinomycetes
  • o - noun the blood group whose red cells carry neither the A nor B antigens;  the 15th letter of the Roman alphabet;  a nonmetallic bivalent element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless nonflammable diatomic gas; constitutes 21 percent of the atmosphere by volume; the most abundant element in the earth's crust
  • oasis - noun a fertile tract in a desert (where the water table approaches the surface);  a shelter serving as a place of safety or sanctuary
  • oat - noun seed of the annual grass Avena sativa (spoken of primarily in the plural as `oats');  annual grass of Europe and North Africa; grains used as food and fodder (referred to primarily in the plural: `oats')
  • ob - noun a major river of western Siberia; flows generally northward and westward to the Gulf of Ob and the Kara Sea;  the branch of medicine dealing with childbirth and care of the mother
  • obese - adj. excessively fat
  • obesity - noun more than average fatness
  • objectively - adv. with objectivity
  • obligate - adj. restricted to a particular condition of life;  verb commit in order to fulfill an obligation;  bind by an obligation; cause to be indebted;  force or compel somebody to do something
  • observable - adj. capable of being seen or noticed
  • observation - noun the act of observing; taking a patient look;  the act of making and recording a measurement;  facts learned by observing;  a remark expressing careful consideration;  the act of noticing or paying attention
  • observed - adj. discovered or determined by scientific observation
  • observer - noun an expert who observes and comments on something;  a person who becomes aware (of things or events) through the senses
  • obsessive-compulsive - adj. characterized by obsessions and compulsions;  noun a person with obsessive-compulsive characteristics
  • obsessive - adj. characterized by or constituting an obsession; noun a person who has obsessions
  • obsolete - adj. old; no longer in use or valid or fashionable;  no longer in use
  • obstetric - adj. of or relating to or used in or practicing obstetrics
  • obstetrician - noun a physician specializing in obstetrics
  • obstetrics - noun the branch of medicine dealing with childbirth and care of the mother
  • obstruction - noun getting in someone's way;  the act of obstructing; any structure that makes progress difficult;  the state or condition of being obstructed;  something immaterial that stands in the way and must be circumvented or surmounted
  • obstructive - adj. preventing movement
  • obtain - verb come into possession of;  receive a specified treatment (abstract);  be valid, applicable, or true
  • obvious - adj. easily perceived by the senses or grasped by the mind
  • occasional - adj. occurring from time to time;  occurring or appearing at usually irregular intervals;  occuring from time to time
  • occasionally - adv. now and then or here and there
  • occasions - noun something you have to do
  • occlude - verb block passage through
  • occluded - adj. (of a substance) taken into and retained in another substance;  closed off
  • occlusion - noun (dentistry) the normal spatial relation of the teeth when the jaws are closed;  closure or blockage (as of a blood vessel);  the act of blocking;  an obstruction in a pipe or tube; (meteorology) a composite front when colder air surrounds a mass of warm air and forces it aloft
  • occlusive - adj. tending to occlude;  noun a consonant produced by stopping the flow of air at some point and suddenly releasing it
  • occupancy - noun an act of being a tenant or occupant;  the act of occupying or taking possession of a building
  • occupational - adj. of or relating to the activity or business for which you are trained
  • occupied - adj. resided in; having tenants;  held or filled or in use; seized and controlled as by military invasion;  having ones attention or mind or energy engaged
  • occupy - verb live (in a certain place);  occupy the whole of;  engage or engross wholly;  march aggressively into another's territory by military force for the purposes of conquest and occupation;  require (time or space);  keep busy with;  be present in; be inside of;  be on the mind of
  • occur - verb come to one's mind; suggest itself;  to be found to exist; come to pass
  • occurrence - noun an instance of something occurring;  an event that happens
  • oct - noun the month following September and preceding November
  • ocular - adj. able to be seen;  relating to or using sight;  of or relating to or resembling the eye;  noun combination of lenses at the viewing end of optical instruments
  • odd - adj. not easily explained;  not divisible by two;  an indefinite quantity more than that specified;  of the remaining member of a pair, of socks e.g.;  not used up;  beyond or deviating from the usual or expected
  • oddly - adv. in a manner differing from the usual or expected;  in a strange manner
  • odds - noun the likelihood of a thing occurring rather than not occurring;  the ratio by which one better's wager is greater than that of another
  • odour - noun any property detected by the olfactory system;  the sensation that results when olfactory receptors in the nose are stimulated by particular chemicals in gaseous form
  • odysseus - noun (Greek mythology) a famous mythical Greek hero; his return to Ithaca after the siege of Troy was described in the Odyssey
  • odyssey - noun a long wandering and eventful journey;  a Greek epic poem (attributed to Homer) describing the journey of Odysseus after the fall of Troy
  • oedema - noun swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
  • oenothera - noun chiefly North American herbs with usually nocturnal flowers
  • oesophagitis - noun inflammation of the esophagus; often caused by gastroesophageal reflux
  • oesophagus - noun the passage between the pharynx and the stomach
  • oestradiol - noun the most powerful female hormone that occurs naturally; synthesized and used to treat estrogen deficiency and breast cancer
  • oestriol - noun a naturally occurring estrogenic hormone; a synthetic form is used to treat estrogen deficiency
  • oestrogen - noun a general term for female steroid sex hormones that are secreted by the ovary and responsible for typical female sexual characteristics
  • oestrone - noun a naturally occurring weak estrogenic hormone secreted by the mammalian ovary; synthesized (trade name Estronol) and used to treat estrogen deficiency
  • offending - adj. offending against or breaking a law or rule
  • officer - noun a person authorized to serve in a position of authority on a vessel;  any person in the armed services who holds a position of authority or command;  someone who is appointed or elected to an office and who holds a position of trust;  a member of a police force;  verb direct or command as an officer
  • offspring - noun something that comes into existence as a result; the immediate descendants of a person;  any immature animal
  • often - adv. many times at short intervals;  frequently or in great quantities
  • oh - noun a midwestern state in north central United States in the Great Lakes region
  • oily - adj. coated or covered with oil;  smeared or soiled with grease or oil;  containing an unusual amount of grease or oil;  unpleasantly and excessively suave or ingratiating in manner or speech
  • ointment - noun semisolid preparation (usually containing a medicine) applied externally as a remedy or for soothing an irritation; toiletry consisting of any of various substances in the form of a thick liquid that have a soothing and moisturizing effect when applied to the skin
  • older - adj. old in experience;  advanced in years; (`aged' is pronounced as two syllables);  used of the older of two persons of the same name especially used to distinguish a father from his son
  • oligospermia - noun insufficient spermatozoa in the semen
  • omega - noun the last (24th) letter of the Greek alphabet;  the ending of a series or sequence
  • omeprazole - noun antacid (trade name Prilosec) that suppresses acid secretion in the stomach
  • omit - verb leave undone or leave out;  prevent from being included or considered or accepted
  • on - adj. in operation or operational;  (of events) planned or scheduled;  adv. indicates continuity or persistence or concentration; in a state required for something to function or be effective;  with a forward motion
  • once - adv. on one occasion;  at a previous time;  as soon as
  • oncogene - noun a gene that causes normal cells to change into cancerous tumor cells
  • oncology - noun the branch of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of tumors
  • one-half - noun one of two equal parts of a divisible whole
  • one-third - noun one of three equal parts of a divisible whole
  • ongoing - adj. currently happening
  • only - adj. exclusive of anyone or anything else;  being the only one; single and isolated from others;  adv. with nevertheless the final result;  in the final outcome;  as recently as;  except that;  never except when;  and nothing more;  without any others being included or involved
  • onset - noun the beginning or early stages;  (military) an offensive against an enemy (using weapons)
  • onycholysis - noun separation of a nail from its normal attachment to the nail bed
  • ooh - verb express admiration and pleasure by uttering `ooh' or `aah'
  • opened - adj. made open or clear;  used of mouth or eyes;  not sealed or having been unsealed
  • operate - verb happen;  handle and cause to function;  direct or control; projects, businesses, etc.;  perform surgery on;  perform a movement in military or naval tactics in order to secure an advantage in attack or defense;  keep engaged;  perform as expected when applied
  • operating - adj. involved in a kind of operation;  being in effect or operation
  • operations - noun financial transactions at a brokerage; having to do with the execution of trades and keeping customer records
  • ophthalmic - adj. of or relating to ophthalmology;  of or relating to the eye
  • ophthalmology - noun the branch of medicine concerned with the eye and its diseases
  • opiate - noun a narcotic drug that contains opium or an opium derivative
  • opisthotonos - noun severe spasm in which the back arches and the head bends back and heels flex toward the back
  • opium - noun an addictive narcotic extracted from seed capsules of the opium poppy
  • opportunist - adj. taking immediate advantage, often unethically, of any circumstance of possible benefit;  noun a person who places expediency above principle
  • opportunistic - adj. taking immediate advantage, often unethically, of any circumstance of possible benefit
  • opportunity - noun a possibility due to a favorable combination of circumstances
  • oppose - verb be against; express opposition to;  be resistant to; oppose with equal weight or force;  set into opposition or rivalry;  fight against or resist strongly;  act against or in opposition to
  • opposed - adj. being in opposition or having an opponent;  in opposition to (a policy or attitude etc.)
  • opposing - adj. characterized by active hostility;  in opposition to (a policy or attitude etc.)
  • optic - adj. relating to or using sight;  of or relating to or resembling the eye;  noun the organ of sight
  • optimal - adj. most desirable possible under a restriction expressed or implied
  • optimization - noun the act of rendering optimal
  • optimize - verb act as an optimist and take a sunny view of the world;  modify to achieve maximum efficiency in storage capacity or time or cost;  make optimal; get the most out of; use best
  • optimum - adj. most desirable possible under a restriction expressed or implied;  noun most favorable condition or greatest degree or amount possible under given circumstances
  • option - noun one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen;  the right to buy or sell property at an agreed price; the right is purchased and if it is not exercised by a stated date the money is forfeited;  the act of choosing or selecting
  • or - noun a room in a hospital equipped for the performance of surgical operations;  a state in northwestern United States on the Pacific
  • orally - adv. by spoken rather than written means;  (of drugs) through the mouth rather than through injection
  • orchestrate - verb write an orchestra score for;  plan and direct (a complex undertaking)
  • orchidectomy - noun surgical removal of one or both testicles
  • organelle - noun a specialized part of a cell; analogous to an organ
  • organism - noun a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently;  a system considered analogous in structure or function to a living body
  • organize - verb bring order and organization to;  arrange by systematic planning and united effort;  cause to be structured or ordered or operating according to some principle or idea;  plan and direct (a complex undertaking);  form or join a union;  create (as an entity)
  • organized - adj. methodical and efficient in arrangement or function; formed into a structured or coherent whole;  being a member of or formed into a labor union
  • organs - noun edible viscera of a butchered animal
  • orgasm - noun the moment of most intense pleasure in sexual intercourse
  • originally - adv. in an original manner;  before now;  with reference to the origin or beginning
  • oropharynx - noun cavity formed by the pharynx at the back of the mouth
  • orphenadrine - noun a skeletal muscle relaxant (trade name Norflex) used to treat severe muscle strain and Parkinsonism
  • orthopaedic - adj. of or relating to or employed in orthopedics
  • orthostatic - adj. pertaining to an upright standing posture
  • osmotic - adj. of or relating to osmosis
  • osmotically - adv. by means of osmosis
  • osteoarthritis - noun chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints; the most common form of arthritis occurring usually after middle age
  • osteoblast - noun a cell from which bone develops
  • osteoclast - noun cell that functions in the breakdown and resorption of bone tissue
  • osteomalacia - noun abnormal softening of bones caused by deficiencies of phosphorus or calcium or vitamin D
  • osteomyelitis - noun an inflammation of bone and bone marrow (usually caused by bacterial infection)
  • osteoporosis - noun abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium; most common in postmenopausal women
  • other - adj. very unusual; different in character or quality from the normal or expected;  recently past;  not the same one or ones already mentioned or implied;  belonging to the distant past
  • otherwise - adj. other than as supposed or expected;  adv. in other respects or ways;  in another and different manner
  • otitis - noun inflammation of the ear
  • otosclerosis - noun hereditary disorder in which ossification of the labyrinth of the inner ear causes tinnitus and eventual deafness
  • outcome - noun something that results;  a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon
  • outer - adj. being on or toward the outside of the body;  being on the outside or further from a center;  located outside
  • outflow - noun the process of flowing out;  the unwanted discharge of a fluid from some container;  a natural flow of ground water
  • outline - noun a schematic or preliminary plan;  a sketchy summary of the main points of an argument or theory;  the line that appears to bound an object;  verb describe roughly or briefly or give the main points or summary of;  trace the shape of;  draw up an outline or sketch for something
  • outlined - adj. showing clearly the outline or profile or boundary
  • outlook - noun the act of looking out;  belief about (or mental picture of) the future;  a habitual or characteristic mental attitude that determines how you will interpret and respond to situations
  • outpatient - noun a patient who does not reside in the hospital where he is being treated
  • output - noun production of a certain amount;  what is produced in a given time period;  the quantity of something (as a commodity) that is created (usually within a given period of time);  final product; the things produced;  signal that comes out of an electronic system;  verbto create or manufacture a specific amount
  • outset - noun the time at which something is supposed to begin
  • outstanding - adj. having a quality that thrusts itself into attention; owed as a debt;  distinguished from others in excellence;  of major significance or importance
  • outstretched - adj. fully extended especially in length
  • outweigh - verb be heavier than;  weigh more heavily
  • ovarian - adj. of or involving the ovaries
  • ovariectomy - noun surgical removal of one of both ovaries
  • ovary - noun (vertebrates) one of usually two organs that produce ova and secrete estrogen and progesterone;  the organ that bears the ovules of a flower
  • over-the-counter - adj. (of securities) not quoted on a stock exchange;  purchasable without a doctor's prescription
  • overactivity - noun excessive activity
  • overall - adj. involving only main features;  including everything; noun (usually plural) work clothing consisting of denim trousers (usually with a bib and shoulder straps);  a loose protective coverall or smock worn over ordinary clothing for dirty work
  • overcome - verb get on top of; deal with successfully;  overcome, usually through no fault or weakness of the person that is overcome; win a victory over;  overcome, as with emotions or perceptual stimuli
  • overdose - verb dose too heavily
  • overeat - verb overeat or eat immodestly; make a pig of oneself
  • overgrowth - noun a profusion of growth on or over something else; excessive size; usually caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland
  • overlap - noun the property of partial coincidence in time;  a representation of common ground between theories or phenomena; a flap that lies over another part;  verb coincide partially or wholly; extend over and cover a part of
  • overlapping - adj. related by having something in common with or coinciding with;  laid overlapping (not flush);  noun covering with a design in which one element covers a part of another (as with tiles or shingles)
  • overload - noun an excessive burden;  an electrical load that exceeds the available electrical power;  verb place too much a load on;  become overloaded;  fill to excess so that function is impaired
  • overnight - adj. lasting, open, or operating through the whole night; adv. happening in a short time or with great speed
  • overproduction - noun too much production or more than expected
  • overriding - adj. having superior power and influence
  • overshoot - noun an approach that fails and gives way to another attempt;  verb aim too high;  shoot beyond or over (a target)
  • oversight - noun a mistake resulting from inattention;  an unintentional omission resulting from failure to notice something; management by overseeing the performance or operation of a person or group
  • overstated - adj. represented as greater than is true or reasonable
  • overt - adj. open and observable; not secret or hidden
  • overuse - noun exploitation to the point of diminishing returns;  verbmake use of too often or too extensively
  • overweight - adj. usually describes a large person who is fat but has a large frame to carry it;  noun the property of excessive fatness
  • overwhelmingly - adv. incapable of being resisted
  • ovulation - noun the expulsion of an ovum from the ovary (usually midway in the menstrual cycle)
  • owens - noun United States athlete and Black American whose success in the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin outraged Hitler (1913-1980)
  • owing - adj. owed as a debt;  owed as a debt
  • own - adj. belonging to or on behalf of a specified person (especially yourself); preceded by a possessive;  verb have ownership or possession of
  • ox - noun any of various wild bovines especially of the genera Bos or closely related Bibos;  an adult castrated bull of the genus Bos; especially Bos taurus
  • oxalate - noun a salt or ester of oxalic acid
  • oxazepam - noun a tranquilizing drug (trade name Serax) used to treat anxiety and insomnia and alcohol withdrawal
  • oxford - noun a low shoe laced over the instep;  a city in southern England northwest of London; site of Oxford University;  a university town in northern Mississippi; home of William Faulkner;  a university in England
  • oxidant - noun a substance that oxidizes another substance
  • oxidase - noun any of the enzymes that catalyze biological oxidation
  • oxidation - noun the process of oxidizing; the addition of oxygen to a compound with a loss of electrons; always occurs accompanied by reduction
  • oxidative - adj. taking place in the presence of oxygen
  • oxide - noun any compound of oxygen with another element or a radical
  • oxidize - verb add oxygen to or combine with oxygen;  enter into a combination with oxygen or become converted into an oxide
  • oxidized - adj. combined with or having undergone a chemical reaction with oxygen
  • oxygen - noun a nonmetallic bivalent element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless nonflammable diatomic gas; constitutes 21 percent of the atmosphere by volume; the most abundant element in the earth's crust
  • oxygenation - noun the process of providing or combining or treating with oxygen
  • oxytetracycline - noun a yellow crystalline antibiotic (trademark Terramycin) obtained from a soil actinomycete; used to treat various bacterial and rickettsial infections
  • oxytocic - noun a drug that induces labor by stimulating contractions of the muscles of the uterus
  • oxytocin - noun hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitocin); stimulates contractions of the uterus and ejection of milk
  • p - noun the 16th letter of the Roman alphabet;  a multivalent nonmetallic element of the nitrogen family that occurs commonly in inorganic phosphate rocks and as organic phosphates in all living cells; is highly reactive and occurs in several allotropic forms
  • pacemaker - noun an implanted electronic device that takes over the function of the natural cardiac pacemaker;  a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat;  a horse used to set the pace in racing;  a leading instance in its field
  • pacing - noun walking with slow regular strides;  (music) the speed at which a composition is to be played
  • packaging - noun the business of packing;  material used to make packages;  a message issued in behalf of some product or cause or idea or person or institution
  • paediatric - adj. of or relating to the medical care of children
  • paediatrics - noun the branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of infants and children
  • paget - noun English pathologist who discovered the cause of trichinosis (1814-1899)
  • pain-free - adj. not accompanied by pain sensations
  • painful - adj. causing physical or psychological pain;  causing physical discomfort;  exceptionally bad or displeasing;  causing misery or pain or distress
  • pains - noun an effortful attempt to attain a goal
  • pair - noun a poker hand with 2 cards of the same value;  two people considered as a unit;  a set of two similar things considered as a unit; two items of the same kind;  verb arrange in pairs;  occur in pairs; form a pair or pairs;  bring two objects, ideas, or people together; make love
  • palate - noun the upper surface of the mouth that separates the oral and nasal cavities
  • palliative - adj. moderating pain or sorrow by making it easier to bear;  noun remedy that alleviates pain without curing
  • pallor - noun unnatural lack of color in the skin (as from bruising or sickness or emotional distress)
  • palmer - noun United States golfer (born in 1929)
  • palmetto - noun any of several low-growing palms with fan-shaped leaves
  • palpable - adj. capable of being perceived by the senses or the mind; especially capable of being handled or touched or felt;  can be felt by palpation
  • palpation - noun a method of examination in which the examiner feels the size or shape or firmness or location of something (of body parts when the examiner is a health professional)
  • palpitation - noun a rapid and irregular heart beat;  a shaky motion
  • palsy - noun a condition marked by uncontrollable tremor;  loss of the ability to move a body part;  verb affect with palsy
  • panax - noun perennial herbs of eastern North America and Asia having aromatic tuberous roots: ginseng
  • pancreas - noun a large elongated exocrine gland located behind the stomach; secretes pancreatic juice and insulin
  • pancreatectomy - noun surgical removal of part or all of the pancreas
  • pancreatic - adj. of or involving the pancreas
  • pancreatin - noun extract from the pancreas of animals that contains pancreatic enzymes; used to treat pancreatitis and other conditions involving insufficient pancreatic secretions
  • pancreatitis - noun inflammation of the pancreas; usually marked by abdominal pain
  • pancytopenia - noun an abnormal deficiency in all blood cells (red blood cells and white blood cells and platelets); usually associated with bone marrow tumor or with aplastic anemia
  • pandemic - adj. existing everywhere;  epidemic over a wide geographical area;  noun an epidemic that is geographically widespread; occurring throughout a region or even throughout the world
  • panic - noun an overwhelming feeling of fear and anxiety;  sudden mass fear and anxiety over anticipated events;  verb cause sudden fear in or fill with sudden panic;  be overcome by a sudden fear
  • pants - noun underpants worn by women
  • papaver - noun type genus of the Papaveraceae; chiefly bristly hairy herbs with usually showy flowers
  • papaverine - noun an alkaloid medicine (trade name Kavrin) obtained from opium; used to relax smooth muscles; it is nonaddictive
  • papers - noun writing that provides information (especially information of an official nature)
  • papillary - adj. of or relating to or resembling papilla
  • paradox - noun (logic) a statement that contradicts itself
  • paradoxical - adj. seemingly contradictory but nonetheless possibly true
  • paradoxically - adv. in a paradoxical manner
  • paraesthesia - noun abnormal skin sensations (as tingling or tickling or itching or burning) usually associated with peripheral nerve damage
  • paraldehyde - noun a colorless liquid (a cyclic trimer of acetaldehyde) that is used as a sedative and a solvent
  • paralyse - verb cause to be paralyzed and immobile;  make powerless and unable to function
  • paralysis - noun loss of the ability to move a body part
  • paralytic - adj. affected or subject to with paralysis;  relating to or of the nature of paralysis;  noun a person suffering from paralysis
  • paramount - adj. having superior power and influence
  • paranoia - noun a psychological disorder characterized by delusions of persecution or grandeur
  • paranoid - adj. suffering from paranoia;  noun a person afflicted with paranoia
  • parasitic - adj. of plants or persons; having the nature or habits of a parasite or leech; living off another;  relating to or caused by parasites;  of or pertaining to epenthesis
  • parasympathetic - adj. of or relating to the parasympathetic nervous system;  noun originates in the brain stem and lower part of the spinal cord; opposes physiological effects of the sympathetic nervous system: stimulates digestive secretions; slows the heart; constricts the pupils; dilates blood vessels
  • parasympathomimetic - adj. having an effect similar to that resulting from stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system
  • parathormone - noun hormone synthesized and released into the blood stream by the parathyroid glands; regulates phosphorus and calcium in the body and functions in neuromuscular excitation and blood clotting
  • parathyroid - noun any one of four endocrine glands situated above or within the thyroid gland
  • parent - noun a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian;  verb bring up
  • parenteral - adj. located outside the alimentary tract;  administered by means other than through the alimentary tract (as by intramuscular or intravenous injection)
  • parenterally - adv. by parenteral means
  • parietal - adj. of or relating to or associated with the parietal bones in the cranium
  • parkinson - noun British historian noted for ridicule of bureaucracies (1909-1993);  English surgeon (1755-1824)
  • parkinsonism - noun a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by tremor and impaired muscular coordination
  • paroxysmal - adj. accompanied by or of the nature of paroxysms
  • partially - adv. in part; in some degree; not wholly
  • participate - verb share in something;  become a participant; be involved in
  • participation - noun the condition of sharing in common with others (as fellows or partners etc.);  the act of sharing in the activities of a group
  • particle - noun a function word that can be used in English to form phrasal verbs;  a body having finite mass and internal structure but negligible dimensions;  (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything
  • particularly - adv. to a distinctly greater extent or degree than is common;  specifically or especially distinguished from others; uniquely or characteristically
  • particulate - adj. composed of distinct particles;  noun a small discrete mass of solid or liquid matter that remains individually dispersed in gas or liquid emissions (usually considered to be an atmospheric pollutant)
  • partly - adv. in part; in some degree; not wholly
  • partner - noun a person who is a member of a partnership;  an associate who works with others toward a common goal;  a person's partner in marriage;  verb provide with a partner;  act as a partner
  • parts - noun the local environment
  • party - noun an occasion on which people can assemble for social interaction and entertainment;  a group of people gathered together for pleasure;  an organization to gain political power;  a band of people associated temporarily in some activity;  a person involved in legal proceedings;  verb have or participate in a party
  • pas - noun (ballet) a step in dancing (especially in classical ballet)
  • passive - adj. lacking in energy or will;  expressing that the subject of the sentence is the patient of the action denoted by the verb; peacefully resistant in response to injustice;  noun the voice used to indicate that the grammatical subject of the verb is the recipient (not the source) of the action denoted by the verb
  • passively - adv. in a passive manner
  • password - noun a secret word or phrase known only to a restricted group
  • paste - noun an adhesive made from water and flour or starch; used on paper and paperboard;  any mixture of a soft and malleable consistency;  a tasty mixture to be spread on bread or crackers;  verbcover the surface of;  hit with the fists;  join or attach with or as if with glue
  • patchy - adj. irregular or uneven in quality, texture, etc.
  • patency - noun the openness (lack of obstruction) of a bodily passage or duct;  the property of being easy to see and understand
  • pathogen - noun any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
  • pathogenesis - noun the origination and development of a disease
  • pathogenic - adj. able to cause disease
  • pathologic - adj. caused by or altered by or manifesting disease or pathology;  of or relating to the practice of pathology
  • pathological - adj. caused by or evidencing a mentally disturbed condition;  of or relating to the practice of pathology;  caused by or altered by or manifesting disease or pathology
  • pathology - noun the branch of medical science that studies the causes and nature and effects of diseases;  any deviation from a healthy or normal condition
  • pathway - noun a trodden path;  a bundle of myelinated nerve fibers following a path through the brain
  • patient - adj. enduring without protest or complaint;  enduring trying circumstances with even temper or characterized by such endurance;  noun a person who requires medical care;  the semantic role of an entity that is not the agent but is directly involved in or affected by the happening denoted by the verb in the clause
  • paucity - noun an insufficient quantity or number
  • paul - noun (New Testament) a Christian missionary to the Gentiles; author of several Epistles in the New Testament; even though Paul was not present at the Last Supper he is considered an apostle; United States feminist (1885-1977)
  • pb - noun a soft heavy toxic malleable metallic element; bluish white when freshly cut but tarnishes readily to dull grey
  • pc - noun a small digital computer based on a microprocessor and designed to be used by one person at a time
  • pd - noun a silver-white metallic element of the platinum group that resembles platinum; occurs in some copper and nickel ores; does not tarnish at ordinary temperatures and is used (alloyed with gold) in jewelry
  • pe - noun the 17th letter of the Hebrew alphabet
  • peaked - adj. having or rising to a peak;  somewhat ill or prone to illness
  • peculiar - adj. characteristic of one only; distinctive or special; markedly different from the usual;  beyond or deviating from the usual or expected;  unique or specific to a person or thing or category
  • peep - noun a secret look;  the short weak cry of a young bird;  verbappear as though from hiding;  speak in a hesitant and high-pitched tone of voice;  make high-pitched sounds; of birds;  cause to appear; look furtively
  • peer - noun a person who is of equal standing with another in a group;  a nobleman (duke or marquis or earl or viscount or baron) who is a member of the British peerage;  verb look searchingly
  • pellagra - noun a disease caused by deficiency of niacin or tryptophan (or by a defect in the metabolic conversion of tryptophan to niacin); characterized by gastrointestinal disturbances and erythema and nervous or mental disorders; may be caused by malnutrition or alcoholism or other nutritional impairments
  • pellet - noun a small sphere;  a solid missile discharged from a firearm
  • pelvic - adj. of or relating to the pelvis
  • pending - adj. awaiting conclusion or confirmation
  • penetrate - verb come to understand;  pass into or through, often by overcoming resistance;  insert the penis into the vagina or anus of; make one's way deeper into or through;  become clear or enter one's consciousness or emotions;  spread or diffuse through;  enter a group or organization in order to spy on the members
  • pengo - noun a Dravidian language spoken in south central India; formerly the basic unit of money in Hungary until it was replaced by the forint in 1946
  • penicillamine - noun a drug (trade name Cuprimine) used to treat heavy metal poisoning and Wilson's disease and severe arthritis
  • penicillin-resistant - adj. unaffected by penicillin
  • penicillin - noun any of various antibiotics obtained from Penicillium molds (or produced synthetically) and used in the treatment of various infections and diseases
  • penicillinase - noun enzyme produced by certain bacteria that inactivates penicillin and results in resistance to that antibiotic
  • penis - noun the male organ of copulation (`member' is a euphemism)
  • pentazocine - noun analgesic drug (trade name Talwin) that is less addictive than morphine
  • people - noun (plural) any group of human beings (men or women or children) collectively;  members of a family line;  the body of citizens of a state or country;  the common people generally;  verb fill with people or supply with inhabitants;  furnish with people
  • peoples - noun the human beings of a particular nation or community or ethnic group
  • peppermint - noun a candy flavored with peppermint oil;  herb with downy leaves and small purple or white flowers that yields a pungent oil used as a flavoring;  red gum tree of Tasmania
  • pepsin - noun an enzyme produced in the stomach that splits proteins into peptones
  • peptic - adj. relating to or promoting digestion
  • peptide - noun amide combining the amino group of one amino acid with the carboxyl group of another; usually obtained by partial hydrolysis of protein
  • perceive - verb become conscious of;  to become aware of through the senses
  • perceived - adj. detected by means of the senses;  detected by instinct or inference rather than by recognized perceptual cues
  • percentage - noun a proportion multiplied by 100;  assets belonging to or due to or contributed by an individual person or group
  • perception - noun the process of perceiving;  knowledge gained by perceiving;  a way of conceiving something;  becoming aware of something via the senses;  the representation of what is perceived; basic component in the formation of a concept
  • perceptual - adj. of or relating to the act of perceiving
  • percutaneous - adj. through the unbroken skin; refers to medications applied directly to the skin (creams or ointments) or in time-release forms (skin patches)
  • perennial - adj. recurring again and again;  lasting three seasons or more;  lasting an indefinitely long time; suggesting self-renewal;  nouna plant lasting for three seasons or more
  • perfect - adj. precisely accurate or exact;  being complete of its kind and without defect or blemish;  without qualification; used informally as (often pejorative) intensifiers;  noun a tense of verbs used in describing action that has been completed (sometimes regarded as perfective aspect);  verb make perfect or complete
  • perforate - adj. having a hole cut through;  verb pass into or through, often by overcoming resistance;  make a hole into or between, as for ease of separation
  • perforated - adj. having a number or series of holes;  having a hole cut through
  • perforation - noun the act of punching a hole (especially a row of holes as for ease of separation);  a line of small holes for tearing at a particular place;  a hole made in something
  • perform - verb carry out or perform an action;  give a performance (of something);  perform a function;  get (something) done
  • performance - noun any recognized accomplishment;  the act of performing; of doing something successfully; using knowledge as distinguished from merely possessing it;  the act of presenting a play or a piece of music or other entertainment;  a dramatic or musical entertainment;  process or manner of functioning or operating
  • performing - noun the performance of a part or role in a drama
  • perfusion - noun pumping a liquid into an organ or tissue (especially by way of blood vessels)
  • perianal - adj. around the anus
  • pericardial - adj. located around the heart or relating to or affecting the pericardium
  • pericarditis - noun inflammation of the pericardium
  • pericardium - noun a serous membrane with two layers that surrounds the heart
  • perinatal - adj. occurring during the period around birth (5 months before and 1 month after)
  • perineum - noun the general region between the anus and the genital organs
  • periodic - adj. recurring or reappearing from time to time;  happening or recurring at regular intervals;  recurring at regular intervals
  • periodically - adv. in a sporadic manner
  • peripheral - adj. on or near an edge or constituting an outer boundary; the outer area;  related to the key issue but not of central importance;  noun (computer science) electronic equipment connected by cable to the CPU of a computer
  • periphery - noun the outside boundary or surface of something
  • peristalsis - noun the process of wavelike muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
  • peritoneal - adj. of or relating to or affecting the peritoneum
  • peritonitis - noun inflammation of the peritoneum
  • permanent - adj. continuing or enduring without marked change in status or condition or place;  not capable of being reversed or returned to the original condition;  noun a series of waves in the hair made by applying heat and chemicals
  • permanently - adv. for a long time without essential change
  • permeability - noun the property of something that can be pervaded by a liquid (as by osmosis or diffusion)
  • permeable - adj. allowing fluids or gases to pass or diffuse through
  • permeate - verb spread or diffuse through;  penetrate mutually or be interlocked;  pass through
  • permission - noun approval to do something;  the act of giving a formal (usually written) authorization
  • permissive - adj. granting or inclined or able to grant permission; not strict in discipline;  not preventive
  • peroxidase - noun any of a group of enzymes (occurring especially in plant cells) that catalyze the oxidation of a compound by a peroxide
  • perphenazine - noun tranquilizer and antidepressant (trade name Triavil) sometimes used as an antiemetic for adults
  • persist - verb stay behind;  be persistent, refuse to stop;  continue to exist
  • persistence - noun the act of persisting or persevering; continuing or repeating behavior;  persistent determination;  the property of a continuous and connected period of time
  • persistent - adj. never-ceasing;  retained; not shed;  continually recurring to the mind
  • persistently - adv. with persistence;  in a persistent manner
  • person - noun a human being;  a human body (usually including the clothing);  a grammatical category of pronouns and verb forms
  • personality - noun the complex of all the attributes--behavioral, temperamental, emotional and mental--that characterize a unique individual;  a person of considerable prominence
  • personalized - adj. pointedly referring to or concerning a person's individual personality or intimate affairs especially offensively;  made for or directed or adjusted to a particular individual
  • personnel - noun the department responsible for hiring and training and placing employees and for seting policies for personnel management;  group of people willing to obey orders
  • perspective - noun the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer;  a way of regarding situations or topics etc.
  • pessary - noun a contraceptive device consisting of a flexible dome-shaped cup made of rubber or plastic; it is filled with spermicide and fitted over the uterine cervix
  • peter - noun disciple of Jesus and leader of the apostles; regarded by Catholics as the vicar of Christ on earth and first Pope;  obscene terms for penis
  • ph - noun (from potential of Hydrogen) the logarithm of the reciprocal of hydrogen-ion concentration in gram atoms per liter; provides a measure on a scale from 0 to 14 of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution (where 7 is neutral and greater than 7 is more basic and less than 7 is more acidic)
  • phaeochromocytoma - noun a vascular tumor of the adrenal gland; hypersecretion of epinephrine results in intermittent or sustained hypertension
  • phagocytosis - noun process in which phagocytes engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris; an important defense against infection
  • pharma - noun a company that makes and sells pharmaceuticals
  • pharmaceutical - adj. of or relating to pharmacy or pharmacists;  of or relating to drugs used in medical treatment;  noun drug or medicine that is prepared or dispensed in pharmacies and used in medical treatment
  • pharmaceutics - noun the art and science of preparing and dispensing drugs and medicines,
  • pharmacist - noun a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs
  • pharmacogenetics - noun the branch of genetics that studies the genetically determined variations in responses to drugs in humans or laboratory organisms
  • pharmacokinetics - noun the study of the action of drugs in the body: method and rate of excretion; duration of effect; etc.
  • pharmacologic - adj. of or relating to pharmacology
  • pharmacological - adj. of or relating to pharmacology
  • pharmacologically - adv. with regard to pharmacology
  • pharmacology - noun the science or study of drugs: their preparation and properties and uses and effects
  • pharmacy - noun the art and science of preparing and dispensing drugs and medicines,;  a retail shop where medicine and other articles are sold
  • pharyngeal - adj. of or relating to the throat;  noun a consonant articulated in the back of the mouth or throat
  • pharyngitis - noun inflammation of the fauces and pharynx
  • pharynx - noun the passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone
  • phd - noun an American doctorate usually based on at least 3 years graduate study and a dissertation; the highest degree awarded by a graduate school
  • phenacetin - noun a white crystalline compound used as an analgesic and also as an antipyretic
  • phencyclidine - noun a drug used as an anesthetic by veterinarians; illicitly taken (originally in the form of powder or `dust') for its effects as a hallucinogen
  • phenelzine - noun monoamine oxidase inhibitor (trade name Nardil) used to treat clinical depression
  • phenobarbital - noun a long-acting barbiturate used as a sedative
  • phenobarbitone - noun a long-acting barbiturate used as a sedative
  • phenolic - noun a thermosetting resin
  • phenolphthalein - noun a laxative used in many preparations under various trade names; also used as an acid-base indicator in titrations involving weak acids and strong bases because it is brilliant red at high alkalinity and colorless below pH 8
  • phenomenon - noun any state or process known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoning;  a remarkable development
  • phenothiazine - noun a compound used primarily in veterinary medicine to rid farm animals of internal parasites
  • phenotype - noun what an organism looks like as a consequence of the interaction of its genotype and the environment
  • phentolamine - noun a virility drug (trade name Vasomax) to treat erectile dysfunction in men
  • phenylbutazone - noun anti-inflammatory drug (trade name Butazolidin)
  • phenylephrine - noun a powerful vasoconstrictor used to dilate the pupils and relieve nasal congestion
  • phenylketonuria - noun a genetic disorder of metabolism; lack of the enzyme needed to turn phenylalanine into tyrosine results in an accumulation of phenylalanine in the body fluids which causes various degrees of mental deficiency
  • phenytoin - noun an anticonvulsant drug (trade name Dilantin) used to treat epilepsy and that is not a sedative
  • philosophical - adj. characterized by the attitude of a philosopher; meeting trouble with level-headed detachment;  characteristic of or imbued with the attitude of a philosopher or based on philosophy;  of or relating to philosophy or philosophers
  • philosophy - noun any personal belief about how to live or how to deal with a situation;  the rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics;  a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school
  • phlebitis - noun inflammation of a vein (usually in the legs)
  • phobic - adj. suffering from irrational fears
  • phocomelia - noun an abnormality of development in which the upper part of an arm or leg is missing so the hands or feet are attached to the body like stumps; rare condition that results from taking thalidomide during pregnancy
  • phosphatase - noun any of a group of enzymes that act as a catalyst in the hydrolysis of organic phosphates
  • phosphate - noun carbonated drink with fruit syrup and a little phosphoric acid;  a salt of phosphoric acid
  • phospholipid - noun any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base; an important constituent of membranes
  • phosphorus - noun a multivalent nonmetallic element of the nitrogen family that occurs commonly in inorganic phosphate rocks and as organic phosphates in all living cells; is highly reactive and occurs in several allotropic forms;  a planet (usually Venus) seen just before sunrise in the eastern sky
  • photochemical - adj. of or relating to or produced by the effects of light on chemical systems
  • photophobia - noun a morbid fear of light;  pain in the eye resulting from exposure to bright light (often associated with albinism)
  • photosensitive - adj. sensitive to visible light
  • photosensitivity - noun sensitivity to the action of radiant energy
  • phrenic - adj. of or relating to the diaphragm
  • physically - adv. in accord with physical laws
  • physician - noun a licensed medical practitioner
  • physiologic - adj. of or consistent with an organism's normal functioning
  • physiological - adj. of or relating to the biological study of physiology;  of or consistent with an organism's normal functioning
  • physiologically - adv. of or relating to physiological processes; with respect to physiology
  • physiology - noun processes and functions of an organism;  the branch of the biological sciences dealing with the functioning of organisms
  • physiotherapy - noun therapy that uses physical agents: exercise and massage and other modalities
  • physostigmine - noun used in treatment of Alzheimer's disease and glaucoma
  • pigmentation - noun coloration of living tissues by pigment;  the deposition of pigment in animals or plants or human beings
  • piles - noun a large number or amount;  pain caused by venous swelling at or inside the anal sphincter
  • pimozide - noun the most commonly used diphenylbutyl piperidine
  • pinpoint - adj. meticulously precise;  noun the sharp point of a pin;  a very brief moment;  a very small spot;  verb locate exactly
  • piperacillin - noun a synthetic type of penicillin antibiotic (trade name Pipracil) used for moderate to severe infections
  • piroxicam - noun a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (trade name Feldene) used to treat arthritis and other inflammatory conditions
  • pitfall - noun an unforeseen or unexpected or surprising difficulty;  a trap in the form of a concealed hole
  • pitifully - adv. to a pitiful degree
  • pitting - noun the formation of small pits in a surface as a consequence of corrosion
  • pittsburgh - noun a city in southwestern Pennsylvania where the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River forms the Ohio River; long an important urban industrial area; site of Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh
  • pituitary - adj. of or relating to the pituitary gland;  having abnormal size with overgrown extremities resulting from abnormal pituitary secretion;  noun the master gland of the endocrine system; located at the base of the brain
  • pityriasis - noun any of several skin disorders characterized by shedding dry flakes of skin
  • placebo - noun (Roman Catholic Church) vespers of the office for the dead;  an innocuous or inert medication; given as a pacifier or to the control group in experiments on the efficacy of a drug
  • placement - noun contact established between applicants and prospective employees;  the act of putting something in a certain place;  the spatial property of the way in which something is placed
  • placenta - noun the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus;  that part of the ovary of a flowering plant where the ovules form
  • placental - adj. pertaining to or having or occurring by means of a placenta;  noun mammals having a placenta; all mammals except monotremes and marsupials
  • plan - noun scale drawing of a structure;  a series of steps to be carried out or goals to be accomplished;  an arrangement scheme; verb make plans for something;  have the will and intention to carry out some action;  make or work out a plan for; devise;  make a design of; plan out in systematic, often graphic form
  • planned - adj. designed or carried out according to a plan;  planned in advance
  • planning - noun the act or process of drawing up plans or layouts for some project or enterprise;  an act of formulating a program for a definite course of action;  the cognitive process of thinking about what you will do in the event of something happening
  • plantar - adj. relating to or occurring on the undersurface of the foot
  • plaque - noun (pathology) a small abnormal patch on or inside the body;  a memorial made of brass
  • plasmapheresis - noun plasma is separated from whole blood and the rest is returned to the donor
  • plasmid - noun a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication
  • plasmin - noun an enzyme that dissolves the fibrin of blood clots
  • plasminogen - noun an inactive form of plasmin that occurs in plasma and is converted to plasmin by organic solvents
  • plastic film - noun a thin sheet of (usually plastic and usually transparent) material used to wrap or cover things
  • plateau - noun a relatively flat highland
  • platelet - noun tiny bits of protoplasm found in vertebrate blood; essential for blood clotting
  • plausible - adj. apparently reasonable and valid, and truthful;  given to or characterized by presenting specious arguments
  • played - adj. (of games) engaged in
  • playing - noun the action of taking part in a game or sport or other recreation;  the act of playing a musical instrument;  the performance of a part or role in a drama
  • pleasant - adj. pleasant in manner or behavior;  affording pleasure; being in harmony with your taste or likings
  • please - adv. used in polite request;  verb give pleasure to or be pleasing to;  give satisfaction;  be the will of or have the will (to)
  • pleased - adj. experiencing or manifesting pleasure;  feeling pleasurable satisfaction over something by which you measures your self-worth
  • pleasurable - adj. affording satisfaction or pleasure
  • plenty - adv. as much as necessary;  noun a full supply;  (often followed by `of') a large number or amount or extent
  • pleura - noun the thin serous membrane around the lungs and inner walls of the chest
  • plexus - noun a network of intersecting blood vessels or intersecting nerves or intersecting lymph vessels
  • plotted - adj. planned in advance
  • plus - adj. involving advantage or good;  on the positive side or higher end of a scale;  noun the arithmetic operation of summing; calculating the sum of two or more numbers;  a useful or valuable quality
  • pneumococcal - adj. of or derived from or caused by bacteria of the genus pneumococcus
  • pneumonia - noun respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants
  • pneumothorax - noun abnormal presence of air in the pleural cavity resulting in the collapse of the lung; may be spontaneous (due to injury to the chest) or induced (as a treatment for tuberculosis)
  • pointed - adj. direct and obvious in meaning or reference; often unpleasant;  having a point
  • poisoning - noun the act of giving poison to a person or animal with the intent to kill;  the physiological state produced by a poison or other toxic substance
  • polar - adj. having a pair of equal and opposite charges;  of or existing at or near a geographical pole or within the Arctic or Antarctic Circles;  located at or near or coming from the earth's poles;  being of crucial importance;  extremely cold;  characterized by opposite extremes; completely opposed
  • polarity - noun having an indicated pole (as the distinction between positive and negative electric charges);  a relation between two opposite attributes or tendencies
  • policy - noun a plan of action adopted by an individual or social group;  written contract or certificate of insurance;  a line of argument rationalizing the course of action of a government
  • poliovirus - noun the virus causing poliomyelitis
  • political - adj. involving or characteristic of politics or parties or politicians;  of or relating to your views about social relationships involving authority or power;  of or relating to the profession of governing
  • pollack - noun important food and game fish of northern seas (especially the northern Atlantic); related to cod;  lean white flesh of North Atlantic fish; similar to codfish;  United States filmmaker (born in 1934)
  • pollock - noun United States artist famous for painting with a drip technique; a leader of abstract expressionism in America (1912-1956);  important food and game fish of northern seas (especially the northern Atlantic); related to cod;  lean white flesh of North Atlantic fish; similar to codfish
  • pollution - noun undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances as a consequence of human activities;  the act of contaminating or polluting; including (either intentionally or accidentally) unwanted substances or factors;  the state of being polluted
  • polydipsia - noun excessive thirst (as in cases of diabetes or kidney dysfunction)
  • polyethylene - noun a lightweight thermoplastic; used especially in packaging and insulation
  • polygenic - adj. of or relating to an inheritable character that is controlled by several genes at once; of or related to or determined by polygenes
  • polymer - noun a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
  • polymerase - noun an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of new DNA and RNA from an existing strand of DNA or RNA
  • polymerization - noun a chemical process that combines several monomers to form a polymer or polymeric compound
  • polymorphic - adj. having or occurring in several distinct forms; relating to the occurrence of more than one kind of individual (independent of sexual differences) in an interbreeding population; relating to the crystallization of a compound in two or more different forms
  • polymorphism - noun (biology) the existence of two or more forms of individuals within the same animal species (independent of sex differences);  (chemistry) the existence of different kinds of crystal of the same chemical compound
  • polypeptide - noun a peptide containing 10 to more than 100 amino acids
  • polysaccharide - noun any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
  • polystyrene - noun a polymer of styrene; a rigid transparent thermoplastic
  • polyuria - noun renal disorder characterized by the production of large volumes of pale dilute urine; often associated with diabetes
  • poor - adj. unsatisfactory;  having little money or few possessions; lacking in specific resources, qualities or substances;  characterized by or indicating poverty;  deserving or inciting pity;  not sufficient to meet a need;  noun people without possessions or wealth (considered as a group)
  • poorly - adj. somewhat ill or prone to illness;  adv. (`ill' is often used as a combining form) in a poor or improper or unsatisfactory manner; not well
  • poppy - noun annual or biennial or perennial herbs having showy flowers
  • popular - adj. (of music or art) new and of general appeal (especially among young people);  carried on by or for the people (or citizens) at large;  regarded with great favor, approval, or affection especially by the general public;  representing or appealing to or adapted for the benefit of the people at large
  • popularity - noun the quality of being widely admired or accepted or sought after
  • porcine - adj. relating to or suggesting swine;  resembling swine; coarsely gluttonous or greedy;  repellently fat
  • pore - noun any small opening in the skin or outer surface of an animal;  any tiny hole admitting passage of a liquid (fluid or gas);  a minute epidermal pore in a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor can pass;  verb direct one's attention on something
  • pork - noun meat from a domestic hog or pig;  a legislative appropriation designed to ingratiate legislators with their constituents
  • porphyria - noun a genetic abnormality of metabolism causing abdominal pains and mental confusion
  • porphyrin - noun any of various pigments distributed widely in living tissues
  • portable - adj. of a motor designed to be attached to the outside of a boat's hull;  easily or conveniently transported;  noun a small light typewriter; usually with a case in which it can be carried
  • portal - noun a grand and imposing entrance (often extended metaphorically);  a short vein that carries blood into the liver;  a site that the owner positions as an entrance to other sites on the internet
  • positron - noun an elementary particle with positive charge; interaction of a positron and an electron results in annihilation
  • possess - verb have as an attribute, knowledge, or skill;  enter into and control, as of emotions or ideas;  have ownership or possession of
  • possibility - noun a possible alternative;  a future prospect or potential;  capability of existing or happening or being true;  a tentative theory about the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena
  • possible - adj. capable of happening or existing;  existing in possibility;  capable of being imagined;  noun something that can be done;  an applicant who might be suitable
  • possibly - adv. by chance;  to a degree possible of achievement or by possible means;  in a manner or to a degree possible of conceiving;  with a possibility of becoming actual
  • posterior - adj. at or near the hind end in quadrupeds or toward the spine in primates;  noun a tooth situated at the back of the mouth; the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on
  • postgraduate - adj. of or relating to studies beyond a bachelor's degree;  noun a student who continues studies after graduation
  • postmenopausal - adj. subsequent to menopause
  • postoperatively - adv. after the operation
  • postpartum - adj. occurring immediately after birth
  • postprandial - adj. following a meal (especially dinner)
  • postural - adj. of or relating to or involving posture
  • potassium - noun a light soft silver-white metallic element of the alkali metal group; oxidizes rapidly in air and reacts violently with water; is abundant in nature in combined forms occurring in sea water and in carnallite and kainite and sylvite
  • potency - noun capacity to produce strong physiological or chemical effects;  the state of being potent; a male's capacity to have sexual intercourse;  the power or right to give orders or make decisions;  the inherent capacity for coming into being
  • potent - adj. having a strong physiological or chemical effect;  (of a male) capable of copulation;  having or wielding force or authority; having great influence
  • potential - adj. existing in possibility;  expected to become or be; in prospect;  noun the inherent capacity for coming into being;  the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts
  • potentially - adv. with a possibility of becoming actual
  • potentiate - verb increase the effect of or act synergistically with (a drug or a physiological or biochemical phenomenon)
  • potentiation - noun (medicine) the synergistic effect of two drugs given simultaneously
  • potently - adv. in a manner having a powerful influence
  • poverty - noun the state of having little or no money and few or no material possessions
  • powerful - adj. having great power or force or potency or effect; displaying superhuman strength or power;  having great influence; (of a person) possessing physical strength and weight; rugged and powerful;  strong enough to knock down or overwhelm;  adv.(Southern regional intensive) very
  • powerfully - adv. in a powerful manner;  in a manner having a powerful influence
  • practicable - adj. capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances as they are;  usable for a specific purpose
  • practical - adj. having or put to a practical purpose or use; concerned with actual use or practice;  guided by practical experience and observation rather than theory;  being actually such in almost every respect
  • practitioner - noun someone who practices a learned profession
  • pravastatin - noun an oral drug (trade name Pravachol) administered to reduce blood cholesterol levels; recommended after nonfatal heart attacks
  • prazosin - noun antihypertensive drug (trade name Minipress)
  • pre-eclampsia - noun abnormal state of pregnancy characterized by hypertension and fluid retention and albuminuria; can lead to eclampsia if untreated
  • pre-emptive - adj. designed or having the power to deter or prevent an anticipated situation or occurrence
  • pre-existing - adj. existing previously or before something
  • precede - verb furnish with a preface or introduction;  move ahead (of others) in time or space;  be the predecessor of;  come before;  be earlier in time; go back further
  • preceding - adj. existing or coming before;  preceding in time or order;  of a person who has held and relinquished a position or office
  • precipitant - adj. done with very great haste and without due deliberation;  noun an agent that causes a precipitate to form
  • precipitate - adj. done with very great haste and without due deliberation;  noun a precipitated solid substance in suspension or after settling or filtering;  verb separate as a fine suspension of solid particles;  hurl or throw violently;  bring about abruptly;  fall vertically, sharply, or headlong;  fall from clouds
  • precipitating - adj. bringing on suddenly or abruptly
  • precise - adj. sharply exact or accurate or delimited;  (of ideas, images, representations, expressions) characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth ; strictly correct
  • precisely - adv. indicating exactness or preciseness;  in a precise manner;  just as it should be
  • precision - noun the quality of being reproducible in amount or performance
  • preclinical - adj. of or relating to the early phases of a disease when accurate diagnosis is not possible because symptoms of the disease have not yet appeared
  • preclude - verb make impossible, especially beforehand;  keep from happening or arising; make impossible
  • precocious - adj. appearing or developing early;  characterized by or characteristic of exceptionally early development or maturity (especially in mental aptitude)
  • precordial - adj. in front of the heart; involving the precordium
  • precordium - noun the external surface of the body overlying the heart and stomach
  • precursor - noun a person who goes before or announces the coming of another;  a substance from which another substance is formed (especially by a metabolic reaction);  an indication of the approach of something or someone
  • predict - verb make a prediction about; tell in advance;  indicate by signs
  • predictable - adj. capable of being foretold
  • predictably - adv. in a predictable manner or to a predictable degree
  • predicted - adj. known beforehand
  • prediction - noun the act of predicting (as by reasoning about the future);  a statement made about the future
  • predictive - adj. of or relating to prediction; having value for making predictions
  • predictor - noun a computer for controlling antiaircraft fire that computes the position of an aircraft at the instant of a shell's arrival; information that supports a probabilistic estimate of future events; someone who makes predictions of the future (usually on the basis of special knowledge)
  • predilection - noun a predisposition in favor of something;  a strong liking
  • predispose - verb make susceptible
  • predisposed - adj. made susceptible
  • predisposition - noun a disposition in advance to react in a particular way;  an inclination beforehand to interpret statements in a particular way;  susceptibility to a pathogen
  • prednisolone - noun a glucocorticoid (trade names Pediapred or Prelone) used to treat inflammatory conditions
  • prednisone - noun a dehydrogenated analogue of cortisol (trade names Orasone or Deltasone or Liquid Pred or Meticorten); used as an anti-inflammatory drug in the treatment of arthritis and as an immunosuppressant
  • predominant - adj. having superior power and influence;  most frequent or common
  • predominantly - adv. much greater in number or influence
  • predominate - adj. having superior power and influence;  verb be larger in number, quantity, power, status or importance;  appear very large or occupy a commanding position
  • preeclampsia - noun abnormal state of pregnancy characterized by hypertension and fluid retention and albuminuria; can lead to eclampsia if untreated
  • preface - noun a short introductory essay preceding the text of a book;  verb furnish with a preface or introduction
  • prefer - verb like better; value more highly;  promote over another; give preference to one creditor over another;  select as an alternative; choose instead; prefer as an alternative
  • preferable - adj. more desirable than another
  • preferably - adv. more readily or willingly
  • preference - noun grant of favor or advantage to one over another (especially to a country or countries in matters of international trade, such as levying duties);  the right or chance to choose;  a strong liking;  a predisposition in favor of something
  • preferentially - adv. in a preferential manner
  • preferred - adj. more desirable than another;  preferred above all others and treated with partiality
  • pregnancy - noun the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus
  • pregnanediol - noun a compound found in women's urine during certain phases of the menstrual cycle and in the urine of pregnant women
  • pregnant - adj. carrying developing offspring within the body or being about to produce new life;  filled with or attended with;  rich in significance or implication
  • preliminary - adj. designed to orient or acquaint with a situation before proceeding;  noun something that serves as a preceding event or introduces what follows;  a minor match preceding the main event
  • prelude - noun music that precedes a fugue or introduces an act in an opera;  something that serves as a preceding event or introduces what follows;  verb play as a prelude;  serve as a prelude or opening to
  • premature - adj. uncommonly early or before the expected time; born after a gestation period of less than the normal time;  too soon or too hasty
  • premenopausal - adj. prior to menopause
  • premenstrual - adj. of or relating to or occurring during the period just before menstruation
  • prenatal - adj. occurring or existing before birth
  • preoperative - adj. happening or done before and in preparation for a surgical operation
  • prepaid - adj. used especially of mail; paid in advance
  • prepared - adj. equipped or prepared with necessary intellectual resources;  made ready or fit or suitable beforehand;  having made preparations
  • preparedness - noun the state of having been made ready or prepared for use or action (especially military action)
  • preponderant - adj. having superior power and influence
  • prepubertal - adj. (especially of human beings) at the age immediately before puberty; often marked by accelerated growth
  • presage - noun a foreboding about what is about to happen;  a sign of something about to happen;  verb indicate by signs
  • prescribe - verb issue commands or orders for
  • prescribed - adj. set down as a rule or guide;  formally laid down or imposed;  conforming to set usage, procedure, or discipline;  fixed or established especially by order or command
  • presence - noun the act of being present;  the impression that something is present;  the immediate proximity of someone or something;  an invisible spiritual being felt to be nearby;  the state of being present; current existence;  dignified manner or conduct
  • presented - adj. given formally or officially
  • preservation - noun the activity of protecting something from loss or danger;  a process that saves organic substances from decay;  the condition of being (well or ill) preserved;  an occurrence of improvement by virtue of preventing loss or injury or other change
  • preservative - adj. tending or having the power to preserve;  noun a chemical compound that is added to protect against decay or decomposition
  • preserved - adj. kept intact or in a particular condition;  prevented from decaying or spoiling and prepared for future use
  • preserves - noun fruit preserved by cooking with sugar
  • pressed - adj. compacted by ironing
  • pressor - adj. increasing (or tending to increase) blood pressure; noun any agent that causes a narrowing of an opening of a blood vessel: cold or stress or nicotine or epinephrine or norepinephrine or angiotensin or vasopressin or certain drugs; maintains or increases blood pressure
  • pressurized - adj. maintained at a certain atmospheric pressure
  • presumably - adv. by reasonable assumption
  • prevalence - noun the quality of prevailing generally; being widespread;  (epidemiology) the ratio (for a given time period) of the number of occurrences of a disease or event to the number of units at risk in the population;  a superiority in numbers or amount
  • prevalent - adj. encountered generally especially at the present time
  • prevarication - noun the deliberate act of deviating from the truth; intentionally vague or ambiguous;  a statement that deviates from or perverts the truth
  • prevent - verb prevent from doing something or being in a certain state;  keep from happening or arising; make impossible
  • preventable - adj. capable of being prevented
  • prevention - noun the act of preventing
  • preventive - adj. preventing or contributing to the prevention of disease;  tending to prevent or hinder;  tending to ward off;  nounremedy that prevents or slows the course of an illness or disease; an agent or device intended to prevent conception;  any obstruction that impedes or is burdensome
  • previous - adj. just preceding something else in time or order;  too soon or too hasty;  (used especially of persons) of the immediate past
  • previously - adv. at an earlier time or formerly
  • priapism - noun condition in which the penis is continually erect; usually painful and seldom with sexual arousal
  • primaquine - noun synthetic antimalarial drug
  • primarily - adv. of primary import;  for the most part
  • primary school - noun a school for young children; usually the first 6 or 8 grades
  • primates - noun an animal order including lemurs and tarsiers and monkeys and apes and human beings
  • primed - adj. (usually followed by `to' or `for') on the point of or strongly disposed
  • primer - noun an introductory textbook;  the first or preliminary coat of paint or size applied to a surface;  any igniter that is used to initiate the burning of a propellant
  • primidone - noun an anticonvulsant (trade name Mysoline) used to treat grand mal seizures and essential tremor
  • primrose - noun any of numerous short-stemmed plants of the genus Primula having tufted basal leaves and showy flowers clustered in umbels or heads
  • principally - adv. for the most part
  • printed - adj. written in print characters or produced by means of e.g. a printing press
  • prion - noun (microbiology) an infectious protein particle similar to a virus but lacking nucleic acid; thought to be the agent responsible for scrapie and other degenerative diseases of the nervous system
  • prior - adj. earlier in time;  noun the head of a religious order; in an abbey the prior is next below the abbot
  • prn - adv. according to need (physicians use PRN in writing prescriptions)
  • pro-inflammatory - adj. tending to cause inflammation
  • probability - noun the quality of being probable; a probable event or the most probable event;  a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur; a number expressing the ratio of favorable cases to the whole number of cases possible
  • probable - adj. apparently destined;  likely but not certain to be or become true or real;  noun an applicant likely to be chosen
  • probably - adv. with considerable certainty; without much doubt; easy to believe on the basis of available evidence
  • probenecid - noun a uricosuric drug that reduces the level of uric acid in the blood; used to treat gout
  • problem - noun a question raised for consideration or solution;  a state of difficulty that needs to be resolved;  a source of difficulty
  • problematic - adj. making great mental demands; hard to comprehend or solve or believe;  open to doubt or debate
  • procaine - noun a white crystalline powder (trade name Ethocaine) administered near nerves as a local anesthetic in dentistry and medicine
  • procedure - noun a mode of conducting legal and parliamentary proceedings;  a particular course of action intended to achieve a result;  a process or series of acts especially of a practical or mechanical nature involved in a particular form of work;  a set sequence of steps, part of larger computer program
  • proceed - verb follow a certain course;  move ahead; travel onward in time or space;  continue talking;  follow a procedure or take a course;  continue a certain state, condition, or activity
  • proceeds - noun the income or profit arising from such transactions as the sale of land or other property
  • processed - adj. subjected to a special process or treatment; prepared or converted from a natural state by subjecting to a special process;  freed from impurities by processing
  • processing - noun preparing or putting through a prescribed procedure
  • prochlorperazine - noun antipsychotic and antiemetic drug used to treat schizophrenia and to combat nausea and vomiting
  • proctitis - noun inflammation of the rectum; marked by bloody stools and a frequent urge to defecate; frequently associated with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
  • proctoscopy - noun visual examination of the rectum and the end of the colon by means of a proctoscope
  • procyclidine - noun drug (trade name Kemadrin) used to reduce tremors in Parkinsonism
  • produced - adj. that is caused by
  • producer - noun something that produces;  someone who finds financing for and supervises the making and presentation of a show (play or film or program or similar work);  someone who manufactures something
  • productive - adj. producing or capable of producing (especially abundantly);  yielding positive results;  marked by great fruitfulness; having the ability to produce or originate
  • profession - noun an occupation requiring special education (especially in the liberal arts or sciences);  affirmation of acceptance of some religion or faith;  an open avowal (true or false) of some belief or opinion;  the body of people in a learned occupation
  • professionally - adv. in a professional manner
  • professor - noun someone who is a member of the faculty at a college or university
  • profoundly - adv. to a great depth psychologically
  • profuse - adj. produced or growing in extreme abundance
  • progenitor - noun an ancestor in the direct line
  • progestational - adj. preceding and favoring gestation; of or relating to physiological changes associated with ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum;  of or relating to progesterone (or to a drug with effects like those of progesterone)
  • progesterone - noun a steroid hormone (trade name Lipo-Lutin) produced in the ovary; prepares and maintains the uterus for pregnancy
  • progestin - noun any of a group of steroid hormones that have the effect of progesterone
  • progestogen - noun any of a group of steroid hormones that have the effect of progesterone
  • prognosis - noun a prediction of the course of a disease;  a prediction about how something (as the weather) will develop
  • prognostic - adj. of or relating to prediction; having value for making predictions;  noun a sign of something about to happen
  • programming - noun creating a sequence of instructions to enable the computer to do something;  setting an order and time for planned events
  • progress - noun the act of moving forward toward a goal;  a movement forward;  gradual improvement or growth or development; verb develop in a positive way;  form or accumulate steadily;  move forward, also in the metaphorical sense
  • progression - noun a series with a definite pattern of advance;  the act of moving forward toward a goal;  a movement forward
  • progressively - adv. advancing in amount or intensity
  • prohibited - adj. forbidden by law;  excluded from use or mention
  • proinflammatory - adj. tending to cause inflammation
  • projected - adj. planned for the future;  extending out above or beyond a surface or boundary
  • prolactin - noun gonadotropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary; in females it stimulates growth of the mammary glands and lactation after parturition
  • proliferation - noun growth by the rapid multiplication of parts;  a rapid increase in number (especially a rapid increase in the number of deadly weapons)
  • proline - noun an amino acid that is found in many proteins (especially collagen)
  • prolong - verb lengthen in time; cause to be or last longer;  lengthen or extend in duration or space
  • prolongation - noun the act of prolonging something;  the consequence of being lengthened in duration;  amount or degree or range to which something extends
  • prolonged - adj. (of illness) developing slowly or of long duration; drawn out or made longer spatially;  relatively long in duration; tediously protracted
  • promethazine - noun antihistamine (trade name Phenergan) used to treat allergies; also an antiemetic used to treat motion sickness
  • prominent - adj. conspicuous in position or importance;  having a quality that thrusts itself into attention
  • promise - noun grounds for feeling hopeful about the future;  a verbal commitment by one person to another agreeing to do (or not to do) something in the future;  verb make a promise or commitment; promise to undertake or give;  give grounds for expectations;  make a prediction about; tell in advance
  • promising - adj. showing possibility of achievement or excellence; full or promise
  • promotion - noun act of raising in rank or position;  a message issued in behalf of some product or cause or idea or person or institution;  encouragement of the progress or growth or acceptance of something;  the advancement of some enterprise
  • promotional - adj. of or relating to serving as publicity;  of or relating to advancement
  • promptly - adv. in a punctual manner;  at once (usually modifies an undesirable occurrence);  with little or no delay
  • prone - adj. lying face downward;  having a tendency (to); often used in combination
  • proneness - noun being disposed to do something
  • pronounced - adj. produced by the organs of speech;  strongly marked; easily noticeable
  • propagate - verb multiply sexually or asexually;  cause to propagate, as by grafting or layering;  transmit or cause to broaden or spread; transmit;  travel through the air;  transmit from one generation to the next;  cause to become widely known;  become distributed or widespread
  • propagation - noun the spreading of something (a belief or practice) into new regions;  the movement of a wave through a medium;  the act of producing offspring or multiplying by such production
  • propensity - noun a disposition to behave in a certain way;  a natural inclination;  an inclination to do something
  • properly - adv. in the right manner;  with reason or justice
  • prophylaxis - noun the prevention of disease
  • proportional - adj. properly related in size or degree or other measurable characteristics; usually followed by `to';  having a constant ratio;  (of taxes) increasing as the amount taxed increases; noun one of the quantities in a mathematical proportion
  • proportionately - adv. in proportion;  to a proportionate degree;  in proportion
  • proposed - adj. planned for the future
  • proprietary - adj. protected by trademark or patent or copyright; made or produced or distributed by one having exclusive rights; noun an unincorporated business owned by a single person who is responsible for its liabilities and entitled to its profits
  • propulsive - adj. having the power to propel;  tending to or capable of propelling
  • propyl - noun the monovalent organic group C3H7- obtained from propane
  • propylthiouracil - noun a crystalline compound used as an antithyroid drug in the treatment of goiter
  • prospective - adj. anticipated for the near future;  concerned with or related to the future
  • prostaglandin - noun a potent substance that acts like a hormone and is found in many bodily tissues (and especially in semen); produced in response to trauma and may affect blood pressure and metabolism and smooth muscle activity
  • prostate - adj. relating to the prostate gland;  noun a firm partly muscular chestnut sized gland in males at the neck of the urethra; produces a viscid secretion that is the fluid part of semen
  • prostatic - adj. relating to the prostate gland
  • prostatitis - noun inflammation of the prostate gland characterized by perineal pain and irregular urination and (if severe) chills and fever
  • prosthetic - adj. relating to or serving as a prosthesis;  of or relating to prosthetics
  • protamine - noun a simple protein found in fish sperm; rich in arginine; simpler in composition than globulin or albumin; counteracts the anticoagulant effect of heparin
  • protease - noun any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into smaller peptide fractions and amino acids by a process known as proteolysis
  • protect - verb shield from danger, injury, destruction, or damage; use tariffs to favor domestic industry
  • protected - adj. guarded from injury or destruction;  kept safe or defended from danger or injury or loss
  • protective - adj. (usually followed by `of') solicitously caring or mindful;  intended or adapted to afford protection of some kind; showing a care
  • protein - noun any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes
  • proteinuria - noun the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
  • proteolysis - noun the hydrolysis of proteins into peptides and amino acids by cleavage of their peptide bonds
  • proteolytic - adj. of or relating to proteolysis
  • prothrombin - noun a protein in blood plasma that is the inactive precursor of thrombin
  • proton - noun a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron
  • protozoa - noun in some classifications considered a superphylum or a subkingdom; comprises flagellates; ciliates; sporozoans; amoebas; foraminifers
  • protracted - adj. relatively long in duration; tediously protracted
  • protriptyline - noun tricyclic antidepressant used to treat clinical depression
  • protrude - verb swell or protrude outwards;  bulge outward;  extend out or project in space
  • protrusion - noun the act of projecting out from something; something that bulges out or is protuberant or projects from its surroundings
  • proved - adj. established beyond doubt
  • proven - adj. established beyond doubt
  • provisional - adj. under terms not final or fully worked out or agreed upon
  • provitamin - noun vitamin precursor; a substance that is converted into a vitamin in animal tissues
  • provocation - noun needed encouragement;  unfriendly behavior that causes anger or resentment;  something that incites or provokes; a means of arousing or stirring to action
  • provoke - verb provide the needed stimulus for;  evoke or provoke to appear or occur;  call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses); annoy continually or chronically
  • proximal - adj. situated nearest to point of attachment or origin
  • proximity - noun the property of being close together;  a Gestalt principle of organization holding that (other things being equal) objects or events that are near to one another (in space or time) are perceived as belonging together as a unit;  the region close around a person or thing
  • prudent - adj. careful and sensible; marked by sound judgment
  • pruritus - noun an intense itching sensation that can have various causes (as by allergies or infection or lymphoma or jaundice etc.)
  • ps - noun a note appended to a letter after the signature
  • pseudoephedrine - noun poisonous crystalline alkaloid occurring with ephedrine and isomorphic with it
  • pseudomonas - noun type genus of the family Pseudomonodaceae
  • psittacosis - noun an atypical pneumonia caused by a rickettsia microorganism and transmitted to humans from infected birds; infectious disease of birds
  • psoriasis - noun a chronic skin disease characterized by dry red patches covered with scales; occurs especially on the scalp and ears and genitalia and the skin over bony prominences
  • psychiatric - adj. relating to or used in or engaged in the practice of psychiatry
  • psychiatry - noun the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
  • psychogenic - adj. mental or emotional rather than physiological in origin;  of or relating to the psychological cause of a disorder
  • psychological - adj. mental or emotional as opposed to physical in nature;  of or relating to or determined by psychology
  • psychometric - adj. of or relating to psychometrics
  • psychomotor - adj. of or relating to or characterizing mental events that have motor consequences or vice versa
  • psychosis - noun any severe mental disorder in which contact with reality is lost or highly distorted
  • psychosomatic - adj. used of illness or symptoms resulting from neurosis
  • psychotherapy - noun the treatment of mental or emotional problems by psychological means;  the branch of psychiatry concerned with psychological methods
  • psychotic - adj. characteristic of or suffering from psychosis;  noun a person afflicted with psychosis
  • psychotropic - adj. affecting the mind or mood or other mental processes
  • pt - noun a heavy precious metallic element; grey-white and resistant to corroding; occurs in some nickel and copper ores and is also found native in some deposits
  • puberty - noun the time of life when sex glands become functional
  • public - adj. affecting the people or community as a whole;  not private; open to or concerning the people as a whole;  noun a body of people sharing some common interest;  people in general considered as a whole
  • publican - noun the keeper of a public house
  • publication - noun the business of issuing printed matter for sale or distribution;  the communication of something to the public; making information generally known;  a copy of a printed work offered for distribution;  the act of issuing printed materials
  • publicity - noun the quality of being open to public view;  a message issued in behalf of some product or cause or idea or person or institution
  • publish - verb prepare and issue for public distribution or sale;  have (one's written work) issued for publication;  put into print
  • published - adj. prepared and printed for distribution and sale; formally made public
  • publisher - noun a firm in the publishing business;  a person engaged in publishing periodicals or books or music;  the proprietor of a newspaper
  • publishing - noun the business of issuing printed matter for sale or distribution
  • puerperal - adj. relating to or connected with or occurring at the time of childbirth or shortly following, or to the woman who has just given birth
  • puerperium - noun time period following childbirth when the mother's uterus shrinks and the other functional and anatomic changes of pregnancy are resolved
  • pulled - adj. drawn toward the source of the force
  • pulmonary - adj. relating to or affecting the lungs
  • pulsate - verb expand and contract rhythmically; beat rhythmically; move with or as if with a regular alternating motion;  produce or modulate (as electromagnetic waves) in the form of short bursts or pulses or cause an apparatus to produce pulses
  • pulseless - adj. appearing dead; not breathing or having no perceptible pulse
  • pungency - noun a strong odor or taste property;  wit having a sharp and caustic quality
  • pungent - adj. strong and sharp; "the pungent taste of radishes"; capable of wounding
  • pupil - noun contractile aperture in the iris of the eye;  a young person attending school (up through senior high school);  a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution
  • pupillary - adj. of or relating to the pupil of the eye
  • purchasing - noun the act of buying
  • purification - noun the act of purging of sin or guilt; moral or spiritual cleansing;  a ceremonial cleansing from defilement or uncleanness by the performance of appropriate rites;  the act of cleaning by getting rid of impurities;  the process of removing impurities (as from oil or metals or sugar etc.)
  • purine - noun a colorless crystalline organic base containing nitrogen; the parent compound of various biologically important substances;  any of several bases that are derivatives of purine
  • purkinje - noun Bohemian physiologist remembered for his discovery of Purkinje cells and the Purkinje network (1787-1869)
  • purported - adj. commonly put forth or accepted as true on inconclusive grounds
  • purpose - noun an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions;  the quality of being determined to do or achieve something;  what something is used for;  verb reach a decision;  propose or intend
  • purpura - noun any of several blood diseases causing subcutaneous bleeding
  • pursued - adj. followed with enmity as if to harm;  noun a person who is being chased
  • purulence - noun symptom of being purulent (containing or forming pus);  a fluid product of inflammation
  • purulent - adj. "a purulent wound"
  • putamen - noun the outer reddish part of the lenticular nucleus
  • putative - adj. commonly put forth or accepted as true on inconclusive grounds
  • putting - noun hitting a golf ball that is on the green using a putter
  • pyelonephritis - noun inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis caused by bacterial infection
  • pyogenic - adj. producing pus
  • pyrexia - noun a rise in the temperature of the body; frequently a symptom of infection
  • pyridoxal - noun a B vitamin that is essential for metabolism of amino acids and starch
  • pyridoxamine - noun a B vitamin that is essential for metabolism of amino acids and starch
  • pyridoxine - noun a B vitamin that is essential for metabolism of amino acids and starch
  • pyrophosphate - noun a salt or ester of pyrophosphoric acid
  • pyuria - noun presence of white blood cells in the urine; symptom of urinary tract infection
  • q - noun the 17th letter of the Roman alphabet
  • quadrant - noun a measuring instrument for measuring altitude of heavenly bodies;  the area enclosed by two perpendicular radii of a circle;  any of the four areas into which a plane is divided by two orthogonal coordinate axes;  a quarter of the circumference of a circle;  a quarter of the circumference of a circle
  • quadruple - adj. four times as great or many;  having four units or components;  noun a quantity that is four times as great as another; a set of four similar things considered as a unit;  verb increase fourfold
  • qualitatively - adv. in a qualitative manner
  • quantify - verb express as a number or measure or quantity;  use as a quantifier
  • quantitative - adj. expressible as a quantity or relating to or susceptible of measurement;  (of verse) having a metric system based on relative duration of syllables;  relating to the measurement of quantity
  • quantitatively - adv. in a quantitative manner
  • quantity - noun an adequate or large amount;  something that has a magnitude and can be represented in mathematical expressions by a constant or a variable;  how much there is of something that you can quantify
  • quaternary - adj. coming next after the third and just before the fifth in position or time or degree or magnitude;  consisting of or especially arranged in sets of four;  noun last 2 million years
  • query - noun an instance of questioning;  verb pose a question
  • questioning - adj. perplexed (as if being expected to know something that you do not know);  showing curiosity;  marked by or given to doubt;  noun a request for information
  • quicker - adv. more quickly
  • quickest - adv. most quickly
  • quickly - adv. with rapid movements;  with little or no delay;  without taking pains
  • quietly - adv. with little or no sound;  with little or no activity or no agitation (`quiet' is a nonstandard variant for `quietly');  with low volume;  in a restful manner
  • quinacrine - noun a drug (trade name Atabrine) used to treat certain worm infestations and once used to treat malaria
  • quinidine - noun cardiac drug (trade names Quinidex and Quinora) used to treat certain heart arrhythmias
  • quinine - noun a bitter alkaloid extracted from chinchona bark; used in malaria therapy
  • quinone - noun any of a class of aromatic yellow compounds including several that are biologically important as coenzymes or acceptors or vitamins; used in making dyes
  • quite - adv. to the greatest extent; completely;  to a degree (not used with a negative);  of an unusually noticeable or exceptional or remarkable kind (not used with a negative);  actually or truly or to an extreme
  • quote - noun a passage or expression that is quoted or cited;  a punctuation mark used to attribute the enclosed text to someone else;  verb put quote marks around;  repeat a passage from;  refer to for illustration or proof;  name the price of
  • radial - adj. arranged like rays or radii; radiating from a common center;  issuing in rays from a common center; relating to rays of light;  relating to or moving along or having the direction of a radius; relating to or near the radius;  noun pneumatic tire that has radial-ply casing
  • radioactive - adj. exhibiting or caused by radioactivity
  • radioimmunoassay - noun immunoassay of a substance that has been radioactively labeled
  • radiological - adj. of or relating to radiology
  • radiology - noun the branch of medical science dealing with the medical use of X-rays or other penetrating radiation;  (radiology) examination of the inner structure of opaque objects using X rays or other penetrating radiation
  • radiotherapy - noun (medicine) the treatment of disease (especially cancer) by exposure to a radioactive substance
  • raised - adj. increased especially to abnormal levels;  above the surround or above the normal position;  embellished with a raised pattern created by pressure or embroidery
  • raising - adj. increasing in quantity or value;  noun the properties acquired as a consequence of the way you were treated as a child; helping someone grow up to be an accepted member of the community;  the event of something being raised upward
  • random - adj. lacking any definite plan or order or purpose; governed by or depending on chance;  taken haphazardly
  • randomised - adj. set up or distributed in a deliberately random way
  • randomization - noun a deliberately haphazard arrangement of observations so as to simulate chance
  • randomized - adj. set up or distributed in a deliberately random way
  • ranging - adj. wandering freely
  • ranitidine - noun a histamine blocker and antacid (trade name Zantac) used to treat peptic ulcers and gastritis and esophageal reflux
  • raphe - noun a ridge that forms a seam between two parts
  • rapid - adj. done or occurring in a brief period of time;  characterized by speed; moving with or capable of moving with high speed;  noun a part of a river where the current is very fast
  • rapidly - adv. with rapid movements
  • rare - adj. not widely distributed;  not widely known; especially valued for its uncommonness;  (of meat) cooked a short time; still red inside; recurring only at long intervals;  marked by an uncommon quality; especially superlative or extreme of its kind;  having low density
  • rash - adj. imprudently incurring risk;  marked by defiant disregard for danger or consequences;  noun a series of unexpected and unpleasant occurrences;  any red eruption of the skin
  • rates - noun a local tax on property (usually used in the plural)
  • rather - adv. to some (great or small) extent;  on the contrary;  to a degree (not used with a negative);  more readily or willingly
  • ratio - noun the relative magnitudes of two quantities (usually expressed as a quotient)
  • rational - adj. having its source in or being guided by the intellect (distinguished from experience or emotion);  consistent with or based on or using reason;  capable of being expressed as a quotient of integers;  of or associated with or requiring the use of the mind;  nounan integer or a fraction
  • rationale - noun (law) an explanation of the fundamental reasons (especially an explanation of the working of some device in terms of laws of nature)
  • rationally - adv. in a rational manner
  • rb - noun a soft silvery metallic element of the alkali metal group; burns in air and reacts violently in water; occurs in carnallite and lepidolite and pollucite
  • re-entrant - adj. (of angles) pointing inward
  • re-uptake - noun a process of using up or consuming again
  • reabsorption - noun the organic process in which the substance of some differentiated structure that has been produced by the body undergoes lysis and assimilation
  • reaching - noun accomplishment of an objective;  the act of physically reaching or thrusting out
  • react - verb undergo a chemical reaction; react with another substance under certain conditions;  show a response or a reaction to something;  act against or in opposition to
  • reactivate - verb activate (an old file) anew
  • reactive - adj. participating readily in reactions;  tending to react to a stimulus
  • readily - adv. without much difficulty;  in a punctual manner
  • reality - noun the quality possessed by something that is real;  the state of being actual or real;  the state of the world as it really is rather than as you might want it to be;  all of your experiences that determine how things appear to you
  • realized - adj. successfully completed or brought to an end
  • really - adv. used as intensifiers; `real' is sometimes used informally for `really'; `rattling' is informal;  in accordance with truth or fact or reality;  in fact (used as intensifiers or sentence modifiers);  in actual fact
  • reappear - verb appear again
  • reasonable - adj. marked by sound judgment;  showing reason or sound judgment;  not excessive or extreme
  • reasonably - adv. to a moderately sufficient extent or degree;  with good sense or in a reasonable or intelligent manner
  • reassurance - noun the act of reassuring; restoring someone's confidence
  • reassure - verb give or restore confidence in; cause to feel sure or certain;  cause to feel sure; give reassurance to
  • reassured - adj. having confidence restored; freed from anxiety
  • rebound - noun the act of securing possession of the rebounding basketball after a missed shot;  a reaction to a crisis or setback or frustration;  a movement back from an impact;  verb return to a former condition;  spring back; spring away from an impact
  • received - adj. widely accepted as true or worthy;  conforming to the established language usage of educated native speakers
  • recent - adj. near to or not long before the present;  being new in a time not long past;  of the immediate past or just previous to the present time;  noun approximately the last 10,000 years
  • recently - adv. in the recent past;  very recently
  • receptor - noun a cellular structure that is postulated to exist in order to mediate between a chemical agent that acts on nervous tissue and the physiological response;  an organ having nerve endings (in the skin or viscera or eye or ear or nose or mouth) that respond to stimulation
  • recessive - adj. (of genes) producing its characteristic phenotype only when its allele is identical;  of or pertaining to a recession;  nounan allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical
  • recirculation - noun circulation again
  • recognized - adj. provided with a secure reputation;  generally approved or compelling recognition
  • recommence - verb begin again;  cause to start anew
  • recommencement - noun beginning again
  • recommend - verb make attractive or acceptable;  push for something;  express a good opinion of
  • recommendation - noun any quality or characteristic that gains a person a favorable reception or acceptance or admission;  something (as a course of action) that is recommended as advisable; something that recommends (or expresses commendation) of a person or thing as worthy or desirable
  • recommended - adj. mentioned as worthy of acceptance
  • recorded - adj. recorded or listed in a directory;  set down or registered in a permanent form especially on film or tape for reproduction;  (of securities) having the owner's name entered in a register
  • recording - noun the act of making a record (especially an audio record);  signal encoding something (e.g., picture or sound) that has been recorded;  a storage device on which information (sounds or images) have been recorded
  • recover - verb regain a former condition after a financial loss;  cover anew;  get or find back; recover the use of;  regain or make up for; get over an illness or shock;  reuse (materials from waste products)
  • recoverable - adj. capable of being recovered or regained
  • recovered - adj. found after being lost;  freed from illness or injury
  • recovery - noun the act of regaining or saving something lost (or in danger of becoming lost);  return to an original state;  gradual healing (through rest) after sickness or injury
  • recruit - noun any new member or supporter (as in the armed forces);  a recently enlisted soldier;  verb cause to assemble or enlist in the military;  seek to employ;  register formally as a participant or member
  • rectal - adj. of or involving the rectum
  • rectosigmoid - adj. of or related to or near the sigmoid colon and the upper part of the rectum
  • rectum - noun the terminal section of the alimentary canal; from the sigmoid flexure to the anus
  • recur - verb happen or occur again;  return in thought or speech to something;  have recourse to
  • recurrence - noun happening again (especially at regular intervals)
  • recurrent - adj. recurring again and again
  • recyclable - adj. capable of being used again
  • recycling - noun the act of processing used or abandoned materials for use in creating new products
  • redistribution - noun distributing again
  • redness - noun red color or pigment; the chromatic color resembling the hue of blood;  a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat
  • reduced - adj. well below normal (especially in price);  made less in size or amount or degree
  • reducing - noun loss of excess weight (as by dieting); becoming slimmer;  any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen); always occurs accompanied by oxidation of the reducing agent
  • reductase - noun an enzyme that catalyses the biochemical reduction of some specified substance
  • reduction - noun the act of reducing complexity;  any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen); always occurs accompanied by oxidation of the reducing agent;  the act of decreasing or reducing something
  • redundant - adj. repetition of same sense in different words;  more than is needed, desired, or required
  • reeve - noun female ruff;  verb fasten by passing through a hole or around something;  pass through a hole or opening;  pass a rope through
  • refer - verb think of, regard, or classify under a subsuming principle or with a general group or in relation to another;  send or direct for treatment, information, or a decision;  have to do with or be relevant to;  seek information from;  have as a meaning;  make reference to
  • referral - noun the act of referring (as forwarding an applicant for employment or referring a matter to an appropriate agency);  a recommendation to consult the (professional) person referred to
  • reflect - verb give evidence of the quality of;  give evidence of a certain behavior;  to throw or bend back or reflect (from a surface); manifest or bring back;  be bright by reflecting or casting light;  reflect deeply on a subject
  • reflected - adj. (especially of incident sound or light) bent or sent back
  • reflecting - adj. causing reflection or having a device that reflects
  • reflex - adj. without volition or conscious control;  noun an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus
  • reflux - noun an abnormal backward flow of body fluids;  the outward flow of the tide
  • refractive - adj. of or relating to or capable of refraction;  capable of changing the direction (of a light or sound wave)
  • refractoriness - noun the trait of being unmanageable
  • refractory - adj. temporarily unresponsive or not fully responsive to nervous or sexual stimuli;  not responding to treatment;  stubbornly resistant to authority or control;  noun lining consisting of material with a high melting point; used to line the inside walls of a furnace
  • regaining - noun getting something back again
  • regardless - adj. (usually followed by `of') without due thought or consideration;  adv. in spite of everything; without regard to drawbacks
  • regime - noun (medicine) a systematic plan for therapy (often including diet);  the organization that is the governing authority of a political unit
  • regimen - noun (medicine) a systematic plan for therapy (often including diet)
  • regional - adj. related or limited to a particular region;  characteristic of a region
  • regress - noun the reasoning involved when you assume the conclusion is true and reason backward to the evidence;  returning to a former state;  verb get worse or fall back to a previous condition; go back to a statistical means;  go back to bad behavior;  go back to a previous state
  • regrettable - adj. deserving regret
  • regularized - adj. made regular
  • regularly - adv. in a regular manner;  in a regular way without variation;  having a regular form
  • regulate - verb fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of; bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage; impose regulations;  check the emission of (sound);  shape or influence; give direction to
  • regulated - adj. controlled or governed according to rule or principle or law;  marked by system or regularity or discipline
  • regulating - noun the act of controlling or directing according to rule
  • regulator - noun any of various controls or devices for regulating or controlling fluid flow, pressure, temperature, etc.;  a official responsible for control and supervision of a particular activity or area of public interest;  a control that maintains a steady speed in a machine (as by controlling the supply of fuel)
  • regulatory - adj. restricting according to rules or principles
  • regurgitation - noun recall after rote memorization;  backflow of blood through a defective heart valve;  the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
  • reid - noun Scottish philosopher of common sense who opposed the ideas of David Hume (1710-1796)
  • reintroduce - verb introduce anew
  • reintroduction - noun an act of renewed introduction
  • rejected - adj. something or someone judged unacceptable; rebuffed (by a lover) without warning
  • rejection - noun the act of rejecting something;  the speech act of rejecting;  (medicine) an immunological response that refuses to accept substances or organisms that are recognized as foreign;  the state of being rejected
  • relapse - noun a failure to maintain a higher state;  verb go back to bad behavior;  deteriorate in health
  • relapsing - noun a failure to maintain a higher state
  • relate - verb give an account of;  have or establish a relationship to; be in a relationship with;  make a logical or causal connection;  have to do with or be relevant to
  • related - adj. connected by kinship, common origin, or marriage; being connected either logically or causally or by shared characteristics;  having close kinship and appropriateness;  similar or related in quality or character
  • relations - noun mutual dealings or connections or communications among persons or groups
  • relative - adj. not absolute or complete;  properly related in size or degree or other measurable characteristics; usually followed by `to'; noun an animal or plant that bears a relationship to another (as related by common descent or by membership in the same genus); a person related by blood or marriage
  • relatively - adv. in a relative manner; by comparison to something else
  • relax - verb cause to feel relaxed;  become less tense, rest, or take one's ease;  make less tight;  become less severe or strict;  make less severe or strict;  become less tense, less formal, or less restrained, and assume a friendlier manner;  become loose or looser or less tight;  make less active or fast
  • relaxant - adj. tending to relax or relieve muscular or nervous tension;  noun a drug that relaxes and relieves tension
  • relaxing - adj. affording or marked by rest or repose
  • released - adj. set free as from prison or duty
  • releasing - adj. emotionally purging (of e.g. art)
  • relevance - noun the relation of something to the matter at hand
  • relevant - adj. having a bearing on or connection with the subject at issue
  • reliability - noun the quality of being dependable or reliable
  • reliable - adj. worthy of reliance or trust;  conforming to fact and therefore worthy of belief;  worthy of being depended on
  • reliably - adv. in a faithful manner
  • reliance - noun certainty based on past experience;  the state of relying on something
  • reliant - adj. relying on another for support
  • relieved - adj. (of pain or sorrow) made easier to bear
  • reluctance - noun a certain degree of unwillingness;  (physics) opposition to magnetic flux (analogous to electric resistance)
  • reluctant - adj. not eager;  unwilling to become involved; unwillingness to do something contrary to your custom
  • rely - verb have confidence or faith in
  • rem - noun (Roentgen Equivalent Man) the dosage of ionizing radiation that will cause the same amount of injury to human tissue as 1 roentgen of X-rays;  a recurring sleep state during which dreaming occurs; a state of rapidly shifting eye movements during sleep
  • remain - verb be left; of persons, questions, problems, results, evidence, etc.; "There remains the question of who pulled the trigger";  stay the same; remain in a certain state;  continue in a place, position, or situation;  stay behind
  • remaining - adj. not used up
  • remains - noun any object that is left unused or still extant;  the dead body of a human being
  • remark - noun explicit notice;  a statement that expresses a personal opinion or belief;  verb make mention of;  make or write a comment on
  • remarkable - adj. unusual or striking;  worthy of notice
  • remarkably - adv. to a remarkable degree or extent;  in a signal manner
  • remediable - adj. capable of being remedied or redressed
  • remedy - noun a medicine or therapy that cures disease or relieve pain;  act of correcting an error or a fault or an evil;  verb provide relief for;  set straight or right
  • reminiscent - adj. serving to bring to mind
  • remnant - noun a piece of cloth that is left over after the rest has been used or sold;  a small part or portion that remains after the main part no longer exists
  • removal - noun dismissal from office;  the act of removing
  • removed - adj. separated in relationship by a given degree of descent;  separate or apart in time;  taken out of or separated from
  • renal - adj. of or relating to the kidneys
  • renewable - adj. capable of being renewed; replaceable;  that can be renewed or extended
  • renewed - adj. restored to a new condition
  • renin - noun a proteolytic enzyme secreted by the kidneys; catalyzes the formation of angiotensin and thus affects blood pressure
  • repeat - noun an event that repeats;  verb to say again or imitate;  to say, state, or perform again;  do over;  happen or occur again;  repeat an earlier theme of a composition;  make or do or perform again
  • repeated - adj. recurring again and again
  • repeatedly - adv. several time
  • repetitive - adj. characterized by repetition;  persistently continual
  • replace - verb substitute a person or thing for (another that is broken or inefficient or lost or no longer working or yielding what is expected);  put something back where it belongs;  put in the place of another; switch seemingly equivalent items;  take the place or move into the position of
  • replacing - noun the act of furnishing an equivalent person or thing in the place of another
  • replete - adj. (followed by `with')deeply filled or permeated;  filled to satisfaction with food or drink;  verb fill to satisfaction
  • reported - adj. made known or told about; especially presented in a formal account
  • reportedly - adv. according to reports or other information
  • reporting - noun the news as presented by reporters for newspapers or radio or television
  • represented - adj. represented accurately or precisely
  • reprint - noun a separately printed article that originally appeared in a larger publication;  a publication (such as a book) that is reprinted without changes or editing and offered again for sale;  verb print anew
  • reproduction - noun the sexual activity of conceiving and bearing offspring;  the act of making copies;  recall that is hypothesized to work by storing the original stimulus input and reproducing it during recall;  the process of generating offspring;  copy that is not the original; something that has been copied
  • reproductive - adj. producing new life or offspring
  • reputation - noun the general estimation that the public has for a person;  notoriety for some particular characteristic;  the state of being held in high esteem and honor
  • request - noun a formal message requesting something that is submitted to an authority;  the verbal act of requesting;  verb express the need or desire for; ask for;  ask (a person) to do something; inquire for (information)
  • require - verb make someone do something;  consider obligatory; request and expect;  have need of;  require as useful, just, or proper
  • required - adj. required by rule;  necessary for relief or supply
  • requirement - noun required activity;  something that is required in advance;  anything indispensable
  • rescue - noun recovery or preservation from loss or danger;  verbtake forcibly from legal custody;  free from harm or evil
  • research - noun systematic investigation to establish facts;  a search for knowledge;  verb inquire into;  attempt to find out in a systematically and scientific manner
  • resection - noun surgical removal of part of a structure or organ
  • resemble - verb appear like; be similar or bear a likeness to
  • reserpine - noun antihypertensive consisting of an alkaloid extracted from the plant Rauwolfia serpentina (trade names Raudixin or Rau-Sed or Sandril or Serpasil)
  • reserved - adj. cool and formal in manner;  marked by self-restraint and reticence;  set aside for the use of a particular person or party
  • reservoir - noun tank used for collecting and storing a liquid (as water or oil);  lake used to store water for community use;  anything (a person or animal or plant or substance) in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies;  a large or extra supply of something
  • residual - adj. relating to or indicating a remainder;  noun (often plural) a payment that is made to a performer or writer or director of a television show or commercial that is paid for every repeat showing;  something left after other parts have been taken away
  • residue - noun matter that remains after something has been removed;  something left after other parts have been taken away
  • resin - noun any of a class of solid or semisolid viscous substances obtained either as exudations from certain plants or prepared by polymerization of simple molecules
  • resist - verb withstand the force of something;  stand up or offer resistance to somebody or something;  refuse to comply;  resist immunologically the introduction of some foreign tissue or organ; express opposition through action or words;  elude, especially in a baffling way
  • resistant - adj. impervious to being affected;  incapable of absorbing or mixing with;  disposed to or engaged in defiance of established authority;  relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection); able to tolerate environmental conditions or physiological stress
  • resolve - noun the trait of being resolute;  a formal expression by a meeting; agreed to by a vote;  verb find the solution;  make clearly visible;  cause to go into a solution;  understand the meaning of;  bring to an end; settle conclusively;  reach a decision;  reach a conclusion after a discussion or deliberation
  • resolved - adj. determined;  explained or answered
  • resolving - noun analysis into clear-cut components
  • resorption - noun the organic process in which the substance of some differentiated structure that has been produced by the body undergoes lysis and assimilation
  • resource - noun a source of aid or support that may be drawn upon when needed;  the ability to deal resourcefully with unusual problems;  available source of wealth; a new or reserve supply that can be drawn upon when needed
  • respected - adj. receiving deferential regard;  having or worthy of pride
  • respectively - adv. in the order given
  • respects - noun (often used with `pay') a formal expression of esteem
  • respiratory - adj. pertaining to respiration
  • respond - verb respond favorably or as hoped;  show a response or a reaction to something;  reply or respond to
  • responsibility - noun a form of trustworthiness; the trait of being answerable to someone for something or being responsible for one's conduct;  the social force tha