Health condition

From WikiMD

A broad term that can be applied to any health problem, including symptoms, diseases and various risk factors (such as high blood cholesterol, and obesity). Often used synonymously with disorder.

Common health condtions

  • Abortion - noun termination of pregnancy; failure of a plan
  • Acetylcholine - noun a neurotransmitter that is a derivative of choline; released at the ends of nerve fibers in the somatic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  • Acne - noun an inflammatory disease involving the sebaceous glands of the skin; characterized by papules or pustules or comedones
  • Acute Myeloid Leukemia - noun acute leukemia characterized by proliferation of granular leukocytes; most common in adolescents and young adults
  • Addiction - noun (Roman law) a formal award by a magistrate of a thing or person to another person (as the award of a debtor to his creditor); a surrender to a master; an abnormally strong craving; being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming (especially alcohol or narcotic drugs)
  • Adenoidectomy - noun surgical removal of the adenoids; commonly performed along with tonsillectomy
  • ADHD - noun a condition (mostly in boys) characterized by behavioral and learning disorders
  • Agoraphobia - noun a morbid fear of open spaces (as fear of being caught alone in some public place)
  • Alcoholism - noun habitual intoxication; prolonged and excessive intake of alcoholic drinks leading to a breakdown in health and an addiction to alcohol such that abrupt deprivation leads to severe withdrawal symptoms; an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess
  • ALS - noun thickening of tissue in the motor tracts of the lateral columns and anterior horns of the spinal cord; results in progressive muscle atrophy that starts in the limbs
  • Alzheimer's Disease - noun a progressive form of presenile dementia that is similar to senile dementia except that it usually starts in the 40s or 50s; first symptoms are impaired memory which is followed by impaired thought and speech and finally complete helplessness
  • Amenorrhea - noun absence or suppression of normal menstrual flow
  • Analgesic - adj. capable of relieving pain; noun a medicine used to relieve pain
  • Anaphylaxis - noun hypersensitivity reaction to the ingestion or injection of a substance (a protein or drug) resulting from prior contact with a substance
  • Anatomy - noun a detailed analysis; the branch of morphology that deals with the structure of animals; alternative names for the body of a human being
  • Anemia - noun genus of terrestrial or lithophytic ferns having pinnatifid fronds; chiefly of tropical America; a deficiency of red blood cells; a lack of vitality
  • Aneurysm - noun a cardiovascular disease characterized by a saclike widening of an artery resulting from weakening of the artery wall
  • Angina - noun any disease of the throat or fauces marked by spasmodic attacks of intense suffocative pain; a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
  • Angioplasty - noun an operation to repair a damaged blood vessel or unblock a coronary artery
  • Ankylosing Spondylitis - noun a chronic form of spondylitis primarily in males and marked by impaired mobility of the spine; sometimes leads to ankylosis
  • Anorexia Nervosa - noun (psychiatry) a psychological disorder characterized by somatic delusions that you are too fat despite being emaciated
  • Antihistamine - noun a medicine used to treat allergies and hypersensitive reactions and colds; works by counteracting the effects of histamine on a receptor site
  • Anxiety - noun a vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some (usually ill-defined) misfortune; a relatively permanent state of anxiety occurring in a variety of mental disorders
  • Aplastic Anemia - noun anemia characterized by pancytopenia resulting from failure of the bone marrow; can be caused by neoplasm or by toxic exposure
  • Arrhythmia - noun an abnormal rate of muscle contractions in the heart
  • Arthritis - noun inflammation of a joint or joints
  • Arthroscopy - noun a minimally invasive operation to repair a damaged joint; the surgeon examines the joint with an arthroscope while making repairs through a small incision
  • Asthma - noun respiratory disorder characterized by wheezing; usually of allergic origin
  • Atherosclerosis - noun a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
  • Autism - noun (psychiatry) an abnormal absorption with the self; marked by communication disorders and short attention span and inability to treat others as people
  • Biopsy - noun examination of tissues or liquids from the living body to determine the existence or cause of a disease
  • Bipolar Disorder - noun a mental disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression
  • Blood transfusion - noun the introduction of blood or blood plasma into a vein or artery
  • Botulism - noun food poisoning from ingesting botulin; not infectious; affects the CNS; can be fatal if not treated promptly
  • BPH - noun enlarged prostate; appears to be part of the natural aging process
  • Breast Cancer - noun cancer of the breast; one of the most common malignancies in women in the US
  • Bronchitis - noun inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes
  • Brucellosis - noun infectious bacterial disease of human beings transmitted by contact with infected animals or infected meat or milk products; characterized by fever and headache; an infectious disease of domestic animals often resulting in spontaneous abortion; transmittable to human beings
  • Bubonic Plague - noun the most common form of the plague in humans; characterized by chills, prostration, delirium and the formation of buboes in the armpits and groin; does not spread from person to person
  • Bunion - noun a painful swelling of the bursa of the first joint of the big toe
  • C - noun the 3rd letter of the Roman alphabet; (music) the keynote of the scale of C major; a general-purpose programing language closely associated with the UNIX operating system; street names for cocaine; a unit of electrical charge equal to the amount of charge transferred by a current of 1 ampere in 1 second; a degree on the centigrade scale of temperature; an abundant nonmetallic tetravalent element occurring in three allotropic forms: amorphous carbon and graphite and diamond; occurs in all organic compounds; a base found in DNA and RNA and derived from pyrimidine; pairs with guanine; one of the four nucleotides used in building DNA; all four nucleotides have a common phosphate group and a sugar (ribose); the speed at which light travels in a vacuum; the constancy and universality of the speed of light is recognized by defining it to be exactly 299,792,458 meters per second
  • Cancer - noun type genus of the family Cancridae; the fourth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about June 21 to July 22; a small zodiacal constellation in the northern hemisphere; between Leo and Gemini; (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Cancer; any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream
  • Carpal Tunnel - noun a passageway in the wrist through which nerves and the flexor muscles of the hands pass
  • Celiac Disease - noun a disorder in children and adults; inability to tolerate wheat protein (gluten); symptoms include foul-smelling diarrhea and emaciation; often accompanied by lactose intolerance
  • Cellulitis - noun an inflammation of body tissue (especially that below the skin) characterized by fever and swelling and redness and pain
  • Cerebral Palsy - noun a loss or deficiency of motor control with involuntary spasms caused by permanent brain damage present at birth
  • Chalazion - noun a small sebaceous cyst of the eyelid resulting when a Meibomian gland is blocked
  • Chlamydia - noun coccoid rickettsia infesting birds and mammals; cause infections of eyes and lungs and genitourinary tract; a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria of the genus Chlamydia
  • Cholera - noun an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
  • Circumcision - noun the act of circumcising; surgical removal of the foreskin of males; the act of circumcising performed on males eight days after birth as a Jewish and Muslim religious rite; (Roman Catholic Church and Anglican Church) feast day celebrating the circumcision of Jesus; celebrated on January 1st
  • Colon Cancer - noun a malignant tumor of the colon; early symptom is bloody stools
  • Colonoscopy - noun visual examination of the colon (with a colonoscope) from the cecum to the rectum; requires sedation
  • Concussion - noun any violent blow; injury to the brain caused by a blow; usually resulting in loss of consciousness
  • Constipation - noun irregular and infrequent or difficult evacuation of the bowels; can be a symptom of intestinal obstruction or diverticulitis; the act of making something futile and useless (as by routine)
  • Coronary Artery Disease - noun a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
  • CAD - noun someone who is morally reprehensible; software used in art and architecture and engineering and manufacturing to assist in precision drawing
  • Cortisol - noun an adrenal-cortex hormone (trade names Hydrocortone or Cortef) that is active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism
  • Cough - noun the act of exhaling air suddenly with a noise; sudden expulsion of air from the lungs that clears the air passages; a common symptom of upper respiratory infection or bronchitis or pneumonia or tuberculosis; verb exhale abruptly, as when one has a chest cold or congestion
  • Crohn's Disease - noun a serious chronic and progressive inflammation of the ileum producing frequent bouts of diarrhea with abdominal pain and nausea and fever and weight loss
  • C-Section - noun the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)
  • Cyanobacteria - noun predominantly photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms containing a blue pigment in addition to chlorophyll; occur singly or in colonies in diverse habitats; important as phytoplankton
  • Cyclothymia - noun a mild bipolar disorder that persists over a long time
  • Cystic Fibrosis - noun the most common congenital disease; the child's lungs and intestines and pancreas become clogged with thick mucus; caused by defect in a single gene; there is no cure
  • Cystitis - noun inflammation of the urinary bladder and ureters
  • Dandruff - noun loose scales shed from the scalp; a condition in which white scales of dead skin are shed by the scalp
  • Dementia - noun mental deterioration of organic or functional origin
  • Dengue Fever - noun an infectious disease of the tropics transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by rash and aching head and joints
  • Depression - noun pushing down; sad feelings of gloom and inadequacy; angular distance below the horizon (especially of a celestial object); a concavity in a surface produced by pressing; a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity; a long-term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment; a period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment; a sunken or depressed geological formation; a state of depression and anhedonia so severe as to require clinical intervention; an air mass of lower pressure; often brings precipitation
  • Diabetes - noun any of several metabolic disorders marked by excessive urination and persistent thirst
  • Diarrhea - noun frequent and watery bowel movements; can be a symptom of infection or food poisoning or colitis or a gastrointestinal tumor
  • Dilation and Curettage - noun a surgical procedure usually performed under local anesthesia in which the cervix is dilated and the endometrial lining of the uterus is scraped with a curet; performed to obtain tissue samples or to stop prolonged bleeding or to remove small tumors or to remove fragments of placenta after childbirth or as a method of abortion
  • Diuretic - noun any substance that tends to increase the flow of urine
  • Diverticulitis - noun inflammation of a diverticulum in the digestive tract (especially the colon); characterized by painful abdominal cramping and fever and constipation
  • Dopamine - noun a monoamine neurotransmitter found in the brain and essential for the normal functioning of the central nervous system; as a drug (trade names Dopastat and Intropin) it is used to treat shock and hypotension
  • Down Syndrome - noun a congenital disorder caused by having an extra 21st chromosome; results in a flat face and short stature and mental retardation
  • Drug Addiction - noun an addiction to a drug (especially a narcotic drug)
  • E - noun the 5th letter of the Roman alphabet; the base of the natural system of logarithms; approximately equal to 2.718282...; the cardinal compass point that is at 90 degrees; a radioactive transuranic element produced by bombarding plutonium with neutrons; a fat-soluble vitamin that is essential for normal reproduction; an important antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals in the body
  • Ear - noun the sense organ for hearing and equilibrium; good hearing; attention to what is said; fruiting spike of a cereal plant especially corn; the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear
  • Ebola - noun a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees) caused by the Ebola virus; characterized by high fever and severe internal bleeding; can be spread from person to person; is largely limited to Africa
  • Echocardiogram - noun a graphical image of the heart produced by an echocardiograph
  • Ectopic Pregnancy - noun pregnancy resulting from gestation elsewhere than in the uterus
  • Eczema - noun generic term for inflammatory conditions of the skin; particularly with vesiculation in the acute stages
  • Endocarditis - noun inflammation of the endocardium and heart valves
  • Endometriosis - noun the presence of endometrium elsewhere than in the lining of the uterus; causes premenstrual pain and dysmenorrhea
  • Endoscopy - noun visual examination of the interior of a hollow body organ by use of an endoscope
  • Enterovirus - noun any of a group of picornaviruses that infect the gastrointestinal tract and can spread to other areas (especially the nervous system)
  • Epilepsy - noun a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of consciousness and convulsions
  • Epinephrine - noun a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin); stimulates autonomic nerve action
  • Episiotomy - noun surgical incision of the perineum to enlarge the vagina and so facilitate delivery during childbirth
  • Erectile Dysfunction - noun impotence resulting from a man's inability to have or maintain an erection of his penis
  • Estrogen - noun a general term for female steroid sex hormones that are secreted by the ovary and responsible for typical female sexual characteristics
  • Exercise - noun the activity of exerting your muscles in various ways to keep fit; a task performed or problem solved in order to develop skill or understanding; systematic training by multiple repetitions; (usually plural) a ceremony that involves processions and speeches; the act of using; verb do physical exercise; give a workout to; learn by repetition; put to use; carry out or practice; as of jobs and professions
  • Fecal Impaction - noun accumulation of hardened feces in the rectum or lower colon which the person cannot move
  • Fitness - noun the condition of being suitable; the quality of being qualified; good physical condition; being in shape or in condition; fitness to traverse the seas
  • Flu - noun an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease
  • fMRI - noun a form of magnetic resonance imaging of the brain that registers blood flow to functioning areas of the brain
  • GABA - noun an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter
  • Gallbladder - noun a muscular sac attached to the liver that secretes bile and stores it until needed for digestion
  • Gastroenteritis - noun inflammation of the stomach and intestines; can be caused by Salmonella enteritidis
  • Generalized Anxiety Disorder - noun an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic free-floating anxiety and such symptoms as tension or sweating or trembling of lightheadedness or irritability etc that has lasted for more than six months
  • Genital Herpes - noun an infection caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) that is usually transmitted by sexual contact; marked by recurrent attacks of painful eruptions on the skin and mucous membranes of the genital area
  • Glaucoma - noun increased pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor; damages the optic disc and impairs vision (sometimes progressing to blindness)
  • Glioblastoma - noun a fast-growing malignant brain tumor composed of spongioblasts; nearly always fatal
  • Glutamate - noun a salt or ester of glutamic acid
  • Gluten - noun a protein substance that remains when starch is removed from cereal grains; gives cohesiveness to dough
  • Gonorrhea - noun a common venereal disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae; symptoms are painful urination and pain around the urethra
  • Gout - noun a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism resulting in deposits of the acid and its salts in the blood and joints
  • Graves' Disease - noun exophthalmos occurring in association with goiter; hyperthyroidism with protrusion of the eyeballs
  • Head - noun a single domestic animal; a projection out from one end; (nautical) a toilet on board a boat or ship; the striking part of a tool; (usually plural) the obverse side of a coin that usually bears the representation of a person's head; that part of a skeletal muscle that is away from the bone that it moves; the upper part of the human body or the front part of the body in animals; contains the face and brains; the rounded end of a bone that bits into a rounded cavity in another bone to form a joint; (grammar) the word in a grammatical constituent that plays the same grammatical role as the whole constituent; the front of a military formation or procession; the top of something; the foam or froth that accumulates at the top when you pour an effervescent liquid into a container; a rounded compact mass; a user of (usually soft) drugs; a person who is in charge; an individual person; the pressure exerted by a fluid; the length or height based on the size of a human or animal head; the tip of an abscess (where the pus accumulates); oral stimulation of the genitals; a membrane that is stretched taut over a drum; (computer science) a tiny electromagnetic coil and metal pole used to write and read magnetic patterns on a disk; that which is responsible for one's thoughts and feelings; the seat of the faculty of reason; a line of text serving to indicate what the passage below it is about; the subject matter at issue; a V-shaped mark at one end of an arrow pointer; forward movement; a difficult juncture; the source of water from which a stream arises; the part in the front or nearest the viewer; a natural elevation (especially a rocky one that juts out into the sea); the educator who has executive authority for a school; a dense clusters of flowers or foliage; verb remove the head of; to go or travel towards; be in charge of; form a head or come or grow to a head; be in the front of or on top of; be the first or leading member of (a group) and excel; take its rise; direct the course; determine the direction of travelling; travel in front of; go in advance of others
  • Headache - noun pain in the head caused by dilation of cerebral arteries or muscle contractions or a reaction to drugs; something or someone that causes anxiety; a source of unhappiness
  • Heart Attack - noun a sudden severe instance of abnormal heart function
  • Heart Failure - noun inability of the heart to pump enough blood to sustain normal bodily functions
  • Hemodialysis - noun dialysis of the blood to remove toxic substances or metabolic wastes from the bloodstream; used in the case of kidney failure
  • Hemophilia - noun congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding; usually affects males and is transmitted from mother to son
  • Hemorrhoidectomy - noun surgical procedure for tying hemorrhoids and excising them
  • Hepatitis A - noun an acute but benign form of viral hepatitis caused by an RNA virus that does not persist in the blood serum and is usually transmitted by ingesting food or drink that is contaminated with fecal matter
  • Hepatitis B - noun an acute (sometimes fatal) form of viral hepatitis caused by a DNA virus that tends to persist in the blood serum and is transmitted by sexual contact or by transfusion or by ingestion of contaminated blood or other bodily fluids
  • Hepatitis C - noun a viral hepatitis clinically indistinguishable from hepatitis B but caused by a single-stranded RNA virus; usually transmitted by parenteral means (as injection of an illicit drug or blood transfusion or exposure to blood or blood products)
  • Hernia - noun rupture in smooth muscle tissue through which a bodily structure protrudes
  • High Blood Pressure - noun a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
  • Histamine - noun amine formed from histidine that stimulates gastric secretions and dilates blood vessels; released by the human immune system during allergic reactions
  • HIV - noun infection by the human immunodeficiency virus; the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); it replicates in and kills the helper T cells
  • AIDS - noun a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles
  • Hyperemesis Gravidarum - noun hyperemesis during pregnancy; if severe it can result in damage to the brain and liver and kidney
  • Hyperkalemia - noun higher than normal levels of potassium in the circulating blood; associated with kidney failure or sometimes with the use of diuretic drugs
  • Hyperopia - noun abnormal condition in which vision for distant objects is better than for near objects
  • Hypertension - noun a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
  • Hyperthyroidism - noun an overactive thyroid gland; pathologically excessive production of thyroid hormones or the condition resulting from excessive production of thyroid hormones
  • Hypoglycemia - noun abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet
  • Hypothyroidism - noun an underactive thyroid gland; a glandular disorder resulting from insufficient production of thyroid hormones
  • Hysteroscopy - noun visual examination of the uterus and uterine lining using an endoscope inserted through the vagina
  • Ileostomy - noun surgical procedure that creates an opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall to function as an anus; performed in cases of cancer of the colon or ulcerative colitis
  • Imperforate Hymen - noun hymen that is completely closed so that menstrual blood cannot flow out
  • Impetigo - noun a very contagious infection of the skin; common in children; localized redness develops into small blisters that gradually crust and erode
  • Incontinence - noun involuntary urination or defecation; indiscipline with regard to sensuous pleasures
  • Insomnia - noun an inability to sleep; chronic sleeplessness
  • Insulin - noun hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; regulates storage of glycogen in the liver and accelerates oxidation of sugar in cells
  • Iron Deficiency Anemia - noun a form of anemia due to lack of iron in the diet or to iron loss as a result of chronic bleeding
  • Jaundice - noun yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood; can be a symptom of gallstones or liver infection or anemia; a rough and bitter manner; verb affect with, or as if with, jaundice; distort adversely
  • Jock Itch - noun fungal infection of the groin (most common in men)
  • Klinefelter Syndrome - noun syndrome in males that is characterized by small testes and long legs and enlarged breasts and reduced sperm production and mental retardation; a genetic defect in which an extra X chromosome (XXY) is present in the male
  • XYY - noun (genetics) abnormal complement of sex hormones in a male who has two Y chromosomes
  • Labyrinthitis - noun inflammation of the inner ear; can cause vertigo and vomiting
  • Lactose Intolerance - noun congenital disorder consisting of an inability to digest milk and milk products; absence or deficiency of lactase results in an inability to hydrolyze lactose
  • Laminectomy - noun surgical removal of the bony arches on one or more vertebrae
  • Laparoscopy - noun laparotomy performed with a laparoscope that makes a small incision to examine the abdominal cavity (especially the ovaries and Fallopian tubes)
  • Leukemia - noun malignant neoplasm of blood-forming tissues; characterized by abnormal proliferation of leukocytes; one of the four major types of cancer
  • Lipoma - noun a tumor consisting of fatty tissue
  • Listeria - noun any species of the genus Listeria
  • Liver Cancer - noun malignant neoplastic disease of the liver usually occurring as a metastasis from another cancer; symptoms include loss of appetite and weakness and bloating and jaundice and upper abdominal discomfort
  • Longevity - noun the property of being long-lived; duration of service
  • Lung Cancer - noun carcinoma of the lungs; one of the commonest forms of cancer
  • Lupus - noun a constellation in the southern hemisphere near Centaurus; any of several forms of ulcerative skin disease
  • Luteinizing Hormone - noun a gonadotropic hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary; stimulates ovulation in female mammals and stimulates androgen release in male mammals
  • Lyme Disease - noun an acute inflammatory disease characterized by a rash with joint swelling and fever; caused by bacteria carried by the bite of a deer tick
  • Lymphoma - noun a neoplasm of lymph tissue that is usually malignant; one of the four major types of cancer
  • Macular Degeneration - noun degeneration of the cells of the macula lutea which results in blurred vision and can cause blindness; usually age-related
  • Malaria - noun an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito; marked by paroxysms of chills and fever
  • MAOI - noun any of a group of antidepressant drugs that inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase in the brain and so allow monoamines to accumulate
  • Mastectomy - noun surgical removal of a breast to remove a malignant tumor
  • Measles - noun an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash; occurs primarily in children
  • Melanoma - noun any of several malignant neoplasms (usually of the skin) consisting of melanocytes
  • Melatonin - noun hormone secreted by the pineal gland
  • Meningitis - noun infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection; symptoms include headache and stiff neck and fever and nausea
  • Menopause - noun the time in a woman's life in which the menstrual cycle ends
  • Menstruation - noun the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus of nonpregnant women from puberty to menopause
  • Mesothelioma - noun a rare form of carcinoma of the mesothelium lining lungs or abdomen or heart; usually associated with exposure to asbestos dust
  • Migraine - noun a severe recurring vascular headache; occurs more frequently in women than men
  • Molluscum Contagiosum - noun a virus disease of the skin marked by round white swellings; transmitted from person to person (most often in children or in adults with impaired immune function)
  • Mononucleosis - noun an acute disease characterized by fever and swollen lymph nodes and an abnormal increase of mononuclear leucocytes or monocytes in the bloodstream; not highly contagious; some believe it can be transmitted by kissing
  • MRI - noun the use of nuclear magnetic resonance of protons to produce proton density images
  • Mucus - noun protective secretion of the mucous membranes; in the gut it lubricates the passage of food and protects the epithelial cells; in the nose and throat and lungs it can make it difficult for bacteria to penetrate the body through the epithelium
  • Multiple Myeloma - noun myeloma that develops in several places at the same time
  • Multiple Sclerosis - noun a chronic progressive nervous disorder involving loss of myelin sheath around certain nerve fibers
  • Myasthenia Gravis - noun a chronic progressive disease characterized by chronic fatigue and muscular weakness (especially in the face and neck); caused by a deficiency of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions
  • Myocarditis - noun inflammation of the myocardium (the muscular tissue of the heart)
  • Myopia - noun (ophthalmology) eyesight abnormality resulting from the eye's faulty refractive ability; distant objects appear blurred
  • Narcolepsy - noun a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep
  • Nausea - noun disgust so strong it makes you feel sick; the state that precedes vomiting
  • Neurology - noun (neurology) the branch of medicine that deals with the nervous system and its disorders; the branch of medical science that deals with the nervous system
  • Neuropathy - noun any pathology of the peripheral nerves
  • Norepinephrine - noun a catecholamine precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and also released at synapses
  • NSAID - noun an anti-inflammatory drug that does not contain steroids
  • Obesity - noun more than average fatness
  • Osteoarthritis - noun chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints; the most common form of arthritis occurring usually after middle age
  • Osteoporosis - noun abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium; most common in postmenopausal women
  • Ovarian Cyst - noun a cystic tumor (usually benign) of the ovary
  • Oxytocin - noun hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitocin); stimulates contractions of the uterus and ejection of milk
  • Pancreatitis - noun inflammation of the pancreas; usually marked by abdominal pain
  • Panic Disorder - noun an anxiety disorder characterized by unpredictable panic attacks; the attacks are usually severe but brief
  • Parkinson's Disease - noun a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by tremor and impaired muscular coordination
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease - noun inflammation of the female pelvic organs (especially the Fallopian tubes) caused by infection by any of several microorganisms (chiefly gonococci and chlamydia); symptoms are abdominal pain and fever and foul-smelling vaginal discharge
  • Peptic Ulcer - noun an ulcer of the mucous membrane lining of the alimentary tract
  • Pharyngitis - noun inflammation of the fauces and pharynx
  • Pneumonia - noun respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants
  • Poison Ivy - noun climbing plant common in eastern and central United States with ternate leaves and greenish flowers followed by white berries; yields an irritating oil that causes a rash on contact; dermatitis resulting from contact with the poison ivy plant
  • PTSD - noun an anxiety disorder associated with serious traumatic events and characterized by such symptoms as survivor guilt, reliving the trauma in dreams, numbness and lack of involvement with reality, or recurrent thoughts and images
  • Pregnancy - noun the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus
  • Premenstrual Syndrome - noun a syndrome that occurs in many women from 2 to 14 days before the onset of menstruation
  • Presbyopia - noun farsightedness resulting from a reduced ability to focus caused by loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens with age
  • Progesterone - noun a steroid hormone (trade name Lipo-Lutin) produced in the ovary; prepares and maintains the uterus for pregnancy
  • Prolactin - noun gonadotropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary; in females it stimulates growth of the mammary glands and lactation after parturition
  • Prostatectomy - noun surgical removal of part or all of the prostate gland
  • Protein - noun any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes
  • Psoriasis - noun a chronic skin disease characterized by dry red patches covered with scales; occurs especially on the scalp and ears and genitalia and the skin over bony prominences
  • Psoriatic Arthritis - noun a form of rheumatoid arthritis usually affecting fingers and toes and associated with psoriasis
  • Pyelonephritis - noun inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis caused by bacterial infection
  • Restless Legs Syndrome - noun feeling of uneasiness and restlessness in the legs after going to bed (sometimes causing insomnia); may be relieved temporarily by walking or moving the legs
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis - noun a chronic autoimmune disease with inflammation of the joints and marked deformities; something (possibly a virus) triggers an attack on the synovium by the immune system, which releases cytokines that stimulate an inflammatory reaction that can lead to the destruction of all components of the joint
  • Ringworm - noun infections of the skin or nails caused by fungi and appearing as itching circular patches
  • Rosacea - noun a skin disease of adults (more often women) in which blood vessels of the face enlarge resulting in a flushed appearance
  • Salmonella - noun rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria; cause typhoid fever and food poisoning; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Sarcoidosis - noun a chronic disease of unknown cause marked by the formation of nodules in the lungs and liver and lymph glands and salivary glands
  • Schizophrenia - noun any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact
  • Sciatica - noun neuralgia along the sciatic nerve
  • Sebaceous Cyst - noun a common cyst of the skin; filled with fatty matter (sebum) that is secreted by a sebaceous gland that has been blocked
  • Sepsis - noun the presence of pus-forming bacteria or their toxins in the blood or tissues
  • Serotonin - noun a neurotransmitter involved in e.g. sleep and depression and memory
  • Shingles - noun eruptions along a nerve path often accompanied by severe neuralgia
  • Skin - noun an outer surface (usually thin); a bag serving as a container for liquids; it is made from the hide of an animal; a natural protective body covering and site of the sense of touch; a person's skin regarded as their life; the tissue forming the hard outer layer (of e.g. a fruit); body covering of a living animal; the rind of a fruit or vegetable; verb strip the skin off; bruise, cut, or injure the skin or the surface of; remove the bark of a tree; climb awkwardly, as if by scrambling
  • Beauty - noun the qualities that give pleasure to the senses; an outstanding example of its kind; a very attractive or seductive looking woman
  • Sleep - noun a natural and periodic state of rest during which consciousness of the world is suspended; a torpid state resembling deep sleep; a period of time spent sleeping; euphemisms for death (based on an analogy between lying in a bed and in a tomb); verb be asleep; be able to accommodate for sleeping
  • SSRI - noun an antidepressant drug that acts by blocking the reuptake of serotonin so that more serotonin is available to act on receptors in the brain
  • Staph - noun spherical Gram-positive parasitic bacteria that tend to form irregular colonies; some cause boils or septicemia or infections
  • Stenosis - noun abnormal narrowing of a bodily canal or passageway
  • Vertebral - adj. of or relating to or constituting vertebrae
  • Stenosis - noun abnormal narrowing of a bodily canal or passageway
  • Strabismus - noun abnormal alignment of one or both eyes
  • Strep Throat - noun an infection of the oral pharynx and tonsils by streptococcus
  • Streptococcus - noun spherical Gram-positive bacteria occurring in pairs or chains; cause e.g. scarlet fever and tonsillitis
  • Stroke - noun a light touch with the hands; a single complete movement; (sports) the act of swinging or striking at a ball with a club or racket or bat or cue or hand; any one of the repeated movements of the limbs and body used for locomotion in swimming or rowing; a mark made by a writing implement (as in cursive writing); a light touch; the oarsman nearest the stern of the shell who sets the pace for the rest of the crew; a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain; a punctuation mark (/) used to separate related items of information; the maximum movement available to a pivoted or reciprocating piece by a cam; verb treat gingerly or carefully; strike a ball with a smooth blow; row at a particular rate; touch lightly and with affection, with brushing motions
  • Syphilis - noun a common venereal disease caused by the treponema pallidum spirochete; symptoms change through progressive stages; can be congenital (transmitted through the placenta)
  • Tardive Dyskinesia - noun involuntary rolling of the tongue and twitching of the face or trunk or limbs; often occurs in patients with Parkinsonism who are treated with phenothiazine
  • Testicular Cancer - noun malignant tumor of the testis; usually occurring in older men
  • Testosterone - noun a potent androgenic hormone produced chiefly by the testes; responsible for the development of male secondary sex characteristics
  • Tetanus - noun a sustained muscular contraction resulting from a rapid series of nerve impulses; an acute and serious infection of the central nervous system caused by bacterial infection of open wounds; spasms of the jaw and laryngeal muscles may occur during the late stages
  • Thrush - noun songbirds characteristically having brownish upper plumage with a spotted breast; a woman who sings popular songs; candidiasis of the oral cavity; seen mostly in infants or debilitated adults
  • Tonsillectomy - noun surgical removal of the palatine tonsils; commonly performed along with adenoidectomy
  • Toxoplasmosis - noun infection caused by parasites transmitted to humans from infected cats; if contracted by a pregnant woman it can result in serious damage to the fetus
  • Tracheostomy - noun a surgical operation that creates an opening into the trachea with a tube inserted to provide a passage for air; performed when the pharynx is obstructed by edema or cancer or other causes
  • Transient Ischemic Attack - noun brief episode in which the brain gets insufficient blood supply; symptoms depend on the site of the blockage
  • TIA - noun brief episode in which the brain gets insufficient blood supply; symptoms depend on the site of the blockage
  • Tubal ligation - noun a sterilization procedure with women; both Fallopian tubes are tied in two places and the tubes removed in between the ligations
  • Tuberculosis - noun infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
  • Ulcer - noun a circumscribed inflammatory and often suppurating lesion on the skin or an internal mucous surface resulting in necrosis of tissue
  • Ulcerative Colitis - noun a serious chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain and fever and chills and profuse diarrhea
  • Ultrasound - noun very high frequency sound; used in ultrasonography; using the reflections of high-frequency sound waves to construct an image of a body organ (a sonogram); commonly used to observe fetal growth or study bodily organs
  • Vaginal Discharge - noun discharge of secretions from the cervical glands of the vagina; normally clear or whit
  • Varicocele - noun dilatation of the veins associated with the spermatic cord in the testes
  • Vasopressin - noun hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitressin) and also by nerve endings in the hypothalamus; affects blood pressure by stimulating capillary muscles and reduces urine flow by affecting reabsorption of water by kidney tubules
  • Vertigo - noun a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall
  • Vision - noun the perceptual experience of seeing; a vivid mental image; a religious or mystical experience of a supernatural appearance; the formation of a mental image of something that is not perceived as real and is not present to the senses; the ability to see; the visual faculty
  • Vitamin D - noun a fat-soluble vitamin that prevents rickets
  • Vitiligo - noun an acquired skin disease characterized by patches of unpigmented skin (often surrounded by a heavily pigmented border)
  • Vomiting - noun the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth.
  • Whiplash - noun an injury to the neck (the cervical vertebrae) resulting from rapid acceleration or deceleration (as in an automobile accident); a quick blow delivered with a whip or whiplike object
  • X-ray - noun a radiogram made by exposing photographic film to X rays; used in medical diagnosis; electromagnetic radiation of short wavelength produced when high-speed electrons strike a solid target; verb take an x-ray of something or somebody; examine by taking x-rays
  • Klinefelter Syndrome - noun syndrome in males that is characterized by small testes and long legs and enlarged breasts and reduced sperm production and mental retardation; a genetic defect in which an extra X chromosome (XXY) is present in the male

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