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Infectious diseases

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A disease caused by a living organism. An infectious disease may, or may not, betransmissible from person to person, animal to person, or insect to person.

Glossary of infectious diseases

  • abscess -  symptom consisting of a localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue
  • Acanthaceae -  widely distributed herbs and shrubs and trees; sometimes placed in the order Scrophulariales
  • Acetic acid -  a colorless pungent liquid widely used in manufacturing plastics and pharmaceuticals
  • Actinomycosis -  disease of cattle that can be transmitted to humans; results from infection with actinomycetes; characterized by hard swellings that exude pus through long sinuses
  • acyclovir -  an oral antiviral drug (trade name Zovirax) used to treat genital herpes; does not cure the disease but relieves the symptoms
  • Adenitis -  inflammation of a gland or lymph node
  • adenosine deaminase -  an enzyme found in mammals that can catalyze the deamination of adenosine into inosine and ammonia
  • Adenovirus -  any of a group of viruses including those that in humans cause upper respiratory infections or infectious pinkeye
  • Aedes aegypti -  mosquito that transmits yellow fever and dengue
  • Aedes albopictus -  striped native of Japan thriving in southwestern and midwestern United States and spreading to the Caribbean; potential carrier of serious diseases
  • Agavaceae -  chiefly tropical and xerophytic plants: includes Dracenaceae (Dracaenaceae); comprises plants that in some classifications are divided between the Amaryllidaceae and the Liliaceae
  • Airborne transmission -  a transmission mechanism in the which the infectious agent is spread as an aerosol and usually enters a person through the respiratory tract
  • Alastrim -  a mild form of smallpox caused by a less virulent form of the virus
  • Alban Berg -  Austrian composer in Schoenberg's twelve-tone music system (1885-1935)
  • alcoholism -  habitual intoxication; prolonged and excessive intake of alcoholic drinks leading to a breakdown in health and an addiction to alcohol such that abrupt deprivation leads to severe withdrawal symptoms; an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess
  • Aleppo boil -  leishmaniasis of the skin; characterized by ulcerative skin lesions
  • Alexander -  king of Macedon; conqueror of Greece and Egypt and Persia; founder of Alexandria (356-323 BC); European herb somewhat resembling celery widely naturalized in Britain coastal regions and often cultivated as a potherb
  • Allergy -  hypersensitivity reaction to a particular allergen; symptoms can vary greatly in intensity
  • Alphavirus -  an arbovirus of the family Togaviridae that can cause a variety of encephalitis in horses
  • Alveolate -  pitted with cell-like cavities (as a honeycomb)
  • America -  North America and South America and Central America; North American republic containing 50 states - 48 conterminous states in North America plus Alaska in northwest North America and the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean; achieved independence in 1776
  • Amoebiasis -  infection by a disease-causing ameba
  • amylase -  any of a group of proteins found in saliva and pancreatic juice and parts of plants; help convert starch to sugar
  • amyloidosis -  a disorder characterized by deposit of amyloid in organs or tissues; often secondary to chronic rheumatoid arthritis or tuberculosis or multiple myeloma
  • Anaplasmosis -  a disease of cattle that is transmitted by cattle ticks; similar to Texas fever
  • Anderson -  United States physicist who discovered antimatter in the form of an antielectron that is called the positron (1905-1991); United States contralto noted for her performance of spirituals (1902-1993); United States dramatist (1888-1959); United States physicist who studied the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems (1923-); United States author whose works were frequently autobiographical (1876-1941)
  • Anemia -  genus of terrestrial or lithophytic ferns having pinnatifid fronds; chiefly of tropical America; a deficiency of red blood cells; a lack of vitality
  • Anopheles -  malaria mosquitoes; distinguished by the adult's head-downward stance and absence of breathing tubes in the larvae
  • anorexia -  a prolonged disorder of eating due to loss of appetite
  • Antagonism -  (biochemistry) interference in or inhibition of the physiological action of a chemical substance by another having a similar structure; an actively expressed feeling of dislike and hostility; the relation between opposing principles or forces or factors; a state of deep-seated ill-will
  • Anthrax -  a disease of humans that is not communicable; caused by infection with Bacillus anthracis followed by septicemia; a highly infectious animal disease (especially cattle and sheep); it can be transmitted to people
  • Antibiosis -  an association between organisms that is harmful to one of them or between organisms and a metabolic product of another
  • Antibiotic -  of or relating to antibiotic drugs;  a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections
  • anticoagulation -  the administration of an anticoagulant drug to retard coagulation of the blood
  • Antifungal -  capable of destroying fungi;  any agent that destroys or prevents the growth of fungi
  • antimicrobial -  capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of disease-causing microorganisms;  an agent (as heat or radiation or a chemical) that destroys microorganisms that might carry disease
  • Antimycin -  a crystalline antibiotic active against various fungi
  • Antiprotozoal -  a medicinal drug used to fight diseases (like malaria) that are caused by protozoa
  • antiviral -  inhibiting or stopping the growth and reproduction of viruses;  any drug that destroys viruses
  • Apheresis -  a procedure in which blood is drawn and separated into its components by dialysis; some are retained and the rest are returned to the donor by transfusion; (linguistics) omission at the beginning of a word as in `coon' for `raccoon' or `till' for `until'
  • Apocalypse -  a cosmic cataclysm in which God destroys the ruling powers of evil; the last book of the New Testament; contains visionary descriptions of heaven and of conflicts between good and evil and of the end of the world; attributed to Saint John the apostle
  • apoptosis -  a type of cell death in which the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself; a cell suicide mechanism that enables metazoans to control cell number and eliminate cells that threaten the animal's survival
  • Applied -  concerned with concrete problems or data rather than with fundamental principles; opposed to theoretical; put into practice or put to use; that are used
  • Araceae -  anthurium; calla lily; jack-in-the-pulpit; philodendron
  • Araliaceae -  mostly tropical trees and shrubs and lianas: genera Panax and Hedera
  • Araucariaceae -  tall evergreen cone-bearing trees of South America and Australia with broad leathery leaves; in some classifications included in the Pinaceae
  • Arbovirus -  a large heterogeneous group of RNA viruses divisible into groups on the basis of the virions; they have been recovered from arthropods, bats, and rodents; most are borne by arthropods; they are linked by the epidemiologic concept of transmission between vertebrate hosts by arthropod vectors (mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, midges, etc.) that feed on blood; they can cause mild fevers, hepatitis, hemorrhagic fever, and encephalitis
  • Archives -  collection of records especially about an institution
  • Arthritis -  inflammation of a joint or joints
  • Ascariasis -  infestation of the human intestine with Ascaris roundworms
  • Asclepiadaceae -  widely distributed family of herbs and shrubs of the order Gentianales; most with milky juice
  • Ascomycota -  a large subdivision of Eumycota including Hemiascomycetes and Plectomycetes and Pyrenomycetes and Discomycetes; sac fungi; in some classification systems considered a division of the kingdom Fungi
  • Aspergillosis -  disease especially in agricultural workers caused by inhalation of Aspergillus spores causing lumps in skin and ears and respiratory organs; an opportunistic infection by a fungus of the genus Aspergillus; characterized by inflammation and lesions of the ear and other organs; severe respiratory disease of birds that takes the form of an acute rapidly fatal pneumonia in young chickens and turkeys
  • Aspergillus -  genus of common molds causing food spoilage and some pathogenic to plants and animals
  • Association -  the act of consorting with or joining with others; the process of bringing ideas or events together in memory or imagination; (ecology) a group of organisms (plants and animals) that live together in a certain geographical region and constitute a community with a few dominant species; a formal organization of people or groups of people; (chemistry) any process of combination (especially in solution) that depends on relatively weak chemical bonding; a relation resulting from interaction or dependence; the state of being connected together as in memory or imagination; a social or business relationship
  • Atypical pneumonia -  an acute respiratory disease marked by high fever and coughing; caused by mycoplasma; primarily affecting children and young adults
  • auscultation -  listening to sounds within the body (usually with a stethoscope)
  • Autoimmune Disease -  any of a large group of diseases characterized by abnormal functioning of the immune system that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against your own tissues
  • Bacillary dysentery -  an acute infection of the intestine by shigella bacteria; characterized by diarrhea and fever and abdominal pains
  • Bacillus -  aerobic rod-shaped spore-producing bacterium; often occurring in chainlike formations; found primarily in soil
  • Bacillus anthracis -  a species of bacillus that causes anthrax in humans and in animals (cattle and swine and sheep and rabbits and mice and guinea pigs); can be used a bioweapon
  • bacitracin -  a polypeptide antibiotic of known chemical structure effective against several types of Gram-positive organisms; usually applied locally
  • bacteremia -  transient presence of bacteria (or other microorganisms) in the blood
  • bacteria -  (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants
  • Bacterial -  relating to or caused by bacteria
  • Bacteriology -  the branch of medical science that studies bacteria in relation to disease
  • Bacteroides -  type genus of Bacteroidaceae; genus of Gram-negative rodlike anaerobic bacteria producing no endospores and no pigment and living in the gut of man and animals
  • Badger -  sturdy carnivorous burrowing mammal with strong claws widely distributed in the northern hemisphere; a native or resident of Wisconsin;  persuade through constant efforts; annoy persistently
  • Bang's disease -  an infectious disease of domestic animals often resulting in spontaneous abortion; transmittable to human beings
  • Bangladesh -  a Muslim republic in southern Asia bordered by India to the north and west and east and the Bay of Bengal to the south; formerly part of India and then part of Pakistan; it achieved independence in 1971
  • barley -  a grain of barley; cultivated since prehistoric times; grown for forage and grain
  • baseball -  a ball game played with a bat and ball between two teams of nine players; teams take turns at bat trying to score runs; a ball used in playing baseball
  • Basidiomycota -  comprises fungi bearing the spores on a basidium; includes Gasteromycetes (puffballs) and Tiliomycetes comprising the orders Ustilaginales (smuts) and Uredinales (rusts) and Hymenomycetes (mushrooms, toadstools, agarics and bracket fungi); in some classification systems considered a division of kingdom Fungi
  • basophilia -  the tendency of cells to stain with basic dyes
  • Behavior -  manner of acting or controlling yourself; (psychology) the aggregate of the responses or reactions or movements made by an organism in any situation; the action or reaction of something (as a machine or substance) under specified circumstances; (behavioral attributes) the way a person behaves toward other people
  • Bibliography -  a list of writings with time and place of publication (such as the writings of a single author or the works referred to in preparing a document etc.)
  • Bilharzia -  an infestation with or a resulting infection caused by a parasite of the genus Schistosoma; common in the tropics and Far East; symptoms depend on the part of the body infected
  • Bill of health -  a certificate saying that a departing ship's company is healthy (to be presented at the next port of arrival)
  • Biodefense -  procedures involved in taking defensive measures against attacks using biological agents
  • Biohazard -  hazard to humans or the environment resulting from biological agents or conditions; any bacterium or virus or toxin that could be used in biological warfare
  • Biological agent -  any bacterium or virus or toxin that could be used in biological warfare
  • biological warfare -  the use of bacteria or viruses or toxins to destroy men and animals or food
  • Biology -  the science that studies living organisms; characteristic life processes and phenomena of living organisms; all the plant and animal life of a particular region
  • biosafety level -  the level of safety from exposure to infectious agents; depends on work practices and safety equipment and facilities
  • Biotechnology -  the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments; the branch of molecular biology that studies the use of microorganisms to perform specific industrial processes
  • Bioterrorism -  terrorism using the weapons of biological warfare
  • Bioweapon -  any weapon usable in biological warfare
  • Black Death -  the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
  • Black rot -  a fungous disease causing darkening and decay of the leaves of fruits and vegetables
  • Blackheart -  heart cherry with dark flesh and skin cherry; any of various diseases in which the central tissues blacken
  • Blackwater fever -  severe and often fatal malaria characterized by kidney damage resulting in dark urine
  • Blastomycosis -  any of several infections of the skin or mucous membrane caused by Blastomyces
  • Bleeding -  flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels
  • Blight -  any plant disease resulting in withering without rotting; a state or condition being blighted;  cause to suffer a blight
  • Blood bank -  a place for storing whole blood or blood plasma
  • Blood fluke -  flatworms parasitic in the blood vessels of mammals
  • Blood plasma -  plasma that separates from blood in coagulation
  • Blood transfusion -  the introduction of blood or blood plasma into a vein or artery
  • Blood type -  human blood cells (usually just the red blood cells) that have the same antigens
  • Blood typing -  determining a person's blood type by serological methods
  • board game -  a game played on a specially designed board
  • Boric acid -  any of various acids containing boron and oxygen; a white or colorless slightly acid solid that is soluble in water and ethanol; used in the manufacture of glass and paper and adhesives and in detergents and as a flux in welding; also used as an antiseptic and food preservative
  • Borrelia -  cause of e.g. European and African relapsing fever
  • botany -  the branch of biology that studies plants; all the plant life in a particular region or period
  • Botswana -  a landlocked republic in south-central Africa that became independent from British control in the 1960s
  • botulinum toxin -  any of several neurotoxins that are produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum; causes muscle paralysis
  • Botulism -  food poisoning from ingesting botulin; not infectious; affects the CNS; can be fatal if not treated promptly
  • Boutonneuse fever -  a disease (common in India and around the Mediterranean area) caused by a rickettsia that is transmitted to humans by a reddish brown tick (ixodid) that lives on dogs and other mammals
  • Bravery -  a quality of spirit that enables you to face danger or pain without showing fear; feeling no fear
  • Britain -  a monarchy in northwestern Europe occupying most of the British Isles; divided into England and Scotland and Wales and Northern Ireland
  • Bromeliaceae -  a family of tropical American plants of order Xyridales including several (as the pineapple) of economic importance
  • bronchopneumonia -  pneumonia characterized by acute inflammation of the walls of the bronchioles
  • Brucella -  an aerobic Gram-negative coccobacillus that causes brucellosis; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Brucellosis -  infectious bacterial disease of human beings transmitted by contact with infected animals or infected meat or milk products; characterized by fever and headache; an infectious disease of domestic animals often resulting in spontaneous abortion; transmittable to human beings
  • Bubonic plague -  the most common form of the plague in humans; characterized by chills, prostration, delirium and the formation of buboes in the armpits and groin; does not spread from person to person
  • Buenos Aires -  capital and largest city of Argentina; located in eastern Argentina near Uruguay; Argentina's chief port and industrial and cultural center
  • Building -  a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place; the occupants of a building; the act of constructing something; the commercial activity involved in repairing old structures or constructing new ones
  • Bunyaviridae -  a large family of arboviruses that affect a wide range of hosts (mainly vertebrates and arthropods)
  • bunyavirus -  an animal virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Cactaceae -  constituting the order Opuntiales
  • Cambodia -  a nation in southeastern Asia; was part of Indochina under French rule until 1946
  • Cancer -  type genus of the family Cancridae; the fourth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about June 21 to July 22; a small zodiacal constellation in the northern hemisphere; between Leo and Gemini; (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Cancer; any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream
  • Candida -  any of the yeastlike imperfect fungi of the genus Candida
  • Candida albicans -  a parasitic fungus that can infect the mouth or the skin or the intestines or the vagina
  • Candidiasis -  an infection caused by fungi of the genus Monilia or Candida (especially Candida albicans)
  • Canker -  an ulceration (especially of the lips or lining of the mouth); a fungal disease of woody plants that causes localized damage to the bark; a pernicious and malign influence that is hard to get rid of;  infect with a canker; become infected with a canker
  • cannabis -  the most commonly used illicit drug; considered a soft drug, it consists of the dried leaves of the hemp plant; smoked or chewed for euphoric effect; any plant of the genus Cannabis; a coarse bushy annual with palmate leaves and clusters of small green flowers; yields tough fibers and narcotic drugs
  • Capone -  United States gangster who terrorized Chicago during prohibition until arrested for tax evasion (1899-1947)
  • Caprylic acid -  a fatty acid having a rancid taste; found in butter and other fats and oils
  • Carbomycin -  a colorless basic antibiotic that inhibits the growth of Gram-positive organisms
  • Cardiovascular -  of or pertaining to or involving the heart and blood vessels
  • catheter -  a thin flexible tube inserted into the body to permit introduction or withdrawal of fluids or to keep the passageway open
  • cation -  a positively charged ion
  • Cefoperazone -  a parenteral cephalosporin (trade name Cefobid) used for severe infections
  • Cell Membrane -  a thin membrane (a double layer of lipids) enclosing the cytoplasm of a cell; proteins in the membrane control passage of ions (like sodium or potassium or calcium) in and out of the cell
  • Cellulitis -  an inflammation of body tissue (especially that below the skin) characterized by fever and swelling and redness and pain
  • Center -  equally distant from the extremes; of or belonging to neither the right nor the left politically or intellectually;  a position on a basketball team of the player who participates in the jump that starts the game; the position of the player on the line of scrimmage who puts the ball in play; the position on a hockey team of the player who participates in the face off at the beginning of the game; a building dedicated to a particular activity; a cluster of nerve cells governing a specific bodily process; the object upon which interest and attention focuses; the sweet central portion of a piece of candy that is enclosed in chocolate or some other covering; politically moderate persons; centrists; the middle of a military or naval formation; a place where some particular activity is concentrated; a point equidistant from the ends of a line or the extremities of a figure; an area that is approximately central within some larger region; (football) the person who plays center on the line of scrimmage and snaps the ball to the quarterback; (basketball) the person who plays center on a basketball team; (ice hockey) the person who plays center on a hockey team; the piece of ground in the outfield directly ahead of the catcher; mercantile establishment consisting of a carefully landscaped complex of shops representing leading merchandisers; usually includes restaurants and a convenient parking area; a modern version of the traditional marketplace; the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience;  move into the center; direct one's attention on something; center upon
  • Central -  in or near a center or constituting a center; the inner area; centrally located and easy to reach; used in the description of a place that in the middle of another place; serving as an essential component;  a workplace that serves as a telecommunications facility where lines from telephones can be connected together to permit communication
  • Cercospora -  form genus of imperfect fungi that are leaf parasites with long slender spores
  • Cercosporella -  form genus of imperfect fungi lacking pigment in the spores and conidiophores
  • cervical -  relating to or associated with the neck; of or relating to the cervix of the uterus
  • Chancre -  a small hard painless nodule at the site of entry of a pathogen (as syphilis)
  • Checkpoint -  a place (as at a frontier) where travellers are stopped for inspection and clearance
  • Chemical Defense -  procedures involved in taking defensive measures against attacks using chemical agents
  • Chemotherapy -  the use of chemical agents to treat or control disease (or mental illness)
  • Chicago -  largest city in Illinois; a bustling Great Lakes port that extends 26 miles along the southwestern shoreline of Lake Michigan; a gambling card game in which chips are placed on the ace and king and queen and jack of separate suits (taken from a separate deck); a player plays the lowest card of a suit in his hand and successively higher cards are played until the sequence stops; the player who plays a card matching one in the layout wins all the chips on that card
  • Chickenpox -  an acute contagious disease caused by herpes varicella zoster virus; causes a rash of vesicles on the face and body
  • childhood -  the state of a child between infancy and adolescence; the time of person's life when they are a child
  • Chlamydia -  coccoid rickettsia infesting birds and mammals; cause infections of eyes and lungs and genitourinary tract; a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria of the genus Chlamydia
  • Chlamydia psittaci -  bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted disease chlamydia
  • Chlamydia trachomatis -  bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted diseases chlamydia and lymphogranuloma venereum
  • Chlamydiaceae -  Gram-negative parasites in warm-blooded vertebrates
  • chloramphenicol -  an oral antibiotic (trade name Chloromycetin) used to treat serious infections (especially typhoid fever)
  • chloroquine -  an antimalarial drug used to treat malaria and amebic dysentery and systemic lupus erythematosus
  • cholecystectomy -  surgical removal of the gall bladder (usually for relief of gallstone pain)
  • Cholera -  an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
  • Chromosome -  a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
  • chronic -  being long-lasting and recurrent or characterized by long suffering
  • chronic pyelonephritis -  pyelonephritis that develops slowly and can lead to renal failure if untreated; often associated with a kidney stone or with narrowing of the urinary passageways
  • Ciliophora -  class of protozoa having cilia or hairlike appendages on part or all of the surface during some part of the life cycle
  • Cinnamon -  spice from the dried aromatic bark of the Ceylon cinnamon tree; used as rolled strips or ground; tropical Asian tree with aromatic yellowish-brown bark; source of the spice cinnamon; aromatic bark used as a spice
  • Cirrhosis -  a chronic disease interfering with the normal functioning of the liver; the major cause is chronic alcoholism
  • Clinical -  scientifically detached; unemotional; relating to a clinic or conducted in or as if in a clinic and depending on direct observation of patients
  • Clioquinol -  drug used to treat certain fungal infection (as athlete's foot)
  • clipper -  scissors for cutting hair or finger nails (often used in the plural); shears for cutting grass or shrubbery (often used in the plural); a fast sailing ship used in former times; (electronics) an nonlinear electronic circuit whose output is limited in amplitude; used to limit the instantaneous amplitude of a waveform (to clip off the peaks of a waveform)
  • Clostridia -  spindle-shaped bacterial cell especially one swollen at the center by an endospore
  • Clostridial myonecrosis -  (pathology) a deadly form of gangrene usually caused by clostridium bacteria that produce toxins that cause tissue death; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Clostridium -  spindle-shaped bacterial cell especially one swollen at the center by an endospore
  • Clostridium perfringens -  anaerobic Gram-positive rod bacterium that produces epsilon toxin; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Coccidia -  an order in the subclass Telosporidia
  • Coccidioidomycosis -  an infection of the lungs and skin characterized by excessive sputum and nodules
  • Coccidiosis -  (veterinary medicine) infestation with coccidia
  • colitis -  inflammation of the colon
  • colonialism -  exploitation by a stronger country of weaker one; the use of the weaker country's resources to strengthen and enrich the stronger country
  • colonization -  the act of colonizing; the establishment of colonies
  • Commelinaceae -  large widely distributed family of chiefly perennial herbs or climbers: spiderworts
  • Common cold -  a mild viral infection involving the nose and respiratory passages (but not the lungs)
  • complete blood count -  counting the number of white and red blood cells and the number of platelets in 1 cubic millimeter of blood
  • confusion -  a mistake that results from taking one thing to be another; an act causing a disorderly combination of elements with identities lost and distinctions blended; a mental state characterized by a lack of clear and orderly thought and behavior; a feeling of embarrassment that leaves you confused; disorder resulting from a failure to behave predictably
  • Constipation -  irregular and infrequent or difficult evacuation of the bowels; can be a symptom of intestinal obstruction or diverticulitis; the act of making something futile and useless (as by routine)
  • Contagion -  the communication of an attitude or emotional state among a number of people; an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted; any disease easily transmitted by contact
  • Control -  the activity of managing or exerting control over something; (physiology) regulation or maintenance of a function or action or reflex etc; a mechanism that controls the operation of a machine; power to direct or determine; the economic policy of controlling or limiting or curbing prices or wages etc.; a spiritual agency that is assumed to assist the medium during a seance; a relation of constraint of one entity (thing or person or group) by another; discipline in personal and social activities; great skillfulness and knowledge of some subject or activity; a standard against which other conditions can be compared in a scientific experiment; the state that exists when one person or group has power over another;  verify by using a duplicate register for comparison; exercise authoritative control or power over; lessen the intensity of; temper; hold in restraint; hold or keep within limits; verify or regulate by conducting a parallel experiment or comparing with another standard, of scientific experiments; have a firm understanding or knowledge of; be on top of; be careful or certain to do something; make certain of something; handle and cause to function; control (others or oneself) or influence skillfully, usually to one's advantage
  • cornea -  transparent anterior portion of the outer covering of the eye; it covers the lens and iris and is continuous with the sclera
  • Countess -  female equivalent of a count or earl
  • Coventry -  an industrial city in central England; devastated by air raids during World War II; remembered as the home of Lady Godiva in the 11th century; the state of being banished or ostracized (excluded from society by general consent)
  • Cowpox -  a viral disease of cattle causing a mild skin disease affecting the udder; formerly used to inoculate humans against smallpox
  • Crab louse -  infests the pubic region of the human body
  • Cryptococcosis -  a fungal infection characterized by nodular lesions--first in the lungs and spreading to the nervous system
  • Crystal violet -  a green crystal (violet in water) used as a dye or stain or bactericide or fungicide or anthelmintic or burn treatment
  • culture -  the raising of plants or animals; (biology) the growing of microorganisms in a nutrient medium (such as gelatin or agar); the tastes in art and manners that are favored by a social group; the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization; a particular society at a particular time and place; all the knowledge and values shared by a society; a highly developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable quality
  • cutaneous -  relating to or existing on or affecting the skin
  • Cyprian -  resembling the ancient orgiastic worship of Aphrodite on Cyprus; of or relating to Cyprus or its people or culture;  a native or inhabitant of Cyprus; a woman who engages in sexual intercourse for money
  • cystitis -  inflammation of the urinary bladder and ureters
  • Cytokine -  any of various proteins secreted by cells of the immune system that serve to regulate the immune system
  • Cytomegalovirus -  any of a group of herpes viruses that enlarge epithelial cells and can cause birth defects; can affect humans with impaired immunological systems
  • Damping off -  a plant disease caused by a fungus; diseased condition of seedlings in excessive moisture
  • Danse Macabre -  a medieval dance in which a skeleton representing death leads a procession of others to the grave
  • dapsone -  antibacterial drug used to treat leprosy and some kinds of skin diseases
  • decedent -  someone who is no longer alive
  • Deer fly fever -  a highly infectious disease of rodents (especially rabbits and squirrels) and sometimes transmitted to humans by ticks or flies or by handling infected animals
  • Delhi boil -  leishmaniasis of the skin; characterized by ulcerative skin lesions
  • delirium -  a usually brief state of excitement and mental confusion often accompanied by hallucinations; state of violent mental agitation
  • dengue -  an infectious disease of the tropics transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by rash and aching head and joints
  • Dengue fever -  an infectious disease of the tropics transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by rash and aching head and joints
  • dentistry -  the branch of medicine dealing with the anatomy and development and diseases of the teeth
  • dermatitis -  inflammation of the skin; skin becomes itchy and may develop blisters
  • Dermatology -  the branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases
  • dermatomycosis -  fungal infection of the skin (especially of moist parts covered by clothing)
  • Dermatophytosis -  fungal infection of the skin (especially of moist parts covered by clothing)
  • Desert rheumatism -  an infection of the lungs and skin characterized by excessive sputum and nodules
  • development -  act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining; (music) the section of a composition or movement (especially in sonata form) where the major musical themes are developed and elaborated; a recent event that has some relevance for the present situation; a district that has been developed to serve some purpose; processing a photosensitive material in order to make an image visible; a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage); a state in which things are improving; the result of developing (as in the early part of a game of chess); the act of making some area of land or water more profitable or productive or useful; (biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically; a purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level
  • devices -  an inclination or desire; used in the plural in the phrase `left to your own devices'
  • Dexamethasone -  a corticosteroid drug (trade names Decadron or Dexamethasone Intensol or Dexone or Hexadrol or Oradexon) used to treat allergies or inflammation
  • diabetes mellitus -  diabetes caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and characterized by polyuria
  • diagnosis -  identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon
  • diarrhea -  frequent and watery bowel movements; can be a symptom of infection or food poisoning or colitis or a gastrointestinal tumor
  • differential diagnosis -  a systematic method of diagnosing a disorder (e.g., headache) that lacks unique symptoms or signs
  • Dimorphic -  occurring or existing in two different forms
  • Diphtheria -  acute contagious infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae; marked by the formation of a false membrane in the throat and other air passages causing difficulty in breathing
  • dipterous -  of or relating to or belonging to the Diptera
  • disambiguation -  clarification that follows from the removal of ambiguity
  • discolor -  change color, often in an undesired manner; cause to lose or change color; lose color or turn colorless
  • Discovery -  the act of discovering something; a productive insight; something that is discovered; (law) compulsory pretrial disclosure of documents relevant to a case; enables one side in a litigation to elicit information from the other side concerning the facts in the case
  • Disease -  an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
  • disulfiram -  a drug (trade name Antabuse) used in the treatment of alcoholism; causes nausea and vomiting if alcohol is ingested
  • diverticulitis -  inflammation of a diverticulum in the digestive tract (especially the colon); characterized by painful abdominal cramping and fever and constipation
  • doctor -  children take the roles of physician or patient or nurse and pretend they are at the physician's office; a licensed medical practitioner; a person who holds Ph.D. degree (or the equivalent) from an academic institution; (Roman Catholic Church) a title conferred on 33 saints who distinguished themselves through the orthodoxy of their theological teaching;  give medical treatment to; restore by replacing a part or putting together what is torn or broken; alter and make impure, as with the intention to deceive
  • Dracunculiasis -  a painful and debilitating infestation contracted by drinking stagnant water contaminated with Guinea worm larvae that can mature inside a human's abdomen until the worm emerges through a painful blister in the person's skin
  • Dracunculus medinensis -  parasitic roundworm of India and Africa that lives in the abdomen or beneath the skin of humans and other vertebrates
  • Dublin -  capital and largest city and major port of the Irish Free State
  • Dubrovnik -  a port city in southwestern Croatia on the Adriatic; a popular tourist center
  • Dysentery -  an infection of the intestines marked by severe diarrhea
  • dysuria -  painful or difficult urination
  • Ebola -  a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees) caused by the Ebola virus; characterized by high fever and severe internal bleeding; can be spread from person to person; is largely limited to Africa
  • Ebola virus -  a filovirus that causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever; carried by animals; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Echinococcus -  tapeworms whose larvae are parasitic in humans and domestic animals
  • echocardiography -  a noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses ultrasound to study to structure and motions of the heart
  • Ecology -  the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment; the environment as it relates to living organisms
  • Ecosystem -  a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environment
  • Eczema herpeticum -  eczema characterized by a feverish condition and widespread eruption of vesicles; most common in children
  • Eczema vaccinatum -  a now rare complication of vaccinia superimposed on atopic dermatitis with high fever and generalized vesicles and papulovesicles
  • education -  the profession of teaching (especially at a school or college or university); the activities of educating or instructing; activities that impart knowledge or skill; the result of good upbringing (especially knowledge of correct social behavior); the gradual process of acquiring knowledge; knowledge acquired by learning and instruction; the United States federal department that administers all federal programs dealing with education (including federal aid to educational institutions and students); created 1979
  • Effects -  property of a personal character that is portable but not used in business
  • Efflux -  the process of flowing out
  • Egg Cell -  the female reproductive cell; the female gamete
  • empyema -  a collection of pus in a body cavity (especially in the lung cavity)
  • Encephalitis -  inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus; symptoms include headache and neck pain and drowsiness and nausea and fever (`phrenitis' is no longer in scientific use)
  • Encephalitis lethargica -  an encephalitis that was epidemic between 1915 and 1926; symptoms include paralysis of the extrinsic eye muscle and extreme muscular weakness
  • Endemic -  native to or confined to a certain region; of or relating to a disease (or anything resembling a disease) constantly present to greater or lesser extent in a particular locality; originating where it is found;  a plant that is native to a certain limited area; a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain class or in people living in a particular location
  • Endemic typhus -  acute infection caused by rickettsia and transmitted by the bite of an infected flea; characterized by fever and chills and muscle aches and a rash
  • endocarditis -  inflammation of the endocardium and heart valves
  • endometritis -  inflammation of the lining of the uterus (of the endometrium)
  • English -  of or relating to or characteristic of England or its culture or people; of or relating to the English language;  the discipline that studies the English language and literature; an Indo-European language belonging to the West Germanic branch; the official language of Britain and the United States and most of the commonwealth countries; (sports) the spin given to a ball by striking it on one side or releasing it with a sharp twist; the people of England
  • enteric fever -  serious infection marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration; caused by Salmonella typhosa ingested with food or water
  • Enteritis -  inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine); usually characterized by diarrhea
  • Enterobiasis -  an infestation with or a resulting infection caused by the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis; occurs especially in children
  • Enterovirus -  any of a group of picornaviruses that infect the gastrointestinal tract and can spread to other areas (especially the nervous system)
  • eosinophilia -  a symptom of allergic states; increased eosinophils in the blood
  • Epidemic -  (especially of medicine) of disease or anything resembling a disease; attacking or affecting many individuals in a community or a population simultaneously;  a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease; many people are infected at the same time
  • epidemiology -  the branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of disease
  • Epiglottitis -  inflammation of the epiglottis; characterized by fever and a severe sore throat and difficulty in swallowing
  • Epstein -  British sculptor (born in the United States) noted for busts and large controversial works (1880-1959)
  • Eradication -  the complete destruction of every trace of something
  • Erysipelas -  an acute streptococcal infection characterized by deep-red inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes
  • erythema nodosum -  skin condition characterized by tender red nodules on the shins and legs
  • Erythromycin -  an antibiotic (trade name Erythrocin or E-Mycin or Ethril or Ilosone or Pediamycin) obtained from the actinomycete Streptomyces erythreus; effective against many Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negative
  • Escherichia coli -  a species of bacterium normally present in intestinal tract of humans and other animals; sometimes pathogenic; can be a threat to food safety
  • Esophagus -  the passage between the pharynx and the stomach
  • etiology -  the philosophical study of causation; the cause of a disease
  • Evolution -  (biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms; a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage)
  • examination -  the act of examining something closely (as for mistakes); the act of giving students or candidates a test (as by questions) to determine what they know or have learned; a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge; a detailed inspection of your conscience (as done daily by Jesuits); formal systematic questioning
  • Exanthem -  eruption on the skin occurring as a symptom of a disease
  • Exchange transfusion -  slow removal of a person's blood and its replacement with equal amounts of a donor's blood
  • Exoskeleton -  the exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals (especially invertebrates) including bony or horny parts such as nails or scales or hoofs
  • expertise -  skillfulness by virtue of possessing special knowledge
  • Fasciola hepatica -  flatworm parasitic in liver and bile ducts of domestic animals and humans
  • Fasciolopsiasis -  infestation with the large intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski; common in eastern Asia
  • Fasciolopsis buski -  fluke that is parasitic on humans and swine; common in eastern Asia
  • Fasciolosis -  infestation with the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica; liver damage sometimes occurs; related to liver rot
  • February -  the month following January and preceding March
  • Fertilized Egg -  an animal organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that in higher forms merge into fetal stages but in lower forms terminate in commencement of larval life
  • Filariasis -  a disease caused by nematodes in the blood or tissues of the body causing blockage of lymphatic vessels
  • Filoviridae -  a family of threadlike RNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees)
  • Flatworm -  parasitic or free-living worms having a flattened body
  • Florence -  a town in northeast South Carolina; transportation center; a city in central Italy on the Arno; provincial capital of Tuscany; center of the Italian Renaissance from 14th to 16th centuries
  • Fomite -  any inanimate object (as a towel or money or clothing or dishes or books or toys etc.) that can transmit infectious agents from one person to another
  • Foot rot -  contagious degenerative infection of the feet of hoofed animals (especially cattle and sheep); plant disease in which the stem or trunk rots at the base
  • footballer -  an athlete who plays American football
  • Francisella tularensis -  the type species of the genus Francisella and the causal agent of tularemia in humans; can be used as a bioweapon
  • fungus -  a parasitic plant lacking chlorophyll and leaves and true stems and roots and reproducing by spores
  • Furunculosis -  acute skin disease characterized by the presence of many furuncles
  • Gangrene -  necrotic tissue; a mortified or gangrenous part or mass; the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply);  undergo necrosis
  • Garfield -  20th President of the United States; assassinated by a frustrated office-seeker (1831-1881)
  • Gas gangrene -  (pathology) a deadly form of gangrene usually caused by clostridium bacteria that produce toxins that cause tissue death; can be used as a bioweapon
  • gastritis -  inflammation of the lining of the stomach; nausea and loss of appetite and discomfort after eating
  • Gastroenteritis -  inflammation of the stomach and intestines; can be caused by Salmonella enteritidis
  • Gastrointestinal Tract -  tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination
  • Genesis -  the first book of the Old Testament: tells of creation; Adam and Eve; the Fall of Man; Cain and Abel; Noah and the flood; God's covenant with Abraham; Abraham and Isaac; Jacob and Esau; Joseph and his brothers; a coming into being
  • Genetics -  the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
  • Genital herpes -  an infection caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) that is usually transmitted by sexual contact; marked by recurrent attacks of painful eruptions on the skin and mucous membranes of the genital area
  • Genital wart -  a small benign wart on or around the genitals and anus
  • Germ Theory -  (medicine) the theory that all contagious diseases are caused by microorganisms
  • Gesneriaceae -  large family of tropical herbs or shrubs or lianas; in some classification systems placed in the order Scrophulariales
  • Giardiasis -  infection of the intestines with protozoa found in contaminated food and water; characterized by diarrhea and nausea and flatulence and abdominal discomfort
  • Glanders -  a destructive and contagious bacterial disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans
  • Glandular fever -  an acute disease characterized by fever and swollen lymph nodes and an abnormal increase of mononuclear leucocytes or monocytes in the bloodstream; not highly contagious; some believe it can be transmitted by kissing
  • glomerulonephritis -  nephritis marked by inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney; characterized by decreased production of urine and by the presence of blood and protein in the urine and by edema
  • gonococcus -  the pus-producing bacterium that causes gonorrhea
  • gonorrhea -  a common venereal disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae; symptoms are painful urination and pain around the urethra
  • gram-negative -  (of bacteria) being of or relating to a bacterium that does not retain the violet stain used in Gram's method
  • gram stain -  a staining technique used to classify bacteria; bacteria are stained with gentian violet and then treated with Gram's solution; after being decolorized with alcohol and treated with safranine and washed in water, those that retain the gentian violet are Gram-positive and those that do not retain it are Gram-negative
  • Granuloma inguinale -  a venereal disease caused by a bacterium of the genus Calymmatobacterium; characterized by a pimply rash of the skin in the genital and groin region
  • Granuloma venereum -  a venereal disease caused by a bacterium of the genus Calymmatobacterium; characterized by a pimply rash of the skin in the genital and groin region
  • grapevine -  gossip spread by spoken communication; any of numerous woody vines of genus Vitis bearing clusters of edible berries
  • Green algae -  algae that are clear green in color; often growing on wet ricks or damp wood or the surface of stagnant water
  • Griseofulvin -  a kind of penicillin (a fungicidal antibiotic with the trade name Fulvicin) produced by molds of the genus Penicillium
  • Group A -  the blood group whose red cells carry the A antigen
  • Gunner -  a serviceman in the artillery
  • Habitat -  the type of environment in which an organism or group normally lives or occurs
  • Hansen's disease -  chronic granulomatous communicable disease occurring in tropical and subtropical regions; characterized by inflamed nodules beneath the skin and wasting of body parts; caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae
  • Haustorium -  a rootlike attachment in parasitic plants that penetrates and obtains food from the host
  • Haverhill fever -  the form of ratbite fever occurring in the United States
  • Hawaii -  a state in the United States in the central Pacific on the Hawaiian Islands; the largest and southernmost of the Hawaii islands; has several volcanic peaks
  • headache -  pain in the head caused by dilation of cerebral arteries or muscle contractions or a reaction to drugs; something or someone that causes anxiety; a source of unhappiness
  • health care -  social insurance for the ill and injured; the preservation of mental and physical health by preventing or treating illness through services offered by the health profession
  • heart failure -  inability of the heart to pump enough blood to sustain normal bodily functions
  • Helotiales -  order of fungi having asci in a disk-shaped to goblet-shaped apothecium
  • hemorrhage -  flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels;  lose blood from one's body
  • hemorrhagic fever -  a group of illnesses caused by a viral infection (usually restricted to a specific geographic area); fever and gastrointestinal symptoms are followed by capillary hemorrhage
  • hepatica -  a common liverwort; any of several plants of the genus Hepatica having three-lobed leaves and white or pinkish flowers in early spring; of moist and mossy subalpine woodland areas of north temperate regions
  • Hepatitis -  inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or a toxin
  • Hepatitis A -  an acute but benign form of viral hepatitis caused by an RNA virus that does not persist in the blood serum and is usually transmitted by ingesting food or drink that is contaminated with fecal matter
  • Hepatitis B -  an acute (sometimes fatal) form of viral hepatitis caused by a DNA virus that tends to persist in the blood serum and is transmitted by sexual contact or by transfusion or by ingestion of contaminated blood or other bodily fluids
  • Hepatitis C -  a viral hepatitis clinically indistinguishable from hepatitis B but caused by a single-stranded RNA virus; usually transmitted by parenteral means (as injection of an illicit drug or blood transfusion or exposure to blood or blood products)
  • Herpes -  any of the animal viruses that cause painful blisters on the skin; viral diseases causing eruptions of the skin or mucous membrane
  • Herpes simplex -  a herpes virus that affects the skin and nervous system; an infection caused by the herpes simples virus; affects the skin and nervous system; produces small temporary (but sometimes painful) blisters on the skin and mucous membranes
  • Highland -  used of high or hilly country;  elevated (e.g., mountainous) land
  • history -  the discipline that records and interprets past events involving human beings; all that is remembered of the past as preserved in writing; a body of knowledge; a record or narrative description of past events; the aggregate of past events; the continuum of events occurring in succession leading from the past to the present and even into the future
  • Hookworm -  parasitic bloodsucking roundworms having hooked mouth parts to fasten to the intestinal wall of human and other hosts; infestation of the intestines by hookworms which enter the body (usually) through the skin
  • Houston -  the largest city in Texas; located in southeastern Texas near the Gulf of Mexico; site of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)
  • hydrocortisone -  an adrenal-cortex hormone (trade names Hydrocortone or Cortef) that is active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism
  • ice hockey -  a game played on an ice rink by two opposing teams of six skaters each who try to knock a flat round puck into the opponents' goal with angled sticks
  • Illinois -  the Algonquian language of the Illinois and Miami; a Midwest state in north-central United States; a member of the Algonquian people formerly of Illinois and regions to the west
  • imaging -  (medicine) obtaining pictures of the interior of the body; the ability to form mental images of things or events
  • immune globulin -  a class of proteins produced in lymph tissue in vertebrates and that function as antibodies in the immune response
  • Immune System -  a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response
  • Immunity -  the quality of being unaffected by something; (medicine) the condition in which an organism can resist disease; an act exempting someone; the state of not being susceptible
  • Immunization -  the act of making immune (especially by inoculation)
  • immunoglobulin -  a class of proteins produced in lymph tissue in vertebrates and that function as antibodies in the immune response
  • Immunology -  the branch of medical science that studies the body's immune system
  • Impetigo -  a very contagious infection of the skin; common in children; localized redness develops into small blisters that gradually crust and erode
  • implementation -  the act of implementing (providing a practical means for accomplishing something); carrying into effect; the act of accomplishing some aim or executing some order
  • incidence -  the striking of a light beam on a surface; the relative frequency of occurrence of something
  • Incubation period -  the period between infection and the appearance of symptoms of the disease
  • indinavir -  a protease inhibitor (trade name Crixivan) used for treating HIV
  • indium -  a rare soft silvery metallic element; occurs in small quantities in sphalerite
  • infancy -  the earliest state of immaturity; the early stage of growth or development
  • Infection -  (international law) illegality that taints or contaminates a ship or cargo rendering it liable to seizure; moral corruption or contamination; an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted; (medicine) the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease; (phonetics) the alteration of a speech sound under the influence of a neighboring sound; the pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms; the communication of an attitude or emotional state among a number of people
  • infectious -  easily spread; caused by infection or capable of causing infection; of or relating to infection
  • Infectious mononucleosis -  an acute disease characterized by fever and swollen lymph nodes and an abnormal increase of mononuclear leucocytes or monocytes in the bloodstream; not highly contagious; some believe it can be transmitted by kissing
  • infective -  able to cause disease; caused by infection or capable of causing infection
  • inflammation -  arousal to violent emotion; a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat; the act of setting something on fire; the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up
  • Influenza -  an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease
  • Inoculation -  taking a vaccine as a precaution against contracting a disease
  • Inosine -  a nucleoside that is formed by the deamination of adenosine; used in kidney transplantation to provide a temporary source of sugar
  • Institute -  an association organized to promote art or science or education;  advance or set forth in court; set up or lay the groundwork for
  • Interferon -  an antiviral protein produced by cells that have been invaded by a virus; inhibits replication of the virus
  • Isolation -  the act of isolating something; setting something apart from others; a country's withdrawal from international politics; a feeling of being disliked and alone; (psychiatry) a defense mechanism in which memory of an unacceptable act or impulse is separated from the emotion originally associated with it; a state of separation between persons or groups
  • isoniazid -  antibacterial drug (trade name Nydrazid) used to treat tuberculosis
  • itraconazole -  an oral antifungal drug (trade name Sporanox) taken for cases of fungal nail disease
  • January -  the first month of the year; begins 10 days after the winter solstice
  • Jehovah's Witnesses -  Protestant denomination founded in the United States by Charles Taze Russell in 1884
  • Jesuit -  having qualities characteristic of Jesuits or Jesuitism;  a member of the Jesuit order
  • Jock itch -  fungal infection of the groin (most common in men)
  • journal -  the part of the axle contained by a bearing; a record book as a physical object; a periodical dedicated to a particular subject; a daily written record of (usually personal) experiences and observations; a ledger in which transactions have been recorded as they occurred
  • Junin virus -  the RNA virus that causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever; carried by rats and mice
  • Justinian -  Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians; codified Roman law in 529; his general Belisarius regained North Africa and Spain (483-565)
  • Kaposi's sarcoma -  a sarcoma that starts with purplish spots on the feet and legs and spreads from the skin to lymph nodes and internal organs; a common manifestation of AIDS
  • Kawasaki disease -  an acute disease of young children characterized by a rash and swollen lymph nodes and fever; of unknown cause
  • Kentucky -  a state in east central United States; a border state during the American Civil War; famous for breeding race horses
  • Keratitis -  inflammation of the cornea causing watery painful eyes and blurred vision
  • Kerion -  ringworm infection of the hair follicles of the scalp and beard that usually results in a swelling that is covered with pustules and oozes fluid
  • Klebsiella -  a genus of nonmotile rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria; some cause respiratory and other infections
  • laboratory -  a workplace for the conduct of scientific research; a region resembling a laboratory inasmuch as it offers opportunities for observation and practice and experimentation
  • lamivudine -  a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is very effective in combination with zidovudine in treating AIDS and HIV
  • Lassa fever -  an acute contagious viral disease of central western Africa; characterized by fever and inflammation and muscular pains and difficulty swallowing; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Latent period -  the time that elapses before the presence of a disease is manifested by symptoms; the time that elapses between a stimulus and the response to it
  • Lazaretto -  hospital for persons with infectious diseases (especially leprosy); a small locker at the stern of a boat or between decks of a ship
  • Legionella -  the motile aerobic rod-shaped Gram-negative bacterium that thrives in central heating and air conditioning systems and can cause Legionnaires' disease
  • Legionnaires' disease -  acute (sometimes fatal) lobar pneumonia caused by bacteria of a kind first recognized after an outbreak of the disease at an American Legion convention in Philadelphia in 1976; characterized by fever and muscle and chest pain and headache and chills and a dry cough
  • Leishmania -  flagellate protozoan that causes leishmaniasis
  • Leishmaniasis -  sores resulting from a tropical infection by protozoa of the genus Leishmania which are spread by sandflies
  • Leishmaniasis americana -  a form of leishmaniasis endemic in Mexico and Central American and South America; sores are limited to the skin and mucosa
  • Lentil -  round flat seed of the lentil plant used for food; widely cultivated Eurasian annual herb grown for its edible flattened seeds that are cooked like peas and also ground into meal and for its leafy stalks that are used as fodder; the fruit or seed of a lentil plant
  • Lepromatous leprosy -  a very serious form of leprosy characterized by lesions that spread over much of the body and affecting many systems of the body
  • leprosy -  chronic granulomatous communicable disease occurring in tropical and subtropical regions; characterized by inflamed nodules beneath the skin and wasting of body parts; caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae
  • Leptospira -  important pathogens causing Weil's disease or canicola fever
  • Leptospirosis -  an infectious disease cause by leptospira and transmitted to humans from domestic animals; characterized by jaundice and fever
  • leukocytosis -  an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood as a result of infection (as in leukemia)
  • Leukorrhea -  discharge of white mucous material from the vagina; often an indication of infection
  • Lexington -  the first battle of the American Revolution (April 19, 1775); a city in eastern Kentucky; noted for raising thoroughbred horses; town in eastern Massachusetts near Boston where the first battle of the American Revolution was fought
  • Liberia -  a republic in West Africa; established in 1822 by Americans as a way to free negro slaves
  • lichen planus -  an eruption of shiny flat-topped purplish (usually itchy) papules on the wrist and forearms and thighs
  • life cycle -  a series of stages through which an organism passes between recurrences of a primary stage; the course of developmental changes in an organism from fertilized zygote to maturity when another zygote can be produced
  • Lipid -  an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents; essential structural component of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates)
  • Listeria -  any species of the genus Listeria
  • Listeria monocytogenes -  the type species of the genus Listeria; can cause meningitis, encephalitis, septicemia, endocarditis, abortion, abscesses, listeriosis
  • Listeriosis -  an infectious disease of animals and humans (especially newborn or immunosuppressed persons) caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes; in sheep and cattle the infection frequently involves the central nervous system and causes various neurological symptoms
  • Liver fluke -  flatworm parasitic in liver and bile ducts of domestic animals and humans
  • llama -  wild or domesticated South American cud-chewing animal related to camels but smaller and lacking a hump
  • lobar pneumonia -  pneumonia affecting one or more lobes of the lung; commonly due to streptococcal infection
  • London -  the capital and largest city of England; located on the Thames in southeastern England; financial and industrial and cultural center; United States writer of novels based on experiences in the Klondike gold rush (1876-1916)
  • Louis Pasteur -  French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
  • Lucky -  blessed with good fortune; having or bringing good fortune; favoring or bringing good luck
  • lumbar puncture -  removal by centesis of fluid from the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region of the spinal cord for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes
  • Lyme disease -  an acute inflammatory disease characterized by a rash with joint swelling and fever; caused by bacteria carried by the bite of a deer tick
  • lymphocytosis -  an abnormal increase in the number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
  • Lymphogranuloma venereum -  infectious disease caused by a species of chlamydia bacterium; transmitted by sexual contact; characterized by genital lesions and swelling of lymph nodes in the groin
  • lymphoma -  a neoplasm of lymph tissue that is usually malignant; one of the four major types of cancer
  • lyssavirus -  a neurotropic non-arbovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae that causes rabies
  • Machupo virus -  the RNA virus that causes Bolivian hemorrhagic fever; carried by rats and mice
  • Madagascar -  an island in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of Africa; the 4th largest island in the world; a republic on the island of Madagascar; achieved independence from France in 1960
  • magazine -  a storehouse (as a compartment on a warship) where weapons and ammunition are stored; product consisting of a paperback periodic publication as a physical object; a light-tight supply chamber holding the film and supplying it for exposure as required; a periodic publication containing pictures and stories and articles of interest to those who purchase it or subscribe to it; a business firm that publishes magazines; a metal frame or container holding cartridges; can be inserted into an automatic gun
  • Magic bullet -  a remedy (drug or therapy or preventive) that cures or prevents a disease
  • magnetic resonance -  resonance of electrons or atoms or molecules or nuclei to radiation frequencies as a result of space quantization in a magnetic field
  • Malabsorption -  abnormal absorption of nutrients from the digestive tract
  • malaria -  an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito; marked by paroxysms of chills and fever
  • Malathion -  a yellow insecticide used as a dust or spray to control garden pests and house flies and mites
  • malignancy -  (medicine) a malignant state; progressive and resistant to treatment and tending to cause death; quality of being disposed to evil; intense ill will
  • Malleus -  the ossicle attached to the eardrum
  • Malta fever -  infectious bacterial disease of human beings transmitted by contact with infected animals or infected meat or milk products; characterized by fever and headache
  • management -  the act of managing something; those in charge of running a business
  • Mange -  a persistent and contagious disease of the skin causing inflammation and itching and loss of hair; affects domestic animals (and sometimes people)
  • Mantegna -  Italian painter and engraver noted for his frescoes (1431-1506)
  • Marburg virus -  a filovirus that causes Marburg disease; carried by animals; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Mary Wollstonecraft -  English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women; mother of Mary Shelley (1759-1797)
  • mastitis -  inflammation of a breast (or udder)
  • Matthew -  one of the Gospels in the New Testament; includes the Sermon on the Mount; (New Testament) disciple of Jesus; traditionally considered to be the author of the first Gospel
  • Measles -  an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash; occurs primarily in children
  • medical specialty -  the branches of medical science that deal with nonsurgical techniques
  • Medicine -  the learned profession that is mastered by graduate training in a medical school and that is devoted to preventing or alleviating or curing diseases and injuries; (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease; the branches of medical science that deal with nonsurgical techniques; punishment for one's actions;  treat medicinally, treat with medicine
  • mefloquine -  an antimalarial drug (trade name Larium and Mephaquine) that is effective in cases that do not respond to chloroquine; said to produce harmful neuropsychiatric effects on some people
  • Melampsora -  rusts having sessile one-celled teliospores in a single layer
  • Meningitis -  infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection; symptoms include headache and stiff neck and fever and nausea
  • Metabolism -  the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life; the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals
  • metronidazole -  antiprotozoal medication (trade name Flagyl) used to treat trichomoniasis and giardiasis
  • Microbe -  a minute life form (especially a disease-causing bacterium); the term is not in technical use
  • Microbiology -  the branch of biology that studies microorganisms and their effects on humans
  • microscopy -  research with the use of microscopes
  • Milan -  the capital of Lombardy in northern Italy; has been an international center of trade and industry since the Middle Ages
  • Mildew -  a fungus that produces a superficial (usually white) growth on organic matter; the process of becoming mildewed;  become moldy; spoil due to humidity
  • Miliary fever -  epidemic in the 15th and 16th centuries and characterized by profuse sweating and high mortality
  • miliary tuberculosis -  acute tuberculosis characterized by the appearance of tiny tubercles on one or more organs of the body (presumably resulting from tubercle bacilli being spread in the bloodstream)
  • Militia -  civilians trained as soldiers but not part of the regular army; the entire body of physically fit civilians eligible by law for military service
  • Miller -  machine tool in which metal that is secured to a carriage is fed against rotating cutters that shape it; someone who works in a mill (especially a grain mill); United States playwright (born 1915); United States novelist whose novels were originally banned as pornographic (1891-1980); United States bandleader of a popular big band (1909-1944); any of various moths that have powdery wings
  • Molluscum contagiosum -  a virus disease of the skin marked by round white swellings; transmitted from person to person (most often in children or in adults with impaired immune function)
  • Moniliasis -  an infection caused by fungi of the genus Monilia or Candida (especially Candida albicans)
  • monocytosis -  increase in the number of monocytes in the blood; symptom of monocytic leukemia
  • Morbidity -  an abnormally gloomy or unhealthy state of mind; the relative incidence of a particular disease; the quality of being unhealthful and generally bad for you
  • mortality -  the quality or state of being mortal; the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year
  • Mottle -  an irregular arrangement of patches of color;  colour with streaks or blotches of different shades; mark with spots or blotches of different color or shades of color as if stained
  • Moustache -  an unshaved growth of hair on the upper lip
  • Mucorales -  an order of mostly saprophytic fungi
  • Mucous Membrane -  mucus-secreting membrane lining all body cavities or passages that communicate with the exterior
  • Muhammad Ali -  United States prizefighter who won the world heavyweight championship three times (born in 1942); Albanian soldier in the service of Turkey who was made viceroy of Egypt and took control away from the Ottoman Empire and established Egypt as a modern state (1769-1849)
  • mumps -  an acute contagious viral disease characterized by fever and by swelling of the parotid glands
  • Murine typhus -  acute infection caused by rickettsia and transmitted by the bite of an infected flea; characterized by fever and chills and muscle aches and a rash
  • Mutation -  a change or alteration in form or qualities; (genetics) any event that changes genetic structure; any alteration in the inherited nucleic acid sequence of the genotype of an organism; (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration
  • Mycobacterium -  rod-shaped bacteria some saprophytic or causing diseases
  • Mycology -  the branch of botany that studies fungi and fungus-caused diseases
  • Mycoplasma -  any of a group of small parasitic bacteria that lack a cell walls and can survive without oxygen; can cause pneumonia and urinary tract infection
  • Mycoplasmataceae -  pleomorphic Gram-negative nonmotile microorganism similar to both viruses and bacteria; parasitic in mammals
  • Mycosis -  an inflammatory condition caused by a fungus
  • Myelitis -  inflammation of the spinal cord
  • Myiasis -  infestation of the body by the larvae of flies (usually through a wound or other opening) or any disease resulting from such infestation
  • Myocarditis -  inflammation of the myocardium (the muscular tissue of the heart)
  • Nanometer -  a metric unit of length equal to one billionth of a meter
  • Naples -  a port and tourist center in southwestern Italy; capital of the Campania region
  • Napoleon III -  nephew of Napoleon I and emperor of the French from 1852 to 1871 (1808-1873)
  • Nashville -  capital of the state of Tennessee; located in the north central part of the state on the Cumberland River; known for country music
  • Natural Selection -  a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
  • nausea -  disgust so strong it makes you feel sick; the state that precedes vomiting
  • Nematode -  unsegmented worms with elongated rounded body pointed at both ends; mostly free-living but some are parasitic
  • nervous system -  the sensory and control apparatus consisting of a network of nerve cells
  • nevirapine -  a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (trade name Viramune) used to treat AIDS and HIV
  • New York -  a Mid-Atlantic state; one of the original 13 colonies; one of the British colonies that formed the United States; the largest city in New York State and in the United States; located in southeastern New York at the mouth of the Hudson river; a major financial and cultural center
  • New Zealand -  North Island and South Island and adjacent small islands in the South Pacific; an independent country within the British Commonwealth; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1907; known for sheep and spectacular scenery
  • newborn -  having just or recently arisen or come into existence; recently borne;  a baby from birth to four weeks
  • Nigeria -  a republic in West Africa on the Gulf of Guinea; gained independence from Britain in 1960; most populous African country
  • Nitrofurantoin -  derivative of nitrofuran used as an antibacterial medicine (trade name Macrodantin) effective against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; used to treat infections of the urinary tract
  • Notification -  a request for payment; an accusation of crime made by a grand jury on its own initiative; informing by words
  • Nova Scotia -  the Canadian province in the Maritimes consisting of the Nova Scotia peninsula and Cape Breton Island; French settlers who called the area Acadia were exiled to Louisiana by the British in the 1750s and their descendants are know as Cajuns; a peninsula in eastern Canada between the Bay of Fundy and the Saint Lawrence River
  • novel -  pleasantly new or different; original and of a kind not seen before;  a printed and bound book that is an extended work of fiction; a extended fictional work in prose; usually in the form of a story
  • novobiocin -  an antibiotic obtained from an actinomycete and used to treat infections by Gram-positive bacteria
  • Nystatin -  an antifungal and antibiotic (trade names Mycostatin and Nystan) discovered in New York State; derived from soil fungi actinomycetes
  • obstetrics -  the branch of medicine dealing with childbirth and care of the mother
  • October -  the month following September and preceding November
  • Onchocerciasis -  infestation with slender threadlike roundworms (filaria) deposited under the skin by the bite of black fleas; when the eyes are involved it can result in blindness; common in Africa and tropical America
  • Ophthalmia neonatorum -  ophthalmia in newborns; contracted while passing through the birth canal; usually prevented with silver nitrate drops
  • Opisthorchiasis -  infestation with flukes obtained from eating raw fish; common in eastern Asia
  • opportunistic -  taking immediate advantage, often unethically, of any circumstance of possible benefit
  • Opportunistic infection -  any infection caused by a microorganism that does not normally cause disease in humans; occurs in persons with abnormally functioning immune systems (as AIDS patients or transplant patients receiving immunosuppressive drugs)
  • orchitis -  inflammation of one or both testes; characterized by pain and swelling
  • Oregon -  a state in northwestern United States on the Pacific
  • Organism -  a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently; a system considered analogous in structure or function to a living body
  • Oriental sore -  leishmaniasis of the skin; characterized by ulcerative skin lesions
  • osteitis -  inflammation of a bone as a consequence of infection or trauma or degeneration
  • osteomyelitis -  an inflammation of bone and bone marrow (usually caused by bacterial infection)
  • Otitis externa -  inflammation of the external ear (including auricle and ear canal)
  • Outbreak -  a sudden violent spontaneous occurrence (usually of some undesirable condition)
  • Overpressure -  a transient air pressure greater than the surrounding atmospheric pressure
  • Pack animal -  an animal (such as a mule or burro or horse) used to carry loads
  • painting -  the occupation of a house painter; the act of applying paint to a surface; creating a picture with paints; graphic art consisting of an artistic composition made by applying paints to a surface
  • Pakistan -  a Muslim republic that occupies the heartland of ancient south Asian civilization in the Indus River valley; formerly part of India; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1947
  • Palermo -  the capital of Sicily; located in northwestern Sicily; an important port for 3000 years
  • Palmae -  chiefly tropical trees and shrubs and vines usually having a tall columnar trunk bearing a crown of very large leaves; coextensive with the order Palmales
  • palpation -  a method of examination in which the examiner feels the size or shape or firmness or location of something (of body parts when the examiner is a health professional)
  • Pancreatitis -  inflammation of the pancreas; usually marked by abdominal pain
  • Pandemic -  existing everywhere; epidemic over a wide geographical area;  an epidemic that is geographically widespread; occurring throughout a region or even throughout the world
  • parasitic -  of plants or persons; having the nature or habits of a parasite or leech; living off another; relating to or caused by parasites; of or pertaining to epenthesis
  • Parasitic worm -  worm that is parasitic on the intestines of vertebrates especially roundworms and tapeworms and flukes
  • Parasitism -  the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)
  • Paratyphoid fever -  any of a variety of infectious intestinal diseases resembling typhoid fever
  • Pasteurellosis -  an acute infectious disease characterized by pneumonia and blood infection
  • Pathogen -  any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
  • pathogenesis -  the origination and development of a disease
  • Pathology -  the branch of medical science that studies the causes and nature and effects of diseases; any deviation from a healthy or normal condition
  • Pediculosis -  infestation with lice (Pediculus humanus) resulting in severe itching
  • Peptic ulcer -  an ulcer of the mucous membrane lining of the alimentary tract
  • percussion -  the act of exploding a percussion cap; the act of playing a percussion instrument; tapping a part of the body for diagnostic purposes; the section of a band or orchestra that plays percussion instruments
  • Peritonsillar abscess -  a painful pus filled inflammation of the tonsils and surrounding tissues; usually a complication of tonsillitis
  • Persecution -  the act of persecuting (especially on the basis of race or religion)
  • persistent -  never-ceasing; retained; not shed; continually recurring to the mind
  • Persoonia -  Australian undershrubs to small trees: geebungs
  • Pertussis -  a disease of the respiratory mucous membrane
  • Peshawar -  city in northern Pakistan at the eastern end of the Khyber Pass
  • pharmacology -  the science or study of drugs: their preparation and properties and uses and effects
  • Pharynx -  the passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone
  • phlebitis -  inflammation of a vein (usually in the legs)
  • photographer -  someone who takes photographs professionally
  • photophobia -  a morbid fear of light; pain in the eye resulting from exposure to bright light (often associated with albinism)
  • physician -  a licensed medical practitioner
  • Pinworm -  small threadlike worm infesting human intestines and rectum especially in children
  • Plague -  an annoyance; any large scale calamity (especially when thought to be sent by God); any epidemic disease with a high death rate; a serious (sometimes fatal) infection of rodents caused by Yersinia pestis and accidentally transmitted to humans by the bite of a flea that has bitten an infected animal; a swarm of insects that attack plants;  annoy continually or chronically; cause to suffer a blight
  • plain -  lacking embellishment or ornamentation; free from any effort to soften to disguise; lacking patterns especially in color; not elaborate or elaborated; simple; not mixed with extraneous elements; lacking in physical beauty or proportion; clearly revealed to the mind or the senses or judgment;  unmistakably (`plain' is often used informally for `plainly');  extensive tract of level open land; a basic knitting stitch;  express complaints, discontent, displeasure, or unhappiness
  • Plasmapheresis -  plasma is separated from whole blood and the rest is returned to the donor
  • Plasmid -  a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication
  • Plasmodiophora brassicae -  a fungus resembling slime mold that causes swellings or distortions of the roots of cabbages and related plants
  • Plasmodium -  parasitic protozoan of the genus Plasmodium that causes malaria in humans; multinucleate sheet of cytoplasm characteristic of some stages of such organisms as slime molds
  • Plasmodium vivax -  parasitic protozoan of the genus Plasmodium that causes malaria in humans
  • Platelet -  tiny bits of protoplasm found in vertebrate blood; essential for blood clotting
  • Plateletpheresis -  platelets are separated from whole blood and the rest is returned to the donor
  • platyhelminth -  parasitic or free-living worms having a flattened body
  • pneumococcus -  bacterium causing pneumonia in mice and humans
  • Pneumocystis pneumonia -  pneumonia occurring in infants or in persons with impaired immune systems (as AIDS victims)
  • pneumonia -  respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants
  • polio -  an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord
  • Poliomyelitis -  an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord
  • Polypodiaceae -  ferns: a large family that in some classification systems has been subdivided into several families (including Aspleniaceae and Blechnaceae and Davalliaceae and Dennstaedtiaceae and Dryopteridaceae and Oleandraceae and Pteridaceae)
  • porphyria -  a genetic abnormality of metabolism causing abdominal pains and mental confusion
  • Portland -  largest city in Maine in the southwestern corner of the state; freshwater port and largest city in Oregon; located in northwestern Oregon on the Willamette River which divides the city into east and west sections; renowned for its beautiful natural setting among the mountains
  • Poussin -  French painter in the classical style (1594-1665)
  • Powell -  English physicist who discovered the pion (the first known meson) which is a subatomic particle involved in holding the nucleus together (1903-1969); United States general who was the first African American to serve as chief of staff; later served as Secretary of State under President George W. Bush (born 1937)
  • preacher -  someone whose occupation is preaching the gospel
  • PREDICT -  make a prediction about; tell in advance; indicate by signs
  • predictive -  of or relating to prediction; having value for making predictions
  • pregnancy -  the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus
  • prevalence -  the quality of prevailing generally; being widespread; (epidemiology) the ratio (for a given time period) of the number of occurrences of a disease or event to the number of units at risk in the population; a superiority in numbers or amount
  • priest -  a clergyman in Christian churches who has the authority to perform or administer various religious rites; one of the Holy Orders; a person who performs religious duties and ceremonies in a non-Christian religion
  • Prion -  (microbiology) an infectious protein particle similar to a virus but lacking nucleic acid; thought to be the agent responsible for scrapie and other degenerative diseases of the nervous system
  • probability -  the quality of being probable; a probable event or the most probable event; a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur; a number expressing the ratio of favorable cases to the whole number of cases possible
  • procedure -  a mode of conducting legal and parliamentary proceedings; a particular course of action intended to achieve a result; a process or series of acts especially of a practical or mechanical nature involved in a particular form of work; a set sequence of steps, part of larger computer program
  • Proctitis -  inflammation of the rectum; marked by bloody stools and a frequent urge to defecate; frequently associated with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
  • production -  (law) the act of exhibiting in a court of law; the act or process of producing something; the creation of value or wealth by producing goods and services; (economics) manufacturing or mining or growing something (usually in large quantities) for sale; a presentation for the stage or screen or radio or television; a display that is exaggerated or unduly complicated; an artifact that has been created by someone or some process; the quantity of something (as a commodity) that is created (usually within a given period of time)
  • prognosis -  a prediction of the course of a disease; a prediction about how something (as the weather) will develop
  • Progressive vaccinia -  a severe or even fatal form of vaccinia that occurs mainly in persons with an immunological deficiency; characterized by progressive enlargement of the initial lesion
  • Prostatitis -  inflammation of the prostate gland characterized by perineal pain and irregular urination and (if severe) chills and fever
  • Protein -  any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes
  • Protozoa -  in some classifications considered a superphylum or a subkingdom; comprises flagellates; ciliates; sporozoans; amoebas; foraminifers
  • Pseudomonadales -  one of two usually recognized orders of true bacteria; Gram-negative spiral or spherical or rod-shaped bacteria usually motile by polar flagella; some contain photosynthetic pigments
  • Pseudomonas -  type genus of the family Pseudomonodaceae
  • Psittacosis -  an atypical pneumonia caused by a rickettsia microorganism and transmitted to humans from infected birds; infectious disease of birds
  • Puccinia -  type genus of the Pucciniaceae; a large genus of parasitic fungi including many that are destructive to various economic plants
  • Pyaemia -  septicemia caused by pus-forming bacteria being released from an abscess
  • pyelonephritis -  inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis caused by bacterial infection
  • Pyocyanase -  a yellow-green mixture of antibiotics obtained from the bacillus of green pus
  • Pyocyanin -  a toxic blue crystalline antibiotic found in green pus
  • pyridoxine -  a B vitamin that is essential for metabolism of amino acids and starch
  • pyuria -  presence of white blood cells in the urine; symptom of urinary tract infection
  • Q fever -  an acute disease resembling influenza
  • Quarantine -  isolation to prevent the spread of infectious disease; enforced isolation of patients suffering from a contagious disease in order to prevent the spread of disease;  place into enforced isolation, as for medical reasons
  • quinidine -  cardiac drug (trade names Quinidex and Quinora) used to treat certain heart arrhythmias
  • quinine -  a bitter alkaloid extracted from chinchona bark; used in malaria therapy
  • Rabbit fever -  a highly infectious disease of rodents (especially rabbits and squirrels) and sometimes transmitted to humans by ticks or flies or by handling infected animals
  • rabies -  an acute viral disease of the nervous system of warm-blooded animals (usually transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal); rabies is fatal if the virus reaches the brain
  • radiology -  the branch of medical science dealing with the medical use of X-rays or other penetrating radiation; (radiology) examination of the inner structure of opaque objects using X rays or other penetrating radiation
  • Rapid -  done or occurring in a brief period of time; characterized by speed; moving with or capable of moving with high speed;  a part of a river where the current is very fast
  • Relapsing fever -  marked by recurring high fever and transmitted by the bite of infected lice or ticks; characterized by episodes of high fever and chills and headache and muscle pain and nausea that recur every week or ten days for several months
  • Replication -  the repetition of an experiment in order to test the validity of its conclusion; (law) a pleading made by a plaintiff in reply to the defendant's plea or answer; (genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division; the act of making copies; copy that is not the original; something that has been copied; the persistence of a sound after its source has stopped; a quick reply to a question or remark (especially a witty or critical one)
  • reporting -  the news as presented by reporters for newspapers or radio or television
  • Reproduction -  the sexual activity of conceiving and bearing offspring; the act of making copies; recall that is hypothesized to work by storing the original stimulus input and reproducing it during recall; the process of generating offspring; copy that is not the original; something that has been copied
  • Research -  systematic investigation to establish facts; a search for knowledge;  inquire into; attempt to find out in a systematically and scientific manner
  • Reservoir -  tank used for collecting and storing a liquid (as water or oil); lake used to store water for community use; anything (a person or animal or plant or substance) in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies; a large or extra supply of something
  • resistance -  the action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with; the military action of resisting the enemy's advance; group action in opposition to those in power; (psychiatry) an unwillingness to bring repressed feelings into conscious awareness; the degree of unresponsiveness of a disease-causing microorganism to antibiotics or other drugs (as in penicillin-resistant bacteria); any mechanical force that tends to retard or oppose motion; an electrical device that resists the flow of electrical current; a secret group organized to overthrow a government or occupation force; a material's opposition to the flow of electric current; measured in ohms; (medicine) the condition in which an organism can resist disease
  • Respiratory system -  the system for taking in oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide; in terrestrial animals this is accomplished by breathing
  • Retreat -  (military) withdrawal of troops to a more favorable position to escape the enemy's superior forces or after a defeat; (military) a bugle call signaling the lowering of the flag at sunset; (military) a signal to begin a withdrawal from a dangerous position; a place of privacy; a place affording peace and quiet; withdrawal for prayer and study and meditation; an area where you can be alone;  make a retreat from an earlier commitment or activity; move away, as for privacy; pull back or move away or backward; move back
  • Rheumatic fever -  a severe disease chiefly of children and characterized by painful inflammation of the joints and frequently damage to the heart valves
  • rheumatoid factor -  autoantibody that is usually present in the serum of people with rheumatoid arthritis
  • Rhinosporidiosis -  fungal infection of the nose; often acquired while swimming
  • Rhinovirus -  any of a group of picornaviruses that are responsible for many upper respiratory infections
  • Rhodesia -  a landlocked republic in south central Africa formerly called Rhodesia; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1980
  • ribavirin -  an inhaled antiviral agent (trade name Virazole) that may be used to treat serious virus infections
  • Rickettsia -  any of a group of very small rod-shaped bacteria that live in biting arthropods (as ticks and mites) and cause disease in vertebrate hosts; they cause typhus and other febrile diseases in human beings
  • Rickettsiaceae -  microorganism resembling bacteria inhabiting arthropod tissues but capable of causing disease in vertebrates
  • Rickettsialpox -  mild infectious rickettsial disease caused by a bacterium of the genus Rickettsia transmitted to humans by the bite a mite that lives on rodents; characterized by chills and fever and headache and skin lesions that resemble chickenpox
  • Rickettsiosis -  infectious disease caused by ticks or mites or body lice infected with rickettsial bacteria
  • Rift Valley fever -  an infection common in Africa caused by a bunyavirus; transmitted by mosquitoes or by handling infected animals
  • Rinderpest -  an acute infectious viral disease of cattle (usually fatal); characterized by fever and diarrhea and inflammation of mucous membranes
  • Ringworm -  infections of the skin or nails caused by fungi and appearing as itching circular patches
  • ritonavir -  a protease inhibitor (trade name Norvir) used in treating HIV
  • Robert Koch -  German bacteriologist who isolated the anthrax bacillus and the tubercle bacillus and the cholera bacillus (1843-1910)
  • Root rot -  disease characterized by root decay; caused by various fungi
  • Roseola -  any red eruption of the skin
  • Roseola infantum -  a viral disease of infants and young children; characterized by abrupt high fever and mild sore throat; a few days later there is a faint pinkish rash that lasts for a few hours to a few days
  • Rotavirus -  the reovirus causing infant enteritis
  • Rubella -  a contagious viral disease that is a milder form of measles lasting three or four days; can be damaging to a fetus during the first trimester
  • Rubens -  prolific Flemish baroque painter; knighted by the English king Charles I (1577-1640)
  • Sabah -  a region of Malaysia in northeastern Borneo
  • Sabin -  United States microbiologist (born in Poland) who developed the Sabin vaccine that is taken orally against poliomyelitis (born 1906); a unit of acoustic absorption equivalent to the absorption by a square foot of a surface that absorbs all incident sound
  • Salmonella -  rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria; cause typhoid fever and food poisoning; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Salmonellosis -  a kind of food poisoning caused by eating foods contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium
  • San Pablo -  a town in western California north of Oakland on an arm of San Francisco Bay
  • Scabies -  a contagious skin infection caused by the itch mite; characterized by persistent itching and skin irritation
  • Scarlet fever -  an acute communicable disease (usually in children) characterized by fever and a red rash
  • Schistosoma -  type genus of the family Schistosomatidae: blood flukes
  • Schistosomiasis -  an infestation with or a resulting infection caused by a parasite of the genus Schistosoma; common in the tropics and Far East; symptoms depend on the part of the body infected
  • Schizophrenia -  any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact
  • score -  the act of scoring in a game or sport; the facts about an actual situation; a written form of a musical composition; parts for different instruments appear on separate staves on large pages; a set of twenty members; grounds; a number that expresses the accomplishment of a team or an individual in a game or contest; a slight surface cut (especially a notch that is made to keep a tally); an amount due (as at a restaurant or bar); a seduction culminating in sexual intercourse; a number or letter indicating quality (especially of a student's performance); a resentment strong enough to justify retaliation;  make underscoring marks; gain points in a game; get a certain number or letter indicating quality or performance; make small marks into the surface of; write a musical score for; assign a grade or rank to, according to one's evaluation; induce to have sex
  • Scrapie -  a fatal disease of sheep characterized by chronic itching and loss of muscular control and progressive degeneration of the central nervous system
  • Scrub typhus -  transmitted by larval mites and widespread in Asia
  • Seasoning -  the act of adding a seasoning to food; something added to food primarily for the savor it imparts
  • seizure -  the taking possession of something by legal process; a sudden occurrence (or recurrence) of a disease; the act of forcibly dispossessing an owner of property; the act of taking of a person by force
  • sensitivity -  the ability to respond to affective changes in your interpersonal environment; the ability to respond to physical stimuli or to register small physical amounts or differences; (physiology) responsiveness to external stimuli; the faculty of sensation; sensitivity to emotional feelings (of self and others); susceptibility to a pathogen
  • sepsis -  the presence of pus-forming bacteria or their toxins in the blood or tissues
  • September -  the month following August and preceding October
  • serologist -  a medical scientist who specializes in serology
  • serology -  the branch of medical science that deals with serums; especially with blood serums and disease
  • Serratia -  a genus of motile peritrichous bacteria that contain small Gram-negative rod
  • Serratia marcescens -  the type species of the genus Serratia; a species found in water and soil and milk and foods and insects; can cause infections of the endocardium and blood and wounds and urinary tract and respiratory tract; has been tested as a bioweapon
  • Serum -  watery fluid of the blood that resembles plasma but contains fibrinogen
  • severe -  very bad in degree or extent; unsparing and uncompromising in discipline or judgment; intensely or extremely bad or unpleasant in degree or quality; causing fear or anxiety by threatening great harm; severely simple; very strong or vigorous
  • severity -  excessive sternness; extreme plainness; something hard to endure; used of the degree of something undesirable e.g. pain or weather
  • Shigella -  rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria; some are pathogenic for warm-blooded animals; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Shigellosis -  an acute infection of the intestine by shigella bacteria; characterized by diarrhea and fever and abdominal pains
  • Shingles -  eruptions along a nerve path often accompanied by severe neuralgia
  • shooting -  the act of firing a projectile; killing someone by gunfire
  • Simon -  United States economist and psychologist who pioneered in the development of cognitive science (1916-2001); United States playwright noted for light comedies (born in 1927); United States singer and songwriter (born in 1942); one of the twelve Apostles (first century)
  • Sinbad -  in the Arabian Nights a hero who tells of the fantastic adventures he had in his voyages
  • Singapore -  an island south of the Malay Peninsula; a country in southeastern Asia on the island of Singapore; achieved independence from Malaysia in 1965; the capital of Singapore; one of the world's biggest ports
  • sinusitis -  inflammation of one of the paranasal sinuses
  • Sleeping Sickness -  an encephalitis that was epidemic between 1915 and 1926; symptoms include paralysis of the extrinsic eye muscle and extreme muscular weakness
  • smallpox -  a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever and weakness and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs that slough off leaving scars
  • Smoky -  marked by or emitting or filled with smoke; tasting of smoke
  • Snakebite -  a bite inflicted by a (venomous) snake
  • Snowy -  of the white color of snow; covered with snow; marked by the presence of snow
  • Sociality -  the tendency to associate with others and to form social groups
  • Society -  an extended social group having a distinctive cultural and economic organization; the fashionable elite; a formal association of people with similar interests; the state of being with someone
  • soundtrack -  sound recording on a narrow strip of a motion picture film
  • South Korea -  a republic in the southern half of the Korean Peninsula; established in 1948
  • Soviet -  of or relating to or characteristic of the former Soviet Union or its people;  an elected governmental council in a Communist country (especially one that is a member of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)
  • Species -  a specific kind of something; (biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
  • Sperm Cell -  the male reproductive cell; the male gamete
  • spinach -  dark green leaves; eaten cooked or raw in salads; southwestern Asian plant widely cultivated for its succulent edible dark green leaves
  • Spirochaetaceae -  large coarsely spiral bacteria; free-living in fresh or salt water or commensal in bodies of oysters
  • Spirochaete -  parasitic or free-living bacteria; many pathogenic to humans and other animals
  • Sporotrichosis -  a chronic fungal infection of the skin and lymph nodes
  • Spotted -  especially of reputation; having spots or patches (small areas of contrasting color or texture)
  • Spotted fever -  any of several severe febrile diseases characterized by skin rashes or spots on the skin
  • Staphylococcus -  spherical Gram-positive parasitic bacteria that tend to form irregular colonies; some cause boils or septicemia or infections
  • Steatorrhea -  the presence of greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces which are frothy and foul smelling and floating; a symptom of disorders of fat metabolism and malabsorption syndrome
  • Sterilization -  the procedure of making some object free of live bacteria or other microorganisms (usually by heat or chemical means); the act of making an organism barren or infertile (unable to reproduce)
  • Strain -  an intense or violent exertion; (physics) deformation of a physical body under the action of applied forces; injury to a muscle (often caused by overuse); results in swelling and pain; (psychology) nervousness resulting from mental stress; the act of singing; an effortful attempt to attain a goal; a lineage or race of people; the general meaning or substance of an utterance; a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence; a special variety of domesticated animals within a species; (biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups; difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension;  use to the utmost; exert vigorously or to full capacity; become stretched or tense or taught; cause to be tense and uneasy or nervous or anxious; alter the shape of (something) by stress; to exert much effort or energy; rub through a strainer or process in an electric blender; remove by passing through a filter; separate by passing through a sieve or other straining device to separate out coarser elements; test the limits of
  • strawberry -  a soft red birthmark; sweet fleshy red fruit; any of various low perennial herbs with many runners and bearing white flowers followed by edible fruits having many small achenes scattered on the surface of an enlarged red pulpy berry
  • Streptococcus -  spherical Gram-positive bacteria occurring in pairs or chains; cause e.g. scarlet fever and tonsillitis
  • Stricken -  (used in combination) affected by something overwhelming; grievously affected especially by disease; put out of action (by illness)
  • stroke -  a light touch with the hands; a single complete movement; (sports) the act of swinging or striking at a ball with a club or racket or bat or cue or hand; any one of the repeated movements of the limbs and body used for locomotion in swimming or rowing; a mark made by a writing implement (as in cursive writing); a light touch; the oarsman nearest the stern of the shell who sets the pace for the rest of the crew; a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain; a punctuation mark (/) used to separate related items of information; the maximum movement available to a pivoted or reciprocating piece by a cam;  treat gingerly or carefully; strike a ball with a smooth blow; row at a particular rate; touch lightly and with affection, with brushing motions
  • Stunt -  a difficult or unusual or dangerous feat; usually done to gain attention; a creature (especially a whale) that has been prevented from attaining full growth;  perform a stunt or stunts; check the growth or development of
  • Sudan -  a region of northern Africa south of the Sahara and Libyan deserts; extends from the Atlantic to the Red Sea; a republic in northeastern Africa on the Red Sea; achieved independence from Egypt and the United Kingdom in 1956
  • sulfamethoxazole -  a sulfonamide (trade name Gantanol) used to treat infections (especially infections of the urinary tract)
  • super -  including more than a specified category; extremely large; of the highest quality;  to an extreme degree;  a caretaker for an apartment house; represents the owner as janitor and rent collector
  • superfamily -  (biology) a taxonomic group ranking below an order but above a family
  • Superficial -  being or affecting or concerned with a surface; not deep or penetrating emotionally or intellectually; of little substance or significance; relating to a surface; involving a surface only
  • Superinfection -  infection that occurs while you are being treated for another infection
  • surgeon -  a physician who specializes in surgery
  • Suriname -  a republic in northeastern South America on the Atlantic; achieved independence from the Netherlands in 1975
  • surveillance -  close observation of a person or group (usually by the police)
  • Swimmer's itch -  a sensitization reaction to repeated invasion of the skin by cercariae of schistosomes
  • Swine influenza -  an acute and highly contagious respiratory disease of swine caused by the orthomyxovirus thought to be the same virus that caused the 1918 influenza pandemic
  • Sydney -  the largest Australian city located in southeastern Australia on the Tasman Sea; state capital of New South Wales; Australia's chief port
  • Symptom -  anything that accompanies X and is regarded as an indication of X's existence; (medicine) any sensation or change in bodily function that is experienced by a patient and is associated with a particular disease
  • syndrome -  a complex of concurrent things; a pattern of symptoms indicative of some disease
  • synovitis -  inflammation of the synovial membrane that lines a synovial joint; results in pain and swelling
  • syphilis -  a common venereal disease caused by the treponema pallidum spirochete; symptoms change through progressive stages; can be congenital (transmitted through the placenta)
  • Systematic -  characterized by order and planning; not haphazard
  • Tabes dorsalis -  syphilis of the spinal cord characterized by degeneration of sensory neurons and stabbing pains in the trunk and legs and unsteady gait and incontinence and impotence
  • Tapeworm infection -  intestinal infection by a species of parasitic tapeworm; usually the result of eating inadequately cooked meat or fish
  • Tasmanian devil -  small ferocious carnivorous marsupial having a mostly black coat and long tail
  • technetium -  a crystalline metallic element not found in nature; occurs as one of the fission products of uranium
  • technique -  a practical method or art applied to some particular task; skillfulness in the command of fundamentals deriving from practice and familiarity
  • tenesmus -  painful spasm of the anal sphincter along with an urgent desire to defecate without the significant production of feces; associated with irritable bowel syndrome
  • tenor -  of or close in range to the highest natural adult male voice; (of a musical instrument) intermediate between alto and baritone or bass;  the pitch range of the highest male voice; the general meaning or substance of an utterance; a settled or prevailing or habitual course of a person's life; the adult male singing voice above baritone; an adult male with a tenor voice
  • tenosynovitis -  inflammation of a tendon and its enveloping sheath
  • Terbinafine -  an oral antifungal drug (trade name Lamisil) used to treat cases of fungal nail disease
  • teres -  either of two muscles in the shoulder region that move the shoulders and arms
  • territory -  an area of knowledge or interest; the geographical area under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state; a region marked off for administrative or other purposes
  • Terrorism -  the calculated use of violence (or threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain goals that are political or religious or ideological in nature; this is done through intimidation or coercion or instilling fear
  • testing -  the act of subjecting to experimental test in order to determine how well something works; an examination of the characteristics of something; the act of giving students or candidates a test (as by questions) to determine what they know or have learned
  • Tetanus -  a sustained muscular contraction resulting from a rapid series of nerve impulses; an acute and serious infection of the central nervous system caused by bacterial infection of open wounds; spasms of the jaw and laryngeal muscles may occur during the late stages
  • tetracycline -  an antibiotic (trade name Achromycin) derived from microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces and used broadly to treat infections
  • Thalidomide -  a sedative and hypnotic drug; withdrawn from sale after discovered to cause severe birth defects because it inhibits angiogenesis
  • Therapy -  (medicine) the act of caring for someone (as by medication or remedial training etc.)
  • Thirst -  a physiological need to drink; strong desire for something (not food or drink);  feel the need to drink; have a craving, appetite, or great desire for
  • Thyme -  leaves can be used as seasoning for almost any meat and stews and stuffings and vegetables; any of various mints of the genus Thymus
  • Ticonderoga -  a pitched battle in which American revolutionary troops captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British in 1775
  • Timeline -  a sequence of related events arranged in chronological order and displayed along a line (usually drawn left to right or top to bottom)
  • Timothy -  a grass grown for hay; a disciple of Saint Paul who became the leader of the Christian community at Ephesus; grass with long cylindrical spikes frown in northern United States and Europe for hay
  • tinea -  type genus of the Tineidae: clothes moths; infections of the skin or nails caused by fungi and appearing as itching circular patches
  • Tinea capitis -  fungal infection of the scalp characterized by bald patches
  • Tinea cruris -  fungal infection of the groin (most common in men)
  • Tinea unguium -  fungal infection of the nails (especially toenails)
  • Tobramycin -  an antibiotic (trade name Nebcin) that is especially effective against Gram-negative bacteria
  • Together -  mentally and emotionally stable;  at the same time; with cooperation and interchange; in contact with each other; assembled in one place; in each other's company; with a common plan; in conjunction with; combined
  • Toronto -  the provincial capital and largest city in Ontario (and the largest city in Canada)
  • tortoise -  usually herbivorous land turtles having clawed elephant-like limbs; worldwide in arid area except Australia and Antarctica
  • Toxic Shock -  syndrome resulting from a serious acute (sometimes fatal) infection associated with the presence of staphylococcus; characterized by fever and diarrhea and nausea and diffuse erythema and shock; occurs especially in menstruating women using highly absorbent tampons
  • Toxic shock syndrome -  syndrome resulting from a serious acute (sometimes fatal) infection associated with the presence of staphylococcus; characterized by fever and diarrhea and nausea and diffuse erythema and shock; occurs especially in menstruating women using highly absorbent tampons
  • toxicity -  the degree to which something is poisonous; grave harmfulness or deadliness
  • Toxin -  a poisonous substance produced during the metabolism and growth of certain microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species
  • Toxoplasmosis -  infection caused by parasites transmitted to humans from infected cats; if contracted by a pregnant woman it can result in serious damage to the fetus
  • Trachea -  membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi; one of the tubules forming the respiratory system of most insects and many arachnids
  • Trachoma -  a chronic contagious viral disease marked by inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye and the formation of scar tissue
  • tracking -  the pursuit (of a person or animal) by following tracks or marks they left behind
  • Traditional -  consisting of or derived from tradition; pertaining to time-honored orthodox doctrines
  • Transfusion -  the action of pouring a liquid from one vessel to another; the introduction of blood or blood plasma into a vein or artery
  • transmission -  the act of sending a message; causing a message to be transmitted; the gears that transmit power from an automobile engine via the driveshaft to the live axle; communication by means of transmitted signals; an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted; the fraction of radiant energy that passes through a substance
  • Transplant -  the act of removing something from one location and introducing it in another location; an operation moving an organ from one organism (the donor) to another (the recipient); (surgery) tissue or organ transplanted from a donor to a recipient; in some cases the patient can be both donor and recipient;  place the organ of a donor into the body of a recipient; lift and reset in another soil or situation; be transplantable; transfer from one place or period to another
  • transplantation -  the act of removing something from one location and introducing it in another location; an operation moving an organ from one organism (the donor) to another (the recipient)
  • Transporter -  a crane for moving material with dispatch as in loading and unloading ships; a long truck for carrying motor vehicles; a moving belt that transports objects (as in a factory)
  • treatment -  care by procedures or applications that are intended to relieve illness or injury; the management of someone or something; a manner of dealing with something artistically; an extended communication (often interactive) dealing with some particular topic
  • trematode -  parasitic flatworms having external suckers for attaching to a host
  • Trench fever -  marked by pain in muscles and joints and transmitted by lice
  • Treponema -  spirochete that causes disease in humans (e.g. syphilis and yaws)
  • Trichinella spiralis -  parasitic nematode occurring in the intestines of pigs and rats and human beings and producing larvae that form cysts in skeletal muscles
  • Trichinosis -  infestation by trichina larvae that are transmitted by eating inadequately cooked meat (especially pork); larvae migrate from the intestinal tract to the muscles where they become encysted
  • Trichophyton -  a genus of fungus of the family Moniliaceae; causes ringworm and favus
  • Trichuriasis -  infestation by a roundworm; common in tropical areas with poor sanitation
  • Tropical -  of weather or climate; hot and humid as in the tropics; characterized by or of the nature of a trope or tropes; changed from its literal sense; relating to or situated in or characteristic of the tropics (the region on either side of the equator); of or relating to the tropics, or either tropic
  • tubal -  of or relating to occurring in a tube such as e.g. the Fallopian tube or Eustachian tube
  • tuberculin skin test -  a skin test to determine past or present infection with the tuberculosis bacterium; based on hypersensitivity of the skin to tuberculin
  • Tuberculosis -  infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
  • Tucker -  a detachable yoke of linen or lace worn over the breast of a low-cut dress; a sewer who tucks; United States vaudevillian (born in Russia) noted for her flamboyant performances (1884-1966); United States anarchist influential before World War I (1854-1939);  wear out completely
  • Tularemia -  a highly infectious disease of rodents (especially rabbits and squirrels) and sometimes transmitted to humans by ticks or flies or by handling infected animals
  • typhoid -  serious infection marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration; caused by Salmonella typhosa ingested with food or water
  • Typhoid fever -  serious infection marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration; caused by Salmonella typhosa ingested with food or water
  • Typhus fever -  rickettsial disease transmitted by body lice and characterized by skin rash and high fever
  • Ulcerative colitis -  a serious chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain and fever and chills and profuse diarrhea
  • ultrasound -  very high frequency sound; used in ultrasonography; using the reflections of high-frequency sound waves to construct an image of a body organ (a sonogram); commonly used to observe fetal growth or study bodily organs
  • Undulant fever -  infectious bacterial disease of human beings transmitted by contact with infected animals or infected meat or milk products; characterized by fever and headache
  • Unregistered -  (a boat or vessel) not furnished with official documents; not registered; (of animals) not recorded with or certified by an official breed association
  • Urethritis -  inflammation of the urethra; results in painful urination
  • uric acid -  a white tasteless odorless crystalline product of protein metabolism; found in the blood and urine
  • urinalysis -  (medicine) the chemical analysis of urine (for medical diagnosis)
  • Urocystis -  a genus of smut fungi belonging to the family Tilletiaceae
  • Urogenital -  of or relating to the urinary and reproductive systems
  • Urticaceae -  a family of plants of order Urticales including many nettles with stinging hairs
  • Ustilaginales -  parasitic fungi causing smuts; sometimes placed in class Tiliomycetes
  • Ustilago -  type genus of the Ustilaginaceae; genus comprising the loose smuts
  • uveitis -  inflammation of the uvea of the eye
  • vaccination -  the scar left following inoculation with a vaccine; taking a vaccine as a precaution against contracting a disease
  • Vaccine -  immunogen consisting of a suspension of weakened or dead pathogenic cells injected in order to stimulate the production of antibodies
  • Vaccinia -  a local infection induced in humans by inoculation with the virus causing cowpox in order to confer resistance to smallpox; normally lasts three weeks and leaves a pitted scar; a viral disease of cattle causing a mild skin disease affecting the udder; formerly used to inoculate humans against smallpox
  • Valley fever -  an infection of the lungs and skin characterized by excessive sputum and nodules
  • values -  beliefs of a person or social group in which they have an emotional investment (either for or against something)
  • vancomycin -  an antibiotic (trade name Vancocin) effective against some bacterial infections
  • Varicella -  an acute contagious disease caused by herpes varicella zoster virus; causes a rash of vesicles on the face and body
  • Variola major -  a type of smallpox virus that has a fatality rate of up to 25 percent; a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever and weakness and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs that slough off leaving scars
  • Variola minor -  a type of smallpox virus that has a fatality rate of about 1 percent; a mild form of smallpox caused by a less virulent form of the virus
  • Vector -  a variable quantity that can be resolved into components; any agent (person or animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease; a straight line segment whose length is magnitude and whose orientation in space is direction
  • vintner -  someone who makes wine; someone who sells wine
  • Viral hemorrhagic fever -  a group of illnesses caused by a viral infection (usually restricted to a specific geographic area); fever and gastrointestinal symptoms are followed by capillary hemorrhage
  • Virology -  the branch of medical science that studies viruses and viral diseases
  • Virulence -  extreme hostility; extreme harmfulness (as the capacity of a microorganism to cause disease)
  • Virus -  (virology) ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts; many are pathogenic; a piece of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a thin coat of protein; a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer; a harmful or corrupting agency
  • Vitaceae -  a family of vines belonging to order Rhamnales
  • vomiting -  the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
  • Walter Reed -  United States physician who proved that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes (1851-1902)
  • warfare -  the waging of armed conflict against an enemy; an active struggle between competing entities
  • Wassermann test -  a blood test to detect syphilis; a complement fixation test is used to detect antibodies to the syphilis organism treponema; a positive reaction indicates the presence of antibodies and therefore syphilis infection
  • West Germany -  a republic in north central Europe on the North Sea; established in 1949 from the zones of Germany occupied by the British and French and Americans after the German defeat; reunified with East Germany in 1990
  • wheat -  grains of common wheat; sometimes cooked whole or cracked as cereal; usually ground into flour; annual or biennial grass having erect flower spikes and light brown grains
  • White Blood Cell -  blood cells that engulf and digest bacteria and fungi; an important part of the body's defense system
  • Whole blood -  blood that has not been modified except for the addition of an anticoagulant
  • Widal test -  a test for detecting typhoid fever and other salmonella infections
  • William Henry Harrison -  9th President of the United States; caught pneumonia during his inauguration and died shortly after (1773-1841)
  • Wilt disease -  any plant disease characterized by drooping and shriveling; usually caused by parasites attacking the roots
  • Wilting -  causing to become limp or drooping
  • Winter -  the coldest season of the year; in the northern hemisphere it extends from the winter solstice to the vernal equinox;  spend the winter
  • World Health Organization -  a United Nations agency to coordinate international health activities and to help governments improve health services
  • World War I -  a war between the allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, United States, Japan, Rumania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro) and the central powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria) from 1914 to 1918
  • World War II -  a war between the Allies (Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Iraq, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Philippines, Poland, South Africa, United Kingdom, United States, USSR, Yugoslavia) and the Axis (Albania, Bulgaria, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Rumania, Slovakia, Thailand) from 1939 to 1945
  • writer -  writes (books or stories or articles or the like) professionally (for pay); a person who is able to write and has written something
  • Yeast -  any of various single-celled fungi that reproduce asexually by budding or division; a commercial leavening agent containing yeast cells; used to raise the dough in making bread and for fermenting beer or whiskey
  • yellow fever -  caused by a flavivirus transmitted by a mosquito
  • Yellow flag -  common yellow-flowered iris of Europe and North Africa, naturalized in United States and often cultivated
  • Yersinia pestis -  a bacillus bacterium that causes the plague; aerosolized bacteria can be used as a bioweapon
  • zidovudine -  an antiviral drug (trade name Retrovir) used in the treatment of AIDS; adverse side effects include liver damage and suppression of the bone marrow
  • Zoonosis -  an animal disease that can be transmitted to humans
  • Zoster -  eruptions along a nerve path often accompanied by severe neuralgia

Also see

Dictionary of infectious diseases

Template:Concepts in infectious disease


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