International Classification of Diseases

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The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems.

The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), which is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System. The ICD is originally designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long. Thus, major categories are designed to include a set of similar diseases. ICD-11 is a major step forward, because it has the necessary terminological and ontological elements for seamless use in digital health.

The ICD is published by the WHO and used worldwide for morbidity and mortality statistics, reimbursement systems, and automated decision support in health care. This system is designed to promote international comparability in the collection, processing, classification, and presentation of these statistics. Like the analogous Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (which is limited to psychiatric disorders and almost exclusive to the United States), the ICD is a major project to statistically classify all health disorders, and provide diagnostic assistance. The ICD is a core statistically based classificatory diagnostic system for health care related issues of the WHO Family of International Classifications (WHO-FIC).

The ICD is revised periodically and is currently in its 10th revision. ICD-10, as it is therefore known, is from 1992 and the WHO publishes annual minor updates and triennial major updates. The eleventh revision of the ICD (ICD-11) was accepted by WHO's World Health Assembly (WHA) on 25 May 2019 and will come into effect on 1 January 2022. The version for preparation of approval at the WHA was released on 18 June 2018.

The ICD is part of a "family" of international classifications (WHOFIC) that complement each other, including also the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) which focuses on the domains of functioning (disability) associated with health conditions, from both medical and social perspectives, and the International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI) that classifies the whole range of medical, nursing, functioning and public health interventions. ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO). It contains codes for diseases, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases.

Classification of ICD 10 codes

ICD-10 chapters
Chapter Block Title
I A00–B99 Certain infectious and parasitic diseases
II C00–D48 Neoplasms
III D50–D89 Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism
IV E00–E90 Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases
V F00–F99 Mental and behavioural disorders
VI G00–G99 Diseases of the nervous system
VII H00–H59 Diseases of the eye and adnexa
VIII H60–H95 Diseases of the ear and mastoid process
IX I00–I99 Diseases of the circulatory system
X J00–J99 Diseases of the respiratory system
XI K00–K93 Diseases of the digestive system
XII L00–L99 Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
XIII M00–M99 Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
XIV N00–N99 Diseases of the genitourinary system
XV O00–O99 Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium
XVI P00–P96 Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period
XVII Q00–Q99 Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities
XVIII R00–R99 Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified
XIX S00–T98 Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
XX V01–Y98 External causes of morbidity and mortality
XXI Z00–Z99 Factors influencing health status and contact with health services
XXII U00–U99 Codes for special purposes

Portions of content adapted from Wikipedias article on International Classification of Diseases licensed under GNU FDL.

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