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Information about Lamivudine
Lamivudine is a nucleoside analogue and reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in the therapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.
Liver safety of Lamivudine
Lamivudine is a very rare cause of clinically apparent drug induced liver injury, but is associated with flares of underlying hepatitis B during therapy or with abrupt withdrawal.
Mechanism of action of Lamivudine
Lamivudine (la miv' ue deen) is an L-enantiomer and substituted analogue of cytidine (2’,3’-dideoxy-3’-3-thiacytidine: 3TC) and is active against both HIV and HBV in vitro and in vivo. Lamivudine is phosphorylated intracellularly to the triphosphate which competes with the naturally occurring cytidine triphosphate for incorporation into the growing HIV or HBV DNA chain by the viral polymerase, thereby inhibiting polymerase (or reverse transcriptase) activity and causing chain termination.
Clinical use of Lamivudine
Dosage and administration for Lamivudine
For HIV infection, lamivudine is available as 150 and 300 mg tablets and as oral solutions under the trade name Epivir. Lamivudine is also available in fixed combination with zidovudine as Combivir; with abacavir as Epzicom; and with zidovudine and abacavir as Trizivir. The recommended dose of lamivudine for HIV infection in adults is 150 mg twice daily or 300 mg once daily. For HBV infection the recommended dose of lamivudine in adults is 100 mg orally once daily, the drug being available in this dose under the trade name Epivir-HBV.
FDA approval information for Lamivudine
Lamivudine was approved by the FDA for HIV infection in 1995 and for HBV infection in 1998, and is currently used in many HAART regimens and usually as monotherapy for hepatitis B. Side effects of lamivudine are uncommon.
Drugs for HIV Infection, in the Subclass Antiretroviral Agents
- Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (HIV)
- Nucleoside Analogues (HIV)
- Protease Inhibitors (HIV)
HCV NS5A Inhibitors
HCV NS5B (Polymerase) Inhibitors
- Asunaprevir, Boceprevir, Glecaprevir, Grazoprevir, Paritaprevir, Simeprevir, Telaprevir, Voxilaprevir
Drugs for Herpes Virus Infections (HSV, CMV, others)
Drugs for Influenza