Military

From WikiMD

Associated with or performed by armed services as contrasted with civilians; characteristic of or associated with soldiers or the military; of or relating to the study of the principles of warfare;noun the military forces of a nation.

MILITARY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS A-Z

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

A

  • acceptability The plan review criterion for assessing whether the contemplated course of action is proportional, worth the cost, consistent with the law of war, and is militarily and politically supportable. See also adequacy feasibility


  • access— In counterintelligence and intelligence use, a. a way or means of approach to identify a target or b. exploitable proximity to or ability to approach an individual, facility, or information that enables target to carry out the intended mission.



  • accountability --The obligation imposed by law or lawful order or regulation on an officer or other person for keeping accurate record of property, documents, or funds.



  • acquisition and cross-servicing agreement Agreement, negotiated on a bilateral basis with countries or international organizations, that allow United States forces to exchange most common types of support, including food, fuel, transportation, ammunition, and equipment. Also called ACSA See also cross-servicing



in the federal service. See also


  • active defense The employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy. See also
  • passive defense



  • active duty for training A tour of active duty that is used for training members of the Reserve Component to provide trained units and qualified persons to fill the needs of the Armed Forces in time of war or national emergency and such other times as the national security requires. Also called ADT

8

  • Active Guard and Reserve --National Guard and Reserve members who are on voluntary active duty providing full-time support to National Guard, Reserve, and Active Component organizations for the purpose of organizing, administering, recruiting, instructing, or training the Reserve Components.


  • activity 1. A unit, organization, or installation performing a function or mission. 2. A function, mission, action, or collection of actions.


  • activity-based intelligence An analytic method applied to structured data from multiple sources, to discover objects, relationships, or behaviors by resolving significant activity. Also call
  • ABI



  • acute radiation dose --Total ionizing radiation dose received at one time and over a period so short that biological recovery cannot occur.


  • acute radiation syndrome An acute illness caused by irradiation of the body by a high dose of penetrating radiation in a very short period of time. Also called ARS


  • Adaptive Planning and Execution --A Department of Defense enterprise of joint policies, processes, procedures, and reporting structures, supported by communications and information technology, that is used by the joint planning and execution community to monitor, plan, and execute mobilization, deployment, employment, sustainment, redeployment, and demobilization activities associated with joint operations. Also called APEX


  • adequacy The plan review criterion for assessing whether the scope and concept of planned operations can accomplish the assigned mission and comply with the planning guidance provided. See also acceptability feasibility



  • administrative control --Direction or exercise of authority over subordinate or other organizations in respect to administration and support. Also called
  • ADCON


  • administrative loading --A loading method that gives primary consideration to achieving maximum utilization of troop and cargo space without regard to tactical considerations. Also called
  • commercial loading

   9

  • advanced force operations Operations conducted to refine the location of specific, identified targets and further develop the operational environment for near-term missions. Also called
  • AFO


  • advance guard Detachment sent ahead of the main force to ensure its uninterrupted advance to protect the main body against surprise to facilitate the advance by removing obstacles and repairing roads and bridges and to cover the deployment of the main body if it is committed to action.


  • adversary A party acknowledged as potentially hostile to a friendly party and against which the use of force may be envisaged.


  • adversary template A model based on an adversary’s known or postulated preferred methods of operation illustrating the disposition and activity of adversary forces and assets conducting a particular operation unconstrained by the impact of the operational environment.


  • aerial port --An airfield that has been designated for the sustained air movement of personnel and materiel as well as an authorized port for entrance into or departure from the country where located. See also [[port of debarkation port of embarkation.


  • aeromedical evacuation The movement of patients under medical supervision to and between medical treatment facilities by air transportation. Also called AE




  • afloat pre-positioning force Shipping maintained in full operational status to afloat pre- position military equipment and supplies in support of combatant commanders’ operation plans, consisting of the three maritime pre-positioning ships squadrons, the Army’s afloat pre-positioning stocks-3 ships, and the Defense Logistics Agency, and the Air Force ships. Also called APF See also maritime pre-positioning ships


10


  • agent In intelligence usage, one who is authorized or instructed to obtain or to assist in obtaining information for intelligence or counterintelligence purposes.


  • aimpoint 1. A point associated with a target and assigned for a specific weapon impact. 2. A prominent radar-significant feature used to assist an aircrew in navigating and delivering their weapons. See also desired point of impact


  • air and missile defense Direct [active and passive] defensive actions taken to destroy, nullify, or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air and ballistic missile threats against friendly forces and assets. Also called AMD


  • air apportionment The determination and assignment of the total expected effort by percentage and/or by priority that should be devoted to the various air operations for a given period of time.


  • air assault The movement of friendly assault forces by rotary-wing or tiltrotor aircraft to engage and destroy enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain.. See also assault


  • air assault force A force composed primarily of ground and rotary-wing air units organized, equipped, and trained for air assault operations.


  • air assault operation An operation in which assault forces, using the mobility of rotary- wing or tiltrotor aircraft and the total integration of available fires, maneuver under the control of a ground or air maneuver commander to engage enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain.


  • airborne --1. In relation to personnel, troops especially trained to effect, following transport by air, an assault debarkation, either by parachuting or touchdown. 2. In relation to equipment, pieces of equipment that have been especially designed for use by airborne troops during or after an assault debarkation as well as some aeronautical equipment used to accomplish a particular mission. 3. When applied to materiel, items that form an integral part of the aircraft. 4. The state of an aircraft, from the instant it becomes entirely sustained by air until it ceases to be so sustained.



  • airborne assault The use of airborne forces to parachute into an objective area to attack and eliminate armed resistance and secure designated objectives.

   11

  • airborne early warning The detection of enemy air or surface units by radar or other equipment carried in an airborne vehicle, and the transmitting of a warning to friendly units. Also called AEW.



  • airborne operation An operation involving the air movement into an objective area of combat forces and their logistic support for execution of a tactical, operational
  • ,or strategic mission. See also assault;
  • assault phase


  • air-capable ship A ship other than an aircraft carrier, nuclear amphibious assault ship
or amphibious assault ship

from which aircraft can take off, be recovered, or routinely receive and transfer logistic support. Also called


  • air corridor A restricted air route of travel specified for use by friendly aircraft and established for the purpose of preventing friendly aircraft from being fired on by friendly forces.


  • aircraft carrier A warship designed to support and operate aircraft, engage in attacks on targets afloat or ashore, and engage in sustained operations in support of other forces. Also called CV or CVN


  • air defense --Defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy aircraft or aerodynamic missiles, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. Also called
  • AD See also aerospace defense


  • air defense area 1.
  • overseas — A specifically defined airspace for which air defense must be planned and provided. 2.
  • United States — Airspace of defined dimensions designated by the appropriate agency within which the ready control of airborne vehicles is required in the interest of national security during an air defense emergency.



  • air defense identification zone Airspace of defined dimensions within which the ready identification, location, and control of airborne vehicles are required. Also called
  • ADIZ



12

  • air defense warning condition An air defense warning given in the form of a color code corresponding to the degree of air raid probability with yellow standing for when an attack by hostile aircraft or missiles is probable red for when an attack by hostile aircraft or missiles is imminent or is in progress and white for when an attack by hostile aircraft or missiles is improbable. Also called ADWC


  • air domain The atmosphere, beginning at the Earth’s surface, extending to the altitude where its effects upon operations become negligible.



  • air expeditionary task force --A deployed numbered air force or command echelon immediately subordinate to a numbered air force provided as the United States Air Force component command committed to a joint operation. Also called AETF


  • airfield An area prepared for the accommodation

, landing, and takeoff of aircraft. See also departure airfield landing area landing site


  • Air Force special operations air component --The Air Force component of a joint special operations force, normally composed of a special operations wing, special operations group, or squadron, and element of an Air Force special tactics personnel. Also called AFSOAC.


  • Air Force special operations air detachment A squadron-size headquarters that could be a composite organization composed of different Air Force special operations assets, normally subordinate to an Air Force special operations air component, joint special operations air component, joint special operations task force, or a joint task force. Also called
  • AFSOAD


  • Air Force special operations forces Those Active and Reserve Component Air Force forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called AFSOF.


  • airhead 1. A lodgment that, when seized and held, ensures the continuous air landing of troops and materiel and provides the maneuver space necessary for projected operations.

2. A designated location in an operational area used as a base for supply and evacuation by air. See also beachhead


   13

  • air interdiction Air operations conducted to divert, disrupt, delay, or destroy the enemy’s military surface capabilities before it can be brought to bear effectively against friendly forces, or to otherwise achieve objectives that are conducted at such distances from friendly forces that detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of friendly forces is not required. Also called AI


  • airland Move by air and disembark, or unload, after the aircraft has landed or while an aircraft is hovering. See also
  • air movement


  • air land operation An operation involving movement by air with a designated destination for further ground deployment of units and personnel and/or further ground distribution of supplies. See also airland


  • air liaison officer The senior tactical air control party member attached to a ground unit who functions as the primary advisor to the ground commander on air power. Also called
  • ALO


  • airlift capability The total capacity expressed in terms of number of passengers and/or weight/cubic displacement of cargo that can be carried at any one time to a given destination by available airlift. See also airlift requirement





  • air mobility The rapid movement of personnel, materiel and forces to and from or within a theater by air. See also air refueling


  • Air Mobility Command --The Air Force component command of the United States Transportation Command. Also called AMC


14

  • air mobility division Located in the joint air operations center to plan, coordinate, task, and execute the air mobility mission consisting of the air mobility control team, airlift control team, air refueling control team, and aeromedical evacuation control team. Also called AMD See also air mobility joint air operations center


  • air mobility liaison officer A rated United States Air Force mobility air forces officer selected, trained, and equipped to assess, train, advise, and assist with mobility air forces and ground force integration for air movement and sustainment. Also called
  • AMLO



  • air operations center The senior agency of the Air Force component commander that provides command and control of Air Force air and space operations and coordinates with other components and Services. Also called AOC


  • air refueling The refueling of an aircraft in flight by another aircraft. Also called AR



  • air route The navigable airspace between two points, identified to the extent necessary for the application of flight rules.


  • air sovereignty A nation’s inherent right to exercise absolute control and authority over the airspace above its territory.


  • airspace control Capabilities and procedures used to increase operational effectiveness by promoting the safe, efficient, and flexible use of airspace.


  • airspace control area --Airspace that is laterally defined by the boundaries of the operational area and may be subdivided into sectors.



  • airspace control order An order implementing the airspace control plan that provides the details of the approved requests for airspace coordinating measures. Also called
  • ACO

   15



  • airspace control system An arrangement of those organizations, personnel, policies, procedures, and facilities required to perform airspace control functions. Also called
  • ACS



  • airspace coordination area --A three-dimensional block of airspace in a target area, established by the appropriate commander, in which friendly aircraft are reasonably safe from friendly surface fires. Also called ACA


  • airspace management --The coordination, integration, and regulation of the use of airspace of defined dimensions.


  • air superiority That degree of control of the air by one force that permits the conduct of its operations at a given time and place without prohibitive interference from air and missile threats.


  • air support coordination section In amphibious operations, the section of the Navy tactical air control center designated to coordinate, control, and integrate all direct support aircraft and assault support operations. Also called ASCS.



  • air support request A means to request preplanned and immediate close air support, air interdiction, air reconnaissance, surveillance, escort, helicopter airlift, and other aircraft missions. Also called
  • AIRSUPREQ


  • air supremacy That degree of control of the air wherein the opposing force is incapable of effective interference within the operational area using air and missile threats.

16

  • air tasking order A method used to task and disseminate to components, subordinate units, and command and control agencies projected sorties, capabilities and/or forces to targets and specific missions. Also called
  • ATO


  • air terminal A facility on an airfield that functions as an air transportation hub and accommodates the loading and unloading of airlift aircraft and the intransit processing of traffic.


  • air traffic control section In amphibious operations, the section of the Navy tactical air control center designed to provide initial safe passage, radar control, and surveillance for close air support aircraft in the operational area. Also called ATCS.


  • alert order 1. A planning directive normally associated with a crisis, issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, on behalf of the President or Secretary of Defense, that provides essential planning guidance and directs the development, adaptation, or refinement of a plan/order after the directing authority approves a military course of action. 2. A planning directive that provides essential planning guidance, directs the initiation of planning after the directing authority approves a military course of action, but does not authorize execution. Also called ALERTORD See also course of action


  • alliance The relationship that results from a formal agreement between two or more nations for broad, long-term objectives that further the common interests of the members. See also multinational


to advance the geospatial intelligence mission with a common analytic environment to provide a common geospatial intelligence picture. Also called ASG


  • allocation --1. Distribution of limited forces and resources for employment among competing requirements. 2. The temporary transfer of forces to meet the operational demand of combatant commanders, including rotational requirements and requests for capabilities or forces

in response to crisis or emergent contingencies. See also apportionment


  • allocation request A daily message that provides an estimate of the total air effort, to identify any excess and joint force general support aircraft sorties, and to identify unfilled air requirements for preplanned missions. Also called
  • ALLOREQ



  • all-source intelligence 1. Intelligence products and/or organizations and activities that incorporate all sources of information in the production of finished intelligence. 2. In  17 intelligence collection, a phrase that indicates that in the satisfaction of intelligence requirements, all collection, processing, exploitation, and reporting systems and resources are identified for possible use and those most capable are tasked. See also
  • intelligence


  • ammunition lot A quantity of homogeneous ammunition, identified by a unique lot number, which is manufactured, assembled, or renovated by one producer under uniform conditions and which is expected to function in a uniform manner.


  • amphibian A small craft, propelled by propellers and wheels or by air cushions for the purpose of moving on both land and water.


  • amphibious advance force A temporary support force assigned to the amphibious force that conducts shaping operations in the amphibious objective area or operational area prior to the arrival of the amphibious force.


  • amphibious air traffic control center The centralized air traffic control agency on an amphibious warfare ship responsible for operational control of aircraft departing from and recovering on the ship and tactical control of airborne helicopters in support of amphibious assaults. Also called AATCC




  • amphibious breaching The conduct of a deliberate breaching operation specifically designed to overcome antilanding defenses in order to conduct an amphibious assault.



  • amphibious construction battalion --A permanently commissioned naval unit, subordinate to the commander, naval beach group, designed to provide an administrative unit from which personnel and equipment are formed in tactical elements and made available to appropriate commanders to operate causeways, transfer barges, warping tugs, and assault bulk fuel systems, and to meet salvage requirements of the naval beach party. Also called PHIBCB


  • amphibious defense zone The area encompassing the amphibious objective area and the adjoining airspace required by accompanying naval forces for the purpose of air defense. Also called an
  • ADZ.

18

  • amphibious demonstration A type of amphibious operation conducted for the purpose of deceiving the enemy by a show of force with the expectation of deluding the enemy into following an unfavorable course of action.



  • amphibious objective area A geographical area of sufficient size for conducting necessary sea, air, and land operations, and within which is located the objective

to be secured by the amphibious force. Also called AOA See also amphibious force mission



  • amphibious raid --A type of amphibious operation involving swift incursion into or temporary occupation of an objective followed by a planned withdrawal. See also
  • amphibious operation


  • amphibious squadron --A tactical and administrative organization composed of amphibious warfare ships used to transport troops and their equipment for an amphibious operation. Also called
  • PHIBRON




  • amphibious vehicle availability table --A tabulation of the type and number of amphibious vehicles available primarily for assault landings and for support of other elements of the operation.


  • amphibious vehicle employment plan A plan showing in tabular form the planned employment of amphibious vehicles in landing operations, including their employment after the initial movement to the beach.


  • amphibious warfare ship A combatant ship having organic capability to embark, land, and support landing forces in amphibious operations and which has characteristics enabling long duration operations on the high seas.

 19


  • analysis and production In intelligence usage, the conversion of processed information into intelligence through the integration, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of all source data and the preparation of intelligence products in support of known or anticipated user requirements. See also intelligence process


  • antemortem data Medical records, samples, and photographs taken prior to death. These include

fingerprints, dental x-rays, body tissue samples, photographs of tattoos, or other identifying marks. These “pre-death” records would be compared against records completed after death to help establish a positive identification of human remains. See also mortuary affairs


  • antiaccess --Action, activity, or capability, usually long-range, designed to prevent an advancing enemy force from entering an operational area. Also called A2


in violation of appropriation law as to purpose, time, and amounts as specified in the defense appropriation or appropriations of funds.



  • antisubmarine warfare Operations conducted with the intention of denying the enemy the effective use of submarines. Also called ASW


  • antiterrorism Defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of individuals and property to terrorist acts, to include rapid containment by local military and civilian forces. Also called AT See also counterterrorism terrorism



  • application --1. The system or problem to which a computer is applied. 2. In the intelligence context, the direct extraction and tailoring of information from an existing foundation of intelligence and near real time reporting.


  • apportionment The quantities of force capabilities and resources provided for planning purposes only, but not necessarily an identification of the actual forces that may be allocated for use when a plan transitions to execution. See also
  • allocation


  • approach schedule In amphibious operations, this schedule indicates, for each scheduled wave, the time of departure from the rendezvous area, from the line of departure, and from other control points and the time of arrival at the beach.

20

  • apron A defined area on an airfield intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading passengers or cargo, refueling, parking, or maintenance.


  • area air defense commander The component commander with the preponderance of air defense capability and the required command, control, and communications capabilities who is assigned by the joint force commander to plan and execute integrated air defense operations. Also called AADC


  • area command --A command that is composed of elements of one or more of the Services, organized and placed under a single commander and designated to operate in a specific geographical area. See also command


  • area damage control Measures taken before, during, or after hostile action or natural or manmade disasters, to reduce the probability of damage and minimize its effects. Also called ADC


  • area denial --Action, activity, or capability, usually short-range, designed to limit an enemy force’s freedom of action within an operational area. Also called AD


  • area of influence --A geographical area wherein a commander is directly capable of influencing operations by maneuver or fire support systems normally under the commander’s command or control.


  • area of interest That area of concern to the commander, including the area of influence, areas adjacent thereto, and extending into enemy territory. Also called AOI See also
  • area of influence



  • area of responsibility The geographical area associated with a combatant command within which a geographic combatant commander has authority to plan and conduct operations. Also called AOR See also combatant command


  • area search Visual reconnaissance of limited or defined areas.


. See also


  • arming As applied to explosives, weapons, and ammunition, the changing from a safe condition to a state of readiness for initiation.

 21

  • Army air-ground system --The Army system which provides for interface between Army and tactical air support agencies of other Services in the planning, evaluating, processing, and coordinating of air support requirements and operations. Also called
  • AAGS


  • Army corps --An intermediate headquarters between divisions and the theater army consisting of two or more divisions together with supporting brigades.


  • Army Service component command Command responsible for recommendations to the joint force commander on the allocation and employment of Army forces within a combatant command. Also called ASCC


  • Army special operations forces Those Active and Reserve Component Army forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called ARSOF


  • Army support area The specific support area for a theater Army that is outside of a division or corps’s operational area established primarily for the positioning, employment, and protection of theater support units and where the majority of the sustaining operations occur.


  • arrival zone In counterdrug operations, the area in or adjacent to the United States where smuggling concludes and domestic distribution begins

. See also transit zone


  • ascent phase That portion of the flight of a ballistic missile or space vehicle that begins after powered flight and ends just prior to apogee.


  • assault 1. In an amphibious operation, the period of time between the arrival of the major assault forces of the amphibious task force in the objective area and the accomplishment of the amphibious task force mission.

2. To make a short, violent, but well-ordered attack against a local objective, such as a gun emplacement, a fort, or a machine gun nest.

3. A phase of an airborne operation beginning with delivery by air of the assault echelon of the force into the objective area and extending through attack of assault objectives and consolidation of the initial airhead. See also


  • assault breaching A part of amphibious breaching in support of an amphibious assault involving a fire support mission using precision guided munitions to neutralize mines and obstacles in the surf zone and on the beach.


  • assault craft unit A permanently commissioned naval organization, subordinate to the commander, naval beach group, that contains landing craft and crews necessary to provide lighterage required in an amphibious operation. Also called
  • ACU

    

  • assault echelon In amphibious operations, the element of a force comprised of tailored units and aircraft assigned to conduct the initial assault on the operational area. Also called
  • AE See also amphibious operation


  • assault follow-on echelon In amphibious operations, that echelon of the assault troops, vehicles, aircraft, equipment, and supplies that, though not needed to initiate the assault, is required to support and sustain the assault. Also called AFOE


  • assault phase In an airborne operation, a phase beginning with delivery by air of the assault echelon of the force into the objective area and extending through attack of assault objectives and consolidation of the initial airhead. See also assault


  • assault schedule --In amphibious operations, this schedule provides the formation, composition, and timing of waves landing over the beach.


  • assessment --1. A continuous process that measures the overall effectiveness of employing capabilities during military operations. 2. Determination of the progress toward accomplishing a task, creating a condition, or achieving an objective. 3. Analysis of the security, effectiveness, and potential of an existing or planned intelligence activity. 4. Judgment of the motives, qualifications, and characteristics of present or prospective employees or “agents.”


  • assessment agent The organization responsible for conducting an assessment of an approved joint publication. Also called AA


  • asset validation —In intelligence use, the process used to determine the asset authenticity, reliability, utility, suitability, and degree of control the case officer or others have.


  • asset visibility Provides users with information on the location, movement, status and identity of units, personnel, equipment, and supplies. Also called AV


  • assign --1. To place units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively permanent, and/or where such organization controls and administers the units or personnel for the primary function, or greater portion of the functions, of the unit or personnel. 2. To detail individuals to specific duties or functions where such duties or functions are primary and/or relatively permanent. See also
  • attach


  • assumption A specific supposition of the operational environment that is assumed to be true, in the absence of positive proof, essential for the continuation of planning.


  • asymmetric --In military operations the application of dissimilar strategies, tactics, capabilities, and methods to circumvent or negate an opponent’s strengths while exploiting his weaknesses.

 23

  • atmospheric environment --The envelope of air surrounding the Earth, including its interfaces and interactions with the Earth’s solid or liquid surface.


  • attach 1. The placement of units or personnel in an organization where such placement is relatively temporary. 2. The detailing of individuals to specific functions where such functions are secondary or relatively temporary. See also
  • assign


  • attack group A subordinate task organization of the Navy forces of an amphibious task force composed of amphibious warfare ships and supporting naval units designated to transport, protect, land, and initially support a landing group.


  • attack heading 1. The interceptor heading during the attack phase that will achieve the desired track-crossing angle. 2. The assigned magnetic compass heading to be flown by aircraft during the delivery phase of an air strike.


  • attack position The last position occupied by the assault echelon before crossing the line of departure.


  • attack the network operations Lethal and nonlethal actions and operations against networks conducted continuously and simultaneously at multiple levels

that capitalize on or create key vulnerabilities and disrupt activities to eliminate the enemy’s ability to function in order to enable success of the operation or campaign. Also called AtN operations


  • audience In public affairs, a broadly-defined group that contains stakeholders and/or publics relevant to military operations.


  • authentication 1. A security measure designed to protect a communications system against acceptance of a fraudulent transmission or simulation by establishing the validity of a transmission, message, or originator. 2. A means of identifying individuals and verifying their eligibility to receive specific categories of information. 3. Evidence by proper signature or seal that a document is genuine and official. 4. In personnel recovery missions, the process whereby the identity of an isolated person is confirmed. See also evader evasion recovery operations security


  • authorized departure A procedure, short of ordered departure, by which mission employees or dependents or both, are permitted to leave post in advance of normal rotation when the national interests or imminent threat to life require it.


  • Automated Repatriation Reporting System A Defense Manpower Data Center system used to track the status of noncombatant evacuees after they have arrived in an initial safe haven in the United States.


  • automatic identification technology A suite of technologies enabling the automatic capture of data, thereby enhancing the ability to identify, track, document, and control 24assets

, deploying and redeploying forces, equipment, personnel, and sustainment cargo. Also called AIT


  • autonomous operation In air defense, the mode of operation assumed by a unit after it has lost all communications with higher echelons forcing the unit commander to assume full responsibility for control of weapons and engagement of hostile targets.


  • avenue of approach An air or ground route of an attacking force of a given size leading to its objective or to key terrain in its path. Also called AA.


  • aviation medicine The special field of medicine that is related to the biological and psychological problems of flight.

   25

  • B
  • backfill Reserve Component units and individuals recalled to replace deploying active units and/or individuals in the continental United States and outside the continental United States. See also Reserve Component


  • bale cubic capacity The space available for cargo measured in cubic feet to the inside of the cargo battens, on the frames, and to the underside of the beams.


  • ballistic missile Any missile that does not rely upon aerodynamic surfaces to produce lift and consequently follows a ballistic trajectory when thrust is terminated. Also called
  • BM See also
  • guided missile


  • barrier A coordinated series of natural or man-made obstacles designed or employed to channel, direct, restrict, delay, or stop the movement of an opposing force and to impose additional losses in personnel, time, and equipment on the opposing force.


  • barrier combat air patrol --One or more divisions or elements of fighter aircraft employed between a force and an objective area as a barrier across the probable direction of enemy attack. See also
  • combat air patrol


  • barrier, obstacle, and mine warfare plan --A comprehensive, coordinated plan that includes responsibilities general location of unspecified and specific barriers, obstacles, and minefields special instructions limitations coordination and completion times and may designate locations of obstacle zones or belts.


  • base 1. A locality from which operations are projected or supported. 2. An area or locality containing installations which provide logistic or other support. 3. Home airfield or home carrier. See also facility


  • base boundary A line that delineates the surface area of a base for the purpose of facilitating coordination and deconfliction of operations between adjacent units, formations, or areas.


  • base cluster In base defense operations, a collection of bases, geographically grouped for mutual protection and ease of command and control.


  • base cluster commander In base defense operations, a senior base commander designated by the joint force commander responsible for coordinating the defense of bases within the base cluster and for integrating defense plans of bases into a base cluster defense plan.


  • base cluster operations center A command and control facility that serves as the base cluster commander’s focal point for defense and security of the base cluster. Also called
  • BCOC

26

  • base defense --The local military measures, both normal and emergency, required to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of enemy attacks on, or sabotage of, a base, to ensure that the maximum capacity of its facilities is available to United States forces.


  • base defense operations center A command and control facility established by the base commander to serve as the focal point for base security and defense. Also called
  • BDOC


  • base defense zone An air defense zone established around an air base and limited to the engagement envelope of short-range air defense weapons systems defending that base. Also called BDZ.


  • base development --The acquisition, development, expansion, improvement, construction and/or replacement of the facilities and resources of a location to support forces.


  • baseline costs --The continuing annual costs of military operations funded by the operations and maintenance and military personnel appropriations.


  • base operating support Directly assisting, maintaining, supplying, and distributing support of forces at the operating location. Also called BOS.



  • base plan A type of operation plan that describes the concept of operations, major forces, sustainment concept, and anticipated timelines for completing the mission without annexes or time-phased force and deployment data. Also called BPLAN


  • base support installation A Department of Defense Service or agency installation within the United States and its territories tasked to serve as a base for military forces engaged in either homeland defense or defense support of civil authorities. Also called
  • BSI


  • basic encyclopedia --A compilation of identified installations and physical areas of potential significance as objectives for attack. Also called BE


  • basic load The quantity of supplies required to be on hand within, and which can be moved by, a unit or formation, expressed according to the wartime organization of the unit or formation and maintained at the prescribed levels.


  • battalion landing team --In an amphibious operation, an infantry battalion normally reinforced by necessary combat and service elements the basic unit for planning an assault landing. Also called
  • BLT

 27

  • battle damage assessment The estimate of damage composed of physical and functional damage assessment, as well as target system assessment, resulting from the application of lethal or nonlethal military force. Also called BDA See also combat assessment


  • battle damage repair Essential repair, which may be improvised, carried out rapidly in a battle environment in order to return damaged or disabled equipment to temporary service. Also called BDR



  • battle injury Damage or harm sustained by personnel during or as a result of battle conditions. Also called BI


  • battle management The management of activities within the operational environment based on the commands, direction, and guidance given by appropriate authority.


  • battle rhythm A deliberate, daily schedule of command, staff, and unit activities intended to maximize use of time and synchronize staff actions.


  • beach --1. The area extending from the shoreline inland to a marked change in physiographic form or material, or to the line of permanent vegetation

. 2. In amphibious operations, that portion of the shoreline designated for landing of a tactical organization.


  • beachhead A designated area on a hostile or potentially hostile shore that, when seized and held, ensures the continuous landing of troops and materiel, and provides maneuver space requisite for subsequent projected operations ashore.


  • beachmaster unit A commissioned naval unit of the naval beach group designed to provide to the shore party a Navy component known as a beach party, which is capable of supporting the amphibious landing of one division

. Also called BMU See also beach party naval beach group shore party



  • beach support area In amphibious operations, the area to the rear of a landing force or elements thereof, that contains the facilities for the unloading of troops and materiel and the support of the forces ashore. Also called BSA

28

  • begin morning civil twilight The period of time at which the sun is halfway between beginning morning and nautical twilight and sunrise, when there is enough light to see objects clearly with the unaided eye. Also called
  • BMCT


  • begin morning nautical twilight The start of that period where, in good conditions and in the absence of other illumination, the sun is 12 degrees below the eastern horizon and enough light is available to identify the general outlines of ground objects and conduct limited military operations. Also called BMNT.


  • believed-to-be In mortuary affairs, the status of any human remains until a positive identification has been determined. Used interchangeably with tentative identification. Also called BTB


  • bill A ship’s publication listing operational or administrative procedures.


that causes disease in personnel, plants, or animals or causes the deterioration of materiel. See also chemical agent


  • biological hazard An organism, or substance derived from an organism, that poses a threat to human or animal health.


  • biometrics The process of recognizing an individual based on measurable anatomical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics.


  • biometrics-enabled intelligence The intelligence derived from the processing of biologic identity data and other all-source for information concerning persons of interest. Also called
  • BEI


  • biosurveillance The process to gather, integrate, interpret, and communicate essential information related to all-hazards, threats, or disease activity affecting human, animal, or plant health to achieve early detection and warning, contribute to overall situational awareness of the health aspects of an incident, and to enable better decision making at all levels.



  • blood agent A chemical compound, including the cyanide group, that affects bodily functions by preventing the normal utilization of oxygen by body tissues.


  • blood chit A small sheet of material depicting an American flag and a statement in several languages to the effect that anyone assisting the bearer to safety will be rewarded. See also
  • evasion aid

   29

  • Blue Bark US military personnel, US citizen civilian employees of the Department of Defense, and the dependents of both categories who travel in connection with the death of an immediate family member. It also applies to designated escorts for dependents of deceased military members. Furthermore, the term is used to designate the personal property shipment of a deceased member.


  • board An organized group of individuals within a headquarters, appointed and tasked by the commander

, that meets with the purpose of gaining guidance or decision.


  • boat group The basic organization of landing craft.


  • boat lane A lane for amphibious assault landing craft, which extends from the line of departure to the beach.


  • boat space The space and weight factor used in planning for one person with individual equipment to determine overall ship-to-shore movement requirements for boats, landing craft, and amphibious vehicles.


  • bona fides 1. In personnel recovery, the use of verbal or visual communication by individuals who are unknown to one another, to establish their authenticity, sincerity, honesty, and truthfulness. See also evasion recovery recovery operations

2. The lack of fraud or deceit: a determination that a person is who he/she says he/she is.



  • bottom mine A mine with negative buoyancy that remains on the seabed. See also
  • mine


  • boundary --A line that delineates surface areas for the purpose of facilitating coordination and deconfliction of operations between adjacent units, formations, or areas.


  • branch 1. A subdivision of any organization. 2. A geographically separate unit of an activity, which performs all or part of the primary functions of the parent activity on a smaller scale. 3. An arm or service of the Army. 4. The contingency options built into the base plan used for changing the mission, orientation, or direction of movement of a force to aid success of the operation based on anticipated events, opportunities, or disruptions caused by enemy actions and reactions. See also sequel


  • breakbulk ship A ship with conventional holds for stowage of breakbulk cargo and a limited number of containers, below or above deck, and equipped with cargo-handling gear.

30

  • brevity code A code word, which provides no security, that serves the sole purpose of shortening of messages rather than the concealment of their content.


  • brigade combat team A combined arms team that forms the basic building block of the Army’s tactical formations. Also called BCT


  • broken stowage The space lost in the holds of a vessel because of the contour of the ship, dunnage, ladders, stanchions, and the shape of the cargo.


  • broken stowage factor A factor applied to the available space for embarkation due to the loss between boxes, between vehicles, around stanchions, and over cargo, that will vary, depending on the type and size of vehicles, type and size of general cargo, training and experience of loading personnel, type of loading, method of stowage, and configuration of compartments.


provided by a nonmedical Service member to another person.


2. A designated area used for safety in military operations.


  • building system A structure assembled from manufactured components designed to provide a specific building configuration.


  • bulk cargo --That which is generally shipped in volume where the transportation conveyance is the only external container such as liquids, ore, or grain.


  • bulk petroleum product A liquid petroleum product transported by various means and stored in tanks or containers having an individual fill capacity greater than 208 liters.


  • bulk storage 1. Storage in a warehouse of supplies and equipment in large quantities, usually in original containers, as distinguished from bin storage. 2. Storage of liquids, such as petroleum products in tanks, as distinguished from drum or packaged storage.

     31

  • C
  • cache A source of subsistence and supplies, typically containing items such as food, water, medical items, and/or communications equipment, packaged to prevent damage from exposure and hidden in isolated locations by such methods as burial, concealment, and/or submersion, to support isolated personnel. See also evader evasion recovery recovery operations


  • call sign Any combination of characters or pronounceable words, which identifies a communication facility, a command, an authority, an activity, or a unit used primarily for establishing and maintaining communications. Also called CS


  • campaign A series of related operations aimed at achieving strategic and operational objectives within a given time and space. See also campaign plan


  • campaign plan A joint operation plan for a series of related major operations aimed at achieving strategic or operational objectives within a given time and space. See also
  • campaign


  • canalize --To restrict operations to a narrow zone by use of existing or reinforcing obstacles or by fire or bombing.


  • candidate target list A list of objects or entities submitted by component commanders, appropriate agencies, or the joint force commander’s staff for further development and inclusion on the joint target list and/or restricted target list, or moved to the no-strike list. Also called CTL. See also joint integrated prioritized target list target, target nomination list.


  • capstone publication The top joint doctrine publication in the hierarchy of joint publications that links joint doctrine to national strategy and the contributions of other government departments and agencies, multinational partners, and reinforces policy for command and control. See also joint publication keystone publications


in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System time-phased force and deployment data.


  • carrier air wing Two or more aircraft squadrons formed under one commander for administrative and tactical control of operations from a carrier. Also called CVW


  • carrier control zone The airspace within a circular limit defined by 5 miles horizontal radius from the carrier, extending upward from the surface to and including 2,500 feet unless otherwise designated for special operations, and is under the cognizance of the air officer during visual meteorological conditions.

32

  • carrier strike group A standing naval task group consisting of a carrier, embarked air wing, surface combatants, and submarines as assigned in direct support, operating in mutual support with the task of destroying hostile submarine, surface, and air forces within the group’s assigned operational area and striking at targets along hostile shore lines or projecting power inland. Also called CSG


  • cartridge-actuated device Small explosive devices used to eject stores from launched devices, actuate other explosive systems, or provide initiation for aircrew escape devices.


  • case fatality rate— As it applies to trauma, a calculation used to measure the lethality of combat operations for those who are wounded, which compares the number of personnel killed in action and died of wounds to those wounded in action.


  • case officer— A professional employee of an intelligence or counterintelligence organization, who provides directions for an agent operation and/or handling intelligence assets.


  • casualty Any person who is lost to the organization by having been declared dead, duty status – whereabouts unknown, missing, ill, or injured.



  • casualty rate --The number of casualties per 1,000 population at risk.



  • catastrophic event Any natural or man-made incident, including terrorism, which results in extraordinary levels of mass casualties, damage, or disruption severely affecting the population, infrastructure, environment, economy, national morale, and/or government functions.


  • causeway A craft similar in design to a barge, but longer and narrower, designed to assist in the discharge and transport of cargo from vessels.


  • causeway launching area An area located near the line of departure but clear of the approach lanes to an area located in the inner transport area.


  • C-day --The unnamed day on which a deployment operation commences or is to commence.

   33

  • cell A subordinate organization formed around a specific process, capability, or activity within a designated larger organization of a headquarters.


  • center An enduring, functional organization, with a supporting staff, designed to perform a joint function within a headquarters.



  • centigray A unit of absorbed dose of radiation

.


  • central control officer The officer, embarked in the central control ship, designated by the amphibious task force commander for the overall coordination of the waterborne ship-to-shore movement. Also called CCO


  • centralized control 1. In air defense, the control mode whereby a higher echelon makes direct target assignments to fire units.

2. In joint air operations, placing within one commander the responsibility and authority for planning, directing, and coordinating a military operation or group/category of operations. See also


  • chaff — Radar confusion reflectors, consisting of thin, narrow metallic strips of various lengths and frequency responses, which are used to reflect echoes for confusion purposes.





  • chalk number The number given to a complete load and to the transporting carrier.


  • change detection An image enhancement technique that compares two images of the same area from different time periods and eliminates identical picture elements in order to leave the signatures that have undergone change.

34

  • channel airlift Airlift provided for movement of sustainment cargo, scheduled either regularly or depending upon volume of workload, between designated ports of embarkation and ports of debarkation over validated contingency or distribution routes.






  • chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear incident Any occurrence, resulting from the use of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons and devices the emergence of secondary hazards arising from counterforce targeting or the release of toxic industrial materials into the environment, involving the emergence of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear hazards.



  • chemical hazard Any chemical manufactured, used, transported, or stored that can cause death or other harm through toxic properties of those materials, including chemical agents and chemical weapons prohibited under the Chemical Weapons Convention as well as toxic industrial chemicals.



a toxic chemical and its precursors, except when intended for a purpose not prohibited under the Chemical Weapons Convention;

a munition or device, specifically designed to cause death or other harm through  35 toxic properties of those chemicals specified in

, above, which would be released as a result of the employment of such munition or device;

any equipment specifically designed for use directly in connection with the employment of munitions or devices specified in

, above. See also chemical agent chemical warfare riot control agent


  • chief of fires The senior organic fires Army staff officer at division and higher headquarters level who advises the commander on the best use of available fire support resources, provides input to necessary orders, and develops and implements the fire support plan. Also called COF


  • chief of mission The principal officer in charge of a diplomatic facility of the United States, including any individual temporarily assigned to be in charge of such a facility. Also called COM


  • chief of staff --The senior or principal member or head of a staff who acts as the controlling member of a staff for purposes of the coordination of its work or to exercise command in another’s name. Also called COS


friendly territory, under an agreement with the government of the area concerned, to exercise certain authority normally the function of the local government or

hostile territory, occupied by United States forces, where a foreign government exercises executive, legislative, and judicial authority until an indigenous civil government can be established. Also called


  • civil affairs Designated Active and Reserve Component forces and units organized, trained, and equipped specifically to conduct civil affairs operations and to support civil- military operations. Also called CA See also
  • civil-military operations


  • civil affairs operations Actions planned, executed, and assessed by civil affairs forces that enhance awareness of and manage the interaction with the civil component of the operational environment identify and mitigate underlying causes of instability within civil society or involve the application of functional specialty skills normally the responsibility of civil government. Also called CAO



  • civil authorities Those elected and appointed officers and employees who constitute the government of the United States, the governments of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, United States territories, and political subdivisions thereof.

36

  • civil authority information support The use of military information support operations capabilities to conduct public information dissemination activities to support national security or disaster relief operations within the United States and its territories in support of a lead federal agency. Also called CAIS


  • civil emergency Any occasion or instance for which, in the determination of the President, federal assistance is needed to supplement state and local efforts and capabilities to save lives and to protect property and public health and safety, or to lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe in any part of the United States.


  • civil information --Relevant data relating to the civil areas, structures, capabilities, organizations, people, and events of the civil component of the operational environment used to support the situational awareness of the supported commander.


  • civil information management — Process whereby data relating to the civil component of the operational environment is gathered, collated, processed, analyzed, produced into information products, and disseminated. Also called CIM


  • civil-military medicine A discipline within operational medicine comprising public health and medical issues that involve a civil-military interface

, including medical defense support of civil authorities, medical elements of security cooperation activities, and medical civil-military operations.


  • civil-military operations --Activities of a commander performed by designated civil affairs or other military forces that establish, maintain, influence, or exploit relations between military forces, indigenous populations, and institutions, by directly supporting the attainment of objectives relating to the reestablishment or maintenance of stability within a region or host nation. Also called CMO See also civil affairs operation


  • civil-military operations center An organization, normally comprised of civil affairs, established to plan and facilitate coordination of activities of the Armed Forces of the United States within indigenous populations and institutions, the private sector, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, multinational forces, and other governmental agencies in support of the joint force commander. Also called CMOC See also
  • civil-military operations operation


  • civil-military team A temporary organization of civilian and military personnel task- organized to provide an optimal mix of capabilities and expertise to accomplish specific operational and planning tasks.


  • civil reconnaissance — A targeted, planned, and coordinated observation and evaluation of specific civil aspects of the environment such as areas, structures, capabilities, organizations, people, or events. Also called CR

 37

  • Civil Reserve Air Fleet A program in which the Department of Defense contracts for the services of specific aircraft, owned by a United States entity or citizen, during national emergencies and defense-oriented situations when expanded civil augmentation of military airlift activity is required. Also called CRAF
  • civil search and rescue Search and/or rescue operations and associated civilian services provided to assist persons in potential or actual distress and protect property in a nonhostile environment. Also called civil SAR


  • clandestine— Any activity or operation sponsored or conducted by governmental departments or agencies with the intent to assure secrecy and concealment.



  • classes of supply The ten categories into which supplies are grouped in order to facilitate supply management and planning. I. Rations and gratuitous issue of health, morale, and welfare items. II. Clothing, individual equipment, tentage, tool sets, and administrative and housekeeping supplies and equipment. III. Petroleum, oils, and lubricants. IV. Construction materials. V. Ammunition. VI. Personal demand items. VII. Major end items, including tanks, helicopters, and radios. VIII. Medical. IX. Repair parts and components for equipment maintenance. X. Nonstandard items to support nonmilitary programs such as agriculture and economic development. See also petroleum, oils, and lubricants


  • classification The determination that official information requires, in the interests of national security, a specific degree of protection against unauthorized disclosure, coupled with a designation signifying that such a determination has been made.


  • classified information Official information that has been determined to require, in the interests of national security, protection against unauthorized disclosure and which has been so designated.


  • clearance capacity An estimate expressed in agreed upon units of cargo measurement per day of the cargo or people that may be transported inland from a beach or port over the available means of inland communication, including roads, railroads, airlift, and inland waterways. See also
  • throughput capacity


  • clearance decontamination The final level of decontamination that provides the decontamination of equipment and personnel to a level that allows unrestricted transportation, maintenance, employment, and disposal.

38

  • clearing operation An operation designed to clear or neutralize all mines and obstacles from a route or area.


  • climate change — Variations in average weather conditions that persist over multiple decades or longer that encompass increases and decreases in temperature, shifts in precipitation, and changing risk of certain types of severe weather events.


  • close air support --Air action by manned or unmanned fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and that require detailed integration of each air mission with the fire and movement of those forces. Also called CAS See also air interdiction




  • close support area --Those parts of the ocean operating areas nearest to, but not necessarily in, the objective area.


  • closure --In transportation, the process of a unit’s arriving at a specified location.


  • coastal sea control --The employment of forces to ensure the unimpeded use of an offshore coastal area by friendly forces and, as appropriate, to deny the use of the area to enemy forces.


  • code word 1. A word that has been assigned a classification and a classified meaning to safeguard intentions and information regarding a classified plan or operation. 2. A cryptonym used to identify sensitive intelligence data.


  • collateral damage Unintentional or incidental injury or damage to persons or objects that would not be lawful military targets in the circumstances ruling at the time.


  • collection In intelligence usage, the acquisition of information and the provision of this information to processing elements. See also intelligence process


  • collection agency Any individual, organization, or unit that has access to sources of information and the capability of collecting information from them. See also
  • agency

   39

  • collection asset A collection system, platform, or capability that is supporting, assigned, or attached to a particular commander. See also
  • collection



  • collection manager --An individual with responsibility for the timely and efficient tasking of organic collection resources and the development of requirements for theater and national assets that could satisfy specific information needs in support of the mission. Also called
  • CM See also
  • collection





  • collection point A point designated for the assembly of personnel casualties, stragglers, disabled materiel, salvage, etc., for further movement to collecting stations or rear installations. Also called CP


  • collection posture The current status of collection assets and resources to satisfy identified information requirements.


  • collection requirement A valid need to close a specific gap in intelligence holdings in direct response to a request for information.


40

  • collection requirements matrix A worksheet that compiles collection requirements to inform the initial integrated collection planning efforts and links priority intelligence requirements, their associated essential elements of information, and related indicators to supporting specific information requirements. Also called CRMx


  • collection resource --A collection system, platform, or capability that is not supporting, assigned, or attached to a specific unit or echelon which must be requested and coordinated through the chain of command. See also
  • collection management


  • collection strategy An analytical approach used by collection managers to determine which intelligence disciplines can be applied to satisfy information requirements.


  • collective protection The protection provided to a group of individuals that permits relaxation of individual chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear protection. Also called COLPRO


  • colored beach That portion of usable coastline sufficient for the assault landing of a regimental landing team or similar sized unit. See also
  • numbered beach



  • combat and operational stress The expected and predictable emotional, intellectual, physical, and/or behavioral reactions of an individual who has been exposed to stressful events in military operations.


  • combat and operational stress control Programs developed and actions taken by military leadership to prevent, identify, and manage adverse combat and operational stress reactions in units optimize mission performance conserve fighting strength prevent or minimize adverse effects of combat and operational stress on members’ physical, psychological, intellectual, and social health and to return the unit or Service member to duty expeditiously. Also called COSC


  • combatant command A unified or specified command with a broad continuing mission under a single commander established and so designated by the President, through the Secretary of Defense and with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Also called CCMD. See also
  • specified combatant command unified command


  • [[combatant command

]] --Nontransferable command authority, which cannot be delegated, of a combatant commander to perform those functions of command over assigned forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces assigning tasks designating objectives and giving authoritative direction over  41 all aspects of military operations, joint training, and logistics necessary to accomplish the missions assigned to the command. Also called




  • combatant command support agent   --The Secretary of a Military Department to whom the Secretary of Defense or the Deputy Secretary of Defense has assigned administrative and logistical support of the headquarters of a combatant command, United States Element, North American Aerospace Defense Command, or subordinate unified command. The nature and scope of the combatant command support agent responsibilities, functions, and authorities shall be prescribed at the time of assignment or in keeping with existing agreements and practices, and they shall remain in effect until the Secretary of Defense or the Deputy Secretary of Defense revokes, supersedes, or modifies them.


  • combat assessment The determination of the overall effectiveness of force employment during military operations. Combat assessment is composed of three major components:

battle damage assessment;

munitions effectiveness assessment and

reattack recommendation. Also called CA See also battle damage assessment munitions effectiveness assessment reattack recommendation


  • combat camera Specially-trained expeditionary forces from Service-designated units capable of providing high-quality directed visual information during military operations. Also called COMCAM See also visual information


  • combat cargo officer A Marine Corps embarkation/mobility officer permanently assigned to amphibious warfare ships or naval staffs, as an adviser to and representative of the naval commander in matters pertaining to embarkation and debarkation of troops, their supplies, and equipment. Also called CCOSee also embarkation officer


  • combat control team --A task-organized team of special operations forces who are certified air traffic controllers that are trained and equipped to deploy into hostile environments to establish and control assault zones and airfields. Also called CCT.


  • combat engineering Engineering capabilities and activities that directly support the maneuver of land combat forces that require close and integrated support.

42

  • combat identification The process of attaining an accurate characterization of detected objects in the operational environment sufficient to support an engagement decision. Also called CID


  • combat information Unevaluated data, gathered by or provided directly to the tactical commander which, due to its highly perishable nature or the criticality of the situation, cannot be processed into tactical intelligence in time to satisfy the user’s tactical intelligence requirements.


  • combat information center The agency in a ship or aircraft manned and equipped to collect, display, evaluate, and disseminate tactical information for the use of the embarked flag officer, commanding officer, and certain control agencies. Also called
  • CIC



  • combat lifesaver Nonmedical Department of Defense person who has received additional trauma training and equipment, providing enhanced medical treatment beyond self- aid/buddy aid.


  • combat loading --The arrangement of personnel and the stowage of equipment and supplies in a manner designed to conform to the anticipated tactical operation of the organization embarked.


  • combat organizational loading A method of loading by which a unit with its equipment and initial supplies is loaded into a single ship, together with other units, in such a manner as to be available for unloading in a predetermined order.


  • combat power --The total means of destructive and/or disruptive force that a military unit/formation can apply against the opponent at a given time.



  • combat service support --The essential capabilities, functions, activities, and tasks necessary to sustain all elements of all operating forces in theater at all levels of war. Also called CSS See also combat support


  • combat service support area An area ashore that is organized to contain the necessary supplies, equipment, installations, and elements to provide the landing force with combat service support throughout the operation. Also called CSSA

   43

  • combat spread loading A method of combat loading by which some of the troops, equipment, and initial supplies of a unit are loaded in one ship and the remainder are loaded in one or more others.



  • combat support agency A Department of Defense agency so designated by Congress or the Secretary of Defense that supports military combat operations. Also called CSA


  • combat surveillance A continuous, all-weather, day-and-night, systematic watch over the battle area in order to provide timely information for tactical combat operations.


  • combat unit loading A method of loading by which all or a part of a combat unit, such as an assault battalion landing team, is completely loaded in a single ship, with essential combat equipment and supplies, in such a manner as to be immediately available to support the tactical plan upon debarkation, and to provide a maximum of flexibility to meet possible changes in the tactical plan.


  • combined --A term identifying two or more forces or agencies of two or more allies operating together. See also
  • joint


  • combined arms team --The full integration and application of two or more arms or elements of one Service into an operation.


  • command 1. The authority that a commander in the armed forces lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment. 2. An order given by a commander that is, the will of the commander expressed for the purpose of bringing about a particular action. 3. A unit or units, an organization, or an area under the command of one individual. See also [[area command combatant command combatant command

]]


  • command and control The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission. Also called
  • C2


  • command and control system The facilities, equipment, communications, procedures, and personnel essential for a commander to plan, direct, and control operations of assigned and attached forces pursuant to the missions assigned.


44


  • commander’s communication synchronization --A process to coordinate and synchronize narratives, themes, messages, images, operations, and actions to ensure their integrity and consistency to the lowest tactical level across all relevant communication activities. Also called CCS



  • commander’s estimate The commander’s initial assessment in which options are provided in a concise statement that defines who, what, when, where, why, and how the course of action will be implemented.


  • commander’s intent A clear and concise expression of the purpose of the operation and the desired military end state that supports mission command, provides focus to the staff, and helps subordinate and supporting commanders act to achieve the commander’s desired results without further orders, even when the operation does not unfold as planned. See also assessment end state


  • commander’s required delivery date --The original date relative to C-day, specified by the combatant commander for arrival of forces or cargo at the destination shown in the time-phased force and deployment data to assess the impact of later arrival.


  • command information --Communication by a military organization directed to the internal audience that creates an awareness of the organization’s goals, informs them of significant developments affecting them and the organization, increases their effectiveness as ambassadors of the organization, and keeps them informed about what is going on in the organization. Also called internal information See also command public affairs


who is responsible for the administration, discipline, and training of all embarked units. Also called


  • command net --A communications network that connects an echelon of command with some or all of its subordinate echelons for the purpose of command and control.

 45

  • command relationships The interrelated responsibilities between commanders, as well as the operational authority exercised by commanders in the chain of command defined further as combatant command

, operational control, tactical control, or support. See also [[chain of command combatant command

command operational control support tactical control]]


  • command-sponsored dependent A dependent entitled to travel to overseas commands at government expense and endorsed by the appropriate military commander to be present in a dependent’s status.


  • commercial items --Articles of supply readily available from established commercial distribution sources which the Department of Defense or inventory managers in the Military Services have designated to be obtained directly or indirectly from such sources.


  • commercial vehicle A vehicle that has evolved in the commercial market to meet civilian requirements and which is selected from existing production lines for military use.


  • commit The process of assigning one or more aircraft or surface-to-air missile units to prepare to engage an entity, prior to authorizing such engagement.


  • commodity loadingA method of loading in which various types of cargoes are loaded together, such as ammunition, rations, or boxed vehicles, in order that each commodity can be discharged without disturbing the others. See also
  • combat loading


  • commonality --A quality that applies to materiel or systems: a. possessing like and interchangeable characteristics enabling each to be utilized, or operated and maintained, by personnel trained on the others without additional specialized training b. having interchangeable repair parts and/or components and c. applying to consumable items interchangeably equivalent without adjustment.


  • common item 1. Any item of materiel that is required for use by more than one activity. 2. A term loosely used to denote any consumable item except repair parts or other technical items. 3. Any item of materiel that is procured for, owned by

, or used by any Military Department of the Department of Defense and is also required to be furnished to a recipient country under the grant-aid Military Assistance Program. 4. Readily available commercial items. 5. Items used by two or more Military Services of similar manufacture or fabrication that may vary between the Services as to color or shape

. 6. Any part or component that is required in the assembly of two or more complete end-items.


  • common operating environment Automation services that support the development of the common reusable software modules that enable interoperability across multiple combat support applications. Also called COE

46

  • common operational picture A single identical display of relevant information shared by more than one command that facilitates collaborative planning and assists all echelons to achieve situational awareness. Also called COP


  • common servicing Functions performed by one Service in support of another for which reimbursement is not required.


  • common tactical picture An accurate and complete display of relevant tactical data that integrates tactical information from the multi-tactical data link network, ground network, intelligence network, and sensor networks. Also called CTP


  • common use Services, materiel, or facilities provided by a Department of Defense agency or a Military Department on a common basis for two or more Department of Defense agencies, elements, or other organizations as directed.



  • common-user airlift service --The airlift service provided on a common basis for all Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized, for other agencies of the United States Government.


  • common-user item An item of an interchangeable nature that is in common use by two or more nations or Services of a nation.



  • common-user logistics Materiel or service support shared with or provided by two or more Services, Department of Defense agencies, or multinational partners to another Service, Department of Defense agency, non-Department of Defense agency, and/or multinational partner in an operation. Also called CUL See also
  • common use


  • common-user ocean terminal A military installation, part of a military installation, or a commercial facility operated under contract or arrangement by the Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command that regularly provides for two or more Services terminal functions of receipt, transit storage or staging, processing, and loading and unloading of passengers or cargo aboard ships.



  • common-user transportation Transportation and transportation services provided on a common basis for two or more Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized, non- Department of Defense agencies. See also common use



  • communications network An organization of stations capable of intercommunications, but not necessarily on the same channel. Also called COMNET


  • communications security The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications, or to mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results of such possession and study. Also called
  • COMSEC



  • community engagement Public affairs activities that support the relationship between military and civilian communities.


  • competing observable Within military deception, any observable that contradicts the deception story, casts doubt on, or diminishes the impact of one or more required or supporting observables.


  • completeness The plan review criterion for assessing whether operation plans incorporate major operations and tasks to be accomplished and to what degree they include forces required, deployment concept, employment concept, sustainment concept, time estimates for achieving objectives, description of the end state, mission success criteria, and mission termination criteria.


  • complex catastrophe — Any natural or man-made incident, including cyberspace attack, power grid failure, and terrorism, which results in cascading failures of multiple, interdependent, critical, life-sustaining infrastructure sectors and caused extraordinary levels of mass casualties, damage, or disruption severely affecting the population, environment, economy, public health, national morale, response efforts, and/or government functions.


  • component 1. One of the subordinate organizations that constitute a joint force.

2. In logistics, a part or combination of parts having a specific function, which can be 48installed or replaced only as an entity. See also functional component command Service component command



  • composite warfare commander An officer to whom the officer in tactical command of a naval task organization may delegate authority to conduct some or all of the offensive and defensive functions of the force. Also called CWC


  • compromise The known or suspected exposure of clandestine personnel, installations, or other assets or of classified information or material, to an unauthorized person.


  • concept of intelligence operations Within the Department of Defense, a verbal or graphic statement, in broad outline, of an intelligence directorate’s assumptions or intent in regard to intelligence support of an operation or series of operations. See also concept of operations


  • concept of logistic support A verbal or graphic statement, in a broad outline, of how a commander intends to support and integrate with a concept of operations in an operation or campaign. Also called COLS.


  • concept of operations A verbal or graphic statement that clearly and concisely expresses what the commander intends to accomplish and how it will be done using available resources. Also called CONOPS


  • concept plan An operation plan in an abbreviated format that may require considerable expansion or alteration to convert it into a complete operation plan or operation order. Also called CONPLAN See also operation plan


  • condition 1. Those variables of an operational environment or situation in which a unit, system, or individual is expected to operate and may affect performance. 2. A physical or behavioral state of a system that is required for the achievement of an objective. See also joint mission-essential tasks


  • conduits Within military deception, information or intelligence gateways to the deception target, such as foreign intelligence entities, intelligence collection platforms, open- source intelligence, and foreign and domestic news media.


identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item;

control changes to those characteristics and

record and report changes to processing and implementation status.

 49

  • conflict prevention A peace operation employing complementary diplomatic, civil, and, when necessary, military means to monitor and identify the causes of conflict and take timely action to prevent the occurrence, escalation, or resumption of hostilities.



  • constraint In the context of planning, a requirement placed on the command by a higher command that dictates an action, thus restricting freedom of action. See also limitation restraint


  • consumer A person or agency that uses information or intelligence produced by either its own staff or other agencies.


  • consumption rate The average quantity of an item consumed or expended during a given time interval, expressed in quantities by the most appropriate unit of measurement per applicable stated basis.



  • contact point 1. In land warfare, a point on the terrain, easily identifiable, where two or more units are required to make contact.

2. In air operations, the position at which a mission leader makes radio contact with an air control agency.

3. In personnel recovery, a location where isolated personnel can establish contact with recovery forces. Also called CP See also control point


  • contact procedure Predesignated actions taken by isolated personnel and recovery forces that permit link-up between the two parties in hostile territory. See also evader


  • container --An article of transport equipment that meets American National Standards Institute/International Organization for Standardization standards that is designed to facilitate and optimize the carriage of goods by one or more modes of transportation without intermediate handling of the contents.


within a command, installation, or activity who is responsible for control, reporting, use, and maintenance of all Department of Defense-owned and controlled intermodal containers and equipment from time received until dispatched. Also called CCO.


  • container-handling equipment --Items of materials-handling equipment required to specifically receive, maneuver, and dispatch International Organization for Standardization containers. Also called
  • CHE

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  • container management --Planning, organizing, directing, and executing functions and responsibilities required to provide effective use of Department of Defense and Military Department owned, leased, or controlled International Organization for Standardization containers.


  • containership A ship, usually non-self-sustaining, specially constructed and equipped to carry only containers without associated equipment, in all available cargo spaces, either below or above deck.



  • contamination 1. The deposit, absorption, or adsorption of radioactive material, or of biological or chemical agents on or by structures, areas, personnel, or objects. Also called
  • fallout radiation. 2. Food and/or water made unfit for consumption by humans or animals because of the presence of environmental chemicals, radioactive elements, bacteria or organisms, the byproduct of the growth of bacteria or organisms, the decomposing material or waste in the food or water.


  • contamination avoidance Individual and/or unit measures taken to reduce the effects of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear hazards.


  • contamination control A combination of preparatory and responsive measures designed to limit the vulnerability of forces to chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and toxic industrial hazards and to avoid, contain, control exposure to, and, where possible, neutralize them. See also biological agent chemical agent contamination


  • contamination mitigation The planning and actions taken to prepare for, respond to, and recover from contamination associated with all chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats and hazards in order to continue military operations.


  • contiguous zone 1. A maritime zone adjacent to the territorial sea that may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. 2. The zone of the ocean extending 3-12 nautical miles from the United States coastline.


  • continental United States --United States territory, including the adjacent territorial waters, located within North America between Canada and Mexico. Also called
  • CONUS


  • contingency A situation requiring military operations in response to natural disasters, terrorists, subversives, or as otherwise directed by appropriate authority to protect United States interests. See also contingency contracting

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  • contingency basing The life-cycle process of planning, designing, constructing, operating, managing, and transitioning or closing a non-enduring location supporting a combatant commander's requirements.

.


  • contingency contracting The process of obtaining goods, services, and construction via contracting means in support of contingency operations. See also contingency contingency contract.



  • contingency location A non-enduring location outside of the United States that supports and sustains operations during named and unnamed contingencies or other operations as directed by appropriate authority and is categorized by mission life-cycle requirements as initial, temporary, or semi-permanent.


  • contingency operation A military operation that is either designated by the Secretary of Defense as a contingency operation or becomes a contingency operation as a matter of law

. See also contingency operation


  • contingency plan A branch of a campaign plan that is planned based on hypothetical situations for designated threats, catastrophic events, and contingent missions outside of crisis conditions. See also joint planning.


  • Contingency Planning Guidance Secretary of Defense written guidance, approved by the President, for the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, which focuses the guidance given in the national security strategy and Defense Planning Guidance, and is the principal source document for the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan.Also called CPG


  • contingency ZIP Code A unique postal code assigned by the Military Postal Service Agency to assist in routing and sorting mail to a contingency post office for the tactical use of the Armed Forces on a temporary basis.

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  • continuity of operations --The degree or state of being continuous in the conduct of functions, tasks, or duties necessary to accomplish a military action or mission in carrying out the national military strategy. Also called COOP


  • contract administration A subset of contracting that includes efforts to ensure that supplies, services, and construction are delivered in accordance with the terms and conditions of the contract.


  • contracting officer A Service member or Department of Defense civilian with the legal authority to enter into, administer, modify, and/or terminate contracts.


  • contracting officer representative A Service member or Department of Defense civilian or a foreign government civilian or military member appointed in writing and trained by a contracting officer, responsible for monitoring contract performance and performing other duties specified by their appointment letter. Also called COR


  • contractor management The oversight and integration of contractor personnel and associated equipment providing support to the joint force in a designated operational area.


  • contractors authorized to accompany the force Contingency contractor employees and all tiers of subcontractor employees who are authorized to accompany the force in applicable contingency operations and have afforded such status through the issuance of a letter of authorization. Also called CAAF



  • control 1. Authority that may be less than full command exercised by a commander over part of the activities of subordinate or other organizations.

2. In mapping, charting, and photogrammetry, a collective term for a system of marks or objects on the Earth or on a map or a photograph, whose positions or elevations

have been or will be determined.

3. Physical or psychological pressures exerted with the intent to assure that an agent or group will respond as directed.

4. In intelligence usage, an indicator governing the distribution and use of documents, information, or material. See also



  • control group Personnel, ships, and craft designated to control the waterborne ship-to- shore movement.

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  • controlled information 1. Information conveyed to an adversary in a deception operation to evoke desired appreciations. 2. Information and indicators deliberately conveyed or denied to foreign targets to evoke invalid official estimates that result in foreign official actions advantageous to United States interests and objectives.


  • controlled substance --A drug or other substance, or immediate precursor included in Schedule I, II, III, IV, or V of the Controlled Substances Act.



  • control point 1. A position along a route of march at which men are stationed to give information and instructions for the regulation of supply or traffic. 2. A position marked by coordinates

, a buoy, boat, aircraft, electronic device, conspicuous terrain feature, or other identifiable object which is given a name or number and used as an aid to navigation or control of ships, boats, or aircraft. 3. In marking mosaics, a point located by ground survey with which a corresponding point on a photograph is matched as a check.


  • control zone A controlled airspace extending upwards from the surface of the Earth to a specified upper limit. See also
  • control area


  • conventional forces 1. Those forces capable of conducting operations using nonnuclear weapons. 2. Those forces other than designated special operations forces. Also called
  • CF


  • convoy --1. A number of merchant ships and/or naval auxiliaries usually escorted by warships and/or aircraft — or a single merchant ship or naval auxiliary under surface escort — assembled and organized for the purpose of passage together. 2. A group of vehicles organized for the purpose of control and orderly movement with or without escort protection that moves over the same route at the same time and under one commander.


or aircraft in company with a convoy and responsible for its protection. 2. An escort to protect a convoy of vehicles from being scattered, destroyed, or captured. See also


  • cooperative security location A facility located outside the United States and US territories with little or no permanent US presence, maintained with periodic Service, contractor, or host-nation support. Cooperative security locations provide contingency access, logistic support, and rotational use by operating forces and are a focal point for security cooperation activities. Also called CSL See also forward operating site main operating base


  • coordinated fire line A line beyond which conventional surface-to-surface direct fire and indirect fire support means may fire at any time within the boundaries of the establishing 54headquarters without additional coordination. Also called CFL See also fire support


  • coordinating agency An agency that supports the incident management mission by providing the leadership, staff, expertise, and authorities to implement critical and specific aspects of the response.


  • coordinating altitude An airspace coordinating measure that uses altitude to separate users and as the transition between different airspace control elements. Also called CA.


  • coordinating authority A commander or individual who has the authority to require consultation between the specific functions or activities involving forces of two or more Services, joint force components, or forces of the same Service or agencies, but does not have the authority to compel agreement.



  • coordination level A procedural method to separate fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft by determining an altitude below which fixed-wing aircraft normally will not fly. Also called
  • CL.


  • cost-type contract A contract that provides for payment to the contractor of allowable cost, to the extent prescribed in the contract, incurred in performance of the contract.


  • counterair --A mission at the theater level that integrates offensive and defensive operations to attain and maintain a desired degree of control of the air and protection by neutralizing or destroying enemy aircraft and missiles, both before and after launch. See also air superiority mission offensive counterair


  • counterdeception Efforts to negate, neutralize, diminish the effects of, or gain advantage from a foreign deception operation.


  • counterdrug Those active measures taken to detect, monitor, and counter the production, trafficking, and use of illegal drugs. Also called CD


  • counterdrug activities Those measures taken to detect, interdict, disrupt, or curtail any activity that is reasonably related to illicit drug trafficking.


  • counterdrug operational support Support to host nations and drug law enforcement agencies involving military personnel and their associated equipment, provided by the  55 geographic combatant commanders from forces assigned to them or made available to them by the Services for this purpose. See also counterdrug operations



  • counterespionage --That aspect of counterintelligence designed to detect, destroy, neutralize, exploit, or prevent espionage activities through identification, penetration, manipulation, deception, and repression of individuals, groups, or organizations conducting or suspected of conducting espionage activities.


  • counterfire Fire intended to destroy or neutralize enemy weapons.



  • counter-improvised explosive device operations The organization, integration, and synchronization of capabilities that enable offensive, defensive, stability, and support operations across all phases of operations or campaigns in order to defeat improvised explosive devices as operational and strategic weapons of influence. Also called C-IED operations


  • countering threat networks --The aggregation of activities across the Department of Defense and United States Government departments and agencies that identifies and neutralizes, degrades, disrupts, or defeats designated threat networks. Also called
  • CTN.


  • countering weapons of mass destruction Efforts against actors of concern to curtail the conceptualization, development, possession, proliferation, use, and effects of weapons of mass destruction, related expertise, materials, technologies, and means of delivery. Also called CWMD.


  • counterinsurgency --Comprehensive civilian and military efforts designed to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes. Also called
  • COIN


  • counterintelligence Information gathered and activities conducted to identify, deceive, exploit, disrupt, or protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons or their agents, or international terrorist organizations or activities. Also called CI. See also counterespionage security


56

  • counterintelligence investigations Formal investigative activities undertaken to determine whether a particular person is acting for or on behalf of, or an event is related to, a foreign power engaged in spying or committing espionage, sabotage, treason, sedition, subversion, assassinations, or international terrorist activities, and to determine actions required to neutralize such acts. See also counterintelligence





  • counterintelligence support Conducting counterintelligence activities to protect against espionage and other foreign intelligence activities, sabotage, international terrorist activities, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations, or persons. See also
  • counterintelligence


  • countermeasures --That form of military science that, by the employment of devices and/or techniques, has as its objective the impairment of the operational effectiveness of enemy activity. See also
  • electronic warfare





  • counterterrorism --Activities and operations taken to neutralize terrorists and their organizations and networks in order to render them incapable of using violence to instill fear and coerce governments or societies to achieve their goals. Also called
  • CT See also
  • antiterrorism combating terrorism terrorism


  • counter threat finance Activities conducted to deny, disrupt, destroy, or defeat the generation, storage, movement, and use of assets to fund activities that support an  57 adversary’s ability to negatively affect United States interests. Also called CTF.


  • country team The senior, in-country, United States coordinating and supervising body, headed by the chief of the United States diplomatic mission, and composed of the senior member of each represented United States department or agency, as desired by the chief of the United States diplomatic mission. Also called CT


responsible for the secure physical transmission and delivery of documents and material.


  • course of action 1. Any sequence of activities that an individual or unit may follow. 2. A scheme developed to accomplish a mission. Also called COA


  • cover— In intelligence usage, the concealment of true identity or organizational affiliation with assertion of false information as part of, or in support of, official duties to carry out authorized activities and lawful operations.


  • covering fire 1. Fire used to protect troops when they are within range of enemy small arms. 2. In amphibious usage, fire delivered prior to the landing to cover preparatory operations such as underwater demolition or mine countermeasures.



  • crisis An incident or situation involving a threat to the United States, its citizens, military forces, or vital interests that develops rapidly and creates a condition of such diplomatic, economic, or military importance that commitment of military forces and resources is contemplated to achieve national objectives.


  • crisis management Measures, normally executed under federal law, to identify, acquire, and plan the use of resources needed to anticipate, prevent, and/or resolve a threat or an act of terrorism. Also called CrM


  • critical asset A specific entity that is of such extraordinary importance that its incapacitation or destruction would have a very serious, debilitating effect on the ability of a nation to continue to function effectively.


  • critical asset list A prioritized list of assets or areas, normally identified by phase of the operation and approved by the joint force commander, that should be defended against air and missile threats. Also called CAL


  • critical capability A means that is considered a crucial enabler for a center of gravity to function as such and is essential to the accomplishment of the specified or assumed objective

.

58

  • critical element 1. An element of an entity or object that enables it to perform its primary function. 2. An element of a target, which if effectively engaged, will serve to support the achievement of an operational objective and/or mission task. Also called
  • CE


  • critical information Specific facts about friendly intentions, capabilities, and activities needed by adversaries for them to plan and act effectively so as to guarantee failure or unacceptable consequences for friendly mission accomplishment.




  • critical intelligence Intelligence that is crucial and requires the immediate attention of the commander.


  • critical item list A prioritized list identifying supply items and weapon systems that assist Service and Defense Logistics Agency selection of supply items and systems for production surge planning, or in operational situations, used by the combatant commander and/or subordinate joint force commander to cross-level critical supply items between Service components. Also called CIL


  • criticality assessment An assessment that identifies key assets and infrastructure that support Department of Defense missions, units, or activities and are deemed mission critical by military commanders or civilian agency managers. Also called
  • CA.


  • critical joint duty assignment billet --A joint duty assignment position for which, considering the duties and responsibilities of the position, it is highly important that the assigned officer be particularly trained in, and oriented toward, joint matters.


  • critical requirement An essential condition, resource, and means for a critical capability to be fully operational.


  • critical vulnerability An aspect of a critical requirement which is deficient or vulnerable to direct or indirect attack that will create decisive or significant effects.


  • cross-levelingAt the theater strategic and operational levels, it is the process of diverting en route or in-theater materiel from one military element to meet the higher priority of another within the combatant commander’s directive authority for logistics.

   59

  • cross-loading The distribution of leaders, key weapons, personnel, and key equipment among the aircraft, vessels, or vehicles of a formation to aid rapid assembly of units at the drop zone or landing zone or preclude the total loss of command and control or unit effectiveness if an aircraft, vessel, or vehicle is lost.



  • cruise missile A guided and powered missile that flies at constant speed for the majority of its route and relies upon aerodynamic forces for lift. Also called CM


  • culminating point The point at which a force no longer has the capability to continue its form of operations, offense or defense.


  • current force --The actual force structure and/or manning available to meet present contingencies. See also
  • force


  • custody 1. The responsibility for the control of, transfer and movement of, access to, and maintenance of accountability for weapons and components. 2. Temporary restraint of a person. 3. The detention of a person by lawful authority or process.


  • customer direct --A materiel acquisition and distribution method that requires vendor delivery directly to the customer. Also called
  • CD


  • customer wait time The total elapsed time between issuance of a customer order and satisfaction of that order. Also called CWT


  • cyberspace A global domain within the information environment consisting of the interdependent networks of information technology infrastructures and resident data, including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers.


in cyberspace or manipulation that leads to denial that appears in a physical domain, and is considered a form of fires.


  • cyberspace capability A device or computer program, including any combination of software, firmware, or hardware, designed to create an effect in or through cyberspace.


  • cyberspace defense Actions taken within protected cyberspace to defeat specific threats that have breached or are threatening to breach cyberspace security measures and include actions to detect, characterize, counter, and mitigate threats, including malware 60or the unauthorized activities of users, and to restore the system to a secure configuration.


  • cyberspace exploitation Actions taken in cyberspace to gain intelligence, maneuver, collect information, or perform other enabling actions required to prepare for future military operations.


  • cyberspace operations The employment of cyberspace capabilities where the primary purpose is to achieve objectives in or through cyberspace. Also called CO


  • cyberspace security Actions taken within protected cyberspace to prevent unauthorized access to, exploitation of, or damage to computers, electronic communications systems, and other information technology, including platform information technology, as well as the information contained therein, to ensure its availability, integrity, authentication, confidentiality, and nonrepudiation.


  • cyberspace superiority The degree of dominance in cyberspace by one force that permits the secure, reliable conduct of operations by that force and its related land, air, maritime, and space forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference.

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  • D
  • damage assessment --1. The determination of the effect of attacks on targets. 2. A determination of the effect of a compromise of classified information on national security.


  • damage criteria The critical levels of various weapons effects required to create specified levels of damage.



  • danger close In close air support, artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support fires, the term included in the method of engagement segment of a call for fire that indicates that friendly forces are within close proximity of the target. See also final protective fire.


  • dangerous cargo Cargo that is subject to special regulations for its transport because of its dangerous properties.


  • data element 1. A basic unit of information built on standard structures having a unique meaning and distinct units or values. 2. In electronic recordkeeping, a combination of characters or bytes referring to one separate item of information, such as name, address, or age.


  • [[datum

]] 1.A reference surface consisting of five quantities: the latitude and longitude of an initial point, the azimuth of a line from that point, and the parameters of the reference ellipsoid. 2. The mathematical model of the Earth used to calculate the coordinates on any map. Different nations use different datum for printing coordinates on their maps.


  • D-day The unnamed day on which a particular operation commences or is to commence.


  • de-arming --An operation in which a weapon is changed from a state of readiness for initiation to a safe condition. Also called
  • safing


  • debarkation The unloading of troops, equipment, or supplies from a ship or aircraft.


  • debarkation scheduleA schedule that provides for the timely and orderly debarkation of troops and equipment and emergency supplies for the waterborne ship-to-shore movement.



62
  • decentralized control --In air defense, the normal mode whereby a higher echelon monitors unit actions, making direct target assignments to units only when necessary to ensure proper fire distribution or to prevent engagement of friendly aircraft. See also
  • centralized control



  • deception action A collection of related deception events that form a major component of a deception operation.


  • deception concept The deception course of action forwarded to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for review as part of the combatant commander’s strategic concept.


  • deception event A deception means executed at a specific time and location in support of a deception operation.


  • deception goal --Commander’s statement of the purpose of military deception as it contributes to the successful accomplishment of the assigned mission.


  • deception means Methods, resources, and techniques that can be used to convey information to the deception target.


  • deception objective The desired result of a deception operation expressed in terms of what the adversary is to do or not to do at the critical time and/or location.


  • deception story A scenario that outlines the friendly actions that will be portrayed to cause the deception target to adopt the desired perception.


  • deception target The adversary decision maker with the authority to make the decision that will achieve the deception objective.


  • decision In an estimate of the situation, a clear and concise statement of the line of action intended to be followed by the commander as the one most favorable to the successful accomplishment of the assigned mission.



  • decision support template A combined intelligence and operations graphic based on the results of wargaming that depicts decision points, timelines associated with movement of forces and the flow of the operation, and other key items of information required to execute a specific friendly course of action. Also called DST See also course of action decision point

 63

  • decisive point A geographic place, specific key event, critical factor, or function that, when acted upon, allows commanders to gain a marked advantage over an enemy or contribute materially to achieving success. See also center of gravity


controlled from the primary flight control. Navy — The light displays the status of the ship to support flight operations. United States Coast Guard — The light displays clearance for a helicopter to conduct a given evolution.


  • decompression In personnel recovery, the process of normalizing psychological and behavioral reactions that recovered isolated personnel experienced or are currently experiencing as a result of their isolation and recovery.


  • decontamination The process of making any person, object, or area safe by absorbing, destroying, neutralizing, making harmless, or removing chemical or biological agents, or by removing radioactive material clinging to or around it.


  • decoy An imitation in any sense of a person, object, or phenomenon that is intended to deceive enemy surveillance devices or mislead enemy evaluation. Also called
  • dummy.


  • defended asset list A listing of those assets from the critical asset list prioritized by the joint force commander to be defended with the resources available. Also called DAL


  • defense coordinating element A staff and military liaison officers who assist the defense coordinating officer in facilitating coordination and support to activated emergency support functions. Also called DCE


  • defense coordinating officer Department of Defense single point of contact for domestic emergencies who is assigned to a joint field office to process requirements for military support, forward mission assignments through proper channels to the appropriate military organizations, and assign military liaisons, as appropriate, to activated emergency support functions. Also called DCO


  • defense critical infrastructure Department of Defense and non-Department of Defense networked assets and facilities essential to project, support, and sustain military forces and operations worldwide. Also called DCI


  • defense human intelligence executor— The senior Department of Defense intelligence official as designated by the head of each of the Department of Defense components who are authorized to conduct human intelligence and related intelligence activities. Also called DHE.

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  • defense industrial base The Department of Defense, government, and private sector worldwide industrial complex with capabilities to perform research and development and design, produce, and maintain military weapon systems, subsystems, components, or parts to meet military requirements. Also called DIB


  • Defense Information Systems Network The integrated network, centrally managed and configured by the Defense Information Systems Agency to provide dedicated point-to-point, switched voice and data, imagery, and video teleconferencing services for all Department of Defense activities. Also called
  • DISN


  • defense institution building Security cooperation conducted to establish or reform the capacity and capabilities of a partner nation’s defense institutions at the ministerial/department, military staff, and service headquarters levels. Also called DIB


  • Defense Strategic Guidance A document approved by the Secretary of Defense for applying the Armed Forces of the United States in coordination with Department of Defense agencies and other instruments of national power to achieve national security strategy objectives. Also called DSG


  • Defense Switched Network The component of the Defense Communications System that handles Department of Defense voice, data, and video communications. Also called
  • DSN




  • defensive cyberspace operations Missions to preserve the ability to utilize blue cyberspace capabilities and protect data, networks, cyberspace-enabled devices, and other designated systems by defeating on-going or imminent malicious cyberspace activity. Also called DCO



  • defensive cyberspace operations-response actions --Operations that are part of a defensive cyberspace operations mission that are taken external to the defended network or portion of cyberspace without the permission of the owner of the affected system. Also called DCO-RA

   65

  • defensive minefield 1. In naval mine warfare, a minefield laid in international waters or international straits with the declared intention of controlling shipping in defense of sea communications. 2. In land mine warfare, a minefield laid in accordance with an established plan to prevent a penetration between positions and to strengthen the defense of the positions themselves. See also
  • minefield


  • defensive space control Active and passive measures taken to protect friendly space capabilities from attack, interference, or unintentional hazards. Also called DSC


  • defilade 1. Protection from hostile observation and fire provided by an obstacle such as a hill, ridge, or bank. 2. A vertical distance by which a position is concealed from enemy observation. 3. To shield from enemy fire or observation by using natural or artificial obstacles.


  • definitive care Care rendered to conclusively manage a patient’s condition, such as full range of preventive, curative acute, convalescent, restorative, and rehabilitative medical care.


  • degaussing --The process whereby a ship’s magnetic field is reduced by the use of electromagnetic coils, permanent magnets, or other means.


  • delayed entry program A program under which an individual may enlist in a Reserve Component of a military service and specify a future reporting date for entry on active duty that would coincide with availability of training spaces and with personal plans such as high school graduation. Also called DEP See also active duty


  • delaying operation An operation in which a force under pressure trades space for time by slowing down the enemy’s momentum and inflicting maximum damage on the enemy without, in principle, becoming decisively engaged.


  • delegation of authority The action by which a commander assigns part of his or her authority, commensurate with the assigned task, to a subordinate commander.


  • demobilization --1.The process of transitioning a conflict or wartime military establishment and defense-based civilian economy to a peacetime configuration while maintaining national security and economic vitality. 2. The process necessary to release from active duty, or federal service, units and Reserve Component members who were ordered to active duty, or called to federal service. See also mobilization.


  • demonstration In military deception, a show of force similar to a feint without actual contact with the adversary, in an area where a decision is not sought that is made to deceive an adversary.

66

  • denial measure An action to hinder or deny the enemy the use of territory, personnel, or facilities to include destruction, removal, contamination, or erection of obstructions.


  • denied area An area under enemy or unfriendly control in which friendly forces cannot expect to operate successfully within existing operational constraints and force capabilities.


  • Department of Defense civilian A Federal civilian employee of the Department of Defense directly hired and paid from appropriated or nonappropriated funds, under permanent or temporary appointment.


  • Department of Defense components The Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Military Departments, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Joint Staff, the combatant commands, the Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Defense, the Department of Defense agencies, Department of Defense field activities, and all other organizational entities in the Department of Defense.


  • Department of Defense construction agent United States Army Corps of Engineers, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, or other such approved Department of Defense activity, that is assigned design or execution responsibilities associated with military construction programs, facilities support, or civil engineering support to the combatant commanders in contingency operations. See also contingency operation


  • Department of Defense container system All Department of Defense owned, leased, and controlled 20- or 40-foot intermodal International Organization for Standardization containers and flatracks, supporting equipment such as generator sets and chassis, container handling equipment, information systems, the 463L system, and other infrastructure that supports Department of Defense transportation and logistic operations, including commercially provided transportation services. See also
  • container-handling equipment


  • Department of Defense information network The set of information capabilities, and associated processes for collecting, processing, storing, disseminating, and managing information on-demand to warfighters, policy makers, and support personnel, whether interconnected or stand-alone, including owned and leased communications and computing systems and services, software

, data, security services, other associated services, and national security systems. Also called DODIN.


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  • Department of Defense Intelligence Information System --The combination of Department of Defense personnel, procedures, equipment, computer programs, and supporting communications that support the timely and comprehensive preparation and presentation of intelligence and information to military commanders and national-level decision makers. Also called DODIIS



  • Department of the Air Force The executive part of the Department of the Air Force at the seat of government and all field headquarters, forces, Reserve Component, installations, activities, and functions under the control or supervision of the Secretary of the Air Force. Also called DAF See also Military Department


  • Department of the Army The executive part of the Department of the Army at the seat of government and all field headquarters, forces, Reserve Component, installations, activities, and functions under the control or supervision of the Secretary of the Army. Also called DA See also Military Department


  • Department of the Navy The executive part of the Department of the Navy at the seat of government the headquarters, United States Marine Corps the entire operating forces of the United States Navy and of the United States Marine Corps, including the Reserve Component of such forces all field activities, headquarters, forces, bases, installations, activities, and functions under the control or supervision of the Secretary of the Navy and the United States Coast Guard when operating as a part of the Navy pursuant to law. Also called DON See also
  • Military Department



  • departure point --A navigational check point used by aircraft as a marker for setting course.


  • dependents An employee’s spouse children who are unmarried and under age 21 years or who, regardless of age, are physically or mentally incapable of self-support dependent parents, including step and legally adoptive parents of the employee’s spouse and dependent brothers and sisters, including step and legally adoptive brothers and sisters of the employee’s spouse who are unmarried and under 21 years of age or who, regardless of age, are physically or mentally incapable of self-support.


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  • deployment health surveillance The regular or repeated collection, analysis, archiving, interpretation, and distribution of health-related data used for monitoring the health of a population or of individuals, and for intervening in a timely manner to prevent, treat, or control the occurrence of disease or injury, which includes occupational and environmental health surveillance and medical surveillance subcomponents.


  • deployment order 1. A directive for the deployments of forces for operations or exercises. 2. A directive from the Secretary of Defense, issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, that authorizes the transfer of forces between combatant commanders, Services, and Department of Defense agencies and specifies the authorities the gaining combatant commander will exercise over the specific forces to be transferred. Also called DEPORD See also deployment deployment planning prepare to deploy order



  • depot 1.
  • supply — An activity for the receipt, classification, storage, accounting, issue, maintenance, procurement, manufacture, assembly, research, salvage, or disposal of material. 2.
  • personnel — An activity for the reception, processing, training, assignment, and forwarding of personnel replacements.


  • design basis threat --The threat against which buildings and other structures must be protected and upon which the protective system’s design is based. Also called DBT


  • desired perception In military deception, what the deception target must believe for it to make the decision that will achieve the deception objective.


  • desired point of impact A precise point, associated with a target and assigned as the impact point for a single unitary weapon to create a desired effect. Also called DPI See also aimpoint


  • detainee Any person captured, detained, or otherwise under the control of Department of Defense personnel.


  • detainee collection point A facility or other location where detainees are assembled for subsequent movement to a detainee holding area. Also called DCP.


  • detainee debriefing --The process of using direct questions to elicit intelligence information from a cooperative detainee to satisfy intelligence requirements.

   69

  • detainee holding area A facility or other location where detainees are administratively processed and provided custodial care pending disposition and subsequent release, transfer, or movement to a theater detention facility. Also called DHA.


  • detainee operations A broad term that encompasses the capture, initial detention and screening, transportation, treatment and protection, housing, transfer, and release of the wide range of persons who could be categorized as detainees.


  • detection 1. In tactical operations, the perception of an object of possible military interest but unconfirmed by recognition. 2. In surveillance, the determination and transmission by a surveillance system that an event has occurred. 3. In arms control, the first step in the process of ascertaining the occurrence of a violation of an arms control agreement. 4. In chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear environments, the act of locating chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear hazards by use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear detectors or monitoring and/or survey teams. See also hazard.


  • deterrence --The prevention of action by the existence of a credible threat of unacceptable counteraction and/or belief that the cost of action outweighs the perceived benefits.


  • direct action Short-duration strikes and other small-scale offensive actions conducted as a special operation in hostile, denied, or diplomatically sensitive environments and which employ specialized military capabilities to seize, destroy, capture, exploit, recover, or damage designated targets. Also called DA See also special operations special operations forces



  • [[direct air support center

]] An airborne aircraft equipped with the necessary staff personnel, communications, and operations facilities to function as a direct air support center. Also called [[DASC

]] See also direct air support center






  • direct fire Fire delivered on a target using the target itself as a point of aim for either the weapon or the director.


  • direction finding A procedure for obtaining bearings of radio frequency emitters by using a highly directional antenna and a display unit on an intercept receiver or ancillary equipment. Also called DF.


  • directive authority for cyberspace operations --The authority to issue orders and directives to all Department of Defense components to execute global Department of Defense information network operations and defensive cyberspace operations internal defensive measures. Also called DACO


  • directive authority for logistics Combatant commander authority to issue directives to subordinate commanders to ensure the effective execution of approved operation plans, optimize the use or reallocation of available resources, and prevent or eliminate redundant facilities and/or overlapping functions among the Service component commands. Also called DAFL See also [[combatant command
logistics]]


to a subordinate to directly consult or coordinate an action with a command or agency within or outside of the granting command. Also called


  • director of mobility forces The designated agent for all air mobility issues in the area of responsibility or joint operations area, exercising coordinating authority between the air operations center

, the 618 Air Operations Center

, and the joint deployment and distribution operation center or joint movement center, in order to expedite the resolution of air mobility issues. Also called DIRMOBFOR See also air operations center coordinating authority



  • disaster assistance response team A team deployed by the United States Agency for International Development, if a large-scale, urgent, and/or extended response is necessary, to provide specialists to assist the chief of mission and the United States  71 Agency for International Development mission

with the management of the United States Government response to a disaster. Also called DART See also




  • dispersal Relocation of forces for the purpose of increasing survivability.


  • dispersion --1. The spreading or separating of troops, materiel, establishments, or activities, which are usually concentrated in limited areas to reduce vulnerability.

2. In chemical and biological operations, the dissemination of agents in liquid or aerosol form.

3. In airdrop operations, the scatter of personnel and/or cargo on the drop zone.

4. In naval control of shipping, the reberthing of a ship in the periphery of the port area or in the vicinity of the port for its own protection in order to minimize the risk of damage from attack.



  • display --In military deception, a static portrayal of an activity, force, or equipment intended to deceive the adversary’s visual observation.



  • distant retirement area In amphibious operations, the sea area located to seaward of the landing area to which assault ships may retire and operate in the event of adverse weather or to prevent concentration of ships in the landing area. See also amphibious operation landing area


  • distressed person An individual who requires search and rescue assistance to remove he or she from life-threatening or isolating circumstances in a permissive environment.


  • distribution 1. The arrangement of troops for any purpose, such as a battle, march, or maneuver. 2. A planned pattern of projectiles about a point. 3. A planned spread of fire to cover a desired frontage or depth. 4. An official delivery of anything, such as orders or supplies. 5. The operational process of synchronizing all elements of the logistic system to deliver the “right things” to the “right place” at the “right time” to support the 72geographic combatant commander. 6. The process of assigning military personnel to activities, units, or billets.



  • distribution pipeline Continuum or channel through which the Department of Defense conducts distribution operations, representing the end-to-end flow of resources from supplier to consumer and, in some cases, back to the supplier in retrograde activities. See also distribution



  • distribution point --A point at which supplies and/or ammunition, obtained from supporting supply points by a division or other unit, are broken down for distribution to subordinate units.


  • distribution system That complex of facilities, installations, methods, and procedures designed to receive, store, maintain, distribute, and control the flow of military materiel between the point of receipt into the military system and the point of issue to using activities and units.


  • diversion 1. The act of drawing the attention and forces of an enemy from the point of the principal operation an attack, alarm, or feint that diverts attention. 2. A change made in a prescribed route for operational or tactical reasons that does not constitute a change of destination. 3. A rerouting of cargo or passengers to a new transshipment point or destination or on a different mode of transportation prior to arrival at ultimate destination. 4. In naval mine warfare, a route or channel bypassing a dangerous area by connecting one channel to another or it may branch from a channel and rejoin it on the other side of the danger. See also
  • demonstration


  • domestic emergencies Civil defense emergencies, civil disturbances, major disasters, or natural disasters affecting the public welfare and occurring within the United States and its territories. See also
  • natural disaster


  • domestic intelligence Intelligence relating to activities or conditions within the United States that threaten internal security and that might require the employment of troops and intelligence relating to activities of individuals or agencies potentially or actually dangerous to the security of the Department of Defense.

   73

  • dominant user The Service or multinational partner who is the principal consumer of a particular common-user logistic supply or service within a joint or multinational operation and will normally act as the lead Service to provide this particular common- user logistic supply or service to other Service components, multinational partners, other governmental agencies, or nongovernmental agencies as directed by the combatant commander. See also common-user logistics lead Service or agency for common- user logistics


  • double agent Agent in contact with two opposing intelligence services, only one of which is aware of the double contact or quasi-intelligence services. Also called DA.


reusable International Standards Organization compliant double container, with double doors at both ends, used for the storage, transportation, and distribution of dry cargo. Also called BICON


  • downloading An operation that removes airborne weapons or stores from an aircraft.


  • drop altitude The altitude above mean sea level at which airdrop is executed.


  • drop zone --A specific area upon which airborne troops, equipment, or supplies are airdropped. Also called DZ



  • dual-role tanker An aircraft that can carry support personnel, supplies, and equipment for the deploying force while escorting and/or refueling combat aircraft to the area of responsibility. See also air refueling


  • dwell time The length of time a target is expected to remain in one location.


  • dynamic targeting Targeting that prosecutes targets identified too late, or not selected for action in time to be included in deliberate targeting.


  • dynamic threat assessment An intelligence assessment developed by the Defense Intelligence Agency that details the threat, capabilities, and intentions of adversaries in each of the priority plans in the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan. Also called DTA

     74

  • E  
  • earliest arrival date A day, relative to C-day, that is specified as the earliest date when a unit, resupply shipment, or replacement personnel can be accepted at a port of debarkation during a deployment. Also called EAD See also latest arrival date.


  • early warning --Early notification of the launch or approach of unknown weapons or weapons carriers. Also called EW


  • economy of force The judicious employment and distribution of forces so as to expend the minimum essential combat power on secondary efforts in order to allocate the maximum possible combat power on primary efforts.


  • E-day The day landing force personnel, supplies, and equipment begin to embark aboard amphibious warfare or commercial ships.


  • effect 1. The physical or behavioral state of a system that results from an action, a set of actions, or another effect. 2. The result, outcome, or consequence of an action. 3. A change to a condition, behavior, or degree of freedom.



  • electro-explosive device --An explosive or pyrotechnic component that initiates an explosive, burning, electrical, or mechanical train and is activated by the application of electrical energy. Also called EED


  • electromagnetic battle management The dynamic monitoring, assessing, planning, and directing of joint electromagnetic spectrum operations in support of the commander’s scheme of maneuver. Also called EMBM



  • electromagnetic environment The resulting product of the power and time distribution, in various frequency ranges, of the radiated or conducted electromagnetic emission levels encountered by a military force, system, or platform when performing its assigned mission in its intended operational environment. Also called
  • EME

   75


  • electromagnetic hardening --Action taken to protect personnel, facilities, and/or equipment by blanking, filtering, attenuating, grounding, bonding, and/or shielding against undesirable effects of electromagnetic energy. See also
  • electronic warfare.


  • electromagnetic interference Any electromagnetic disturbance, induced intentionally or unintentionally, that interrupts, obstructs, or otherwise degrades or limits the effective performance of electronics and electrical equipment. Also called
  • EMI




  • electromagnetic operational environment --The background electromagnetic environment and the friendly, neutral, and adversarial electromagnetic order of battle within the electromagnetic area of influence associated with a given operational area. Also called EMOE.


  • electromagnetic pulse The electromagnetic radiation from a strong electronic pulse, most commonly caused by a nuclear explosion that may couple with electrical or electronic systems to produce damaging current and voltage surges. Also called EMP See also
  • electromagnetic radiation


  • electromagnetic radiation Radiation made up of oscillating electric and magnetic fields and propagated with the speed of light.


  • electromagnetic radiation hazardsTransmitter or antenna installation that generates or increases electromagnetic radiation in the vicinity of ordnance, personnel, or fueling operations in excess of established safe levels.


76

  • electromagnetic spectrum control The coordinated execution of joint electromagnetic spectrum operations with other lethal and nonlethal operations that enable freedom of action in the electromagnetic operational environment. Also called EMSC



as a result of having been subjected to a certain level of electromagnetic environmental effects. Also called




  • electronic maskingThe controlled radiation of electromagnetic energy on friendly frequencies in a manner to protect the emissions of friendly communications and electronic systems against enemy electronic warfare support measures/signals intelligence without significantly degrading the operation of friendly systems.


  • electronic probing Intentional radiation designed to be introduced into the devices or systems of potential enemies for the purpose of learning the functions and operational capabilities of the devices or systems.



   77

  • electronics security --The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from their interception and study of noncommunications electromagnetic radiations, e.g., radar.




  • electronic warfare reprogramming The deliberate alteration or modification of electronic warfare or target sensing systems, or the tactics and procedures that employ them, in response to validated changes in equipment, tactics, or the electromagnetic environment. See also electronic warfare


  • electronic warfare support Division of electronic warfare involving actions tasked by, or under direct control of, an operational commander to search for, intercept, identify, and locate or localize sources of intentional and unintentional radiated electromagnetic energy for the purpose of immediate threat recognition, targeting, planning and conduct of future operations. Also called ES See also electronic attack electronic protection electronic warfare


  • electro-optical-infrared countermeasure A device or technique employing electro- optical-infrared materials or technology that is intended to impair the effectiveness of enemy activity, particularly with respect to precision guided weapons and sensor systems. Also called EO-IR CM


  • element An organization formed around a specific function within a designated directorate of a headquarters.


  • elevated causeway system An elevated causeway pier that provides a means of delivering containers, certain vehicles, and bulk cargo ashore without the lighterage contending with the surf zone. Also called ELCAS. See also causeway


  • elicitation In intelligence usage, theacquisition of information from a person or group in a manner that does not disclose the intent of the interview or conversation.


  • embarkation The process of putting personnel and/or vehicles and their associated stores and equipment into ships and/or aircraft.


78

  • embarkation area An area ashore, including a group of embarkation points, in which final preparations for embarkation are completed and through which assigned personnel and loads for craft and ships are called forward to embark. See also
  • mounting area


  • embarkation element A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked

aboard the ships of one transport element.


  • embarkation group A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked

aboard the ships of one transport element group.


  • embarkation officer An officer on the staff of units of the landing force who advises the commander thereof on matters pertaining to embarkation planning and loading ships. See also
  • combat cargo officer


  • embarkation order An order specifying dates, times, routes, loading diagrams, and methods of movement to shipside or aircraft for troops and their equipment.



  • embarkation phase In amphibious operations, the phase that encompasses the orderly assembly of personnel and materiel and their subsequent loading aboard ships and/or aircraft in a sequence designed to meet the requirements of the landing force concept of operations ashore.


  • embarkation plans The plans prepared by the landing force and appropriate subordinate commanders containing instructions and information concerning the organization for embarkation, assignment to shipping, supplies and equipment to be embarked, location and assignment of embarkation areas, control and communication arrangements, movement schedules and embarkation sequence, and additional pertinent instructions relating to the embarkation of the landing force.


  • embarkation team A temporary administrative formation of all personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked

aboard one ship. See also


  • embarkation unit A temporary administrative formation of personnel with supplies and equipment embarking or to be embarked

aboard the ships of one transport unit, which is dissolved upon completion of the embarkation.

 79

  • emergency action committee An organization established at a foreign service post by the chief of mission or principal officer for the purpose of directing and coordinating the post’s response to contingencies. Also called EAC


  • emergency-essential employee A Department of Defense civilian whose assigned duties and responsibilities must be accomplished following the evacuation of non-essential personnel

during a declared emergency or outbreak of war. See also evacuation



  • emergency operations center A temporary or permanent facility where the coordination of information and resources to support domestic incident management activities normally takes place. Also called EOC


  • emergency preparedness Measures taken in advance of an emergency to reduce the loss of life and property and to protect a nation’s institutions from all types of hazards through a comprehensive emergency management program of preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery. Also called EP


  • emergency preparedness liaison officer A senior reserve officer who represents their Service at the appropriate joint field office conducting planning and coordination responsibilities in support of civil authorities. Also called EPLO



  • emergency support functions --A grouping of government and certain private-sector capabilities into an organizational structure to provide the support, resources, program implementation, and services that are most likely to be needed to save lives, protect property and the environment, restore essential services and critical infrastructure, and help victims and communities return to normal, when feasible, following domestic incidents. Also called ESFs


  • emission control The selective and controlled use of electromagnetic, acoustic, or other emitters to optimize command and control capabilities while minimizing, for operations security: a. detection by enemy sensors b. mutual interference among friendly systems and/or c. enemy interference with the ability to execute a military deception plan. Also called
  • EMCON See also
  • electronic warfare


  • emission security The component of communications security that results from all measures taken to deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from intercept and analysis of compromising emanations from crypto-equipment and telecommunications systems. See also communications security

80

  • employment The strategic, operational, or tactical use of forces.


  • end evening civil twilight The point in time when the sun has dropped 6 degrees beneath the western horizon, and is the instant at which there is no longer sufficient light to see objects with the unaided eye. Also called EECT


  • end item A final combination of end products, component parts, and/or materials that is ready for its intended use.


  • end of evening nautical twilight The point in time when the sun has dropped 12 degrees below the western horizon, and is the instant of last available daylight for the visual control of limited military operations. Also called EENT.


  • end state The set of required conditions that defines achievement of the commander’s objectives.


  • end-to-end A term that describes joint distribution operations boundaries, which begin at the point of origin and terminate at the geographic combatant commander’s designated point of need within a desired operational area, including the return of forces and materiel.


  • engage 1. In air and missile defense, a fire control order used to direct or authorize units and/or weapon systems to attack a designated target. See also cease engagement;
  • hold fire

2. To bring the enemy under fire.


  • engagement 1.An attack against an air or missile threat.

2. A tactical conflict, usually between opposing lower echelons maneuver forces. See also battle;


  • engagement authority An authority vested with a joint force commander that may be delegated to a subordinate commander, that permits an engagement decision.


  • engage on remote Use of nonorganic sensor or ballistic missile defense system track data to launch weapon and complete engagement. Also called EOR


  • engineer support plan An appendix to the logistics annex or separate annex of an operation plan that identifies the minimum essential engineering services and construction requirements required to support the commitment of military forces. Also called
  • ESP See also operation plan



  • entity Within the context of targeting, a term used to describe facilities, organizations, individuals, equipment, or virtual

things.

 81


  • environmental considerations --The spectrum of environmental media, resources, or programs that may affect the planning and execution of military operations.



  • escapee Any person who has been physically captured by the enemy and succeeds in getting free.


  • escort A member of the Armed Forces assigned to accompany, assist, or guide an individual or group, e.g., an escort officer.


  • essential care Medical treatment provided to manage the casualty throughout the roles of care, which includes all care and treatment to either return the patient to duty

, or begin initial treatment required for optimization of outcome, and/or stabilization to ensure the patient can tolerate evacuation. See also en route care first responder forward resuscitative care theater


  • essential element of friendly information Key question likely to be asked by adversary officials and intelligence systems about specific friendly intentions, capabilities, and activities, so they can obtain answers critical to their operational effectiveness. Also called
  • EEFI


  • essential elements of information The most critical information requirements regarding the adversary and the environment needed by the commander by a particular time to relate with other available information and intelligence in order to assist in reaching a logical decision. Also called EEIs




  • estimate 1. An analysis of a foreign situation, development, or trend that identifies its major elements, interprets the significance, and appraises the future possibilities and the prospective results of the various actions that might be taken. 2. An appraisal of the capabilities, vulnerabilities, and potential courses of action of a foreign nation or combination of nations in consequence of a specific national plan, policy, decision, or contemplated course of action. 3. An analysis of an actual or contemplated clandestine operation in relation to the situation in which it is or would be conducted to identify and appraise such factors as available as well as needed assets and potential obstacles, 82accomplishments, and consequences. See also
  • intelligence estimate.


  • estimative intelligence Intelligence that identifies, describes, and forecasts adversary capabilities and the implications for planning and executing military operations.


  • evacuation 1. Removal of a patient by any of a variety of transport means from a theater of military operation, or between health services capabilities, for the purpose of preventing further illness or injury, providing additional care, or providing disposition of patients from the military health care system.

2. The clearance of personnel, animals, or materiel from a given locality.

3. The controlled process of collecting, classifying, and shipping unserviceable or abandoned materiel, United States or foreign, to appropriate reclamation, maintenance, technical intelligence, or disposal facilities.

4. The ordered or authorized departure of noncombatant evacuees from a specific area to another in the same or different countries by Department of State, Department of Defense, or appropriate military commander. See also evacuee noncombatant evacuation operation


  • evacuee A civilian removed from a place of residence by military direction for reasons of personal security or the requirements of the military situation. See also
  • displaced person refugee


  • evader --Any person isolated in hostile or unfriendly territory who eludes capture.


  • evaluation --In intelligence usage, appraisal of an item of information in terms of credibility, reliability, pertinence, and accuracy.



  • evaluation and feedback In intelligence usage, continuous assessment of intelligence operations throughout the intelligence process to ensure that the commander’s intelligence requirements are being met. See
  • intelligence process


  • evasion The process whereby isolated personnel avoid capture with the goal of successfully returning to areas under friendly control.


   83


  • evasion plan of action A course of action, developed prior to executing a combat mission, that is intended to improve a potential isolated person’s chances of successful evasion and recovery by providing the recovery forces with an additional source of information that can increase the predictability of the evader’s action and movement. Also called
  • EPA See also course of action evader evasion




  • exclusion zone A zone established by a sanctioning body to prohibit specific activities in a specific geographic area in order to persuade nations or groups to modify their behavior to meet the desires of the sanctioning body or face continued imposition of sanctions, or use or threat of force.


  • exclusive economic zone A maritime zone adjacent to the territorial sea that may not extend beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. Also called EEZ.


  • execute order 1. An order issued by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, at the direction of the Secretary of Defense, to implement a decision by the President to initiate military operations. 2. An order to initiate military operations as directed. Also called
  • EXORD


  • executive agent A term used to indicate a delegation of authority by the Secretary of Defense or Deputy Secretary of Defense to a subordinate to act on behalf of the Secretary of Defense. Also called EA


  • exercise --A military maneuver or simulated wartime operation involving planning, preparation, and execution that is carried out for the purpose of training and evaluation. See also
  • maneuver



  • expeditionary force An armed force organized to achieve a specific objective in a foreign country.

84

  • expendable supplies Supplies that are consumed in use, such as ammunition, paint, fuel, cleaning and preserving materials, surgical dressings, drugs, medicines, etc., or that lose their identity, such as spare parts, etc., and may be dropped from stock record accounts when it is issued or used.


  • exploitation --1. Taking full advantage of success in military operations, following up initial gains,and making permanent the temporary effects already created. 2. Taking full advantage of any information that has come to hand for tactical, operational, or strategic purposes. 3. An offensive operation that usually follows a successful attack and is designed to disorganize the enemy in depth. See also attack


  • explosive cargo Cargo such as artillery ammunition, bombs, depth charges, demolition material, rockets, and missiles.


  • explosive hazard 1.Any material posing a potential threat that contains an explosive component such as unexploded explosive ordnance, booby traps, improvised explosive devices, captured enemy ammunition, and bulk explosives.

2. In explosive ordnance disposal, a condition where danger exists because explosives are present that may react in a mishap with potential unacceptable effects to people, property, operational capability, or the environment. Also called EH


  • explosive hazard incident The suspected or detected presence of unexploded or damaged explosive ordnance that constitutes a hazard to operations, installations, personnel, or material. Not included in this definition are the accidental arming or other conditions that develop during the manufacture of high explosive material, technical service assembly operations, or the laying of mines and demolition charges.


  • explosive ordnance All munitions and improvised or clandestine explosive devices, containing explosives, propellants, nuclear fission or fusion materials, and biological and chemical agents.


  • explosive ordnance disposal --1. The detection, identification, on-site evaluation, rendering safe, recovery, and final disposal of unexploded explosive ordnance. 2. The organizations engaged in such activities. Also called EOD


  • explosive ordnance disposal incident The suspected or detected presence of unexploded or damaged explosive ordnance that constitutes a hazard to operations, installations, personnel, or material and requires explosive ordnance disposal procedures.


  • explosive ordnance disposal procedures Any particular course or mode of action taken by qualified explosive ordnance disposal personnel to detect and/or locate, access, identify, triage, diagnose, stabilize, render safe or neutralize, recover, exploit, and dispose of ordnance, explosives, or any hazardous material associated with an explosive ordnance disposal incident.

   85

  • explosive ordnance disposal unit Personnel with special training and equipment who render explosive ordnance safe, make intelligence reports on such ordnance, and supervise the safe removal thereof.


  • explosives safety munitions risk management — A systematic approach that integrates risk analysis into operational planning, military training exercises, and contingency operations with the goal of identifying potentially adverse consequences associated with munitions operations, risk reduction alternatives, and risk acceptance criteria for senior officials to make the risk decision. Also called ESMRM



  • external support contract Contract awarded by contracting organizations whose contracting authority does not derive directly from the theater support contracting head

of contracting activity or from systems support contracting authorities. See also


86 87

  • F  
  • facility A real property entity consisting of one or more of the following: a building, a structure, a utility system, pavement, and underlying land.


  • facility substitutes Items such as tents and prepackaged structures requisitioned through the supply system that may be used to substitute for constructed facilities.


  • family readiness The state of being prepared to effectively navigate the challenges of daily living experienced in the unique context of military service, to include: mobility and financial readiness, mobilization and deployment readiness, and personal and family life readiness.


  • feasibility The plan review criterion for assessing whether the assigned mission can be accomplished using available resources within the time contemplated by the plan. See also acceptability adequacy


  • feasibility assessment A basic target analysis that provides an initial determination of the viability of a proposed target for special operations forces employment. Also called
  • FA


  • federal service A term applied to National Guard members and units when called to active duty to serve the United States Government under Article I, Section 8 and Article II, Section 2 of the Constitution and Title 10, United States Code, Sections 12401 to 12408. See also
  • active duty Reserve Component


  • feint --In military deception, an offensive action involving contact with the adversary conducted for the purpose of deceiving the adversary as to the location and/or time of the actual main offensive action.


  • field artillery Equipment, supplies, ammunition, and personnel involved in the use of cannon, rocket, or surface-to-surface missile launchers. Also called FA


  • fighter engagement zone --In air defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air threats normally rests with fighter aircraft. Also called FEZ


  • fighter escort An offensive counterair operation providing dedicated protection sorties by air-to-air capable fighters in support of other offensive air and air support missions over enemy territory, or in a defensive counterair role to protect high value airborne assets.


  • fighter sweep An offensive mission by fighter aircraft to seek out and destroy enemy aircraft or targets of opportunity in a designated area.

88

  • final governing standards --A comprehensive set of country-specific substantive environmental provisions, typically technical limitations on effluent, discharges, etc., or a specific management practice. Also called FGSs


  • final protective fire An immediately available prearranged barrier of fire designed to impede enemy movement across defensive lines or areas. Also called FPF.


  • finance support A financial management function to provide financial advice and recommendations, pay support, disbursing support, establishment of local depository accounts, essential accounting support, and support of the procurement process. See also financial management



  • fire direction center --That element of a command post, consisting of gunnery and communications personnel and equipment, by means of which the commander exercises fire direction and/or fire control. Also called FDC.


  • fires The use of weapon systems or other actions to create specific lethal or nonlethal effects on a target.


  • fire support Fires that directly support land, maritime, amphibious, and special operations forces to engage enemy forces, combat formations, and facilities in pursuit of tactical and operational objectives. See also fires



  • fire support coordination --The planning and executing of fire so that targets are adequately covered by a suitable weapon or group of weapons.



  • fire support coordination line A fire support coordination measure established by the land or amphibious force commander to support common objectives within an area of operation beyond which all fires must be coordinated with affected commanders prior to engagement, and short of the line, all fires must be coordinated with the establishing commander prior to engagement. Also called FSCL See also fires fire support

 89


  • fire support coordinator 1. The officer in charge of the fire support coordination center. Also called FSC 2. The brigade combat team’s organic fires battalion commander if a fires brigade is designated as the division force field artillery headquarters, the fires brigade commander is the division’s fire support coordinator and is assisted by the chief of fires who then serves as the deputy fire support coordinator during the period the force field artillery headquarters is in effect. Also called FSCOORD


  • fire support element That section of the tactical operations center at every echelon above company responsible for targeting coordination and for integrating fires under the control or in support of the force. Also called FSE Also called [[fire cell

within the United States Army]]See also fire support force support


  • fire support officer --The field artillery officer from the operational to tactical level responsible for advising the supported commander or assisting the senior fires officer of the organization on fires functions and fire support. Also called FSO See also field artillery fire support support


  • fire support station An exact location at sea within a fire support area from which a fire support ship delivers fire. Also called FSS




  • fixed port Terminals with an improved network of cargo-handling facilities designed for the transfer of freight. See also
  • maritime terminal


  • fixed price contract A type of contract that generally provides for a firm price or, under appropriate circumstances, may provide for an adjustable price for the supplies or services being procured.



to thermal radiation.

90

  • flatrack --Portable, open-topped, open-sided units that fit into existing below-deck container cell guides and provide a capability for container ships to carry oversized cargo and wheeled and tracked vehicles.


  • fleet An organization of ships, aircraft, Marine Corps forces, and shore-based fleet activities under a commander who may exercise operational, as well as administrative, control. See also
  • numbered fleet


  • Fleet Marine Force A balanced force of combined arms comprising land, air, and service elements of the United States Marine Corps, which is an integral part of a United States fleet and has the responsibility to man, train, and equip the Marine operating force. Also called
  • FMF


  • flexible deterrent option A planning construct intended to facilitate early decision making by developing a wide range of interrelated responses that begin with deterrent- oriented actions carefully tailored to produce a desired effect. Also called FDO


  • flexible response The capability of military forces for effective reaction to any enemy threat or attack with actions appropriate and adaptable to the circumstances existing.


  • flight 1. In Navy and Marine Corps usage, a specified group of aircraft usually engaged in a common mission. 2. The basic tactical unit in the Air Force, consisting of four or more aircraft in two or more elements. 3. A single aircraft airborne on a nonoperational mission.


  • flight deck 1. In certain airplanes, an elevated compartment occupied by the crew for operating the airplane in flight. 2. The upper deck of an aircraft carrier that serves as a runway. The deck of an air-capable ship, amphibious aviation assault ship, or aircraft carrier used to launch and recover aircraft.


  • flight deck officer Officer responsible for the safe movement of aircraft on or about the flight deck of an aviation-capable ship. Also called FDO


  • flight quarters --A ship configuration that assigns and stations personnel at critical positions to conduct safe flight operations.


  • floating craft company A company-sized unit made up of various watercraft teams such as tugs, barges, and barge cranes.


  • floating dump Emergency supplies preloaded in landing craft, amphibious vehicles, or in landing ships that are located in the vicinity of the appropriate control officer, who directs their landing as requested by the troop commander concerned.

   91

  • fly-in echelon Airlifted forces and equipment to include flight ferry aircraft and aviation support equipment needed to support operations typically associated with the use of pre-positioned assets. Also called FIE.


  • follow-up In amphibious operations, the reinforcements and stores carried on ships and aircraft

that are off-loaded after the assault and assault follow-on echelons have been landed. See also amphibious operation assault assault follow-on echelon


  • follow-up shipping Ships not originally a part of the amphibious task force but which deliver troops and supplies to the objective area after the action phase has begun.


  • food and water risk assessment A program conducted under specific circumstances by veterinary or public health personnel to assess food operations to identify and mitigate risk from intentional and unintentional contamination. Also called FWRA


  • footprint 1. The area on the surface of the earth within a satellite’s transmitter or sensor field of view. 2. The amount of personnel, spares, resources, and capabilities physically present and occupying space at a deployed location.


  • force 1. An aggregation of military personnel, weapon systems, equipment, and necessary support, or combination thereof. 2. A major subdivision of a fleet.


  • force/activity designator Number used in conjunction with urgency of need designators to establish a matrix of priorities used for supply requisitions. Also called F/AD See also force



  • force closure The point in time when a supported commander determines that sufficient personnel and equipment resources are in the assigned operational area to carry out assigned tasks. See also closure force


  • force health protection Measures to promote, improve, or conserve the behavioral and physical well-being of Service members to enable a healthy and fit force, prevent injury and illness, and protect the force from health hazards. Also called FHP See also force protection


  • force module A grouping of combat, combat support, and combat service support forces, with their accompanying supplies and the required nonunit resupply and personnel necessary to sustain forces for a minimum of 30 days. Also called
  • FM


  • force planning 1. Planning associated with the creation and maintenance of military capabilities by the Military Departments, Services, and United States Special Operations 92Command. 2. In the context of joint planning, it is an element of plan development where the supported combatant command, in coordination with its supporting and subordinate commands determines force requirements to accomplish an assigned mission.


  • force projection The ability to project the military instrument of national power from the United States or another theater, in response to requirements for military operations. See also force


  • force protection Preventive measures taken to mitigate hostile actions against Department of Defense personnel

, resources, facilities, and critical information. Also called FP See also force force protection condition protection



  • force protection detachment— A counterintelligence element that provides counterintelligence support to transiting and assigned ships, personnel, and aircraft in regions of elevated threat. Also called FPD.


  • force protection working group Cross-functional working group whose purpose is to conduct risk assessment and risk management and to recommend mitigating measures to the commander. Also called FPWG


  • force requirement number An alphanumeric code used to uniquely identify force entries in a given operation plan time-phased force and deployment data. Also called FRN


  • force sequencing The phased introduction of forces into and out of the operational area.


  • force sourcing The identification of the actual units, their origins, ports of embarkation, and movement characteristics to satisfy the time-phased force requirements of a supported commander.


  • force tracking The process of gathering and maintaining information on the location, status, and predicted movement of each element of a unit including the unit’s command element, personnel, and unit-related supplies and equipment while in transit to the specified operational area.


  • force visibility The current and accurate status of forces, their current mission, future missions, location, mission priority, and readiness status.

   93

  • forcible entry Seizing and holding of a military lodgment in the face of armed opposition or forcing access into a denied area to allow movement and maneuver to accomplish the mission. See also lodgment



  • foreign disaster A calamitous situation or event that occurs naturally or through human activities, which threatens or inflicts human suffering on a scale that may warrant emergency relief assistance from the United States Government or from foreign partners. See also foreign disaster relief


  • foreign disaster relief Assistance that can be used immediately to alleviate the suffering of foreign disaster victims that normally includes services and commodities as well as the rescue and evacuation of victims the provision and transportation of food, water, clothing, medicines, beds, bedding, and temporary shelter the furnishing of medical equipment, medical and technical personnel and making repairs to essential services. Also called FDR See also foreign disaster



  • foreign instrumentation signals intelligence --A subcategory of signals intelligence consisting of technical information and intelligence derived from the intercept of foreign electromagnetic emissions associated with the testing and operational deployment of non-United States aerospace, surface, and subsurface systems. Also called FISINT See also
  • signals intelligence


  • foreign intelligence Information relating to capabilities, intentions, and activities of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons, or international terrorist activities. Also called FI. See also intelligence


that conducts intelligence activities to acquire United States information, block or impair United States intelligence collection, influence United States policy, or disrupts United States systems and programs. The term includes foreign intelligence and security services and international terrorists. Also called


  • foreign internal defense Participation by civilian and military agencies of a government in any of the action programs taken by another government or other designated 94organization to free and protect its society from subversion, lawlessness, insurgency, terrorism, and other threats to its security. Also called FID


  • foreign military sales That portion of United States security assistance for sales programs that require agreements/contracts between the United States Government and an authorized recipient government or international organization for defense articles and services to be provided to the recipient for current stocks or new procurements under Department of Defense-managed contracts, regardless of the source of financing. Also called
  • FMS


  • foreign national Any person other than a United States citizen, United States permanent or temporary legal resident alien, or person in United States custody.


  • foreign nation support Civil and/or military assistance rendered to a nation when operating outside its national boundaries during military operations based on agreements mutually concluded between nations or on behalf of intergovernmental organizations. Also called FNS See also host-nation support


  • foreign object damage Rags, pieces of paper, line, articles of clothing, nuts, bolts, or tools that, when misplaced or caught by air currents normally found around aircraft operations

, cause damage to aircraft systems or weapons or injury to personnel. Also called


  • foreign service national Foreign nationals who provide clerical, administrative, technical, fiscal, and other support at foreign service posts abroad and are not citizens of the United States. Also called FSN


  • forensic-enabled intelligence The intelligence resulting from the integration of scientifically examined materials and other information to establish full characterization, attribution, and the linkage of events, locations, items, signatures, nefarious intent, and persons of interest. Also called FEI


member of the tactical air control party who, from a forward ground or airborne position, controls aircraft in close air support of ground troops. Also called FAC See also close air support


  • [[forward air controller

]] A specifically trained and qualified aviation officer, normally an airborne extension of the tactical air control party, who exercises control from the air of aircraft engaged in close air support of ground troops. Also called

  • [[FAC

]]


  • forward arming and refueling point A temporary facility, organized, equipped, and deployed to provide fuel and ammunition necessary for the employment of aviation maneuver units in combat. Also called FARP.

   95


  • forward edge of the battle area The foremost limits of a series of areas in which ground combat units are deployed, excluding the areas in which the covering or screening forces are operating, designated to coordinate fire support, the positioning of forces, or the maneuver of units. Also called
  • FEBA


  • forward line of own troops A line that indicates the most forward positions of friendly forces in any kind of military operation at a specific time. Also called FLOT.


  • forward-looking infrared --An airborne, electro-optical thermal imaging device that detects far-infrared energy, converts the energy into an electronic signal, and provides a visible image for day or night viewing. Also called
  • FLIR



  • forward operating base --An airfield used to support tactical operations without establishing full support facilities. Also called
  • FOB


  • forward operating site A scaleable location outside the United States and US territories intended for rotational use by operating forces. Such expandable “warm facilities” may be maintained with a limited US military support presence and possibly pre-positioned equipment. Forward operating sites support rotational rather than permanently stationed forces and are a focus for bilateral and regional training. Also called FOS See also
  • cooperative security location main operating base


  • forward presence --Maintaining forward-deployed or stationed forces overseas to demonstrate national resolve, strengthen alliances, dissuade potential adversaries, and enhance the ability to respond quickly to contingencies.


  • forward resuscitative care Care provided as close to the point of injury as possible based on current operational requirements to attain stabilization, achieve the most efficient use of lifesaving and limb-saving medical treatment, and provide essential care so the patient can tolerate evacuation, which is known as Role 2 care in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization doctrine. Also called FRC See
  • also essential care evacuation medical treatment facility


  • foundation geospatial intelligence data The base data providing context and a framework for display and visualization of the environment, which consists of: features, elevation, controlled imagery base, geodetic sciences, geographic names and 96boundaries, aeronautical, maritime, digital point positioning database, and human geography.


  • 463L system A material handling system that consists of military and civilian aircraft cargo restraint rail systems, aircraft pallets, nets, tie down, coupling devices, facilities, handling equipment, procedures, and other components designed to efficiently accomplish the air logistics and aerial delivery mission.


  • fragmentary order An abbreviated operation order issued as needed to change or modify an order or to execute a branch or sequel. Also called FRAGORD





  • free-fire area A specific area into which any weapon system may fire without additional coordination with the establishing headquarters. Also called FFA


  • free mail Correspondence of a personal nature that weighs less than 11 ounces, to include audio and video recording tapes, from a member of the Armed Forces or designated civilian, mailed postage free from a Secretary of Defense approved free mail zone.



  • friendly A contact positively identified as a friend using identification, friend or foe and other techniques.



  • friendly force tracking The process of fixing, observing, and reporting the location and movement of friendly forces. Also called FFT.

 97

  • frustrated cargo Any shipment of supplies and/or equipment which, while en route to destination, is stopped prior to receipt and for which further disposition instructions must be obtained.


  • full mobilization --Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress and the President to mobilize for the duration of the emergency plus six months all Reserve Component units and individuals in the existing approved force structure, as well as all retired military personnel, and the resources needed for their support to meet the requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an external threat to the national security.


  • full-spectrum superiority The cumulative effect of dominance in the air, land, maritime, and space domains, electromagnetic spectrum, and information environment

that permits the conduct of joint operations without effective opposition or prohibitive interference.


  • function The broad, general, and enduring role for which an organization is designed, equipped, and trained.


  • functional component command A command normally, but not necessarily, composed of forces of two or more Military Departments which may be established across the range of military operations to perform particular operational missions that may be of short duration or may extend over a period of time. See also
  • component Service component command


  • functional damage assessment The estimate of the effect of military force to degrade or destroy the functional or operational capability of the target to perform its intended mission and on the level of success in achieving operational objectives established against the target. See also damage assessment target


  • fusion In intelligence usage, the process of managing information to conduct all-source analysis and derive a complete assessment of activity.

   98 99

  • G  
  • general agency agreement --A contract between the Maritime Administration and a steamship company which, as general agent, exercises administrative control over a government-owned ship for employment by the Military Sealift Command. See also
  • Military Sealift Command


  • general cargo Cargo that is suitable for loading in general, nonspecialized stowage areas or standard shipping containers e.g., boxes, barrels, bales, crates, packages, bundles, and pallets.


  • general engineering Those engineering capabilities and activities, other than combat engineering, that provide infrastructure and modify, maintain, or protect the physical environment. Also called GE


  • general military intelligence Intelligence concerning the military capabilities of foreign countries or organizations, or topics affecting potential United States or multinational military operations. Also called GMI See also intelligence



  • general support-reinforcing The artillery mission of supporting the force as a whole and of providing reinforcing fires for other artillery units. Also called GSR



  • geographic coordinates --The quantities of latitude and longitude which define the position of a point on the surface of the Earth with respect to the reference ellipsoid.



  • geospatial information Information that identifies the geographic location and characteristics of natural or constructed features and boundaries on the Earth, including: statistical data and information derived from, among other things, remote sensing, mapping, and surveying technologies and mapping, charting, geodetic data and related products.

100

  • geospatial information and services The collection, information extraction, storage, dissemination, and exploitation of geodetic, geomagnetic, imagery, gravimetric, aeronautical, topographic, hydrographic, littoral, cultural, and toponymic data accurately referenced to a precise location on the Earth’s surface. Also called GI&S


  • geospatial intelligence The exploitation and analysis of imagery and geospatial information to describe, assess, and visually depict physical features and geographically referenced activities on the Earth. Geospatial intelligence consists of imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information. Also called GEOINT



  • geospatial intelligence operations The tasks, activities, and events to collect, manage, analyze, generate, visualize, and provide imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information necessary to support national and defense missions and international arrangements. Also called GEOINT operations.


  • Global Air Transportation Execution System The Air Mobility Command’s aerial port operations and management information system designed to support automated cargo and passenger processing, the reporting of in-transit visibility data to the Global Transportation Network, and billing to Air Mobility Command’s financial management directorate. Also called GATES See also Air Mobility Command


  • global campaign plan Primary means by which the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff or designated combatant commander arranges for unity of effort and purpose and through which they guide the planning, integration, and coordination of joint operations across combatant command areas of responsibility and functional responsibilities. Also called
  • GCP





  • global distribution The process that coordinates and synchronizes fulfillment of joint force requirements from point of origin to point of employment. See also distribution



  • global force management Processes that align force assignment, apportionment, and allocation methodologies in support of strategic guidance. Also call
  • GFM


  • global maritime partnership An approach to cooperation among maritime nations with a shared stake in international commerce, safety, security, and freedom of the seas.


  • global missile defense Missile defense operations, activities, or actions that affect more than one combatant command and require synchronization among the affected commands to deter and prevent attacks, destroy enemy missiles, or nullify or reduce the effectiveness of an attack. Also called global MD


  • Global Patient Movement Requirements Center A joint activity reporting directly to the Commander, United States Transportation Command, which provides medical regulating and aeromedical evacuation scheduling for the continental United States and intertheater operations, provides support to the theater patient movement requirements centers, and coordinates with supporting resource providers to identify available assets and communicates transport to bed plans to the appropriate transportation agency for execution. Also called GPMRC See also medical treatment facility


  • Global Positioning System A satellite-based radio navigation system operated by the Department of Defense to provide all military, civil, and commercial users with precise positioning, navigation, and timing. Also called GPS



  • go/no-go A critical point at which a decision to proceed or not must be made.


  • governance The state’s ability to serve the citizens through the rules, processes, and behavior by which interests are articulated, resources are managed, and power is exercised in a society.

102

  • grid coordinates Coordinates of a grid coordinate system to which numbers and letters are assigned for use in designating a point on a gridded map, photograph, or chart.


  • ground alert --That status in which aircraft on the ground/deck are fully serviced and armed, with combat crews in readiness to take off within a specified period of time after receipt of a mission order. See also
  • airborne alert


  • ground-based interceptor A fixed-based, surface-to-air missile for defense against long- range ballistic missiles using an exo-atmospheric hit-to-kill interception of the targeted reentry vehicle in the midcourse phase of flight.


  • ground-based midcourse defense A surface-to-air ballistic missile defense system for exo-atmospheric midcourse phase interception of long-range ballistic missiles using the ground-based interceptors. Also called GMD


  • group A long-standing functional organization that is formed to support a broad function within a headquarters.


  • guarded frequencies A list of time-oriented, enemy frequencies that are currently being exploited for combat information and intelligence or jammed after the commander has weighed the potential operational gain against the loss of the technical information. See also electronic warfare


  • guerrilla force --A group of irregular, predominantly indigenous personnel organized along military lines to conduct military and paramilitary operations in enemy-held, hostile, or denied territory.


  • guided missile --An unmanned vehicle moving above the surface of the Earth whose trajectory or flight path is capable of being altered by an external or internal mechanism. See also
  • ballistic missile


   103

  • H  
  • half-life The time required for the activity of a given radioactive species to decrease to half of its initial value due to radioactive decay.


  • hasty breach The creation of lanes through enemy minefields by expedient methods such as blasting with demolitions, pushing rollers or disabled vehicles through the minefields when the time factor does not permit detailed reconnaissance, deliberate breaching, or bypassing the obstacle.


  • hazard --A condition with the potential to cause injury, illness, or death of personnel damage to or loss of equipment or property or mission degradation. See also injury


  • hazardous cargo --Cargo that includes not only large bulk-type categories such as explosives, pyrotechnics, petroleum, oils, and lubricants, compressed gases, corrosives and batteries, but lesser quantity materials like super-tropical bleach

, pesticides, poisons, medicines, specialized medical chemicals and medical waste that can be loaded as cargo.






  • head-up display --A display of flight, navigation, attack, or other information superimposed upon the pilot’s forward field of view. See also flight


  • health care provider Any member of the Armed Forces, civilian employee of the Department of Defense, or personal services contract employee under Title 10, United States Code, Section 1091 authorized by the Department of Defense to perform health care functions. Also called DOD health care provider

104

  • health service support All services performed, provided, or arranged to promote, improve, conserve, or restore the mental or physical well-being of personnel. Also called
  • HSS


  • health surveillance The regular or repeated collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data and the dissemination of information to monitor the health of a population and to identify potential health risks, thereby enabling timely interventions to prevent, treat, reduce, or control disease and injury, which includes occupational and environmental health surveillance and medical surveillance subcomponents.


  • health threat A composite of ongoing or potential enemy actions adverse environmental, occupational, and geographic and meteorological conditions endemic diseases and employment of chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapons

that have the potential to affect the short- or long-term health

of personnel.


  • heavy-lift cargo 1. Any single cargo lift, weighing over 5 long tons, and to be handled aboard ship. 2. In Marine Corps usage, individual units of cargo that exceed 800 pounds in weight or 100 cubic feet in volume.


  • heavy-lift ship A ship specially designed and capable of loading and unloading heavy and bulky items and has booms of sufficient capacity to accommodate a single lift of 100 tons.


  • height of burst The vertical distance from the Earth’s surface or target to the point of burst. Also called HOB


  • helicopter coordination section The section within the Navy tactical air control center that coordinates rotary-wing air operations with the air traffic control center

in the amphibious force. Also called HCS.


  • HERO SAFE ordnance --Any ordnance item that is percussion initiated, sufficiently shielded or otherwise so protected that all electro-explosive devices contained by the item are immune to adverse effects

when the item is employed in its expected radio frequency environments, provided that the general hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance requirements defined in the hazards from electromagnetic radiation manual are observed. See also


 105

  • HERO UNSAFE ordnance Any ordnance item containing electro-explosive devices that has not been classified as HERO SAFE or HERO SUSCEPTIBLE ordnance as a result of a hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance

analysis or test is considered HERO UNSAFE ordnance. Additionally, any ordnance item containing electro-explosive devices

that has its internal wiring exposed when tests are being conducted on that item that result in additional electrical connections to the item when electro-explosive devices having exposed wire leads are present and handled or loaded in any but the tested condition when the item is being assembled or disassembled or when such ordnance items are damaged causing exposure of internal wiring or components or destroying engineered HERO protective devices. See also


  • H-hour— 1.The specific hour on D-day at which a particular operation commences.

2. In amphibious operations, the time the first landing craft or amphibious vehicle of the waterborne wave lands or is scheduled to land on the beach, and in some cases, the commencement of countermine breaching operations.



  • high-altitude missile engagement zone --In air and missile defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air and missile threats normally rests with high-altitude surface-to-air missiles. Also called HIMEZ


  • high-density airspace control zone Airspace designated in an airspace control plan or airspace control order in which there is a concentrated employment of numerous and varied weapons and airspace users. Also called
  • HIDACZ



  • high-risk personnel --Personnel who, by their grade, assignment, symbolic value, or relative isolation, are likely to be attractive or accessible terrorist targets. Also called
  • HRP See also antiterrorism


  • high seas The open ocean area that is over 200 nautical miles from shore.


  • high-value airborne asset protection --A defensive counterair mission using fighter escorts that defend airborne national assets which are so important that the loss of even one could seriously impact United States warfighting capabilities or provide the enemy 106with significant propaganda value. Also called HVAA protection See also defensive counterair



  • high velocity drop A drop procedure in which the drop velocity is greater than 30 feet per second and lower than free drop velocity. See also
  • airdrop


  • homeland The physical region that includes the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, United States territories, and surrounding territorial waters and airspace.


  • homeland defense The protection of United States sovereignty, territory, domestic population, and critical infrastructure against external threats and aggression or other threats as directed by the President. Also called HD


  • homeland security A concerted national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within the United States reduce America’s vulnerability to terrorism, major disasters, and other emergencies and minimize the damage and recover from attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies that occur. Also called HS



  • homing The technique whereby a mobile station directs itself, or is directed, towards a source of primary or reflected energy, or to a specified point.


  • homing adaptor A device, when used with an aircraft radio receiver, that produces aural and/or visual signals indicating the direction of a transmitting radio station with respect to the heading of the aircraft.


  • horizontal stowage The lateral distribution of unit equipment or categories of supplies so that they can be unloaded simultaneously from two or more holds.


  • hostage rescue A personnel recovery method used to recover isolated personnel who are specifically designated as hostages. Also called HR


  • hostile act An attack or other use of force against the United States, United States forces, or other designated persons or property to preclude or impede the mission and/or duties of United States forces, including the recovery of United States personnel or vital United States Government property.


  • hostile environment --Operational environment in which host government forces, whether opposed to or receptive to operations that a unit intends to conduct, do not have control of the territory and population in the intended operational area.

 107

  • hostile intent The threat of imminent use of force against the United States, United States forces, or other designated persons or property.


  • host nation A nation which receives the forces and/or supplies of allied nations and/or NATO organizations to be located on, to operate in, or to transit through its territory. Also called HN


  • host-nation support --Civil and/or military assistance rendered by a nation to foreign forces within its territory during peacetime, crises or emergencies, or war based on agreements mutually concluded between nations. Also called HNS See also host nation


  • hub --An organization that sorts and distributes inbound cargo from wholesale supply sources

and/or from within the theater



  • human factors The physical, cultural, psychological, and behavioral attributes of an individual or group that influence perceptions, understanding, and interactions.


  • human intelligence A category of intelligence derived from information collected and provided by human sources. Also called HUMINT




  • humanitarian demining assistance The activities related to the furnishing of education, training, and technical assistance with respect to the detection and clearance of land mines and other explosive remnants of war.

108

  • humanitarian mine action --Activities that strive to reduce the social, economic, and environmental impact of land mines, unexploded ordnance, and small arms ammunition. Also called HMA


  • humanitarian operations center An international and interagency body that coordinates the overall relief strategy and unity of effort among all participants in a large foreign humanitarian assistance operation. Also called HOC See also operation


  • hung ordnance Those weapons or stores on an aircraft that the pilot has attempted to drop or fire but could not because of a malfunction of the weapon, rack or launcher, or aircraft release and control system.


  • hydrographic reconnaissance Reconnaissance of an area of water to determine depths, beach gradients, the nature of the bottom, and the location of coral reefs, rocks, shoals, and man-made obstacles.


  • hygiene services The provision of personal hygiene facilities and waste collection and the cleaning, repair, replacement, and return of individual clothing and equipment items in a deployed environment.


  • hyperspectral imagery — Term used to describe the imagery derived from subdividing the electromagnetic spectrum into very narrow bandwidths allowing images useful in precise terrain or target analysis to be formed. Also called HSI.

   109

  • I  
  • identification --1. The process of determining the friendly or hostile character of an unknown detected contact. 2. In arms control, the process of determining which nation is responsible for the detected violations of any arms control measure. 3. In ground combat operations, discrimination between recognizable objects as being friendly or enemy, or the name that belongs to the object as a member of a class. Also called ID




  • identity intelligence The intelligence resulting from the processing of identity attributes concerning individuals, groups, networks, or populations of interest. Also called I2


  • imagery A likeness or presentation of any natural or man-made feature or related object or activity, and the positional data acquired at the same time the likeness or representation was acquired, including: products produced by space-based national intelligence reconnaissance systems and likeness and presentations produced by satellites, airborne platforms, unmanned aerial vehicles, or other similar means

.


  • imagery exploitation The cycle of processing, using, interpreting, mensuration and/or manipulating imagery, and any assembly or consolidation of the results for dissemination.


  • imagery intelligence --The technical, geographic, and intelligence information derived through the interpretation or analysis of imagery and collateral materials. Also called
  • IMINT See also intelligence


  • immediate air support --Air support to meet specific requests which arise during the course of a battle and which by their nature cannot be planned in advance.



  • immediate response Any form of immediate action taken in the United States and territories to save lives, prevent human suffering, or mitigate great property damage in response to a request for assistance from a civil authority, under imminently serious conditions when time does not permit approval from a higher authority.

110

  • implementation Procedures governing the mobilization of the force and the deployment, employment, and sustainment of military operations in response to execution orders issued by the Secretary of Defense.


  • implied task In the context of planning, a task derived during mission analysis that an organization must perform or prepare to perform to accomplish a specified task or the mission, but which is not stated in the higher headquarters order. See also essential task specified task


  • imprest fund A cash fund of a fixed amount established through an advance of funds, without appropriation change, to an authorized imprest fund cashier to effect immediate cash payments of relatively small amounts for authorized purchases of supplies and nonpersonal services.


  • improvised explosive device --A weapon that is fabricated or emplaced in an unconventional manner incorporating destructive, lethal, noxious, pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals designed to kill, destroy, incapacitate, harass, deny mobility, or distract. Also called IED


  • improvised nuclear device --A device incorporating fissile materials designed or constructed outside of an official government agency that has, appears to have, or is claimed to be a nuclear weapon that is no longer in the control of a competent authority or custodian or has been modified from its designated firing sequence. Also call
  • IND


  • inactive duty training --Authorized training performed by a member of a Reserve Component not on active duty or active duty for training and consisting of regularly scheduled unit training assemblies, additional training assemblies, periods of appropriate duty or equivalent training, and any special additional duties authorized for Reserve Component personnel by the Secretary concerned, and performed by them in connection with the prescribed activities of the organization in which they are assigned with or without pay. See also active duty for training


  • inactive status --Status of reserve members on an inactive status list of a Reserve Component or assigned to the Inactive Army National Guard.


  • incapacitating agent A chemical agent, which produces temporary disabling conditions that can be physical or mental and persist for hours or days after exposure to the agent has ceased.


  • incident An occurrence, caused by either human action or natural phenomena, that requires action to prevent or minimize loss of life, or damage, loss of, or other risks to property, information, and/or natural resources. See also information operations.

   111

  • incident awareness and assessment --The Secretary of Defense approved use of Department of Defense intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance, and other intelligence capabilities for domestic non-intelligence support for defense support of civil authorities. Also called IAA


  • incident command system A standardized on-scene emergency management construct designed to aid in the management of resources during incidents. Also called ICS


  • incident management A national comprehensive approach to preventing, preparing for, responding to, and recovering from terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies.



  • indications In intelligence usage, information in various degrees of evaluation, all of which bear on the intention of a potential enemy to adopt or reject a course of action.


  • indicator 1. In intelligence usage, an item of information which reflects the intention or capability of an adversary to adopt or reject a course of action.

2. In operations security usage, data derived from friendly detectable actions and open-source information that an adversary can interpret and piece together to reach conclusions or estimates of friendly intentions, capabilities, or activities.

3. In the context of assessment, a specific piece of information that infers the condition, state, or existence of something, and provides a reliable means to ascertain performance or effectiveness.


  • indigenous populations and institutions The societal framework of an operational environment including citizens, legal and illegal immigrants, dislocated civilians, and governmental, tribal, ethnic, religious, commercial, and private organizations and entities. Also called IPI


  • individual mobilization augmentee An individual reservist attending drills who receives training and is preassigned to an Active Component organization, a Selective Service System, or a Federal Emergency Management Agency billet that must be filled on, or shortly after, mobilization. Also called IMA


  • individual protective equipment In chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear operations, the personal clothing and equipment required to protect an individual from chemical, biological, and radiological hazards and some nuclear hazards. Also called
  • IPE

112

  • Individual Ready Reserve A manpower pool consisting of individuals who have had some training or who have served previously in the Active Component or in the Selected Reserve, and may have some period of their military service obligation remaining. Also called
  • IRR See also Selected Reserve


  • industrial mobilization The transformation of industry from its peacetime activity to the industrial program necessary to support the national military objectives. See also
  • mobilization


  • industrial preparedness --The state of preparedness of industry to produce essential materiel to support the national military objectives.


  • industrial preparedness program Plans, actions, or measures for the transformation of the industrial base, both government-owned and civilian-owned, from its peacetime activity to the emergency program necessary to support the national military objectives.


  • inertial navigation system A self-contained navigation system using inertial detectors, which automatically provides vehicle position, heading, and velocity. Also called INS.


  • influence mine A mine actuated by the effect of a target on some physical condition in the vicinity of the mine or on radiations emanating from the mine. See also
  • mine.


  • influence sweep A sweep designed to produce an influence similar to that produced by a ship and thus actuate mines.


  • information environment The aggregate of individuals, organizations, and systems that collect, process, disseminate, or act on information.


  • information exchange requirement An exchange of information that is essential to command and control, enabling the situational needs of the joint task force and component commanders’ to support force employment and decision making. Also called
  • IER


  • information management The function of managing an organization’s information resources for the handling of data and information acquired by one or many different systems, individuals, and organizations in a way that optimizes access by all who have a share in that data or a right to that information. Also called IM.


 113

  • information operations force A force consisting of units, staff elements, individual military professionals in the Active and Reserve Components, and DOD civilian employees who conduct or directly support the integration of information-related capabilities against adversaries and potential adversaries during military operations as well as those who train these professionals. Also called IO force.



  • information-related capability A tool, technique, or activity employed within a dimension of the information environment that can be used to create effects and operationally desirable conditions. Also called IRC


  • information report --A report used to forward raw information collected to fulfill intelligence requirements.


  • information requirements In intelligence usage, those items of information regarding the adversary and other relevant aspects of the operational environment that need to be collected and processed in order to meet the intelligence requirements of a commander. Also called IR. See also priority intelligence requirement


  • information superiority The operational advantage derived from the ability to collect, process, and disseminate an uninterrupted flow of information while exploiting or denying an adversary’s ability to do the same. See also information operations


  • infrared imagery --That imagery produced as a result of sensing electromagnetic radiations emitted or reflected from a given target surface in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum

.


  • infrared pointer A low power laser device operating in the near infrared light spectrum that is visible with light amplifying night vision devices. Also called
  • IR pointer


  • initial radiation The radiation, essentially neutrons and gamma rays, resulting from a nuclear burst and emitted from the fireball within one minute after burst. See also
  • residual radiation


  • initial reception point In personnel recovery, a secure area or facility under friendly control where initial reception of recovered isolated personnel can safely take place.


114


  • initiating directive An order to a subordinate commander to conduct military operations as directed. Also called ID


  • injury --1.A term comprising such conditions as fractures, wounds, sprains, strains, dislocations, concussions, and compressions. 2. Conditions resulting from extremes of temperature or prolonged exposure. 3. Acute poisonings

resulting from exposure to a toxic or poisonous substance. See also


  • inland petroleum distribution system A multi-product system consisting of both commercially available and military standard petroleum equipment that can be assembled by military personnel and, when assembled into an integrated petroleum distribution system, provides the military with the capability required to support an operational force with bulk fuels. Also called IPDS



  • instrument approach procedure A series of predetermined maneuvers for the orderly transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight conditions from the beginning of the initial approach to a landing or to a point from which a landing may be made visually or the missed approach procedure is initiated.



  • instruments of national power All of the means available to the government in its pursuit of national objectives. They are expressed as diplomatic, economic, informational and military.


  • in support of --Assisting or protecting another formation, unit, or organization while remaining under original control.


  • insurgency The organized use of subversion and violence to seize, nullify, or challenge political control of a region. Insurgency can also refer to the group itself.

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  • integrated air and missile defense --The integration of capabilities and overlapping operations to defend the homeland and United States national interests, protect the joint force, and enable freedom of action by negating an enemy’s ability to create adverse effects from their air and missile capabilities. Also called IAMD


  • integrated consumable item support A decision support system that takes time-phased force and deployment data and calculates the ability of the Defense Logistics Agency to support those plans. Also called ICIS



  • integrated financial operations The integration, synchronization, prioritization, and targeting of fiscal resources and capabilities across United States departments and agencies, multinational partners, and nongovernmental organizations against an adversary and in support of the population. Also called IFO.


  • integrated logistic support A composite of all the support considerations necessary to assure the effective and economical support of a system for its life cycle. Also called
  • ILS


  • integrated materiel management The exercise of total Department of Defense-level management responsibility for a federal supply group or class, commodity, or item for a single agency, which normally includes computation of requirements, funding, budgeting, storing, issuing, cataloging, standardizing, and procuring functions. Also called
  • IMM



  • integration 1. In force protection, the synchronized transfer of units into an operational commander’s force prior to mission execution.

2. The arrangement of military forces and their actions to create a force that operates by engaging as a whole.

3. In photography, a process by which the average radar picture seen on several scans of the time base may be obtained on a print, or the process by which several photographic images are combined into a single image.

4. In intelligence usage, the application of the intelligence to appropriate missions, tasks, and functions. See also force protection


  • intelligence 1. The product resulting from the collection, processing, integration, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of available information concerning foreign nations, hostile or potentially hostile forces or elements, or areas of actual or potential operations. 2. The activities that result in the product. 3. The organizations engaged in 116such activities. See also [[acoustic intelligence all-source intelligence communications intelligence critical intelligence domestic intelligence electronic intelligence foreign intelligence foreign instrumentation signals intelligence general military intelligence imagery intelligence joint intelligence measurement and signature intelligence medical intelligence national intelligence open-source intelligence operational intelligence scientific and technical intelligence strategic intelligence tactical intelligence target intelligence technical intelligence]]


  • intelligence asset Any resource utilized by an intelligence organization for an operational support role.


  • intelligence community All departments or agencies of a government that are concerned with intelligence activity, either in an oversight, managerial, support, or participatory role. Also called IC



  • intelligence estimate The appraisal, expressed in writing or orally, of available intelligence relating to a specific situation or condition with a view to determining the courses of action open to the enemy or adversary and the order of probability of their adoption.


  • intelligence federation An agreement in which a combatant command joint intelligence operations center receives intelligence support from other joint intelligence centers, Service intelligence organizations, reserve organizations, and national agencies.


  • intelligence information report A formatted message utilized as the primary vehicle for providing human intelligence information to the customer via automated intelligence community databases. Also called IIR


  • intelligence interrogation The systematic process of using approved interrogation approaches to question a captured or detained person to obtain reliable information to satisfy intelligence requirements, consistent with applicable law.


  • intelligence mission management A systematic process by an intelligence staff to proactively and continuously formulate and revise command intelligence requirements and track the resulting information through the processing, exploitation, and dissemination process to satisfy user requirements. Also called IMM

 117


  • intelligence planning The intelligence component of the Adaptive Planning and Execution system, which coordinates and integrates all available Defense Intelligence Enterprise capabilities to meet combatant commander intelligence requirements. Also called
  • IP.




  • intelligence production The integration, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of information from single or multiple sources into finished intelligence for known or anticipated military and related national security consumer requirements.


  • intelligence report A specific report of information, usually on a single item, made at any level of command in tactical operations and disseminated as rapidly as possible in keeping with the timeliness of the information.


  • intelligence reporting Intelligence information prepared by the collector and transmitted to one or more intelligence-producing components.


  • intelligence requirement 1. Any subject, general or specific, upon which there is a need for the collection of information, or the production of intelligence. 2. A requirement for intelligence to fill a gap in the command’s knowledge or understanding of the operational environment or threat forces. Also called IR. See also
  • intelligence priority intelligence requirement


  • intelligence source --The means or system that can be used to observe and record information relating to the condition, situation, or activities of a targeted location, organization, or individual. See also intelligence source




  • intelligence system Any formal or informal system to manage data gathering, to obtain and process the data, to interpret the data, and to provide reasoned judgments to decision makers as a basis for action.



  • interagency coordination Within the context of Department of Defense involvement, the coordination that occurs between elements of Department of Defense, and participating United States Government departments and agencies for the purpose of achieving an objective.



  • interdiction 1. An action to divert, disrupt, delay, or destroy the enemy’s military surface capability before it can be used effectively against friendly forces, or to achieve enemy objectives. 2. In support of law enforcement, activities conducted to divert, disrupt, delay, intercept, board, detain, or destroy, under lawful authority, vessels, vehicles, aircraft, people, cargo, and money. See also air interdiction




  • intermodal Type of international freight system that permits transshipping among sea, highway, rail, and air modes of transportation through use of American National Standards Institute and International Organization for Standardization containers, line- haul assets, and handling equipment.

   119



  • internally displaced person Any person who has been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their home or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized state border. Also called IDP.




  • International Convention for Safe Containers --A convention held in Geneva, Switzerland, on 2 Dec 1972, which resulted in setting standard safety requirements for containers moving in international transport. These requirements were ratified by the United States on 3 January 1978. Also called
  • CSC


basis by offices or employees of the United States, contract technicians, and contractors, and the instruction may include correspondence courses technical, educational, or informational publications and media of all kinds. Also called IMET See also United States Military Service funded foreign


  • interoperability 1. The ability to act together coherently, effectively, and efficiently to achieve tactical, operational, and strategic objectives.

2. The condition achieved among communications-electronics systems or items of communications- electronics equipment when information or services can be exchanged directly and satisfactorily between them and/or their users.


  • interorganizational cooperation The interaction that occurs among elements of the Department of Defense participating United States Government departments and agencies state, territorial, local, and tribal agencies foreign military forces and government agencies international organizations nongovernmental organizations and the private sector.

120

  • interpretation A part of the analysis and production phase in the intelligence process in which the significance of information is judged in relation to the current body of knowledge. See also intelligence process


  • inter-Service support --Action by one Service or element thereof to provide logistics and/or administrative support to another Service or element thereof. See also
  • support


  • intertheater airlift The common-user airlift linking theaters to the continental United States and to other theaters as well as the airlift within the continental United States. See also intratheater airlift



  • in-transit visibility The ability to track the identity, status, and location of Department of Defense units, and non-unit cargo

and passengers patients and personal property from origin to consignee or destination across the range of military operations. Also called ITV





  • inventory control point --An organizational unit or activity within a Department of Defense supply system that is assigned the primary responsibility for the materiel inventory management of a group of items either for a particular Service or for the Defense Department as a whole. Also called
  • ICP


and electromagnetic

radiation of sufficient energy to displace electrons from atoms, producing ions.


  • irregular warfare A violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant population

. Also called IW

 121

  • isolated personnel United States military, Department of Defense civilians and contractor personnel

who are separated from their unit

while participating in a United States sponsored military activity or mission and are, or may be, in a situation where they must survive, evade, resist, or escape. See also combat search and rescue search and rescue



  • item manager An individual within the organization of an inventory control point or other such organization assigned management responsibility for one or more specific items of materiel.

122 123

  • J  
  • joint Connotes activities, operations, organizations, etc., in which elements of two or more Military Departments participate.


  • joint air attack team A combination of attack and/or scout rotary-wing aircraft and fixed- wing close air support aircraft operating together to locate and attack high priority targets and other targets of opportunity. Also called JAAT See also close air support.




  • joint air operations Air operations performed with air capabilities/forces made available by components in support of the joint force commander’s operation or campaign objectives, or in support of other components of the joint force.




  • joint base In base defense operations, a locality from which operations of two or more of the Military Departments are projected or supported and which is manned by significant elements of two or more Military Departments or in which significant elements of two or more Military Departments are located. See also base



124

  • joint combined exchange training A program conducted overseas to fulfill United States forces training requirements and at the same time exchange the sharing of skills between United States forces and host nation counterparts. Also called JCET


  • joint communications network The aggregation of the joint multichannel trunking and switching system and the joint command and control communications system

in a theater. Also called JCN



  • joint counterintelligence unit— An organization composed of Service and Department of Defense agency counterintelligence personnel that is formed under the authority of the Secretary of Defense, assigned to a combatant commander, and focused on strategic and operational counterintelligence missions. Also called JCIU.


  • joint data network operations officer The joint task force operations directorate officer responsible to the commander for integrating data from supporting components into a common database used to generate the common tactical picture. Also called JDNO



  • joint deployment and distribution enterprise The complex of equipment, procedures, doctrine, leaders, technical connectivity, information, shared knowledge, organizations, facilities, training, and materiel necessary to conduct joint distribution operations. Also called
  • JDDE



  • joint desired point of impact A unique, alpha-numeric coded precise aimpoint associated with a target to achieve an explicit weaponeering objective, and identified by a three dimensional

mensurated coordinate. Also called a


  • joint distribution --The operational process of synchronizing all elements of the joint logistic system using the Joint Deployment and Distribution Enterprise for end-to-end  125 movement of forces and materiel from point of origin to the designated point of need.



  • joint doctrine development community The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Services, the combatant commands, the Joint Staff, the combat support agencies, the doctrine development agencies of the Services and the joint community, the National Defense University, the United States Element, North American Aerospace Defense Command, the National Guard Bureau, and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff controlled activities. Also called JDDC.


  • Joint Doctrine Development System The system of lead agents, Joint Staff doctrine sponsors, primary review authorities, coordinating review authorities, technical review authorities, assessment agents, evaluation agents, Joint Doctrine Planning Conferences, procedures, and the hierarchical framework designed to initiate, develop, approve, and maintain joint publications.


  • Joint Doctrine Planning Conference A forum convened by the Joint Staff Directorate for Joint Force Development that meets semiannually to address and vote on project proposals discuss key joint doctrinal and operational issues discuss potential changes to the joint doctrine development process keep up to date on the status of the joint publication projects and emerging publications and keep abreast of other initiatives of interest to the members. Also called JDPC


  • joint document exploitation center An element, normally subordinate to the intelligence directorate of a joint staff, responsible for deriving intelligence information from captured documents including all forms of electronic data and other forms of stored textual and graphic information. Also called JDEC See also intelligence


  • joint electromagnetic spectrum management operations Those interrelated functions of frequency management, host nation coordination, and joint spectrum interference resolution that together enable the planning, management, and execution of operations within the electromagnetic operational environment during all phases of military operations. Also called JEMSMO


  • joint electromagnetic spectrum operations Those activities consisting of electronic warfare and joint electromagnetic spectrum management operations used to exploit, attack, protect, and manage the electromagnetic operational environment to achieve the commander’s objectives. Also called JEMSO

126

  • joint engagement zone In air and missile defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which multiple air and missile defense systems

are simultaneously employed to engage air and missile threats. Also called


  • joint facilities utilization board A joint board that evaluates and reconciles component requests for real estate, use of existing facilities, inter-Service support, and construction to ensure compliance with Joint Civil-Military Engineering Board priorities. Also called
  • JFUB


  • joint field office A temporary multiagency coordination center established at the incident site to provide a central location for coordination of federal, state, local, tribal, nongovernmental, and private-sector organizations with primary responsibility for incident oversight, direction, or assistance to effectively coordinate protection, prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery actions. Also called JFO


  • joint fires Fires delivered during the employment of forces from two or more components in coordinated action to produce desired effects in support of a common objective. See also fires



  • joint fires observer --A trained Service member who can request, adjust, and control surface-to-surface fires, provide targeting information in support of Type 2 and 3 close air support terminal attack control, and perform autonomous terminal guidance operations. Also called JFO.



  • joint force A force composed of elements, assigned or attached, of two or more Military Departments operating under a single joint force commander. See also
  • joint force commander


  • joint force air component commander --The commander within a unified command, subordinate unified command, or joint task force responsible to the establishing commander for recommending the proper employment of assigned, attached, and/or made available for tasking air forces planning and coordinating air operations or accomplishing such operational missions as may be assigned. Also called JFACC See also joint force commander

 127

  • joint force commander A general term applied to a combatant commander, subunified commander, or joint task force commander authorized to exercise combatant command

or operational control over a joint force. Also called


  • joint force land component commander The commander within a unified command, subordinate unified command, or joint task force responsible to the establishing commander for recommending the proper employment of assigned, attached, and/or made available for tasking land forces planning and coordinating land operations or accomplishing such operational missions as may be assigned. Also called JFLCC See also joint force commander


  • joint force maritime component commander --The commander within a unified command, subordinate unified command, or joint task force responsible to the establishing commander for recommending the proper employment of assigned, attached, and/or made available for tasking maritime forces and assets planning and coordinating maritime operations or accomplishing such operational missions as may be assigned. Also called JFMCC See also joint force commander


  • joint force special operations component commander The commander within a unified command, subordinate unified command, or joint task force responsible to the establishing commander for recommending the proper employment of assigned, attached, and/or made available for tasking special operations forces and assets planning and coordinating special operations or accomplishing such operational missions as may be assigned. Also called JFSOCC See also joint force commander


  • joint force surgeon A Department of Defense medical department officer appointed by the joint force commander to serve as the joint force special staff officer to establish, monitor, or evaluate joint force health services support. Also called JFS See also
  • health service support joint force


  • joint functions Related capabilities and activities placed into six basic groups of command and control, intelligence, fires, movement and maneuver, protection, and sustainment to help joint force commanders synchronize, integrate, and direct joint operations.


identified on a joint manning document by a supported combatant commander to augment headquarters operations during contingencies. Also called JIA


128

  • joint intelligence Intelligence produced by elements of more than one Service of the same nation.


  • joint intelligence architecture A dynamic, flexible structure that consists of the Defense Joint Intelligence Operations Center, combatant command joint intelligence operations centers, and subordinate joint task force intelligence operations centers or joint intelligence support elements to provide national, theater, and tactical commanders with the full range of intelligence required for planning and conducting operations. See also
  • intelligence


level, that is integrated with national intelligence centers, and capable of accessing all sources of intelligence impacting military operations planning, execution, and assessment. Also called JIOC





  • joint interface control officer The senior interface control officer for multi-tactical data link networks in the joint force who is responsible for development and validation of the architecture, joint interoperability and management of the multi-tactical data link networks, and overseeing operations of a joint interface control cell. Also called JICO



  • joint interrogation operations 1. Activities conducted by a joint or interagency organization to extract information for intelligence purposes from detainees. 2. Activities conducted in support of law enforcement efforts to adjudicate enemy combatants who are believed to have committed crimes against United States persons or property. Also called JIO

 129

  • joint land operations Land operations performed across the range of military operations with land forces made available by Service components in support of the joint force commander’s operation or campaign objectives, or in support of other components of the joint force.


  • joint land operations plan A plan for a connected series of joint land operations to achieve the joint force commander’s objectives within a given time and operational area.


  • joint logistics The coordinated use, synchronization, and sharing of two or more Military Departments’ logistic resources to support the joint force. See also logistics


  • joint logistics enterprise A multi-tiered matrix of key global logistics providers cooperatively engaged or structured to achieve a common purpose without jeopardizing the integrity of their own organizational missions and goals. Also called JLEnt


  • joint logistics operations center The current operations division within the logistics directorate of a joint staff, which monitors crises, exercises, and interagency actions and works acquisition and cross-servicing agreements as well as international logistics. Also called
  • JLOC See also
  • logistics




  • joint manpower program The policy, processes, and systems used in determination and prioritization within and among joint Service manpower requirements. Also called
  • JMP



130

  • joint mortuary affairs office Plans and executes all mortuary affairs programs within a theater. Provides guidance to facilitate the conduct of all mortuary programs and to maintain data

pertaining to recovery, identification, and disposition of all US dead and missing in the assigned theater. Serves as the central clearing point for all mortuary affairs and monitors the deceased and missing personal effects program. Also called


  • joint network operations control center An element of the communications system directorate of a joint staff established as the single control agency for the management and direction of the joint force communications systems. Also called JNCC


  • joint operations Military actions conducted by joint forces and those Service forces employed in specified command relationships with each other, which of themselves, do not establish joint forces.


  • joint operations area An area of land, sea, and airspace, defined by a geographic combatant commander or subordinate unified commander, in which a joint force commander

conducts military operations to accomplish a specific mission. Also called JOA See also area of responsibility joint special operations area


  • joint operations area forecast The official baseline meteorological and oceanographic forecast for operational planning and mission execution within the joint operations area. Also called JOAF


  • joint operations center A jointly manned facility of a joint force commander’s headquarters established to plan, monitor, and guide the execution of the commander’s decisions. Also called
  • JOC




  • joint personnel processing center A center established in an operational area by the appropriate joint force commander with the responsibility for the in-processing and out- processing of personnel upon their arrival in and departure from the theater. Also called
  • JPPC

 131


  • joint personnel training and tracking activity --The continental United States center established to facilitate the reception, accountability, processing, training, and onward movement of individual augmentees preparing for overseas movement to support a joint military operation. Also called JPTTA



  • joint planning and execution community Those headquarters, commands, and agencies involved in the training, preparation, mobilization, deployment, employment, support, sustainment, redeployment, and demobilization of military forces assigned or committed to a joint operation. Also called JPEC


  • joint planning group A planning organization consisting of designated representatives of the joint force headquarters principal and special staff sections, joint force components

, and other supporting organizations or agencies as deemed necessary by the joint force commander. Also called JPG See also joint planning


  • joint planning process An orderly, analytical process that consists of a logical set of steps to analyze a mission, select the best course of action, and produce a campaign or joint operation plan or order. Also called JPP See also joint planning


  • joint proponent A Service, combatant command, or Joint Staff directorate assigned coordinating authority to lead the collaborative development and integration of joint capability with specific responsibilities designated by the Secretary of Defense.


  • Joint Public Affairs Support Element A deployable unit assigned to assist a joint force commander in developing and training public affairs forces in joint, interagency, and multinational environments. Also called JPASE



  • joint reception coordination center An organization that, when established, ensures that Department of Defense personnel and noncombatant evacuees receive adequate assistance and support for an orderly and expedient debarkation, movement to final 132destination in the United States, and appropriate follow-on assistance at the final destination. Also called JRCC





  • joint security area A specific surface area, designated by the joint force commander to facilitate protection of joint bases and their connecting lines of communications that support joint operations. Also called JSA


  • joint security coordination center A joint operations center tailored to assist the joint security coordinator in meeting the security requirements in the joint operational area. Also called JSCC


  • joint security coordinator The officer with responsibility for coordinating the overall security of the operational area in accordance with joint force commander directives and priorities. Also called JSC


  • joint servicing --That function performed by a jointly staffed and financed activity in support of two or more Services.



  • joint special operations area An area of land, sea, and airspace assigned by a joint force commander to the commander of a joint special operations force to conduct special operations activities. Also called JSOA


  • joint special operations task force A joint task force composed of special operations units from more than one Service, formed to carry out a specific special operation or  133 prosecute special operations in support of a theater campaign or other operations. Also called
  • JSOTF


  • joint staff 1. The staff of a commander of a unified or specified command, subordinate unified command, joint task force, or subordinate functional component

, that includes members from the several Services comprising the force. 2.

The staff under the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff that assists the Chairman and the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in carrying out their responsibilities. Also called JS



  • Joint Strategic Planning System One of the primary means by which the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in consultation with the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the combatant commanders, carries out the statutory responsibilities to assist the President and Secretary of Defense in providing strategic direction to the Armed Forces. Also called JSPS


  • joint table of distribution --A manpower document that identifies the positions and enumerates the spaces that have been approved for each organizational element of a joint activity for a specific fiscal year

, and those accepted for the four subsequent fiscal years

. Also called



  • joint target list A consolidated list of selected targets, upon which there are no restrictions placed, considered to have military significance in the joint force commander’s operational area. Also called JTL See also joint target


  • joint task force A joint force that is constituted and so designated by the Secretary of Defense, a combatant commander, a subunified commander, or an existing joint task force commander. Also called
  • JTF


  • Joint Task Force-Civil Support A standing joint task force established to plan and integrate Department of Defense support to the designated lead federal agency for domestic chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives consequence management operations. Also called JTF-CS

134

Service member who, from a forward position, directs the action of combat aircraft engaged in close air support and other offensive air operations. Also called JTAC See also terminal attack control




  • joint urban operations Joint operations planned and conducted on, or against objectives within a topographical complex and its adjacent natural terrain, where man-made construction or the density of population are the dominant features. Also called JUOs See also joint operations


  • Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System The sensitive compartmented information portion of the Defense Information Systems Network, which incorporates advanced networking technologies that permit point-to-point or multipoint information exchange involving voice, text, graphics, data, and video teleconferencing. Also called
  • JWICS


  • judge advocateAn officer of the Judge Advocate General’s Corps of the Army, Air Force, or Navy, or officers of the Marine Corps or Coast Guard designated as a judge advocate. Also called JA


  • jumpmaster The assigned airborne qualified individual who controls paratroops from the time they enter the aircraft until they exit.

   135

, that cannot be vacated during war or national emergency.



  • key terrain --Any locality, or area, the seizure or retention of which affords a marked advantage to either combatant.


  • kill box A three-dimensional permissive fire support coordination measure with an associated airspace coordinating measure used to facilitate the integration of fires.

 136 137

to control vital land areas. See also sea control operations.


  • land domain The area of the Earth’s surface ending at the high water mark and overlapping with the maritime domain in the landward segment of the littorals.


  • land forces Personnel, weapon systems, vehicles, and support elements operating on land to accomplish assigned missions and tasks.


  • landing aid Any illuminating light, radio beacon, radar device, communicating device, or any system of such devices for aiding aircraft in an approach and landing.


  • landing area 1. That part of the operational area within which are conducted the landing operations of an amphibious force. 2. In airborne operations, the general area used for landing troops and materiel either by airdrop or air landing. 3. Any specially prepared or selected surface of land, water, or deck designated or used for takeoff and landing of aircraft. See also airfield amphibious force landing beach landing force


  • landing area diagram --A graphic means of showing, for amphibious operations, the beach designations, boat lanes, organization of the line of departure, scheduled waves, landing ship area, transport areas, and the fire support areas in the immediate vicinity of the boat lanes.


  • landing beach That portion of a shoreline required for the landing of an amphibious force.


  • landing craft --A craft employed in amphibious operations, specifically designed for carrying troops and their equipment and for beaching, unloading, retracting, and resupply operations.




  • landing diagram --A graphic means of illustrating the plan for the ship-to-shore movement.

138


  • landing force operational reserve material Package of contingency supplies pre- positioned and maintained onboard selected amphibious warfare ships to enhance reaction time and provide support for the embarked landing force in contingencies. Also called
  • LFORM



  • landing group In amphibious operations, a subordinate task organization of the landing force capable of conducting landing operations, under a single tactical command, against a position or group of positions.


  • landing plan In amphibious operations, a collective term referring to all individually prepared naval and landing force documents that, taken together, present in detail all instructions for execution of the ship-to-shore movement.


  • landing sequence table A document that incorporates the detailed plans for ship-to-shore movement of nonscheduled units.


  • landing signalman enlisted --Enlisted man responsible for ensuring that helicopters/tiltrotor aircraft, on signal, are safely started, engaged, launched, recovered, and shut down. Also called LSE



  • landing site 1. A site within a landing zone containing one or more landing points. See also airfield. 2. In amphibious operations, a continuous segment of coastline over which troops, equipment and supplies can be landed by surface means.



  • laser-guided weapon A weapon that uses a seeker to detect laser energy reflected from a laser marked/designated target and through signal processing provides guidance commands to a control system, which guides the weapon to the point from which the laser energy is being reflected. Also called LGW

   139

  • laser rangefinder A device that uses laser energy for determining the distance from the device to a place or object.


  • laser seeker --A device based on a direction-sensitive receiver that detects the energy reflected from a laser designated target and defines the direction of the target relative to the receiver. See also
  • laser-guided weapon


  • laser spot The area on a surface illuminated by a laser. See also spot


  • laser spot tracker A device that locks on to the reflected energy from a laser-marked or designated target and defines the direction of the target relative to itself. Also called
  • LST



  • latest arrival date A day, relative to C-Day, that is specified by the supported combatant commander as the latest date when a unit, resupply shipment, or replacement personnel can arrive at the port of debarkation and support the concept of operations. Also called
  • LAD


  • launch area denied The geographic area from which an enemy targeting a designated defended area cannot launch a ballistic missile without it being engaged by the ballistic missile defenses. Also called LAD


  • launch on remote Use of nonorganic sensor data or ballistic missile defense system track to launch a weapon, with additional data provided by a different sensor

to complete the engagement. Also called LOR


chartered and empowered to enforce US laws in the United States, a state or territory

of the United States, a federally recognized Native American tribe or Alaskan Native Village, or within the borders of a host nation. Also called




  • lead— In intelligence usage, a person with potential for exploitation, warranting additional assessment, contact, and/or development.


  • lead agency --The United States Government agency designated to coordinate the interagency oversight of the day-to-day conduct of an ongoing operation.

140

  • lead agent 1. An individual Service, combatant command, or Joint Staff directorate assigned to develop and maintain a joint publication.

2. In medical materiel management, the designated unit or organization to coordinate or execute day- to-day conduct of an ongoing operation or function. Also called LA


  • lead aircraft 1. The airborne aircraft designated to exercise command of other aircraft within the flight. 2. An aircraft in the van of two or more aircraft.


  • lead federal agency The federal agency that leads and coordinates the overall federal response to an emergency. Also called LFA


  • lead nation The nation with the will, capability, competence, and influence to provide the essential elements of political consultation and military leadership to coordinate the planning, mounting, and execution of a multinational operation. See also logistic support multinational force


  • lead Service or agency for common-user logistics A Service component or Department of Defense agency that is responsible for execution of common-user item or service support in a specific combatant command or multinational operation as defined in the combatant or subordinate joint force commander’s operation plan, operation order, and/or directives. See also common-user logistics


  • letter of assist A contractual document issued by the United Nations to a government authorizing it to provide goods or services to a peacekeeping operation. Also called
  • LOA See also peacekeeping


  • letter of authorization A document issued by the procuring contracting officer or designee that authorizes contractor personnel authorized to accompany the force to travel to, from, and within the operational area and, outlines government furnished support authorizations within the operational area. Also called LOA


  • letter of offer and acceptance Standard Department of Defense form on which the United States Government documents its offer to transfer to a foreign government or international organization United States defense articles and services via foreign military sales pursuant to the Arms Export Control Act. Also called LOA See also
  • foreign military sales


  • level of detail Within the current joint planning and execution system, movement characteristics for both personnel and cargo are described at six distinct levels of detail. Levels I, V, and VI describe personnel and Levels I through IV and VI for cargo. Levels I through IV are coded and visible in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System automated data processing. Levels V and VI are used by Joint Operation Planning and Execution System automated data processing feeder systems. a.
  • level I- personnel: expressed as total number of passengers by unit line number. Cargo: expressed in total short tons, total measurement tons, total square feet, and total thousands of barrels by unit line number. Petroleum, oils, and lubricants is expressed by thousands of barrels  141 by unit line number. b.
  • level II - cargo: expressed by short tons and measurement tons of bulk, oversize, outsize, and non-air transportable cargo by unit line number. Also square feet for vehicles and non self-deployable aircraft and boats by unit line number. c.
  • level III - cargo: detail by cargo category code expressed as short tons and measurement tons as well as square feet associated to that cargo category code for an individual unit line number. d.
  • level IV - cargo: detail for individual dimensional data expressed in length, width, and height in number of inches, and weight/volume in short tons/measurement tons, along with a cargo description. Each cargo item is associated with a cargo category code and a unit line number)-->. e.
  • level V - personnel: any general summarization/aggregation of level VI detail in distribution and deployment. f.
  • level VI - personnel: detail expressed by name, Service, military occupational specialty and unique identification number. Cargo: detail expressed by association to a transportation control number or single tracking number or item of equipment to include federal stock number/national stock number and/or requisition number. Nested cargo, cargo that is contained within another equipment item, may similarly be identified. Also called
  • JOPES level of detail


  • leverage In the context of planning, a relative advantage in combat power and/or other circumstances against the enemy or adversary across any variable within or impacting the operational environment sufficient to exploit that advantage. See also operational art operational design


  • L-hour— 1.The specific hour on C-day at which a deployment operation commences or is to commence.

2. In amphibious operations, the time at which the first helicopter or tiltrotor aircraft of the airborne ship-to-shore movement wave touches down or is scheduled to touch down in the landing zone.


  • life cycle --The total phases through which an item passes from the time it is initially developed until the time it is either consumed in use or disposed of as being excess to all known materiel requirements.


  • lighterage The process in which small craft are used to transport cargo or personnel from ship-to-shore using amphibians, landing craft, discharge lighters, causeways, and barges.


  • limitation An action required or prohibited by higher authority, such as a constraint or a restraint, and other restrictions that limit the commander’s freedom of action, such as diplomatic agreements, rules of engagement, political and economic conditions in affected countries, and host nation issues. See also constraint restraint


  • limiting factor A factor or condition that, either temporarily or permanently, impedes mission accomplishment.


  • line of communications A route, either land, water, and/or air, that connects an operating military force with a base of operations and along which supplies and military forces move. Also called
  • LOC

142

  • line of demarcation A line defining the boundary of a buffer zone used to establish the forward limits of disputing or belligerent forces after each phase of disengagement or withdrawal has been completed. See also buffer zone peace operations


  • line of departure 1. In land warfare, a line designated to coordinate the departure of attack elements. Also called LD

2. In amphibious operations, a suitably marked offshore coordinating line, which is located at the seaward end of a boat lane, to assist in the landing of landing craft and amphibious vehicles on designated beaches at the scheduled times. Also called LOD


to focus efforts toward establishing operational and strategic conditions by linking multiple tasks and missions. Also called LOE


  • line of operation A line that defines the interior or exterior orientation of the force in relation to the enemy or that connects actions on nodes and/or decisive points related in time and space to an objective

. Also called LOO


  • link --1. A behavioral, physical, or functional relationship between nodes. 2. In communications, a general term used to indicate the existence of communications facilities between two points. 3. A maritime route, other than a coastal or transit route that connects any two or more routes together. See also node


  • listening watch --A continuous receiver watch established for the reception of communication addressed to, or of interest to, the unit maintaining the watch, with complete log optional.


  • littoral The littoral comprises two segments of operational environment: 1. Seaward: the area from the open ocean to the shore, which must be controlled to support operations ashore. 2. Landward: the area inland from the shore that can be supported and defended directly from the sea.


  • loading plan All of the individually prepared documents which, taken together, present in detail all instructions for the arrangement of personnel, and the loading of equipment for one or more units or other special grouping of personnel or material moving by highway, water, rail, or air transportation.



  • locate --In personnel recovery, the task where actions are taken to precisely find and authenticate the identity of isolated personnel.

   143

  • lodgment A designated area in a hostile or potentially hostile operational area that, when seized and held, makes the continuous landing of troops and materiel possible and provides maneuver space for subsequent operations.


  • logistics Planning and executing the movement and support of forces.




  • logistic support Support that encompasses the logistic services, materiel, and transportation required to support the continental United States-based and worldwide deployed forces.


  • logistics supportability analysis Combatant command internal assessment for the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan on capabilities and shortfalls of key logistic capabilities required to execute and sustain the concept of support conducted on all level three plans with the time phased force deployment data. Also called LSA.


  • low-altitude missile engagement zone In air and missile defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air and missile threats normally rests with low- to medium-altitude surface-to-air missiles. Also called
  • LOMEZ


  • low-level transit route A temporary corridor of defined dimensions established in the forward area to minimize the risk to friendly aircraft from friendly air defenses or surface forces. Also called LLTR


  • low velocity drop A drop procedure in which the drop velocity does not exceed 30 feet per second.


  • low-visibility operations --Sensitive operations wherein the diplomatic-military restrictions inherent in covert and clandestine operations are either not necessary or not feasible actions are taken as required to limit exposure of those involved and/or their activities and with the knowledge that the action and/or sponsorship of the operation may preclude plausible denial by the initiating power.

   144    145

  • M  
  • magnetic mine A mine that responds to the magnetic field of a target.


  • mail embargo A temporary shutdown or redirection of mail flow to or from a specific location.


  • main operating base A facility outside the United States and US territories with permanently stationed operating forces and robust infrastructure. Main operating bases are characterized by command and control structures, enduring family support facilities, and strengthened force protection measures. Also called MOB See also cooperative security location;
  • forward operating site


  • main supply route The route or routes designated within an operational area upon which the bulk of traffic flows in support of military operations. Also called MSR


  • maintenance 1. All action, including inspection, testing, servicing, classification as to serviceability, repair, rebuilding, and reclamation, taken to retain materiel in a serviceable condition or to restore it to serviceability. 2. All supply and repair action taken to keep a force in condition to carry out its mission. 3. The routine recurring work required to keep a facility in such condition that it may be continuously used at its original or designed capacity and efficiency for its intended purpose.


  • major force A military organization comprised of major combat elements and associated combat support, combat service support, and sustainment increments.


conducted by combat forces, coordinated in time and place, to achieve strategic or operational objectives in an operational area. 2. For noncombat operations, a reference to the relative size and scope of a military operation. See also operation


  • maneuver 1. A movement to place ships, aircraft, or land forces in a position of advantage over the enemy. 2. A tactical exercise carried out at sea, in the air, on the ground, or on a map in imitation of war. 3. The operation of a ship, aircraft, or vehicle, to cause it to perform desired movements. 4. Employment of forces in the operational area through movement in combination with fires to achieve a position of advantage in respect to the enemy. See also mission operation


  • manpower management The means of manpower control to ensure the most efficient and economical use of available manpower.


146


  • Marine Corps special operations forces Those Active Component Marine Corps forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called MARSOF


, crewed by civilian mariners. Also called


  • maritime domain The oceans, seas, bays, estuaries, islands, coastal areas, and the airspace above these, including the littorals.


  • maritime domain awareness The effective understanding of anything associated with the maritime domain that could impact the security, safety, economy, or environment of a nation. Also called MDA.


  • maritime environment The environment corresponding to the oceans, seas, bays, estuaries, islands, coastal areas, including the littorals and their sub-surface features, and interfaces and interactions with the atmosphere.


  • maritime forces Forces that operate on, under, or above the sea to gain or exploit command of the sea, sea control, or sea denial and/or to project power from the sea.


  • maritime interception operations Efforts to monitor, query, and board merchant vessels in international waters to enforce sanctions against other nations such as those in support of United Nations Security Council Resolutions and/or prevent the transport of restricted goods. Also called MIO


  • maritime power projection Power projection in and from the maritime environment, including a broad spectrum of offensive military operations to destroy enemy forces or logistic support or to prevent enemy forces from approaching within enemy weapons’ range of friendly forces.


   147


  • maritime security operations Those operations to protect maritime sovereignty and resources and to counter maritime-related terrorism, weapons proliferation, transnational crime, piracy, environmental destruction, and illegal seaborne migration. Also called MSO


  • Maritime Security Program A program authorized in the Maritime Security Act of 2003 requiring the Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, to establish a fleet of active, commercially viable, militarily useful, privately-owned vessels to meet national defense and other security requirements. Also called MSP


  • maritime superiority That degree of dominance of one force over another that permits the conduct of maritime operations by the former and its related land, maritime, and air forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force.


  • maritime supremacy That degree of maritime superiority wherein an opposing force is incapable of effective interference.



  • marking To maintain contact on a target from such a position that the marking unit has an immediate offensive capability.


  • marshalling 1. The process by which units participating in an amphibious or airborne operation group together or assemble when feasible or move to temporary camps in the vicinity of embarkation points, complete preparations for combat, or prepare for loading. 2. The process of assembling, holding, and organizing supplies and/or equipment, especially vehicles of transportation, for onward movement. See also
  • staging area


  • marshalling area --A location in the vicinity of a reception terminal or pre-positioned equipment storage site where arriving unit personnel, equipment, materiel, and accompanying supplies are reassembled, returned to the control of the unit commander, and prepared for onward movement. See also marshalling


148

  • mass casualty Any number of human casualties produced across a period of time that exceeds available medical support capabilities. See also casualty


  • massed fire 1. The fire of the batteries of two or more ships directed against a single target. 2. Fire from a number of weapons directed at a single point or small area.


  • master --The commander of a United States Naval Ship, a commercial ship, or a government-owned general agency agreement ship operated for the Military Sealift Command by a civilian company to transport Department of Defense cargo.




  • materiel All items necessary to equip, operate, maintain, and support military activities without distinction as to its application for administrative or combat purposes. See also
  • equipment personal property


  • materiel inventory objective The quantity of an item required to be on hand and on order on M-day in order to equip, provide a materiel pipeline, and sustain the approved United States force structure and those Allied forces designated for United States materiel support, through the period prescribed for war materiel planning purposes.


  • materiel planning A subset of logistic planning consisting of the four-step process of: a.
  • requirements definition Requirements for significant items are calculated at item- level detail to support sustainability planning and analysis. b.
  • apportionment Items are apportioned to the combatant commanders based on a global scenario to avoid sourcing of items to multiple theaters. c.
  • sourcing Sourcing is the matching of available capabilities on a given date against item requirements to support sustainability analysis and the identification of locations to support transportation planning. d.
  • documentation Sourced item requirements are translated into movement requirements and documented in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System database for transportation feasibility analysis.


  • materiel release order --An order issued by an accountable supply system manager directing a non-accountable activity within the same supply distribution complex to release and ship materiel. Also called MRO


  • materiel requirements Those quantities of items of equipment and supplies necessary to equip, provide a materiel pipeline, and sustain a Service, formation, organization, or unit in the fulfillment of its purposes or tasks during a specified period.

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  • maximum ordinate In artillery and naval gunfire support, the height of the highest point in the trajectory of a projectile above the horizontal plane passing through its origin. Also called
  • vertex heightand
  • MAXORD


  • M-day Mobilization day unnamed day on which mobilization of forces begins.



  • Measurement and Signature Intelligence Requirements System A system for the management of theater and national measurement and signature intelligence collection requirements, providing automated tools for users in support of submission, review, and validation of measurement and signature intelligence nominations of requirements to be tasked for national and Department of Defense measurement and signature intelligence collection, production, and exploitation resources. Also called MRS See also
  • measurement and signature intelligence


  • measurement ton The unit of volumetric measurement of equipment associated with surface-delivered cargo equal to the total cubic feet divided by 40. Also called MTON



  • measure of performance An indicator used to measure a friendly action that is tied to measuring task accomplishment. Also called MOP


  • mechanical sweep In naval mine warfare, any sweep used with the object of physically contacting the mine or its appendages.


  • media operations center A facility established by the commander to serve as the focal point for the interface between the military and the media during the conduct of military operations. Also called MOC


  • media pool A limited number of news media who represent a larger number of news media organizations for purposes of news gathering and sharing of material during a specified activity. See also public affairs


  • medical civil-military operations All military health- and veterinary-related activities in support of a commander that establish, enhance, maintain or influence relations between the force and host nation, multinational governmental and nongovernmental civilian organizations and authorities, and the civilian populace to facilitate military operations, 150achieve United States operational objectives, and positively impact the health, agriculture, and economic sectors. Also called MCMO


  • medical intelligence That category of intelligence resulting from collection, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of foreign medical, bio-scientific, and environmental information that is of interest to strategic planning and to military medical planning and operations for the conservation of the fighting strength of friendly forces and the formation of assessments of foreign medical capabilities in both military and civilian sectors. Also called MEDINT See also intelligence


  • medical intelligence preparation of the operational environment A systematic continuing process, used by the National Center for Medical Intelligence, that analyzes information on medical and disease threats, enemy capabilities, terrain, weather, local medical infrastructure, potential humanitarian and dislocated civilian situations, transportation issues, and political, religious and social issues for all types of operations. Also called MIPOE


, optical fabrication, medical equipment maintenance, blood storage and distribution, and medical gases.   Also called



  • medical surveillance The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data derived from instances of medical care or medical evaluation, and the reporting of population-based information for characterizing and countering threats to a population’s health, well-being, and performance. See also surveillance


  • medical treatment facility A facility established for the purpose of furnishing medical and/or dental care to eligible individuals. Also called MTF


  • medical treatment protocol --Directive issued by competent military authority that delineate the circumstances and limitations under which United States medical forces will initiate medical care and support to those individuals that are not Department of Defense health care beneficiaries or designated eligible for care in a military medical treatment facility by the Secretary of Defense.


 151

  • mensuration The process of measurement of a feature or location on the earth to determine an absolute latitude, longitude, and elevation.


  • message --1.Any thought or idea expressed briefly in a plain or secret language and prepared in a form suitable for transmission by any means of communication.

2. A narrowly focused communication directed at a specific audience to support a specific theme. Also called MSG.


  • meteorological and oceanographic A term used to convey all environmental factors, from the sub-bottom of the Earth’s oceans through maritime, land areas, airspace, ionosphere, and outward into space. Also called METOC


  • meteorological and oceanographic assessment The assimilation of climatology, current and predictive meteorological and oceanographic conditions, and knowledge on limiting thresholds for friendly and adversary military capabilities tactics, techniques, and procedures mission profiles and weapon systems into a tailored product for planning and decision-making processes.



  • meteorological and oceanographic information Actionable information to include meteorological, climatological, oceanographic, and space environment observations, analyses, prognostic data or products, and meteorological and oceanographic effects.


  • meteorology The study dealing with the phenomena of the atmosphere including the physics, chemistry, and dynamics extending to the effects of the atmosphere on the Earth’s surface and the oceans.



belongs to a normally migratory culture who may cross national boundaries, or

has fled his or her native country for economic reasons rather than fear of political or ethnic persecution.


  • military assistance advisory group A joint Service group, normally under the military command of a commander of a unified command and representing the Secretary of Defense, which primarily administers the US military assistance planning and programming in the host country. Also called
  • MAAG.


  • Military Assistance Program That portion of the US security assistance authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of l961, as amended, which provides defense articles and services to recipients on a nonreimbursable

basis. Also called MAP

152

  • military civic action --Programs and projects managed by United States forces but executed primarily by indigenous military or security forces that contribute to the economic and social development of a host nation civil society thereby enhancing the legitimacy and social standing of the host nation government and its military forces. Also called MCA


  • military construction --Any construction, alteration, development, conversion, or extension of any kind carried out with respect to a military installation. Also called
  • MILCON


  • military deception Actions executed to deliberately mislead adversary military, paramilitary, or violent extremist organization decision makers, thereby causing the adversary to take specific actions

that will contribute to the accomplishment of the friendly mission. Also called MILDEC



  • military engagement Routine contact and interaction between individuals or elements of the Armed Forces of the United States and those of another nation’s armed forces, or foreign and domestic civilian authorities or agencies to build trust and confidence, share information, coordinate mutual activities, and maintain influence.


  • military government The supreme authority the military exercises by force or agreement over the lands, property, and indigenous populations and institutions of domestic, allied, or enemy territory therefore substituting sovereign authority under rule of law for the previously established government.


  • Military Health System Provides direction, resources, health care providers, and other means necessary to foster, protect, sustain, and restore health to Service members and other beneficiaries. Also called MHS


  • military information support operations --Planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, groups, and individuals in a manner favorable to the originator’s objectives. Also called
  • MISO


   153

  • military intervention The deliberate act of a nation or a group of nations to introduce its military forces into the course of an existing controversy.


  • military occupation A condition in which territory is under the effective control of a foreign armed force.


  • Military Postal Service The command, organization, personnel, and facilities established to provide a means for the transmission of mail to and from the Department of Defense, members of the United States Armed Forces, and other authorized agencies and individuals. Also called MPS



  • military post office A branch of a designated United States-based post office established by United States Postal Service authority and operated by one of the Services. Also called
  • MPO


  • Military Sealift Command A major command of the United States Navy reporting to Commander Fleet Forces Command, and the United States Transportation Command’s component command responsible for designated common-user sealift transportation services to deploy, employ, sustain, and redeploy United States forces on a global basis. Also called MSC See also transportation component command







  • military technician --A Federal civilian employee providing full-time support to a National Guard, Reserve, or Active Component organization for administration, 154training, and maintenance of the Selected Reserve. Also called
  • MILTECH


  • mine 1.In land mine warfare, a munition placed under, on or near the ground or other surface area and designed to be exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person or vehicle. 2. In naval mine warfare, an explosive device laid in the water with the intention of damaging or sinking ships or of deterring shipping from entering an area. See also mine warfare



  • minefield --1. In land warfare, an area of ground containing mines emplaced with or without a pattern. 2. In naval warfare, an area of water containing mines emplaced with or without a pattern. See also mine mine warfare


  • minefield record A complete written record of all pertinent information concerning a minefield, submitted on a standard form by the officer in charge of the emplacement operations.


  • minefield report --An oral, electronic, or written communication concerning mining activities

submitted in a standard format by the fastest secure means available.


  • minehunting --Employment of air, surface, or subsurface sensor and neutralization systems to locate and dispose of individual mines in a known field, or to verify the presence or absence of mines in a given area. See also
  • minesweeping


  • minesweeping --The technique of clearing mines using either mechanical sweeping to remove, disturb, or otherwise neutralize the mine explosive sweeping to cause sympathetic detonations, damage, or displace the mine or influence sweeping to produce either the acoustic or magnetic influence required to detonate the mine. See also
  • minehunting


  • mine warfare --The strategic, operational, and tactical use of mines and mine countermeasures either by emplacing mines to degrade the enemy’s capabilities to wage land, air, and maritime warfare or by countering of enemy-emplaced mines to permit friendly maneuver or use of selected land or sea areas. Also called MIW


  • minimize --A condition wherein normal message and telephone traffic is drastically reduced in order that messages connected with an actual or simulated emergency shall not be delayed.


  • minimum force Those minimum actions, including the use of armed force, sufficient to bring a situation under control or to defend against a hostile act or hostile intent, where the firing of weapons is to be considered as a means of last resort.

 155

  • minimum-risk route A temporary corridor of defined dimensions recommended for use by high-speed, fixed-wing aircraft that presents the minimum known hazards to low- flying aircraft transiting the combat zone. Also called
  • MRR


  • missile defense Defensive measures designed to destroy attacking enemy missiles, or to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of such attack. Also called MD


  • missile engagement zone In air and missile defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air and missile threats normally rests with surface-to-air missile systems. Also called MEZ


  • mission 1. The task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason therefore.

2. In common usage, especially when applied to lower military units, a duty assigned to an individual or unit a task.

3. The dispatching of one or more aircraft to accomplish one particular task.


  • mission assignment The vehicle used by the Department of Homeland Security/Emergency Preparedness and Response/Federal Emergency Management Agency to support federal operations in a Stafford Act major disaster or emergency declaration that orders immediate, short-term emergency response assistance when an applicable state or local government is overwhelmed by the event and lacks the capability to perform, or contract for, the necessary work.


  • mission command The conduct of military operations through decentralized execution based upon mission-type orders.




  • mission statement A short sentence or paragraph that describes the organization’s essential task

, purpose, and action containing the elements of who, what, when, where, and why. See also mission


  • mission type order 1. An order issued to a lower unit that includes the accomplishment of the total mission assigned to the higher headquarters. 2. An order to a unit to perform a mission without specifying how it is to be accomplished.

156

  • mobile security force A highly mobile and dedicated security force with the capability to defeat Level I and II threats in a joint security area. Also called MSF


  • mobility A quality or capability of military forces which permits them to move from place to place while retaining the ability to fulfill their primary mission.


  • mobility air forces Air components and Service components that are assigned and/or routinely exercise command authority over mobility operations. Also called MAF.


  • mobility corridor --Areas that are relatively free of obstacles where a force will be canalized due to terrain restrictions allowing military forces to capitalize on the principles of mass and speed.


  • mobilization 1. The process of assembling and organizing national resources to support national objectives in time of war or other emergencies. See also industrial mobilization 2. The process by which the Armed Forces of the United States or part of them are brought to a state of readiness for war or other national emergency, which includes activating all or part of the Reserve Component as well as assembling and organizing personnel, supplies, and materiel. Also called MOB


  • mobilization base The total of all resources available, or that can be made available, to meet foreseeable wartime needs.



  • mobilization station The designated military installation to which a Reserve Component unit or individual is moved for further processing, organizing, equipping, training, and employment and from which the unit or individual may move to an aerial port of embarkation or seaport of embarkation. See also
  • mobilization mobilization site Reserve Component


  • mode of transport --One of, or a combination of, the following modes used for a movement: a. inland surface transportation
b. sea transport
c. air transportation and d. pipelines.


  • Modernized Integrated Database The national-level repository for the general military intelligence available to the entire Department of Defense Intelligence Information System community and, through Global Command and Control System integrated imagery and intelligence, to tactical units. Also called MIDB



  • moored mine A contact or influence-operated mine of positive buoyancy held below the surface by a mooring attached to a sinker or anchor on the bottom. See also
  • mine.


  • morale, welfare, and recreation The merging of multiple unconnected disciplines into programs that improve unit readiness, promote fitness, build unit morale and cohesion, enhance quality of life, and provide recreational, social, and other support services. Also called
  • MWR


  • mortuary affairs Provides forthe search for, recovery, identification, preparation, and disposition of human remains of persons for whom the Services are responsible by status and executive order. Also called MA See also
  • joint mortuary affairs office


  • mounting1. All preparations made in anticipation of an operation, including assembly in the mounting area, preparation and maintenance within the mounting area, movement to loading points, and subsequent embarkation into ships, craft, or aircraft if applicable. 2. A carriage or stand upon which a weapon is placed.


  • mounting area A general locality where assigned forces of an amphibious or airborne operation, with their equipment, are assembled, prepared, and loaded in ships and/or aircraft preparatory to an assault. See also
  • embarkation area.



  • movement control team An Army team used to decentralize the execution of movement responsibilities on an area basis or at key transportation nodes. Also called
  • MCT


  • movement data --Those essential elements of information to schedule lift, obtain transportation assets, manage movement of forces, and report in-transit visibility of movements and associated forces

.


  • movement group --Those ships and embarked units that load out and proceed to rendezvous in the objective area.


158


  • movement requirement --A stated movement mode and time-phased need for the transport of units, personnel, and/or materiel from a specified origin to a specified destination.


  • movement schedule --A timetable developed to monitor or track the movement of a separate entity, whether it is a force requirement, cargo or personnel increment, or lift asset, that reflects the assignment of specific lift resources, shows a flow and workload at each location, and supports plan implementation.


  • movement table A table giving detailed instructions or data for a move.


  • movement to contact A form of the offense designed to develop the situation and to establish or regain contact.


  • multinational Between two or more forces or agencies of two or more nations or coalition partners. See also alliance


  • multinational doctrine --The agreed upon fundamental principles that guide the employment of forces of two or more nations in coordinated action toward a common objective. See also
  • joint doctrine





  • multinational logistics Any coordinated logistic activity involving two or more nations supporting a multinational force conducting military operations under the auspices of an alliance or coalition, including those conducted under United Nations mandate. Also called
  • MNL. See also logistics multinational

 159

  • multinational operations A collective term to describe military actions conducted by forces of two or more nations, usually undertaken within the structure of a coalition or alliance. See also alliance



  • multipoint refueling system KC-135 aircraft equipped with external wing-mounted pods to conduct drogue air refueling, while still maintaining boom air refueling capability on the same mission. See also air refueling


  • multi-Service publication A publication containing principles, terms, tactics, techniques, and procedures used and approved by the forces of two or more Services to perform a common military function consistent with approved joint doctrine.


  • multispot ship Those ships certified to have two or more adjacent landing areas. See also spot


  • munition A complete device charged with explosives propellants pyrotechnics initiating composition or chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear material for use in operations including demolitions.


  • munitions effectiveness assessment The assessment of the military force applied in terms of the weapon system and munitions effectiveness to determine and recommend any required changes to the methodology, tactics, weapon system, munitions, fusing, and/or weapon delivery parameters to increase force effectiveness. Also called MEA See also assessment battle damage assessment


160 161

  • N  
  • named area of interest --The geospatial area or systems node or link against which information that will satisfy a specific information requirement can be collected, usually to capture indications of adversary courses of action. Also called NAI See also area of interest



  • National Capital Region A geographic area encompassing the District of Columbia and eleven local jurisdictions in the State of Maryland and the Commonwealth of Virginia. Also called NCR


  • National Communications System The telecommunications system that results from the technical and operational integration of the separate telecommunications systems of the several executive branch departments and agencies having a significant telecommunications capability. Also called
  • NCS


  • National Defense Reserve Fleet --1. Including the Maritime Administration Ready Reserve Force, a fleet composed of ships acquired and maintained by the Maritime Administration for use in mobilization or emergency. 2. Less the Maritime Administration Ready Reserve Force, a fleet composed of the older dry cargo ships, tankers, troop transports, and other assets in Maritime Administration’s custody that are maintained at a relatively low level of readiness. Also called
  • NDRF See also
  • Maritime Administration Ready Reserve Force


  • National Detainee Reporting Center The national-level center that accounts for all persons who pass through the care, custody, and control of the Department of Defense and that obtains and stores information concerning detainees and their confiscated personal property. Also called NDRC


  • National Disaster Medical System A federally coordinated medical system, augmenting the United States’ medical response capability to assist state, local, and tribal authorities in dealing with medical impacts during major peacetime disasters. Also called NDMS


  • national emergency A condition declared by the President or the Congress by virtue of powers previously vested in them that authorize certain emergency actions to be undertaken in the national interest. See also
  • mobilization


  • National Incident Management System A national crisis response system that provides a consistent, nationwide approach for federal, state, local, and tribal governments the private sector and nongovernmental organizations to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity. Also called NIMS

162

  • national intelligence All intelligence that pertains to more than one agency and involves threats to the United States, its people, property, or interests the development, proliferation, or use of weapons of mass destruction or any other matter bearing on United States national or homeland security.


  • National Military Command System The priority component of the Global Command and Control System designed to support the President, Secretary of Defense, and Joint Chiefs of Staff in the exercise of their responsibilities. Also called NMCS



  • national operations center The primary national hub for domestic incident management operational coordination and situational awareness. Also called NOC


  • national policy --A broad course of action or statements of guidance adopted by the government at the national level in pursuit of national objectives.


  • national preparedness Actions taken to plan, organize, equip, train, and exercise to build and sustain the capabilities necessary to prevent, protect against, mitigate the effects of, respond to, and recover from those threats that pose the greatest risk to the security of the nation.


  • national security --A collective term encompassing both national defense and foreign relations of the United States with the purpose of gaining: a. A military or defense advantage over any foreign nation or group of nations b. A favorable foreign relations position or c. A defense posture capable of successfully resisting hostile or destructive action from within or without, overt or covert. See also
  • security


  • National Security Council --A governmental body specifically designed to assist the President in integrating all spheres of national security policy. Also called
  • NSC


  • national security interests --The foundation for the development of valid national objectives that define United States goals or purposes.


  • national security space The space-related systems, services, capabilities, and associated information networks of the Department of Defense and the national intelligence community, or other space-related systems that the Secretary of Defense may designate as national security space systems in coordination with the system owner, that support United States national security and enable defense and intelligence operations during times of peace, crisis, or conflict.



  • national shipping authority --The organization within each Allied government responsible in time of war for the direction of its own merchant shipping. Also called
  • NSA


  • national special security event A designated event that, by virtue of its political, economic, social, or religious significance, may be the target of terrorism or other criminal activity. Also called NSSE


  • national stock number The 13-digit number that identifies a stock item consisting of the 4-digit federal supply classification code plus the 9-digit national item identification number and arranged as follows: 9999-00-999-9999. Also called NSN



  • National System for Geospatial Intelligence The combination of technology, policies, capabilities, doctrine, activities, people, data, and organizations necessary to produce geospatial intelligence in an integrated, multi-intelligence environment. Also called
  • NSG





  • naval beach group A permanently organized naval command within an amphibious force composed of a commander and staff, a beachmaster unit, an amphibious construction battalion, and assault craft units, designed to provide an administrative group from which required naval tactical components may be made available to the attack force commander and to the amphibious landing force commander. Also called NBG See also
  • shore party


  • naval construction force The combined construction units of the Navy that are part of the operating forces and represent the Navy’s capability for advanced base construction. Also called NCF

164



that may be strategic, operational, tactical, logistic, or training. 2. The process of carrying on or training for naval combat to gain the objectives of any battle or campaign.


  • naval special warfare A naval warfare specialty that conducts special operations with an emphasis on maritime, coastal, and riverine environments using small, flexible, mobile units operating under, on, and from the sea. Also called NSW


  • naval special warfare group A permanent Navy echelon III major command to which most naval special warfare forces are assigned for some operational and all administrative purposes.


  • naval special warfare task group A provisional naval special warfare organization that plans, conducts, and supports special operations in support of fleet commanders and joint force special operations component commanders. Also called
  • NSWTG




  • navigation warfare Deliberate defensive and offensive action to assure and prevent positioning, navigation, and timing information through coordinated employment of space, cyberspace, and electronic warfare operations. Also called NAVWAR


  • Navy cargo-handling battalion A mobile logistic support unit that is organized, trained, and equipped to: a. load and offload Navy and Marine Corps cargo carried in maritime pre-positioning ships and merchant breakbulk or container ships in all environments b. operate an associated temporary ocean cargo terminal c. load and off-load Navy and Marine Corps cargo carried in military-controlled aircraft and d. operate an associated expeditionary air cargo terminal. Also called NCHB See also maritime pre- positioning ships

 165

  • Navy expeditionary logistics support group A Navy Reserve command organized and staffed to provide a wide range of supply and transportation support critical for peacetime support, crisis response, humanitarian, and combat service support missions. Also called NAVELSG


  • Navy special operations forces --Those Active and Reserve Component Navy forces designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called NAVSOF


  • Navy support element --The maritime pre-positioning force element that is tasked to conduct the off-load and ship-to-shore movement of maritime pre-positioned equipment and/or supplies. Also called NSE


  • Navy-unique fleet essential aircraft Combatant commander-controlled airlift assets deemed essential for providing air transportation in support of naval operations’ transportation requirements. Also called NUFEA


  • need to know --A criterion used in security procedures that requires the custodians of classified information to establish, prior to disclosure, that the intended recipient must have access to the information to perform his or her official duties.


  • negation In space operations, measures to deceive, disrupt, degrade, deny, or destroy space systems. See also space control


  • nerve agent A potentially lethal chemical agent that interferes with the transmission of nerve impulses.


  • net explosive weight The actual weight in pounds of explosive mixtures or compounds, including the trinitrotoluene equivalent of energetic material, that is used in determination of explosive limits and explosive quantity data arcs. Also called NEW


  • networked munitions Remotely controlled, interconnected, weapons systems designed to provide rapidly emplaced ground-based countermobility and protection capability through scalable application of lethal and nonlethal means.


  • network engagement Interactions with friendly, neutral, and threat networks, conducted continuously and simultaneously at the tactical, operational, and strategic levels, to help achieve the commander’s objectives within an operational area.


  • neutral In combat and combat support operations, an identity applied to a track whose characteristics, behavior, origin, or nationality indicate that it is neither supporting nor opposing friendly forces. See also suspect unknown

166

  • neutrality In international law, the attitude of impartiality during periods of war adopted by third states toward a belligerent and subsequently recognized by the belligerent, which creates rights and duties between the impartial states and the belligerent.


  • neutralize 1. As pertains to military operations, to render ineffective or unusable. 2. To render enemy personnel or materiel incapable of interfering with a particular operation. 3. To render safe mines, bombs, missiles, and booby traps. 4. To make harmless anything contaminated with a chemical agent.



  • night vision goggle An electro-optical image intensifying device that detects visible and near-infrared energy, intensifies the energy, and provides a visible image for night viewing. Also called
  • NVG See also
  • night vision device


  • node 1. A location in a mobility system where a movement requirement is originated, processed for onward movement, or terminated.

2. In communications and computer systems, the physical location that provides terminating, switching, and gateway access services to support information exchange.

3. An element of a system that represents a person, place, or physical thing.


  • no-fire area An area designated by the appropriate commander into which fires or their effects are prohibited. Also called NFA See also fires


  • nonappropriated funds Funds generated by Department of Defense personnel and their dependents used to augment funds appropriated by the Congress to provide a comprehensive, morale-building welfare, religious, educational, and recreational programs. Also called NAF


  • nonbattle injury A person who becomes a casualty due to circumstances not directly attributable to hostile action or terrorist activity. Also called NBI


  • noncombatant evacuation operation An operation whereby noncombatant evacuees are evacuated from a threatened area abroad, which includes areas facing actual or potential danger from natural or manmade disaster, civil unrest, imminent or actual terrorist activities, hostilities, and similar circumstances, that is carried out with the assistance of the Department of Defense. Also called NEO See also evacuation noncombatant evacuees operation safe haven


  • noncombatant evacuation operation tracking system An automated data processing hardware and software package that has the capability to provide evacuee in-transit visibility to combatant commanders and senior leadership during the conduct of a noncombatant evacuation operation. Also called NTS

 167

  • noncombatant evacuees 1. United States citizens who may be ordered to evacuate by competent authority, and who are civilian employees of all agencies of the United States Government and their dependents, excepting dependents who are residents in the country concerned of their own volition military personnel of the Armed Forces of the United States specifically designated for evacuation as noncombatants and dependents of members of the Armed Forces of the United States. 2. United States citizens and non-United States citizens who may be authorized or assisted to evacuate by competent authority, and who are civilian employees of United States Government agencies and their dependents who are residents in the country concerned of their own volition, but express the willingness to be evacuated private United States citizens and their dependents military personnel of the Armed Forces of the United States and their dependents and designated personnel, including dependents of persons ordered to evacuate, as prescribed by the Department of State. See also noncombatant evacuation operation


  • nonconventional assisted recovery Personnel recovery conducted by indigenous/surrogate personnel that are trained, supported, and led by special operations forces, unconventional warfare ground and maritime forces, or other government agencies’ personnel that have been specifically trained and directed to establish and operate indigenous or surrogate infrastructures. Also called NAR



  • nongovernmental organization A private, self-governing, not-for-profit organization dedicated to alleviating human suffering and/or promoting education, health care, economic development, environmental protection, human rights, and conflict resolution and/or encouraging the establishment of democratic institutions and civil society. Also called NGO


  • nonlethal weapon A weapon that is explicitly designed and primarily employed so as to incapacitate personnel or materiel, while minimizing fatalities, permanent injury to personnel, and undesired damage to property and the environment.


  • nonpersistent agent --A chemical agent that when released dissipates and/or loses its ability to cause casualties after 10 to 15 minutes.


  • nonpersistent mine Mine that remains active for a predetermined period of time until self-destruction, self-neutralization, or self-deactivation renders the mine inactive.


  • nonproliferation Actions to prevent the acquisition of weapons of mass destruction by dissuading or impeding access to, or distribution of, sensitive technologies, material, and expertise. See also counterproliferation

168

  • nonscheduled units Units of the landing force held in readiness for landing during the initial unloading period, but not included in either scheduled or on-call waves.


  • non-unit cargo All equipment and supplies requiring transportation to an operational area, other than those identified as the equipment or accompanying supplies of a specific unit.

.

  • non-unit-related personnel --All personnel requiring transportation to or from an operational area, other than those assigned to a specific unit. Also called NRP.


  • no-strike list A list of objects or entities characterized as protected from the effects of military operations under international law and/or rules of engagement. Also called
  • NSL See also law of armed conflict


  • not mission capable, supply Material condition indicating that systems and equipment are not capable of performing any of their assigned missions because of maintenance work stoppage due to a supply shortage. Also called
  • NMCS


  • nuclear incident --An unexpected incident involving a nuclear weapon, facility, or component, but not constituting a nuclear weapon

accident, resulting in any of the following: a. an increase in the possibility of explosion or radioactive contamination b. errors committed in the assembly, testing, loading, or transportation of equipment, and/or the malfunctioning of equipment and materiel which could lead to an unintentional operation of all or part of the weapon arming and/or firing sequence, or which could lead to a substantial change in yield, or increased dud probability and c. any act of God, unfavorable environment, or condition resulting in damage to the weapon, facility, or component.



  • numbered beach In amphibious operations, a subdivision of a colored beach, designated for the assault landing of a battalion landing team or similarly sized unit, when landed as part of a larger force.


  • numbered fleet A major tactical unit of the Navy immediately subordinate to a major fleet command and comprising various task forces, elements, groups, and units for the purpose of prosecuting specific naval operations. See also
  • fleet

     169

  • O  
  • object-based production The intelligence communities’ framework for organizing and sharing information, relating data from all sources to known objects

. Also called OBP


  • objective 1. The clearly defined, decisive, and attainable goal toward which an operation is directed. 2. The specific goal of the action taken which is essential to the commander’s plan. See also target


  • objective area --A geographical area, defined by competent authority, within which is located an objective to be captured or reached by the military forces. Also called OA


  • observable In military deception, the detectable result of the combination of an indicator within an adversary’s conduit intended to cause action or inaction by the deception target.


  • obstacle Any natural or man-made obstruction designed or employed to disrupt, fix, turn, or block the movement of an opposing force, and to impose additional losses in personnel, time, and equipment on the opposing force.


  • obstacle belt --A brigade-level command and control measure, normally depicted graphically, to show where within an obstacle zone the ground tactical commander plans to limit friendly obstacle employment and focus the defense. See also
  • obstacle




  • obstacle zone A division-level command and control measure to designate specific land areas where lower echelons are allowed to employ tactical obstacles. See also
  • obstacle


  • oceanography The study of the sea, embracing and integrating all knowledge pertaining to the sea and its physical boundaries, the chemistry and physics of seawater, and marine biology.


170


  • offensive counterintelligence operation— A counterintelligence activity conducted to support Department of Defense and national intelligence, operational, and contingency requirements, using a formally-recruited asset or notional persona, to develop information on, and provide information, materials, or equipment to, a foreign intelligence entity to penetrate the foreign intelligence entity or exploit, disrupt, or manipulate the target in order to counter terrorism, espionage, or other clandestine intelligence activities that threaten the security of the Department of Defense or the United States. Also called OFCO.




  • office An enduring organization that is formed around a specific function within a headquarters to coordinate and manage support requirements.


  • officer in tactical command In maritime usage, the senior officer present eligible to assume command, or the officer to whom the senior officer has delegated tactical command. Also called OTC


  • officer of the deck 1. When underway, the officer designated by the commanding officer to be in charge of the ship, including its safe and proper operation. 2. When in port or at anchor, the officer of the deck is designated by the command duty officer, has similar responsibilities, and may be enlisted. Also called
  • OOD


  • official information Information that is owned by, produced for or by, or is subject to the control of the United States Government.




 171

  • off-the-shelf item --An item that has been developed and produced to military or commercial standards and specifications, is readily available for delivery from an industrial source, and may be procured without change to satisfy a military requirement.


  • on-call --1. A term used to signify that a prearranged concentration, air strike, or final protective fire may be called for. 2. Preplanned, identified force or materiel requirements without designated time-phase and destination information.



  • on hand The quantity of an item that is physically available in a storage location and contained in the accountable property book records of an issuing activity.


  • on-scene commander 1. An individual in the immediate vicinity of an isolating event who temporarily assumes command of the incident. 2. The federal officer designated to direct federal crisis and consequence management efforts at the scene of a terrorist or weapons of mass destruction incident. Also called OSC


  • on-station time The time an aircraft can remain on station, which may be determined by endurance or orders.



  • open-source information Information that any member of the public could lawfully obtain by request or observation as well as other unclassified information that has limited public distribution or access.


  • open-source intelligence Relevant information derived from the systematic collection, processing, and analysis of publicly available information in response to known or anticipated intelligence requirements. Also called
  • OSINT See also
  • intelligence


  • operating stocks Fuel required to sustain daily operations and ensure fuel availability to support United States military forces worldwide. Also called OS


  • operation 1. A sequence of tactical actions with a common purpose or unifying theme.

2. A military action or the carrying out of a strategic, operational, tactical, service, training, or administrative military mission.

.172

  • operational access --The ability to project military force into an operational area with sufficient freedom of action to accomplish the mission.


  • operational approach A broad description of the mission, operational concepts, tasks, and actions required to accomplish the mission.


for geographic areas in which military operations are conducted. Also called OA See also amphibious objective area area of operations area of responsibility joint operations area joint special operations area theater of operations theater of war


  • operational art The cognitive approach by commanders and staffs — supported by their skill, knowledge, experience, creativity, and judgment — to develop strategies, campaigns, and operations to organize and employ military forces by integrating ends, ways, and means.


  • operational characteristics Those military characteristics that pertain primarily to the functions to be performed by equipment, either alone or in conjunction with other equipment e.g., for electronic equipment, operational characteristics include such items as frequency coverage, channeling, type of modulation, and character of emission.


  • operational contract support The process of planning for and obtaining supplies, services, and construction from commercial sources in support of joint operations. Also called
  • OCS.



  • operational control --The authority to perform those functions of command over subordinate forces involving organizing and employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving authoritative direction necessary to accomplish the mission. Also called OPCON See also [[combatant command combatant command
tactical control]]


  • operational control authority --The naval commander responsible within a specified geographical area for the naval control of all merchant shipping under Allied naval control. Also called OCA.


 173


  • operational energy The energy required for training, moving, and sustaining military forces and weapons platforms for military operations.


  • operational environment A composite of the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the employment of capabilities and bear on the decisions of the commander. Also called OE





  • operational necessity A mission associated with war or peacetime operations in which the consequences of an action justify the risk of loss of aircraft and crew. See also
  • mission




  • operational reach --The distance and duration across which a force can successfully employ military capabilities.


  • operational readiness --The capability of a unit/formation, ship, weapon system, or equipment to perform the missions or functions for which it is organized or designed. Also called OR


  • operational support airlift Airlift movements of high-priority passengers and cargo with time, place, or mission-sensitive requirements. Also called
  • OSA

174

  • operation and maintenance --Maintenance and repair of real property, operation of utilities, and provision of other services such as refuse collection and disposal, entomology, snow removal, and ice alleviation. Also called O&M


  • operation assessment 1. A continuous process that measures the overall effectiveness of employing capabilities during military operations in achieving stated objectives. 2. Determination of the progress toward accomplishing a task, creating a condition, or achieving an objective.


  • operation order A directive issued by a commander to subordinate commanders for the purpose of effecting the coordinated execution of an operation. Also called OPORD


  • operation plan A complete and detailed plan containing a full description of the concept of operations, all annexes applicable to the plan, and a time-phased force and deployment list. Also called OPLAN See also operation order





  • operations security assessment An evaluative process to determine the likelihood that critical information can be protected from the adversary’s intelligence.



  • operations security indicators Friendly detectable actions and open-source information that can be interpreted or pieced together by an adversary to derive critical information.


 175

  • operations security survey A collection effort by a team of subject matter experts to reproduce the intelligence image projected by a specific operation or function simulating hostile intelligence processes.


  • operations security vulnerability --A condition in which friendly actions provide operations security indicators that may be obtained and accurately evaluated by an adversary in time to provide a basis for effective adversary decision making.


  • operations support element An element that conducts all administrative, operations support, and services support functions within the counterintelligence and human intelligence staff element of an intelligence directorate. Also called OSE


  • ordered departure 1. A procedure by which the number of United States Government personnel, their dependents, or both are reduced at a foreign service post. 2. Mandatory departure of some or all categories of personnel and dependents to designated safe havens as directed by the Department of State, with the implementation of the theater evacuation plan.


  • order of battle The identification, strength, command structure, and disposition of the personnel, units, and equipment of any military force. Also called OB OOB


  • ordnance Explosives, chemicals, pyrotechnics, and similar stores, e.g., bombs, guns and ammunition, flares, smoke, or napalm.


  • ordnance handling Applies to those individuals who engage in the breakout, lifting, or repositioning of ordnance or explosive devices in order to facilitate storage or stowage, assembly or disassembly, loading or downloading, or transporting.


  • organic Assigned to and forming an essential part of a military organization as listed in its table of organization for the Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, and are assigned to the operating forces for the Navy.



176




  • originator --The command by whose authority a message is sent, which includes the responsibility for the functions of the drafter and the releasing officer.


  • oscillating mine A hydrostatically controlled mine that maintains a pre-set depth below the surface of the water independent of the rise and fall of the tide. See also
  • mine




2. Within geospatial intelligence, a capability that provides on-demand, persistent, global, and/or localized coverage of high- to low-intensity infrared events to detect energy radiation from various tactical to strategic objects. Also called OPIR


  • overpressure The pressure resulting from the blast wave of an explosion referred to as “positive” when it exceeds atmospheric pressure and “negative” during the passage of the wave when resulting pressures are less than atmospheric pressure.



  • oversized cargo 1. Large items of specific equipment such as a barge, side loadable warping tug, causeway section, powered, or causeway section, nonpowered that require transport by sea. 2. Air cargo exceeding the usable dimension of a 463L pallet loaded to the design height of 96 inches, but equal to or less than 1,000 inches in length, 117 inches in width, and 105 inches in height. See also outsized cargo

   177


  • overt— Activities that are openly acknowledged by, or are readily attributable to, the United States Government, including those designated to acquire information through legal and open means without concealment through the use of observation, elicitation, or from knowledgeable human sources.


178 179

  • P  
  • packup kit Service-provided maintenance gear sufficient for a short-term deployment, including spare parts and consumables most commonly needed by the deployed helicopter detachment. Supplies are sufficient for a short-term deployment but do not include all material needed for every maintenance task. Also called PUK


  • parallel chains of command In amphibious operations, a parallel system of command, responding to the interrelationship of participating forces, wherein corresponding commanders are established at each subordinate level of all components to facilitate coordinated planning for, and execution of, the amphibious operation.


  • paramilitary forces Armed forces or groups distinct from the conventional armed forces of any country, but resembling them in organization, equipment, training, or mission.


or by the President

to mobilize Ready Reserve Component units, individual reservists, and the resources needed for their support to meet the requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an external threat to the national security.


  • partner nation 1. A nation that the United States works with in a specific situation or operation.

2. In security cooperation, a nation with which the Department of Defense conducts security cooperation activities. Also called PN


  • passage of lines --An operation in which a force moves forward or rearward through another force’s combat positions with the intention of moving into or out of contact with the enemy.


  • passive defense Measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative. See also
  • active defense



  • patient movement items --The medical equipment and supplies required to support patients during aeromedical evacuation, which is part of a standardized list of approved safe-to-fly equipment. Also called PMIs

180


  • patient movement requirements center 1. A joint activity that coordinates patient movement by functionally merging of joint medical regulating processes, Services’ medical regulating processes, and patient movement evacuation requirements planning

. 2. Term used to represent any theater, joint, or the Global Patient Movement Requirements Center function. Also called PMRC




  • peacekeeping Military operations undertaken, with the consent of all major parties to a dispute, designed to monitor and facilitate implementation of an agreement

and support diplomatic efforts to reach a long-term political settlement. See also peace building peace enforcement peacemaking peace operations



  • peace operations Multiagency and multinational crisis response and limited contingency operations involving all instruments of national power with military missions to contain conflict, redress the peace, and shape the environment to support reconciliation and rebuilding and facilitate the transition to legitimate governance. Also called PO See also peace building peace enforcement peacekeeping and peacemaking


  • performance work statement A statement of work for performance based acquisitions that describe the results in clear, specific, and objective terms with measurable outcomes. Also called PWS


  • permissive environment Operational environment in which host country military and law enforcement agencies have control, as well as the intent and capability to assist operations that a unit intends to conduct.

   181

  • persistent agent A chemical agent that, when released, remains able to cause casualties for more than 24 hours to several days or weeks.


  • persistent mine A land mine, other than nuclear or chemical, that is not designed to self- destruct is designed to be emplaced by hand or mechanical means and can be buried or surface emplaced.




  • personal property --Property of any kind or any interest therein, except real property, records of the United States Government, and naval vessels of the following categories: surface combatants, support ships, and submarines.



  • personal staff --Aides and staff officers handling special matters over which the commander wishes to exercise close personal control.




  • personnel Individuals required in either a military or civilian capacity to accomplish the assigned mission.


  • personnel accountability The process of identifying, capturing, and recording the personal identification information of an individual usually through the use of a database.


  • personnel effects inventory officer An officer appointed to establish clear chain of custody for all personal effects of an individual from the time they establish control of the effects until they release the effect to mortuary affairs personnel. Also called PEIO

182




  • personnel services support Service-provided sustainment activities that support a Service member during both exercises and operations. Also called PSS



  • phase In planning, a definitive stage of a campaign or operation during which a large portion of the forces and capabilities are involved in similar or mutually supporting activities for a common purpose.


  • phase line A line utilized for control and coordination of military operations, usually an easily identified feature in the operational area. Also called PL


  • phony minefield An area free of live mines used to simulate a minefield, or section of a minefield, with the object of deceiving the enemy. See also
  • minefield




  • physical security1. That part of security concerned with physical measures designed to safeguard personnel to prevent unauthorized access to equipment, installations, material, and documents and to safeguard them against espionage, sabotage, damage, and theft.

2. In communications security, the component that results from all physical measures necessary to safeguard classified equipment, material, and documents from access thereto or observation thereof by unauthorized persons. See also


  • placement— An individual’s proximity to information of intelligence interest.

 183

  • plan for landing In amphibious operations, a collective term referring to all individually prepared naval and landing force documents which, taken together, present in detail all instructions for execution of the ship-to-shore movement.



  • planning and direction In intelligence usage, the determination of intelligence requirements, development of appropriate intelligence architecture, preparation of a collection plan, and issuance of orders and requests to information collection agencies. See also intelligence process


  • planning factor A multiplier used in planning to estimate the amount and type of effort involved in a contemplated operation.



  • planning order A planning directive that provides essential planning guidance and directs the development, adaptation, or refinement of a plan/order. Also called
  • PLANORD


  • planning phase In amphibious operations, the phase normally denoted by the period extending from the issuance of the initiating directive up to the embarkation phase. See also amphibious operation


  • planning team A functional element within a headquarters established to solve problems related to a specific task or requirement, and which dissolves upon completion of the assigned task.


  • point defense The defense or protection of special vital elements and installations e.g., command and control facilities or air bases.


  • pointee-talkee --A language aid containing selected phrases in English opposite a translation in a foreign language used by pointing to appropriate phrases. See also
  • evasion aid


  • point of employment In distribution operations, a physical location designated by the commander at the tactical level where force employment, emplacement, or commodity consumption occurs.

184

  • point of need In distribution operations, a physical location within a desired operational area designated by the geographic combatant commander or subordinate commander as a receiving point for forces or materiel, for subsequent use or consumption.


  • point of origin --In distribution operations, the beginning point of a deployment, redeployment, or movement where forces or materiel are located.


  • polar orbit A satellite orbit that passes over the North and South Poles on each orbit, has an angle of inclination relative to the equator of 90 degrees, and eventually passes over all points on the Earth.


  • population at risk The strength in personnel of a given force structure in terms of which casualty rates are stated. Also called PAR


  • port complex One or more port areas in which activities are geographically linked either because these areas are dependent on a common inland transport system or because they constitute a common initial destination for convoys.





  • port security The safeguarding of vessels, harbors, ports, waterfront facilities, and cargo from internal threats such as destruction, loss, or injury from sabotage or other subversive acts accidents thefts or other causes of similar nature. See also physical security security


  • port support activity A tailorable support organization composed of mobilization station assets that ensures the equipment of the deploying units is ready to load. Also called
  • PSA See also support


  • positive control --A method of airspace control that relies on positive identification, tracking, and direction of aircraft within an airspace, conducted with electronic means by an agency having the authority and responsibility therein.


  • positive identification An identification derived from observation and analysis of target characteristics including visual recognition, electronic support systems, non-  185 cooperative target recognition techniques, identification friend or foe systems, or other physics-based identification techniques. Also called PID


  • post-launch abort Deliberate action taken post-separation to cause a precision munition to miss its target. Also called PLA.


  • precipitation static --Charged precipitation particles that strike antennas and gradually charge the antenna, which ultimately discharges across the insulator, causing a burst of static. Also called P-STATIC


. Also called PTTI.



  • preferred forces Specific units that are identified to provide assumptions essential for continued planning and assessing the feasibility of a plan.


  • prelanding operations Operations conducted by the amphibious force upon its arrival in the amphibious objective area or operational area and prior to H-hour and/or L-hour.


  • preparation of the environment An umbrella term for operations and activities conducted by selectively trained special operations forces to develop an environment for potential future special operations. Also called PE


  • prepare to deploy order An order issued directing an increase in a unit’s deployability posture and specifying a timeframe the unit must be ready by to begin deployment upon receipt of a deployment order. Also called PTDO



  • pre-position To place military units, equipment, or supplies at or near the point of planned use or at a designated location to reduce reaction time, and to ensure timely support of a specific force during initial phases of an operation.



  • presail The time prior to a ship getting under way used to prepare for at-sea events.

186

that provides the President a means to activate, without a declaration of national emergency, not more than 200,000 members of the Selected Reserve and the Individual Ready Reserve

, for not more than 365 days to meet the requirements of any operational mission, other than for disaster relief or to suppress insurrection. Also called


  • pressure mine 1. In land mine warfare, a mine having a fuze that responds to the direct pressure of a target. 2. In naval mine warfare, a mine having a circuit that responds to the hydrodynamic pressure field of a target. See also mine


  • prevention of mutual interference In submarine operations, procedures established to prevent submerged collisions between friendly submarines between submarines and friendly, surface ship-towed bodies and arrays and between submarines, unmanned systems, and any other hazards to submerged navigation. Also called PMI


  • preventive maintenance Care and service of equipment and facilities in satisfactory operating condition by systematic inspection, detection, and correction of incipient failures either before they occur or before they develop into major defects.


  • preventive medicine The anticipation, communication, prediction, identification, prevention, education, risk assessment, and control of communicable diseases illnesses and exposure to endemic, occupational, and environmental threats. Also called
  • PVNTMED


  • primary agency The federal department or agency assigned primary responsibility for managing and coordinating a specific emergency support function in the National Response Framework.


  • primary control officer In amphibious operations, the officer embarked in a primary control ship assigned to control the movement of landing craft, amphibious vehicles, and landing ships to and from a colored beach. Also called PCO


  • primary control ship In amphibious operations, a ship of the task force designated to provide support for the primary control officer and a combat information center control team for a colored beach. Also called PCS



  • primary review authority The organization, within the lead agent's chain of command, that is assigned by the lead agent to perform the actions and coordination necessary to  187 develop and maintain the assigned joint publication under the cognizance of the lead agent. Also called PRA See also joint publication lead agent


  • prime contract A contract or contractual action entered into by the United States Government for the purpose of obtaining supplies, materials, equipment, or services of any kind.


  • prime vendor A contracting process that provides commercial products to regionally grouped military and federal customers from commercial distributors using electronic commerce. Also called PV See also distribution system


  • principal federal official The federal official designated by the Secretary of Homeland Security to act as his/her representative locally to oversee, coordinate, and execute the Secretary’s incident management responsibilities under Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5. Also called PFO


  • principal officer The officer in charge of a diplomatic mission, consular office, or other foreign service post, such as a United States liaison office.


  • priority designator --A two-digit issue and priority code placed in military standard requisitioning and issue procedure requisitions to provide a means of assigning relative rankings to competing demands placed on the Department of Defense supply system. Also called PD



who, while engaged in combat under orders of his or her government, is captured by the armed forces of the enemy. Also called


  • private sector An umbrella term that may be applied to any or all of the nonpublic or commercial individuals and businesses, specified nonprofit organizations, most of academia and other scholastic institutions, and selected nongovernmental organizations.



  • probability of damage The probability that damage will occur to a target expressed as a percentage or as a decimal. Also called PD

188

  • procedural control --A method of airspace control which relies on a combination of previously agreed and promulgated orders and procedures.


  • procedural identification An identification based on observation and analysis of target behaviors including location and trajectory, as well as compliance with airspace control measures.



  • procedure word A word or phrase limited to radio telephone procedure used to facilitate communication by conveying information in a condensed standard form. Also called
  • proword


  • processing A system of operations designed to convert raw data into useful information.



  • process owner The head of a Department of Defense component assigned a responsibility by the Secretary of Defense when process improvement involves more than one Service or Department of Defense component.


  • procurement lead time The interval in time between the initiation of procurement action and receipt of the products or services purchased as the result of such actions.



  • production base --The total national industrial production capacity available for the manufacture of items to meet materiel requirements.


  • production requirement An intelligence requirement that cannot be met by current analytical products resulting in tasking to produce a new product that can meet this intelligence requirement. Also called PR.


  • production requirements matrix A compilation of prioritized combatant command all- source intelligence analysis and production requirements that support all phases of a plan. Also called PRMx


  • prolonged field care The continued delivery of medical care prior to patient movement beyond the holding capability of that role of care.

   189

  • proof In mine warfare, to verify that a breached lane is free of live mines by passing a mine roller or other mine-resistant vehicle through as the lead vehicle.


  • protected emblems The red cross, red crescent, and other symbols that designate that persons, places, or equipment so marked have a protected status under the law of war.


  • protected frequencies Friendly, generally time-oriented, frequencies used for a particular operation, identified and protected to prevent them from being inadvertently jammed by friendly forces while active electronic warfare operations are directed against hostile forces. See also electronic warfare


and places

that enjoy special protections under the law of war and which may or may not be marked with protected emblems.


  • protection 1. Preservation of the effectiveness and survivability of mission-related military and nonmilitary personnel, equipment, facilities, information, and infrastructure deployed or located within or outside the boundaries of a given operational area.

2. In space usage, active and passive defensive measures to ensure that United States and friendly space systems perform as designed by seeking to overcome an adversary's attempts to negate them and to minimize damage if negation is attempted. See also mission-oriented protective posture space control


  • protection of shipping The use of proportionate force, when necessary for the protection of United States flag vessels and aircraft, United States citizens

, and their property against unlawful violence..


  • protective clothing --Clothing especially designed, fabricated, or treated to protect personnel against hazards.


  • protective minefield 1. In land mine warfare, a minefield employed to assist a unit in its local, close-in protection. 2. In naval mine warfare, a minefield emplaced in friendly territorial waters to protect ports, harbors, anchorages, coasts, and coastal routes. See also minefield


  • provincial reconstruction team A civil-military team designed to improve stability in a given area by helping build the legitimacy and effectiveness of a host nation local or provincial government in providing security to its citizens and delivering essential government services. Also called PRT


190


  • public affairs assessment An analysis of the news media and public environments to evaluate the degree of understanding about strategic and operational objectives and military activities and to identify levels of public support. See also assessment public affairs



  • public information Within public affairs, information of a military nature, the dissemination of which is consistent with security and approved for public release.

   191

  • Q  
  • Q-route A system of preplanned shipping lanes in mined or potentially mined waters used to minimize the area the mine countermeasures commander has to keep clear of mines in order to provide safe passage for friendly shipping.


  • quadruple container A 57.5 inches x 96 inches x 96 inches container box with a metal frame, pallet base, and International Organization for Standardization corner fittings four of these boxes can be lashed together to form a 20-foot American National Standards Institute or International Organization for Standardization intermodal container. Also called QUADCON

192    193

  • R  
  • radiation dose The total amount of ionizing radiation absorbed by material or tissues.



  • radiation exposure status Criteria to assist the commander in measuring unit exposure to radiation based on total past cumulative dose, normally expressed in centigray. Also called
  • RES


  • radio frequency countermeasures Any device or technique employing radio frequency materials or technology that is intended to impair the effectiveness of enemy activity, particularly with respect to precision guided weapons and sensor systems. Also called
  • RF CM


  • radiological dispersal device An improvised assembly or process, other than a nuclear explosive device, designed to disseminate radioactive material in order to cause destruction, damage, or injury. Also called RDD



  • raid An operation to temporarily seize an area in order to secure information, confuse an enemy, capture personnel or equipment, or to destroy a capability culminating with a planned withdrawal.


  • railhead A point on a railway where loads are transferred between trains and other means of transport.


  • Rangers --Rapidly deployable airborne light infantry organized and trained to conduct highly complex joint direct action operations in coordination with or in support of other special operations units of all Services.


  • rapid global mobility The timely movement, positioning, and sustainment of military forces and capabilities across the range of military operations. See also mobility


  • rationalization Any action that increases the effectiveness of allied forces through more efficient or effective use of defense resources committed to the alliance.


  • reachback The process of obtaining products, services, and applications, or forces, or equipment, or material from organizations that are not forward deployed.


194

  • Ready Reserve The Selected Reserve and Individual Ready Reserve liable for active duty as prescribed by law

. See also active duty Individual Ready Reserve Selected Reserve


  • Realistic Military Training --Department of Defense training conducted off federal property utilizing private or non-federal public property and infrastructure.


  • real property --Lands, buildings, structures, utilities systems, improvements, and appurtenances, thereto that includes equipment attached to and made part of buildings and structures, but not movable equipment.



.


  • reception 1. All ground arrangements connected with the delivery and disposition of air or sea drops. 2. Arrangements to welcome and provide secure quarters or transportation for defectors, escapees, evaders, or incoming agents. 3. The process of receiving, off- loading, marshalling, accounting for, and transporting of personnel, equipment, and materiel from the strategic and/or intratheater deployment phase to a sea, air, or surface transportation point of debarkation to the marshalling area.


  • recognition 1. The determination by any means of the individuality of persons, or of objects such as aircraft, ships, or tanks, or of phenomena such as communications- electronics patterns. 2. In ground combat operations, the determination that an object is similar within a category of something already known.


  • recognition signal Any prearranged signal by which individuals or units may identify each other.


  • reconnaissance A mission undertaken to obtain, by visual observation or other detection methods, information about the activities and resources of an enemy or adversary, or to secure data concerning the meteorological, hydrographic, or geographic characteristics of a particular area.


  • reconstitution Actions taken to rapidly restore functionality to an acceptable level for a particular mission, operation, or contingency after severe degradation.


operations, that phase of a mission that involves the return of an aircraft to a land base or platform afloat.

2. The retrieval of a mine from the location where emplaced.

3. In personnel recovery, actions taken to  195 physically gain custody of isolated personnel and return them to friendly control.

4. Actions taken to extricate damaged or disabled equipment for return to friendly control or repair at another location. See also evader evasion


  • recovery and reconstitution 1.Those actions taken by one nation prior to, during, and following an attack by an enemy nation to minimize the effects of the attack, rehabilitate the national economy, provide for the welfare of the populace, and maximize the combat potential of remaining forces and supporting activities. 2. Those actions taken by a military force during or after operational employment to restore its combat capability to full operational readiness. See also recovery


  • recovery mechanism An indigenous or surrogate infrastructure that is specifically developed, trained, and directed by United States forces to contact, authenticate, support, move, and exfiltrate designated isolated personnel from uncertain or hostile areas back to friendly control. Also called RM


  • recovery operations Operations conducted to search for, locate, identify, recover, and return isolated personnel, human remains, sensitive equipment, or items critical to national security.



  • recovery team In personnel recovery, designated United States or United States-directed forces, that are specifically trained to operate in conjunction with indigenous or surrogate forces, and are tasked to contact, authenticate, support, move, and exfiltrate isolated personnel. Also called RT


  • recovery vehicle In personnel recovery, the vehicle on which isolated personnel are boarded and transported from the recovery site.


  • redeployment The transfer or rotation of forces and materiel to support another commander’s operational requirements, or to return personnel, equipment, and materiel to the home and/or demobilization stations for reintegration and/or out-processing. See also deployment


  • red team An organizational element comprised of trained and educated members that provide an independent capability to fully explore alternatives in plans and operations in the context of the operational environment and from the perspective of adversaries and others.


196

  • reduction The creation of lanes through a minefield or obstacle to allow passage of the attacking ground force.


  • refraction The process by which the direction of a wave is changed when moving into shallow water at an angle to the bathymetric contours.


  • refugee A person who, owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of his or her nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of that country. See also
  • dislocated civilian displaced person evacuee stateless person


  • regimental landing team --A task organization for landing composed of an infantry regiment reinforced by those elements that are required for initiation of its combat function ashore.


  • regional air defense commander Commander, subordinate to the area air defense commander, who is responsible for air and missile defenses in the assigned region and exercises authorities as delegated by the area air defense commander. Also called
  • RADC


  • regional response coordination center A standing facility that is activated to coordinate regional response efforts, until a joint field office is established and/or the principal federal official, federal or coordinating officer can assume their National Response Framework coordination responsibilities. Also called RRCC


, for security functions of all United States embassies and consulates in a given country or group of adjacent countries. Also called RSO


  • rehabilitative care Therapy that provides evaluations and treatment programs using exercises, massage, or electrical therapeutic treatment to restore, reinforce, or enhance motor performance and restores patients to functional health allowing for their return to duty or discharge from the Service. Also called restorative care See also patient movement policy theater



  • reinforcing obstacles Those obstacles specifically constructed, emplaced, or detonated through military effort and designed to strengthen existing terrain to disrupt, fix, turn, or block enemy movement. See also
  • obstacle


  • reintegrate In personnel recovery, the task of providing medical care and psychological decompression to allow the conduct of appropriate debriefings to ultimately return recovered personnel back to duty and their family.

 197

  • release altitude Altitude of an aircraft above the ground at the time of ordnance release.


  • relief in place An operation in which, by direction of higher authority, all or part of a unit is replaced in an area by the incoming unit and the responsibilities of the replaced elements for the mission and the assigned zone of operations are transferred to the incoming unit.



  • render safe procedures --The portion of the explosive ordnance disposal procedures involving the application of special explosive ordnance disposal methods and tools to provide for the interruption of functions or separation of essential components of unexploded explosive ordnance to prevent an unacceptable detonation.


  • rendezvous area In an amphibious operation, the area in which the landing craft and amphibious vehicles rendezvous to form waves after being loaded, and prior to movement to the line of departure.


  • repairable item An item that can be reconditioned or economically repaired for reuse when it becomes unserviceable.


  • repair cycle --The stages through which a repairable item passes from the time of its removal or replacement until it is reinstalled or placed in stock in a serviceable condition.


  • repatriation 1. Theprocedure whereby American citizens and their families are officially processed back into the United States subsequent to an evacuation. See also evacuation

2. The release and return of enemy prisoners of war to their own country in accordance with the 1949 Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War.


  • replacement in kind The provision of material and services for a logistic exchange of materials and services of equal value between the governments of eligible countries. Also called RIK


  • reportable incident Any suspected or alleged violation of Department of Defense policy or of other related orders, policies, procedures or applicable law, for which there is credible information.


  • request for assistance A request based on mission requirements and expressed in terms of desired outcome, formally asking the Department of Defense to provide assistance to a local, state, tribal, or other federal agency. Also called RFA

198

  • request for information 1. Any specific time-sensitive ad hoc requirement for intelligence information or products to support an ongoing crisis or operation not necessarily related to standing requirements or scheduled intelligence production. 2. A term used by the National Security Agency/Central Security Service to state ad hoc signals intelligence requirements. Also called RFI See also intelligence


  • requirements determination All activities necessary to develop, consolidate, coordinate, validate, approve, and prioritize joint force contract support requirements.


  • requirements development The process of defining actual contract support requirements and capturing these requirements in acquisition ready contract support requirements packages.


  • requiring activity A military or other designated supported organization that identifies and receives contracted support during military operations. See also supported unit


  • rescue combat air patrol An aircraft patrol provided over that portion of an objective area in which recovery operations are being conducted for the purpose of intercepting and destroying hostile aircraft. Also called RESCAP See also combat air patrol


  • rescue coordination center A unit, recognized by International Civil Aviation Organization, International Maritime Organization, or other cognizant international body, responsible for promoting efficient organization of search and rescue services and coordinating the conduct of search and rescue operations within a search and rescue region. Also called RCC


  • reserve 1. Portion of a body of troops that is kept to the rear, or withheld from action at the beginning of an engagement, in order to be available for a decisive movement. 2. Members of the uniformed Services who are not in active service but who are subject to call to active duty. 3. Portion of an appropriation or contract authorization held or set aside for future operations or contingencies and, in respect to which, administrative authorization to incur commitments or obligations has been withheld.


  • Reserve Component The Armed Forces of the United States Reserve Component consists of the Army National Guard of the United States, the Army Reserve, the Navy Reserve, the Marine Corps Reserve, the Air National Guard of the United States, the Air Force Reserve, and the Coast Guard Reserve. Also called RC See also
  • component reserve


  • reserved obstacles Those demolition obstacles that are deemed critical to the plan for which the authority to detonate is reserved by the designating commander. See also
  • obstacle

   199

  • reset A set of actions to restore equipment to a desired level of combat capability commensurate with a unit’s future mission.


  • resettled person— A refugee or an internally displaced person wishing to return somewhere other than his or her previous home or land within the country or area of original displacement.


  • residual forces Undeployed United States forces that have an immediate combat potential for continued military operations, and that have been deliberately withheld from utilization.


  • residual radiation Nuclear radiation caused by fallout, artificial dispersion of radioactive material, or irradiation that results from a nuclear explosion and persists longer than one minute after burst. See also
  • contamination initial radiation


  • resistance movement An organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.



  • resources The forces, materiel, and other assets or capabilities apportioned or allocated to the commander of a unified or specified command.


  • rest and recuperation The withdrawal of individuals from combat or duty in a combat area for short periods of rest and recuperation. Also called
  • R&R


  • restraint In the context of planning, a requirement placed on the command by a higher command that prohibits an action, thus restricting freedom of action. See also
  • constraint limitation


in which there are special restrictive measures employed to prevent or minimize interference between friendly forces. 2. An area under military jurisdiction in which special security measures are employed to prevent unauthorized entry. See also [[restricted areas

]]


  • [[restricted areas

]] Designated areas established by appropriate authority over which flight of aircraft is restricted. See also


  • restricted items list A document listing those logistic goods and services for which nations must coordinate any contracting activity with a commander’s centralized contracting organization.

200

  • restricted operations zone Airspace reserved for specific activities in which the operations of one or more airspace users is restricted. Also called ROZ


  • restricted reporting Reporting option that allows sexual assault victims to confidentially disclose the assault to specified individuals

and receive medical treatment and counseling without triggering an official investigation.


  • restricted target A valid target that has specific restrictions placed on the actions authorized against it due to operational considerations. See also target



  • restrictive fire area An area in which specific restrictions are imposed and into which fires that exceed those restrictions will not be delivered without coordination with the establishing headquarters. Also called RFA See also fires


  • restrictive fire line A line established between converging friendly surface forces that prohibits fires or their effects across that line. Also called RFL See also fires


  • resupply The act of replenishing stocks in order to maintain required levels of supply.


  • resuscitative care --Advanced emergency medical treatment required to prevent immediate loss of life or limb and to attain stabilization to ensure the patient could tolerate evacuation.


  • retained personnel Detainees who fall into one of the following categories: a. Designated enemy medical personnel and medical staff administrators who are exclusively engaged in either the search for, collection, transport, or treatment of the wounded or sick, or the prevention of disease b. Staff of National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and that of other volunteer aid societies, duly recognized and authorized by their governments to assist medical service personnel of their own armed forces, provided they are exclusively engaged in the search for, or the collection, transport or treatment of wounded or sick, or in the prevention of disease, and provided that the staff of such societies are subject to military laws and regulations c. Chaplains attached to enemy armed forces. Also called RP See also personnel


  • Retired Reserve All reserve members who receive retirement pay on the basis of their active duty and/or reserve service those members who are otherwise eligible for retirement pay but have not reached age 60 and who have not elected discharge and are  201 not voluntary members of the Ready Reserve or Standby Reserve. See also
  • active duty Ready Reserve Standby Reserve


  • retrograde The process for the movement of non-unit equipment and materiel from a forward location to a reset

program or to another directed area of operations to replenish unit stocks, or to satisfy stock requirements.


  • returnee— A displaced person who has returned voluntarily to his or her former place of residence.


  • return to base Anorder to proceed to the point indicated by the displayed information or by verbal communication. Also called RTB


  • revolving fund account An account authorized by specific provisions of law to finance a continuing cycle of business-type operations, and which are authorized to incur obligations and expenditures that generate receipts.


  • riot control agent Any chemical, not listed in a schedule of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction that can produce rapidly in humans sensory irritation or disabling physical effects that disappear within a short time following termination of exposure. Also called RCA See also chemical warfare


  • rising mine In naval mine warfare, a mine having positive buoyancy, which is released from a sinker by a ship influence or by a timing device.


. Also called RA


  • risk management The process to identify, assess, and control risks and make decisions that balance risk cost with mission benefits. Also called RM


  • riverine operations Operations conducted by forces organized to cope with the unique characteristics of a riverine area and/or to achieve or maintain control of the riverine area.



  • roles of medical care The characterization of health support for the distribution of medical resources and capabilities. a.
  • Role 1 Provides medical treatment, initial trauma care, and forward resuscitation, not including surgical care. Also known as unit-level medical care. b.
  • Role 2 Provides medical treatment, advanced trauma management, emergency surgery, and resuscitative care. c.
  • Role 3 Provides emergency and specialty 202surgery, intensive care, medical specialty care, and extended holding capacity and capability augmented by robust ancillary support. d.
  • Role 4 Provides the full range of preventive, acute, restorative, curative, rehabilitative, and convalescent care found in United States base hospitals and robust overseas facilities.




  • rules of engagement Directives issued by competent military authority that delineate the circumstances and limitations under which United States forces will initiate and/or continue combat engagement with other forces encountered. Also called
  • ROE See also
  • law of war


  • ruse In military deception, an action designed to deceive the adversary, usually involving the deliberate exposure of false information to the adversary’s intelligence collection system.

   203

to which noncombatant evacuees of the United States Government’s responsibility and commercial vehicles and materiel may be evacuated during a domestic or other valid emergency.

2. A protected body of water or the well deck of an amphibious ship used by small craft operating offshore for refuge from storms or heavy seas.


  • safe house An innocent-appearing house or premises established by an organization for the purpose of conducting clandestine or covert activity in relative security.


  • safing As applied to weapons and ammunition, the changing from a state of readiness for initiation to a safe condition. Also called de-arming


  • salvage 1. Property that has some value in excess of its basic material content but is in such condition that it has no reasonable prospect of use for any purpose as a unit and its repair or rehabilitation for use as a unit is clearly impractical. 2. The saving or rescuing of condemned, discarded, or abandoned property, and of materials contained therein for reuse, refabrication, or scrapping.


  • sanction enforcement Operations that employ coercive measures to control the movement of certain types of designated items into or out of a nation or specified area.



  • schedule of fire Groups or series of fires that are fired in a definite sequence according to a definite program.


  • scheme of fires The detailed, logical sequence of targets and fire support events to find and engage targets to support the commander’s objectives.


  • scheme of maneuver The central expression of the commander’s concept for operations that governs the development of supporting plans or annexes of how arrayed forces will accomplish the mission.


  • scientific and technical intelligence --The product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of foreign scientific and technical information that covers: a. foreign developments in basic and applied research and in applied engineering techniques and b. scientific and technical characteristics, capabilities, and limitations of all foreign military systems, weapons, weapon systems, and materiel the research and development related thereto and the production methods employed for their manufacture. Also called S&TI See also intelligence technical intelligence

204

  • screening— In intelligence, the evaluation of an individual or a group of individuals to determine their potential to answer collection requirements or to identify individuals who match a predetermined source profile coupled with the process of identifying and assessing the areas of knowledge, cooperation, and possible approach techniques for an individual who has information of intelligence value.



  • sea barge A type of barge-ship that can carry up to 38 loaded barges and also carry tugs, stacked causeway sections, various watercraft, or heavy-lift equipment to better support joint logistics over-the-shore operations.


  • seabasing The deployment, assembly, command, projection, reconstitution, sustainment, and re-employment of joint power from the sea without reliance on land bases within the operational area. See also amphibious operation


  • sea control operations --The employment of forces to destroy enemy naval forces, suppress enemy sea commerce, protect vital sea lanes, and establish local military superiority in vital sea areas. See also
  • land control operations


  • sea echelon A portion of the amphibious warfare ships or other ships that withdraws from or remains out of the transport area during an amphibious landing and operates in designated areas to seaward in an on-call or unscheduled status.


  • sea echelon area In amphibious operations, an area to seaward of a transport area from which ships are phased into the transport area, and to which ships withdraw from the transport area.


  • sea echelon plan In amphibious operations, the distribution plan for amphibious shipping in the transport area to minimize losses due to enemy attack by weapons of mass destruction and to reduce the area to be swept of mines. See also amphibious operation


  • SEAL delivery vehicle team United States Navy forces organized, trained, and equipped to conduct special operations with SEAL delivery vehicles, dry deck shelters, and other submersible platforms.



  • SEAL team United States Navy forces organized, trained, and equipped to conduct special operations with an emphasis on maritime, coastal, and riverine environments.

 205

  • seaport A land facility designated for reception of personnel or materiel moved by sea, and that serves as an authorized port of entrance into or departure from the country in which located. See also port of debarkation port of embarkation


  • search A systematic reconnaissance of a defined area, so that all parts of the area have passed within visibility.



  • search and rescue numerical encryption grid A predesignated ten-letter word without repeated letters used exclusively by recovery forces or isolated personnel to encrypt numerical data such as position, time, and/or headings in a covert manner.


  • search and rescue point A predesignated specific location, relative to which isolated personnel provide their position to recovery forces. Also called SARDOT


  • search and rescue region An area of defined dimensions, recognized by the International Civil Aviation Organization, International Maritime Organization, or other cognizant international body, and associated with a rescue coordination center within which search and rescue services are provided.
  • [[


  • sea state A scale that categorizes the force of progressively higher seas by wave height.


  • secondary loads Unit equipment, supplies, and major end items that are transported in the beds of organic vehicles.



  • section A subdivision of an office, installation, territory, works, or organization especially a major subdivision of a staff.


  • sector air defense commander Commander, subordinate to an area/regional air defense commander, who is responsible for air and missile defenses in the assigned sector, and exercises authorities delegated by the area/regional air defense commander. Also called
  • SADC

206

  • security 1. Measures taken by a military unit, activity, or installation to protect itself against all acts designed to, or which may, impair its effectiveness.

2. A condition that results from the establishment and maintenance of protective measures that ensure a state of inviolability from hostile acts or influences.

3. With respect to classified matter, the condition that prevents unauthorized persons from having access to official information that is safeguarded in the interests of national security. See also national security


  • security assistance Group of programs authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, as amended or other related statutes by which the United States provides defense articles, military training, and other defense-related services by grant, lease, loan, credit, or cash sales in furtherance of national policies and objectives, and those that are funded and authorized through the Department of State to be administered by Department of Defense/Defense Security Cooperation Agency are considered part of security cooperation. Also called SA See also security cooperation


  • security clearance --An administrative determination by competent authority that an individual is eligible for access to classified information.


  • security cooperation All Department of Defense interactions with foreign security establishments to build security relationships that promote specific United States security interests, develop allied and partner nation military and security capabilities for self-defense and multinational operations, and provide United States forces with peacetime and contingency access to allied and partner nations. Also called SC See also security assistance


  • security cooperation organization A Department of Defense element that is part of the United States diplomatic mission located in a foreign country to carry out security assistance and cooperation management functions under the supervision and coordination authority of the senior defense official/defense attaché. Also called SCO


  • security force assistance The Department of Defense activities that support the development of the capacity and capability of foreign security forces and their supporting institutions. Also called SFA


  • security forces Duly constituted military, paramilitary, police, and constabulary forces of a state.


  • security review The process of reviewing information and products prior to public release to ensure the material will not jeopardize ongoing or future operations. See also
  • security

   207

  • security sector reform A comprehensive set of programs and activities undertaken by a host nation to improve the way it provides safety, security, and justice. Also called SSR


  • security service— Entity or component of a foreign government charged with responsibility for counterespionage or internal security functions.


  • segregation In detainee operations, the removal of a detainee from other detainees and their environment for legitimate purposes unrelated to interrogation, such as when necessary for the movement, health, safety, and/or security of the detainee, the detention facility, or its personnel.


  • seize To employ combat forces to occupy physically and to control a designated area.


  • seizures --In counterdrug operations, includes drugs and conveyances seized by law enforcement authorities and drug-related assets confiscated based on evidence that they have been derived from or used in illegal narcotics activities. See also counterdrug operations law enforcement agency


  • Selected Reserve Those units and individuals within the Ready Reserve designated by their respective Services and approved by the Joint Chiefs of Staff as so essential to initial wartime missions that they have priority over all other reserves. See also Ready Reserve


  • selective identification feature A capability that, when added to the basic identification friend or foe system, provides the means to transmit, receive, and display selected coded replies.


  • selective loading The arrangement and stowage of equipment and supplies aboard ship in a manner designed to facilitate issues to units.


  • selective mobilization Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress or the President to mobilize Reserve Component units, Individual Ready Reservists, and the resources needed for their support to meet the requirements of a domestic emergency that is not the result of an enemy attack.


  • selective off-loading The capability to access and off-load vehicles, supplies, and equipment without having to conduct a major reconfiguration or total off-load influenced by the number and types of ships allocated, and the space made available for the embarkation of the landing force.


  • selective unloading --In an amphibious operation, the controlled unloading from amphibious warfare ships, and movement ashore, of specific items of cargo at the request of the landing force commander.

208

  • senior airfield authority An individual designated by the joint force commander to be responsible for the control, operation, and maintenance of an airfield to include the runways, associated taxiways, parking ramps, land, and facilities whose proximity directly affects airfield operations. Also called SAA


  • senior contracting official The staff official designated by a Service head of contracting activity to execute theater support contracting authority for a specific command and/or operational area. Also called SCO



  • sensitive --An agency, installation, person, position, document, material, or activity requiring special protection from disclosure that could cause embarrassment, compromise, or threat to the security of the sponsoring power.


  • sensitive compartmented information --All information and materials bearing special community controls indicating restricted handling within present and future community intelligence collection programs and their end products for which community systems of compartmentation have been or will be formally established. Also called
  • SCI


  • sensitive compartmented information facility --An accredited area, room, group of rooms, or installation where sensitive compartmented information may be stored, used, discussed, and/or electronically processed, where procedural and physical measures prevent the free access of persons unless they have been formally indoctrinated for the particular sensitive compartmented information authorized for use or storage within the sensitive compartmented information facility. Also called SCIF See also sensitive compartmented information


  • sensitive site A geographically limited area that contains, but is not limited to, adversary information systems, war crimes sites, critical government facilities, and areas suspected of containing high value targets.


  • sequel The subsequent operation or phase based on the possible outcomes of the current operation or phase. See also branch


  • serial 1. An element or a group of elements within a series that is given a numerical or alphabetical designation for convenience in planning, scheduling, and control. 2. A group of people, vehicles, equipment, or supplies and is used in airborne, air assault, amphibious operations, and convoys.

   209

  • serial assignment table A table that is used in amphibious operations and shows the serial number, the title of the unit, the approximate number of personnel the material, vehicles, or equipment in the serial the number and type of landing craft and/or amphibious vehicles required to boat the serial and the ship on which the serial is embarked.


  • Service --A branch of the Armed Forces of the United States, established by act of Congress, which are: the Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard.


  • Service-common Equipment, material, supplies, and services including base operating support adopted by a Service to support its own forces and those assigned to the combatant commands items and services defined as Service-common by one Service are not necessarily Service-common for all other Services. See also special operations- peculiar


  • Service component command --A command consisting of the Service component commander and all those Service forces, such as individuals, units, detachments, organizations, and installations under that command, including the support forces that have been assigned to a combatant command or further assigned to a subordinate unified command or joint task force. See also
  • component functional component command






210

  • shelter An International Organization for Standardization container outfitted with live- or work-in capability.


  • shielding 1. Material of suitable thickness and physical characteristics used to protect personnel from radiation during the manufacture, handling, and transportation of fissionable and radioactive materials. 2. Obstructions that tend to protect personnel or materials from the effects of a nuclear explosion.


  • ship-to-shore movement That portion of the action phase of an amphibious operation that includes the deployment of the landing force from ships to designated landing areas.


  • shoot-look-shoot A firing doctrine in which the result of the first intercept attempt is assessed prior to the launch of a subsequent interceptor. Also called SLS



  • shore party --A task organization of the landing force, formed for the purpose of facilitating the landing and movement off the beaches of troops, equipment, and supplies for the evacuation from the beaches of casualties and enemy prisoners of war and for facilitating the beaching, retraction, and salvaging of landing ships and craft. Also called
  • beach group See also
  • beachmaster unit beach party naval beach group


  • shortfall The lack of forces, equipment, personnel, materiel, or capability, reflected as the difference between the resources identified as a plan requirement and those quantities identified as apportioned for planning that would adversely affect the command’s ability to accomplish its mission.


  • short-range air defense engagement zone In air and missile defense, that airspace of defined dimensions within which the responsibility for engagement of air and missile threats normally rests with short-range air defense weapons, and may be established within a low- or high-altitude missile engagement zone. Also called SHORADEZ.



obstacle within 1,500 feet

of commencing takeoff or in landing, to stop within 1,500 feet

after passing over a 50-foot

obstacle. Also called STOL


  • show of force An operation planned to demonstrate United States resolve that involves increased visibility of United States deployed forces in an attempt to defuse a specific  211 situation that, if allowed to continue, may be detrimental to United States interests or national objectives.


  • signal operating instructions --A series of orders issued for technical control and coordination of the signal communication activities of a command. In Marine Corps usage, these instructions are designated communication operation instructions. Also called
  • SOI.



  • signals intelligence operational tasking authority— A military commander’s authority to operationally direct and levy signals intelligence requirements on designated signals intelligence resources includes authority to deploy and redeploy all or part of the signals intelligence resources for which signals intelligence operational tasking authority has been delegated. Also called SOTA



  • simultaneous engagement The concurrent engagement of hostile targets by combination of interceptor aircraft and surface-to-air missiles.



  • single manager A Military Department or agency designated by the Secretary of Defense to manage specified commodities or common service activities on a Department of Defense-wide basis.


  • single port manager The transportation component, designated by the Department of Defense through the United States Transportation Command, responsible for management of all common-user aerial and seaports worldwide. Also called SPM See also transportation component command


  • single-service manager --A Service component commander who is assigned the responsibility and delegated the authority to coordinate and/or perform specified personnel support or personnel service support functions in the theater of operations. See also component

212

  • site exploitation A series of activities to recognize, collect, process, preserve, and analyze information, personnel, and/or materiel found during the conduct of operations. Also called
  • SE


  • situation report A report giving the situation in the area of a reporting unit or formation. Also called SITREP


  • situation template --A depiction of assumed adversary dispositions, based on that adversary’s preferred method of operations and the impact of the operational environment if the adversary should adopt a particular course of action. See also
  • adversary template course of action


  • sociocultural analysis The analysis of adversaries and other relevant actors that integrates concepts, knowledge, and understanding of societies, populations, and other groups of people, including their activities, relationships, and perspectives across time and space at varying scales. Also called SCA


  • sociocultural factors --The social, cultural, and behavioral factors characterizing the relationships and activities of the population of a specific region or operational environment.


  • solatium Monetary compensation given in areas where it is culturally appropriate to alleviate grief, suffering, and anxiety resulting from injuries, death, and property loss with a monetary payment.


  • sortie In air operations, an operational flight by one aircraft.


  • sortie allotment message The means by which the joint force commander allots excess sorties to meet requirements of subordinate commanders that are expressed in their air employment and/or allocation plan. Also called SORTIEALOT


  • source --1. A person, thing, or activity from which information is obtained. 2. In clandestine activities, a person

, normally a foreign national, in the employ of an intelligence activity for intelligence purposes. 3. In interrogation activities, any person who furnishes information, either with or without the knowledge that the information is being used for intelligence purposes. See also agent collection agency


  • source management— The process to register and monitor the use of sources involved in counterintelligence and human intelligence operations to protect the security of the operations and avoid conflicts among operational elements.


  • source registry A source record or catalogue of leads and sources acquired by collectors and centralized for management, coordination, and deconfliction of source operations.

 213

  • space asset Equipment that is an individual part of a space system, which is or can be placed in space or directly supports space activity terrestrially.


  • space assignment An assignment to the individual Military Departments/Services by the appropriate transportation operating agency of movement capability, which completely or partially satisfies the stated requirements of the Military Departments/Services for the operating month and that has been accepted by them without the necessity for referral to the Joint Transportation Board for allocation.


  • space capability 1. The ability of a space asset to accomplish a mission. 2. The ability of a terrestrial-based asset to accomplish a mission in or through space. See also space asset




  • space domain The area above the altitude where atmospheric effects on airborne objects become negligible.


  • space environment The environment corresponding to the space domain, where electromagnetic radiation, charged particles, and electric and magnetic fields are the dominant physical influences, and that encompasses the Earth’s ionosphere and magnetosphere, interplanetary space, and the solar atmosphere.


  • space forcesThe space and terrestrial systems, equipment, facilities, organizations, and personnel, or combination thereof, necessary to conduct space operations. See also
  • national security


  • space joint operating area The operational area, bounded by the space domain, assigned to Commander, United States Strategic Command, in which space operations are conducted. Also called SJOA


  • space situational awareness The requisite foundational, current, and predictive knowledge and characterization of space objects and the operational environment upon which space operations depend. Also called SSA


  • space superiority The degree of control in space of one force over any others that permits the conduct of its operations at a given time and place without prohibitive interference from terrestrial or space-based threats.

214

  • space weather The conditions and phenomena in space and specifically in the near-Earth environment that may affect space assets or space operations. See also space asset


  • special access program A sensitive acquisition, intelligence, or operations and support program, that imposes need-to-know and access controls beyond those normally provided for access to confidential, secret, or top secret information. Also called SAP.


  • special cargo Cargo that requires special handling or protection, such as pyrotechnics, detonators, watches, and precision instruments.


  • special forces United States Army forces organized, trained, and equipped to conduct special operations with an emphasis on unconventional warfare capabilities. Also called
  • SF


  • special forces group The largest Army combat element for special operations consisting of command and control, special forces battalions, and a support battalion capable of long duration missions. Also called
  • SFG


  • specialization An arrangement within an alliance wherein a member or group of members most suited by virtue of technical skills, location, or other qualifications assume

greater responsibility for a specific task or significant portion thereof for one or more other members.


  • special mission unit A generic term to represent an organization composed of operations and support personnel that is task-organized to perform highly classified activities. Also called
  • SMU


  • special operations --Operations requiring unique modes of employment, tactical techniques, equipment and training often conducted in hostile, denied, or politically sensitive environments and characterized by one or more of the following: time sensitive, clandestine, low visibility, conducted with and/or through indigenous forces, requiring regional expertise, and/or a high degree of risk.



 215

  • special operations joint task force A modular, tailorable, and scalable special operations task force designed to provide integrated, fully-capable, and enabled joint special operations forces to geographic combatant commanders and joint force commanders. Also called SOJTF




  • special operations task force A scalable unit, normally of battalion size, in charge of the special operations element, organized around the nucleus of special operations forces and support elements. Also called SOTF


  • special operations weather team --A task organized team of Air Force personnel organized, trained, and equipped to collect critical environmental information from data sparse areas.



  • special reconnaissance Reconnaissance and surveillance actions conducted as a special operation in hostile, denied, or diplomatically and/or politically sensitive environments to collect or verify information of strategic or operational significance, employing military capabilities not normally found in conventional forces. Also called SR



  • specified combatant command A command, normally composed of forces from a single Military Department, that has a broad, continuing mission, normally functional, and is established and so designated by the President through the Secretary of Defense with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.


216

that are contaminated, allowing personnel in uncontaminated areas to continue to operate in a reduced posture. Also called



  • spot --1. To determine by observation, deviations of ordnance from the target for the purpose of supplying necessary information for the adjustment of fire. 2. To place in a proper location. 3. An approved shipboard helicopter landing site. See also
  • ordnance


  • spot net Radio communication net used by a spotter in calling fire.


  • spot report --A concise narrative report of essential information covering events or conditions that may have an immediate and significant effect on current planning and operations that is afforded the most expeditious means of transmission consistent with requisite security. Also called SPOTREP



  • spotter—An observer stationed for the purpose of observing and reporting results of naval gunfire to the firing agency and who also may be employed in designating targets.


  • spotting Parking aircraft in an approved shipboard landing site.


  • spreader bar A device specially designed to permit the lifting and handling of containers or vehicles and breakbulk cargo.


  • squadron 1. An organization consisting of two or more divisions of ships or two or more divisions

or flights of aircraft. 2. The basic administrative aviation unit of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force. 3. Battalion-sized ground or aviation units.


  • stability activities Various military missions, tasks, and activities conducted outside the United States in coordination with other instruments of national power to maintain or reestablish a safe and secure environment, provide essential governmental services, emergency infrastructure reconstruction, and humanitarian relief.


  • stabilized patient A patient whose airway is secured, hemorrhage is controlled, shock treated, and fractures are immobilized.

   217

  • stable patient A patient for whom no inflight medical intervention is expected but the potential for medical intervention exists.


  • staff estimate A continual evaluation of how factors in a staff section’s functional area support and impact the planning and execution of the mission.


  • staff judge advocate A judge advocate so designated in the Army, Air Force, or Marine Corps, and the principal legal advisor of a Navy, Coast Guard, or joint force command who is a judge advocate. Also called SJA


  • staging --Assembling, holding, and organizing arriving personnel, equipment, and sustaining materiel in preparation for onward movement. See also staging area


  • staging area 1. Airborne – A general locality between the mounting area and the objective of an airborne expedition, through which the expedition or parts thereof pass after mounting, for refueling, regrouping, and/or exercise, inspection, and redistribution of troops. 2. Other movements – A general locality established for the concentration of troop units and transient personnel between movements over the lines of communications. Also called SA See also airborne;
  • marshalling staging


  • staging base --1. An advanced naval base for the anchoring, fueling, and refitting of transports and cargo ships as well as replenishment of mobile service squadrons.

2. A landing and takeoff area with minimum servicing, supply, and shelter provided for the temporary occupancy of military aircraft during the course of movement from one location to another.


  • stakeholder In public affairs, an individual or group that is directly impacted by military operations, actions, and/or outcomes, and whose interests positively or negatively motivate them toward action.


  • standardization The process by which the Department of Defense achieves the closest practicable cooperation among the Services and Department of Defense agencies for the most efficient use of research, development, and production resources, and agrees to adopt on the broadest possible basis the use of: a. common or compatible operational, administrative, and logistic procedures b. common or compatible technical procedures and criteria c. common, compatible, or interchangeable supplies, components, weapons, or equipment and d. common or compatible tactical doctrine with corresponding organizational compatibility.



  • standard use Army aircraft flight route Route established below the coordination level to facilitate the movement of Army aviation assets it is normally located in the corps 218through brigade rear areas of operation and does not require approval by the airspace control authority. Also called
  • SAAFR


who are liable for active duty only, as provided in Title 10, United States Code, Sections 10151, 12301, and 12306. See also active duty Ready Reserve Reserve Component Retired Reserve




  • station time In air transport operations, the time at which crews, passengers, and cargo are to be on board and ready for the flight.


  • status-of-forces agreement A bilateral or multilateral agreement that defines the legal position of a visiting military force deployed in the territory of a friendly state. Also called
  • SOFA


  • sterilizer In mine warfare, a device included in mines to render the mine permanently inoperative on expiration of a pre-determined time after laying.


  • stockage objective The maximum quantities of materiel to be maintained on hand to sustain current operations, which will consist of the sum of stocks represented by the operating level and the safety level.


  • stop-loss Presidential authority under Title 10, United States Code, Section 12305, to suspend laws relating to promotion, retirement, or separation of any member of the Armed Forces determined essential to the national security of the United States, to include reservists if serving on active duty under Title 10, United States Code authorities for Presidential Reserve Call-up, partial mobilization, or full mobilization. See also
  • mobilization partial mobilization Presidential Reserve Call-up


  • stowage The placement of cargo into a hold, compartment, or on a deck of a ship in such a way as to prevent damage from load shifts while the ship is underway.


  • stowage factor The number that expresses the space, in cubic feet, occupied by a long ton of any commodity as prepared for shipment, including all crating or packaging.


  • stowage plan A completed stowage diagram showing what materiel has been loaded and its stowage location in each hold, between-deck compartment, or other space in a ship, including deck space.

 219

  • strategic direction The strategy and intent of the President, Secretary of Defense, and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in pursuit of national interests.


  • strategic estimate The broad range of strategic factors that influence the commander’s understanding of the operational environment and the determination of missions, objectives, and courses of action. See also estimate


  • strategic guidance The written products by which the President, Secretary of Defense, and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff provide strategic direction.



  • strategic level of warfare The level of warfare at which a nation, often as a member of a group of nations, determines national or multinational

strategic security objectives and guidance, then develops and uses national resources to achieve those objectives. See also operational level of warfare tactical level of warfare


  • strategic mobility --The capability to deploy and sustain military forces worldwide in support of national strategy.


  • strategic sealift The afloat pre-positioning and ocean movement of military materiel in support of United States and multinational forces.



  • strategy A prudent idea or set of ideas for employing the instruments of national power in a synchronized and integrated fashion to achieve theater, national, and/or multinational objectives.


  • strike An attack to damage or destroy an objective or a capability.



  • structured observation management The framework for normalizing how geospatial intelligence observations from sensors and sources is captured, organized, and shared. Also called SOM

220



  • subordinate campaign plan A combatant command prepared plan that satisfies the requirements under a Department of Defense campaign plan, which, depending upon the circumstances, transitions to a supported or supporting plan in execution.


  • subordinate command --A command consisting of the commander and all those individuals, units, detachments, organizations, or installations that have been placed under the command by the authority establishing the subordinate command.



  • subsidiary landing --In an amphibious operation, a landing usually made outside the designated landing area, the purpose of which is to support the main landing.


  • subversion --Actions designed to undermine the military, economic, psychological, or political strength or morale of a governing authority. See also
  • unconventional warfare.


  • supercargo --Personnel that accompany cargo on board a ship for the purpose of accomplishing en route maintenance and security.


  • supplies --In logistics, all materiel and items used in the equipment, support, and maintenance of military forces. See also component equipment


  • supply --The procurement, distribution, maintenance while in storage, and salvage of supplies, including the determination of kind and quantity of supplies. a.
  • producer phase—That phase of military supply that extends from determination of procurement schedules to acceptance of finished supplies by the Services. b.
  • consumer phase— That phase of military supply that extends from receipt of finished supplies by the Services through issue for use or consumption.


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  • supply support activity Activities assigned a Department of Defense activity address code and that have a supply support mission. Also called SSA



  • supported commander 1. The commander having primary responsibility for all aspects of a task assigned by the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan or other joint planning authority. 2. In the context of joint planning, the commander who prepares operation plans or operation orders in response to requirements of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 3. In the context of a support command relationship, the commander who receives assistance from another commander’s force or capabilities, and who is responsible for ensuring that the supporting commander understands the assistance required. See also support supporting commander


  • supported unit As related to contracted support, a supported unit is the organization that is the recipient, but not necessarily the requester of, contractor-provided support. See also requiring activity


  • supporting arms Weapons and weapons systems of all types employed to support forces by indirect or direct fire.



  • supporting commander 1. A commander who provides augmentation forces or other support to a supported commander or who develops a supporting plan. 2. In the context of a support command relationship, the commander who aids, protects, complements, or sustains another commander’s force, and who is responsible for providing the assistance required by the supported commander. See also support supported commander


  • supporting fire Fire delivered by supporting units to assist or protect a unit in combat.

222



  • suppression Temporary or transient degradation by an opposing force of the performance of a weapons system below the level needed to fulfill its mission objectives.




  • surface combatant A ship designed to engage in attacks against airborne, surface, subsurface, and shore targets.


  • surface warfare That portion of maritime warfare in which operations are conducted to destroy or neutralize enemy naval surface forces and merchant vessels. Also called
  • SUW


  • surf line --The point offshore where waves and swells are affected by the underwater surface and become breakers.



  • surveillance The systematic observation of aerospace, cyberspace, surface, or subsurface areas, places, persons, or things, by visual, aural, electronic, photographic, or other means.


  • survivability --All aspects of protecting personnel, weapons, and supplies while simultaneously deceiving the enemy.


  • survival, evasion, resistance, and escape Actions performed by isolated personnel designed to ensure their health, mobility, safety, and honor in anticipation of or preparation for their return to friendly control. Also called SERE

 223


  • sustainment The provision of logistics and personnel services required to maintain and prolong operations until successful mission accomplishment.


  • sustainment, restoration, and modernization The fuels asset sustainment program within Defense Logistics Agency Energy that provides a long-term process to cost- effectively sustain, restore, and modernize fuel facilities. Also called SRM


  • synchronization 1. The arrangement of military actions in time, space, and purpose to produce maximum relative combat power at a decisive place and time. 2. In the intelligence context, application of intelligence sources and methods in concert with the operation plan to answer intelligence requirements in time to influence the decisions they support.


  • synthesis In intelligence usage, the examining and combining of processed information with other information and intelligence for final interpretation.


  • system A functionally, physically, and/or behaviorally related group of regularly interacting or interdependent elements that group of elements forming a unified whole.


 224 225

  • T  
  • table of allowance An equipment allowance document that prescribes basic allowances of organizational equipment, and provides the control to develop, revise, or change equipment authorization inventory data. Also called TOA


  • TABOO frequencies Any friendly frequency of such importance that it must never be deliberately jammed or interfered with by friendly forces including international distress, safety, and controller frequencies. See also electronic warfare



from which all aircraft and air warning functions of tactical air operations are controlled. Also called


  • tactical air control party A subordinate operational component of a tactical air control system designed to provide air liaison to land forces and for the control of aircraft. Also called
  • TACP


  • [[tactical air coordinator

]] An officer who coordinates, from an aircraft, the actions of other aircraft engaged in air support of ground or sea forces. Also called

  • [[TAC

]]See also forward observer.


  • tactical air direction center An air operations installation under the overall control of the Navy tactical air control center or the Marine Corps tactical air command center, from which aircraft and air warning service functions of tactical air operations in support of amphibious operations are directed. Also called TADC


  • tactical air officer The officer under the amphibious task force commander who, until control is passed ashore, coordinates planning of all phases of air participation of the amphibious operation and air operations of supporting forces en route to and in the objective area. Also called TAO.


  • tactical air operations center --The principal air control agency of the United States Marine Corps air command and control system responsible for airspace control and management. Also called
  • TAOC


  • tactical assembly area An area that is generally out of the reach of light artillery and the location where units make final preparations

and rest, prior to moving to the line of departure. See also line of departure

226

  • tactical combat casualty care — A set of trauma management guidelines focused on the most common causes of preventable deaths resulting from hostile action or terrorist activity. Also called TCCC


  • tactical combat force --A rapidly deployable, air-ground mobile combat unit, with appropriate combat support and combat service support assets assigned to and capable of defeating Level III threats including combined arms. Also called TCF


  • tactical control The authority over forces that is limited to the detailed direction and control of movements or maneuvers within the operational area necessary to accomplish missions or tasks assigned. Also called TACON See also [[combatant command combatant command
operational control]]


  • tactical data link A Joint Staff-approved, standardized communication link suitable for transmission of digital information, which interfaces two or more command and control or weapons systems via a single or multiple network architecture and multiple communication media for exchange of tactical information. Also called TDL





  • tactical-logistical group --Representatives designated by troop commanders to assist Navy control officers aboard control ships in the ship-to-shore movement of troops, equipment, and supplies. Also called
  • TACLOG group.


  • tactical minefield A minefield that is employed to directly attack enemy maneuver as part of a formation obstacle plan and is laid to delay, channel, or break up an enemy advance, giving the defending element a positional advantage over the attacker.


  • tactical obstacle An obstacle employed to disrupt enemy formations, to turn them into a desired area, to fix them in position under direct and indirect fires, or to block enemy penetrations.


  • tactical questioning The field-expedient initial questioning for information of immediate tactical value of a captured or detained person at or near the point of capture and before the individual is placed in a detention facility. Also called TQ

 227

  • tactical recovery of aircraft and personnel A Marine Corps mission performed by an assigned and briefed aircrew for the specific purpose of the recovery of personnel, equipment, and/or aircraft when the tactical situation precludes search and rescue assets from responding and when survivors and their location have been confirmed. Also called
  • TRAP


  • tactical reserve --A part of a force held under the control of the commander as a maneuvering force to influence future action.



  • target 1. An entity or object that performs a function for the adversary considered for possible engagement or other action. 2. In intelligence usage, a country, area, installation, agency, or person against which intelligence operations are directed. 3. An area designated and numbered for future firing. 4. In gunfire support usage, an impact burst that hits the target. See also objective area


  • target acquisition The detection, identification, and location of a target in sufficient detail to permit the effective employment of weapons. Also called TA See also
  • target analysis


  • target analysis An examination of potential targets to determine military importance, priority of attack, and weapons required to obtain a desired level of damage or casualties. See also
  • target acquisition






  • target development The systematic examination of potential target systems - and their components, individual targets, and even elements of targets - to determine the necessary type and duration of the action that must be exerted on each target to create an effect that is consistent with the commander’s specific objectives.

228

  • targeteer An individual who has completed formal targeting training in an established Service or joint school and participates in the joint targeting cycle in their current duties.


  • target folder A folder, hardcopy or electronic, containing target intelligence and related materials prepared for planning and executing action against a specific target. See also
  • target


  • target information center The agency or activity responsible for collecting, displaying, evaluating, and disseminating information pertaining to potential targets. Also called
  • TIC. See also target




  • target location error The difference between the coordinates generated for a target and the actual location of the target. Also called TLE.


  • target materials Graphic, textual, tabular, digital, video, or other presentations of target intelligence, primarily designed to support operations against designated targets by one or more weapon

systems. See also Air Target Materials Program



  • target of opportunity 1. A target identified too late, or not selected for action in time, to be included in deliberate targeting that, when detected or located, meets criteria specific to achieving objectives and is processed using dynamic targeting. 2. A target visible to a surface or air sensor or observer, which is within range of available weapons and against which fire has not been scheduled or requested. See also dynamic targeting target unplanned target unanticipated target


  • target reference point --A predetermined point of reference, normally a permanent structure or terrain feature that can be used when describing a target location. Also called
  • TRP

 229

  • target system 1. All the targets situated in a particular geographic area and functionally related. 2. A group of targets that are so related that their destruction will produce some particular effect desired by the attacker. See also target target complex


  • target system analysis An all-source examination of potential target systems to determine relevance to stated objectives, military importance, and priority of attack. Also called TSA


  • target system assessment The broad assessment of the overall impact and effectiveness of the full spectrum of military force applied against the operation of an enemy target system, significant subdivisions of the system, or total combat effectiveness relative to the operational objectives established. See also target system


  • target system component A set of targets belonging to one or more groups of industries and basic utilities required to produce component parts of an end product, or one type of a series of interrelated commodities.


  • task A clearly defined action or activity specifically assigned to an individual or organization that must be done as it is imposed by an appropriate authority.


  • task element A component of a naval task unit organized by the commander of a task unit or higher authority.


  • task force A component of a fleet organized by the commander of a task fleet or higher authority for the accomplishment of a specific task or tasks. Also called TF



  • task group A component of a naval task force organized by the commander of a task force or higher authority. Also called TG


  • tasking order A method used to task and to disseminate to components, subordinate units, and command and control agencies projected targets and specific missions as well as general and specific instructions for accomplishment of the mission. Also called
  • TASKORD See also mission target


230

  • task organization An organization that assigns to responsible commanders the means with which to accomplish their assigned tasks in any planned action.


  • task unit A component of a naval task group organized by the commander of a task group or higher authority. Also called TU


  • tear line A physical line on an intelligence message or document separating categories of information that have been approved for foreign disclosure and release.


  • technical analysis In imagery interpretation, the precise description of details appearing on imagery.


  • technical assistance The providing of advice, assistance, and training pertaining to the installation, operation, and maintenance of equipment.


  • technical escort An individual technically qualified and properly equipped to accompany designated material requiring a high degree of safety or security during shipment.


  • technical evaluation The study and investigations by a developing agency to determine the technical suitability of material, equipment, or a system for use in the Services.


  • technical intelligence Intelligence derived from the collection, processing, analysis, and exploitation of data and information pertaining to foreign equipment and materiel for the purposes of preventing technological surprise, assessing foreign scientific and technical capabilities, and developing countermeasures designed to neutralize an adversary’s technological advantages. Also called TECHINT See also exploitation intelligence


and post-detonation

radiological or nuclear materials, devices, and debris, as well as the immediate effects created by a nuclear detonation.



   231


  • telecommunications Any transmission, emission, or reception of signs, signals, writings, images, sounds, or information of any nature by wire, radio, visual, or other electromagnetic systems.


  • telemedicine Rapid access to shared and remote medical expertise by means of telecommunications and information technologies to deliver health services and exchange health information for the purpose of improving patient care.


  • temporary interment A site for the purpose of: a. the interment of the remains if the circumstances permit or b. the reburial of remains exhumed from an emergency interment. See also
  • mortuary affairs


  • terminal A facility designed to transfer cargo from one means of conveyance to another. See also facility



  • terminal control 1. A type of air control with the authority to direct aircraft to maneuver into a position to deliver ordnance, passengers, or cargo to a specific location or target. 2. Any electronic, mechanical, or visual control given to aircraft to facilitate target acquisition and resolution. See also terminal guidance


  • terminal guidance 1. The guidance applied to a guided missile between midcourse guidance and arrival in the vicinity of the target. 2. Electronic, mechanical, visual, or other assistance given an aircraft pilot to facilitate arrival at, operation within or over, landing upon, or departure from an air landing or airdrop facility. See also terminal control


  • terminal guidance operations Actions using electronic, mechanical, voice, or visual communications that provide approaching aircraft and/or weapons additional information regarding a specific target location. Also called TGO


  • terminal operations The reception, processing, and staging of passengers the receipt, transit, storage, and marshalling of cargo the loading and unloading of modes of transport conveyances and the manifesting and forwarding of cargo and passengers to destination. See also operation terminal


  • terminal phase That portion of the flight of a ballistic missile that begins when the warhead or payload reenters the atmosphere and ends when the warhead or payload detonates, releases its submunitions, or impacts. See also boost phase midcourse phase

232

  • termination criteria The specified standards approved by the President and/or the Secretary of Defense that must be met before a joint operation can be concluded.


  • terrain analysis The collection, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of geographic information on the natural and man-made features of the terrain, combined with other relevant factors, to predict the effect of the terrain on military operations.


  • terrain avoidance system A system that provides the pilot or navigator of an aircraft with a situation display of the ground or obstacles so that the pilot can maneuver the aircraft to avoid the obstruction.



  • territorial airspace --Airspace above land territory and internal, archipelagic, and territorial waters.


  • territorial waters A belt of ocean space adjacent to and measured from the coastal states baseline to a maximum width of 12 nautical miles.



  • terrorist threat level A Department of Defense intelligence threat assessment of the level of terrorist threat faced by United States personnel and interests in a foreign country the levels are expressed as
  • LOW,
  • MODERATE,
  • SIGNIFICANT, and
  • HIGH.


  • theater The geographical area for which a commander of a geographic combatant command has been assigned responsibility.



of a geographic combatant commander. See also

  • [[combatant command

]]

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  • theater detainee reporting center The field operating agency of the National Detainee Reporting Center responsible for maintaining information on all detainees and their personal property within a theater of operations or assigned area of operations. Also called
  • TDRC




  • theater hospitalization capability Essential care and health service support capabilities to either return the patient to duty and/or stabilization to ensure the patient can tolerate evacuation to a definitive care facility outside the theater, which is known as Role 3 in North Atlantic Treaty Organization doctrine.


  • theater of operations An operational area defined by the geographic combatant commander for the conduct or support of specific military operations. Also called TO See also theater of war


  • theater of war Defined by the President, Secretary of Defense, or the geographic combatant commander as the area of air, land, and water that is, or may become, directly involved in the conduct of major operations and campaigns involving combat. See also
  • area of responsibility theater of operations




234

  • thermal crossover --The natural phenomenon that normally occurs twice daily when temperature conditions are such that there is a loss of contrast between two adjacent objects on infrared imagery.


  • thermal radiation --1. The heat and light produced by a nuclear explosion. 2. Electromagnetic radiations emitted from a heat or light source as a consequence of its temperature.


  • thorough decontamination --Decontamination carried out by a unit to reduce contamination on personnel, equipment, materiel, and/or working areas equal to natural background or to the lowest possible levels, to permit the partial or total removal of individual protective equipment and to maintain operations with minimum degradation. See also immediate decontamination operational decontamination


  • threat analysis --In antiterrorism, a continual process of compiling and examining all available information concerning potential terrorist activities by terrorist groups which could target a facility. See also
  • antiterrorism


  • threat assessment—In antiterrorism, examining the capabilities, intentions, and activities, past and present, of terrorist organizations as well as the security environment within which friendly forces operate to determine the level of threat. Also called TA


  • threat warning The urgent communication and acknowledgement of time-critical information essential for the preservation of life and/or vital resources.


  • throughput 1. In transportation, the average quantity of cargo and passengers that can pass through a port on a daily basis from arrival at the port to loading onto a ship or plane, or from the discharge from a ship or plane to the exit

from the port complex.

2. In patient movement and care, the maximum number of patients

by category, that can be received at the airport, staged, transported, and received at the proper hospital within any 24-hour period.


  • throughput capacity The estimated capacity of a port or an anchorage to clear cargo and/or passengers in 24 hours usually expressed in tons for cargo, but may be expressed in any agreed upon unit of measurement. See also
  • clearance capacity.



  • time of flight In artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support, the time in seconds from the instant a weapon is fired, launched, or released from the delivery vehicle or weapons system to the instant it strikes or detonates. Also called TOF.

   235




  • times The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff coordinates the proposed dates and times with the commanders of the appropriate unified and specified commands, as well as any recommended changes to when specified operations are to occur

.


  • time-sensitive target A joint force commander validated target or set of targets requiring immediate response because it is a highly lucrative, fleeting target of opportunity or it poses

a danger to friendly forces. Also called TST


  • time to target The number of minutes and seconds to elapse before aircraft ordnance impacts on target. Also called TTT


  • tophandler A device specially designed to permit the lifting and handling of containers from the top with rough terrain container handlers. See also container


  • topographic map A map that presents the vertical position of features in measurable form as well as their horizontal positions.


  • total mobilization --Expansion of the active Armed Forces resulting from action by Congress and the President to organize and/or generate additional units or personnel beyond the existing force structure, and the resources needed for their support, to meet the total requirements of a war or other national emergency involving an external threat to the national security.


  • toxic industrial biological Any biological material manufactured, used, transported, or stored by industrial, medical, or commercial processes which could pose an infectious or toxic threat. Also called TIB


  • toxic industrial chemical A chemical developed or manufactured for use in industrial operations or research by industry, government, or academia that poses a hazard. Also called
  • TIC

236

  • toxic industrial material A generic term for toxic, chemical, biological, or radioactive substances in solid, liquid, aerosolized, or gaseous form that may be used, or stored for use, for industrial, commercial, medical, military, or domestic purposes. Also called
  • TIM


  • toxic industrial radiological Any radiological material manufactured, used, transported, or stored by industrial, medical, or commercial processes. Also called TIR


  • track 1. A series of related contacts displayed on a data display console or other display device. 2. To display or record the successive positions of a moving object. 3. To lock onto a point of radiation and obtain guidance therefrom. 4. To keep a gun properly aimed, or to point continuously a #pagelocating instrument at a moving target. 5. The actual path of an aircraft above or a ship on the surface of the Earth. 6. One of the two endless belts on which a full-track or half-track vehicle runs. 7. A metal part forming a path for a moving object such as the track around the inside of a vehicle for moving a mounted machine gun.


  • track correlation --Correlating track information for identification purposes using all available data.


  • tracking Precise and continuous position-finding of targets by radar, optical, or other means.


  • track management Defined set of procedures whereby the commander ensures accurate friendly and enemy unit and/or platform locations and a dissemination procedure for filtering, combining, and passing that information to higher, adjacent, and subordinate commanders.


  • track of interest In counterdrug operations, contacts that meet the initial identification criteria applicable in the area where the contacts are detected. Also called
  • TOI See also
  • suspect


  • tradecraft— 1. Specialized methods and equipment used in the organization and activity of intelligence organizations, especially techniques and methods for handling communications with agents. 2. Operational practices and skills used in the performance of intelligence related duties.


  • traffic management The direction, control, and supervision of all functions incident to the procurement and use of freight and passenger transportation services.


  • training aid Any item developed or procured with the primary intent that it shall assist in training and the process of learning.


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  • transient forces --Forces that pass or stage through, or base temporarily within, the operational area of another command but are not under its operational control. See also
  • force


  • transitional military authority Temporary military government exercising the functions of civil administration in the absence of a legitimate civil authority.




  • transnational threat — Any activity, individual, or group not tied to a particular country or region that operates across international boundaries and threatens United States national security or interests.



  • transportation component command A major command of its parent Service under United States Transportation Command, which includes Air Force Air Mobility Command, Navy Military Sealift Command, and Army Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command. Also called TCC


  • transportation feasibility A determination that the capability exists to move forces, equipment, and supplies from the point of origin to the final destination within the time required. See also operation plan


  • transportation feasible A determination made by the supported commander that a draft operation plan can be supported with the identified or assumed transportation assets.



  • transportation system --All the land, water, and air routes and transportation assets conducting movement of United States forces and their supplies during military operations.

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  • transport group An element that directly deploys and supports the landing of the landing force, and is functionally designated as a transport group in the amphibious task force organization.



  • troop space cargo Cargo such as sea or barracks bags, bedding rolls or hammocks, locker trunks, and office equipment, normally stowed in an accessible place, as well as normal hand-carried combat equipment and weapons to be carried ashore by the assault troops.


  • turnaround The length of time between arriving at a point and being ready to depart from that point.


  • turning movement A variation of the envelopment in which the attacking force passes around or over the enemy’s principal defensive positions to secure objectives deep in the enemy’s rear to force the enemy to abandon his position or divert major forces to meet the threat.

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  • unauthorized commitment An agreement that is not binding solely because the United States Government representative who made it lacked the authority to enter into that agreement on behalf of the United States Government.


  • uncertain environment Operational environment in which host government forces, whether opposed to or receptive to operations that a unit intends to conduct, do not have totally effective control of the territory and population in the intended operational area.




  • unconventional warfare --Activities conducted to enable a resistance movement or insurgency to coerce, disrupt, or overthrow a government or occupying power by operating through or with an underground, auxiliary, and guerrilla force in a denied area. Also called UW



  • underwater demolition The destruction or neutralization of underwater obstacles that is normally accomplished by underwater demolition teams.


  • underwater demolition team --A group of officers and enlisted specially trained and equipped to accomplish the destruction or neutralization of underwater obstacles and associated tasks.


  • unexploded explosive ordnance Explosive ordnance that has been primed, fused, armed or otherwise prepared for action, and that has been fired, dropped, launched, projected, or placed in such a manner as to constitute a hazard to operations, installations, personnel, or material and remains unexploded either by malfunction or design or for any other cause. Also called UXO See also explosive ordnance

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  • unified action The synchronization, coordination, and/or integration of the activities of governmental and nongovernmental entities with military operations to achieve unity of effort.




  • Unified Command Plan The document, approved by the President, that sets forth basic guidance to all unified combatant commanders establishes their missions, responsibilities, and force structure delineates the general geographical area of responsibility for geographic combatant commanders and specifies functional responsibilities for functional combatant commanders. Also called
  • UCP See also
  • combatant command combatant commander


  • unified geospatial-intelligence operations The collaborative and coordinated process to assess, align, and execute geospatial intelligence across the National System for Geospatial Intelligence and its partner organizations. Also called UGO



  • unit 1. Any military element whose structure is prescribed by competent authority. 2. An organization title of a subdivision of a group in a task force.


  • unit aircraft --Those aircraft provided an aircraft unit for the performance of a flying mission.


  • United States Includes the land area, internal waters, territorial sea, and airspace of the United States, including a. United States territories and b. Other areas over which the United States Government has complete jurisdiction and control or has exclusive authority or defense responsibility.


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  • United States message text format A program designed to enhance joint and combined combat effectiveness through standardization of message formats, data elements, and information exchange procedures. Also called USMTF


  • United States Naval Ship A public vessel of the United States that is in the custody of the Navy and is: a. Operated by the Military Sealift Command and manned by a civil service crew or b. Operated by a commercial company under contract to the Military Sealift Command and manned by a merchant marine crew. Also called
  • USNS See also
  • Military Sealift Command


  • United States person A United States citizen an alien known by the concerned intelligence agency to be a permanent resident alien an unincorporated association substantially composed of United States citizens or permanent resident aliens or a corporation incorporated in the United States, except for those directed and controlled by a foreign government or governments.


, the development of theater-level patient movement plans and schedules, the monitoring and execution in concert with the Global Patient Movement Requirements Center. Also called


  • unit identification code A six-character, alphanumeric code that uniquely identifies each Active, Reserve, and National Guard unit of the Armed Forces. Also called
  • UIC.


  • unit line number A seven-character alphanumeric code that describes a unique increment of a unit deployment, i.e., advance party, main body, equipment by sea and air, reception team, or trail party, in the time-phased force and deployment data. Also called ULN.


  • unit movement data A unit equipment and/or supply listing containing corresponding transportability data. Also called UMD


  • unit personnel and tonnage table A table included in the loading plan of a combat- loaded ship as a recapitulation of totals of personnel and cargo by type, listing cubic measurements and weight. Also called UP&TT.


  • unit type code A Joint Chiefs of Staff-developed and -assigned code, consisting of five characters that uniquely identify a “type unit.” Also called UTC

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  • unity of command The operation of all forces under a single responsible commander who has the requisite authority to direct and employ those forces in pursuit of a common purpose.


  • unity of effort --Coordination and cooperation toward common objectives, even if the participants are not necessarily part of the same command or organization, which is the product of successful unified action.



  • Universal Time A measure of time that conforms, within a close approximation, to the mean diurnal rotation of the Earth and serves as the basis of civil timekeeping. Also called
  • ZULU time


  • unknown 1. A code meaning “information not available.” 2. An unidentified target. An aircraft or ship that has not been determined to be hostile, friendly, or neutral using identification friend or foe and other techniques, but that must be tracked by air defense or naval engagement systems. 3. An identity applied to an evaluated track that has not been identified. See also assumed friend friend neutral suspect


  • unmanned aircraft An aircraft that does not carry a human operator and is capable of flight with or without human remote control. Also called UA


  • unmanned aircraft system --That system whose components include the necessary equipment, network, and personnel to control an unmanned aircraft. Also called UAS



  • unrestricted reporting A process that a Service member uses to disclose, without requesting confidentiality or restricted reporting, that he or she is the victim of a sexual assault.


  • unstable patient A patient whose physiological status is in fluctuation and for whom emergent, treatment, and/or surgical intervention are anticipated during treatment or evacuation, and the patient’s rapidly changing status and requirements are beyond the standard en route care capability and requires medical/surgical augmentation.



  • use of force policy --Policy guidance issued by the Commandant, United States Coast Guard, on the use of force and weapons.

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of the United States, any person in the Armed Forces of the United States, and all equipment of any description that either belongs to the US Armed Forces or is being used

, escorted, or conveyed by the US Armed Forces.


  • US national US citizen and US permanent and temporary legal resident aliens.

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  • V  
  • validate --Execution procedure used by combatant command components, supporting combatant commanders, and providing organizations to confirm to the supported commander and United States Transportation Command that all the information records in a time-phased force and deployment data not only are error-free for automation purposes, but also accurately reflect the current status, attributes, and availability of units and requirements.


  • validation 1. A process associated with the collection and production of intelligence that confi