Montignac diet

From WikiMD
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Montignac diet is a weight-loss diet that was popular in the 1990s, mainly in Europe. It was invented by Frenchman Michel Montignac (1944–2010), an international executive for the pharmaceutical industry, who, like his father, was overweight in his youth. His method is aimed at people wishing to lose weight efficiently and lastingly, reduce risks of heart failure, and prevent diabetes.

Principle

Carbohydrate-rich foods are classified according to their glycemic index (GI), a ranking system for carbohydrates based on their effect on blood glucose levels after meals. High-GI carbohydrates are considered "bad" (with the exception of those foodstuffs like carrots that, even though they have high GIs, have a quite low carbohydrate content and should not significantly affect blood sugar levels). The glycemic index was devised by Jenkins et al. at the University of Toronto as a way of conveniently classifying foods according to the way they affected blood sugar and was developed for diabetics suffering from diabetes mellitus. Montignac was the first to recommend using the glycemic index as a slimming diet rather than a way of managing blood sugar levels, and recommendations to avoid sharp increases in glucose blood sugar levels (as opposed to gradual increases) as a strategy for anyone to lose weight rather than a strategy for diabetics to stabilize blood sugar levels.

Montignac's diet was followed by the South Beach Diet that also used the GI principle, and Michael Mosley's Intermittent Fasting 5:1 diet incorporates a recommendation to select foods with a low glycemic index or glycemic load.

"Bad carbohydrates", such as those in sweets, potatoes, rice and white bread, may not be taken together with fats, especially during Phase 1 of the Method. According to Montignac's theory, these combinations will lead to the fats in the food being stored as body fat. (Some kinds of pasta, such as "al dente" durum wheat spaghetti, some varieties of rice, such as long-grain Basmati, whole grains and foods rich in fiber, have a lower GI.)

Another aspect of the diet regards the choice of fats: the desirability of fatty foods depends on the nature of their fatty acids: polyunsaturated omega 3 acids (fish fat) as well as monounsaturated fatty acids (olive oil) are the best choice, while saturated fatty acids (butter and animal fat) should be restricted. Fried foods and butter used in cooking should be avoided.

The Montignac Method is divided into two phases.

Phase I: the weight-losing phase. This phase consists chiefly of eating the appropriate carbs, namely those with glycemic index ranked at 35 or lower (pure glucose is 100). A higher protein intake, such as 1.3–1.5 grams per kg of body weight, especially from fish and legumes, can help weight loss, but people with kidney disease should ask their doctor.

Phase II: stabilization and prevention phase. Montignac states on his website that we "can even enhance our ability to choose by applying a new concept, the glycemic outcome (synthesis between glycemic index and pure carbohydrate content) and the blood sugar levels which result from the meals. Under these conditions, we can eat whatever carbohydrate we want, even those with high glycemic indexes".

In his books, Montignac also provides a good number of filling French and Mediterranean style recipes. The pleasure of food and the feeling of fullness are key concepts in the Method as they are believed to help dieters stick to the rules in the long term and not go on a binge. Montignac also recommends that dieters should never miss a meal, and have between-meal snacks if that helps to eat less at meals.

Scientific studies

Montignac's theory is disputed by nutrition experts who claim that any calorie intake that exceeds the amount that the body needs will be converted into body fat. It has been argued that Montignac confuses the direction of causality between obesity and hyperinsulinemia and that the weight loss is simply due to the hypocaloric character of the diet.[1][2]

The scientific literature refutes the hypotheses of Montignac regarding the metabolic effects of carbohydrates and fatty acids.[3] [4] Critics also point out that the Glycemic Index is not easy to use, as it depends on the exact variety of the food; how it was cooked; combinations with other foods in the same meal, and so on. Despite these scientific doubts, there are other serious scientific studies which endorse this method.[5][6] Although a review concluded that low glycemic index diets do not achieve greater weight loss than low-fat diets,[7] the former might lead to greater reductions in cardiovascular risk factors.[7][8]

Popularity

Montignac sold 15 million books about his diet, and his method has been made famous by the celebrities who adopted it, including Gérard Depardieu and others.[9]

See also

Template:Refend

References

Metabolic.jpg

Featured disease

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of the most dangerous heart attack risk factors: diabetes and prediabetes, abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol and high blood pressure.

Affects one in three adults

Affecting about 35 percent of all adults in the United States according to the CDC, metabolic syndrome contributes to weight gain, by causing a state of internal starvation called metabolic starvation. This in turn leads to increases hunger, sugar cravings and increased portions leading to overeating and weight gain.

Cause and effect misunderstood

Since we traditionally thought that the portion control (which in turn was attributed wrongly to poor will power)is the cause of weight gain, rather than the effect of this metabolic starvation, all our traditional ideas about cause and effect of obesity were not only wrong but lead to the “blame the victim” attitude when it comes to obesity.

Secret of weight gain revealed

Secret of weight gain, and metabolic syndrome revealed - it has been recently proven that metabolic syndrome, and the weight gain itself are caused by a process called insulin resistance. Check your metabolic syndrome risk using the free Metabolic syndrome meter. Watch this amazing Ted Med video that reveals the secret of weight loss - Stop blaming the victim for obesity


External links

  • David S Ludwig and Robert H Eckel The glycemic index at 20 y1,2
  • Ann M. Coulston, MS, RD Gerald M. Reaven MD; Stanford University Medical Center - Editorial in Diabetes Care Much Ado about (Almost) Nothing
  • See however a comment to this paper:
  • 7.0 7.1
  • "French gastronome Michel Montignac is a diet guru with a difference", news article in India Today Plus
  • Ad. Tired of being overweight? W8MD's insurance weight loss* program can HELP | Advertise on WikiMD

    Disclaimer: The entire contents of WIKIMD.ORG are for informational purposes only and do not render medical advice or professional services. If you have a medical emergency, you should CALL 911 immediately! Given the nature of the wiki, the information provided may not be accurate and or incorrect. Use the information on this wiki at your own risk! See full Disclaimer. * Individual results may vary.