Information about Ofloxacin
Ofloxacin is a second generation fluoroquinolone that was previously used widely for therapy of mild-to-moderate bacterial infections, but which has been replaced by more potent and less toxic fluoroquinolones and is now used largely topically as eye and ear drops.
Liver safety of Ofloxacin
Ofloxacin has been linked to rare instances of acute hepatocellular injury.
Mechanism of action of Ofloxacin
Ofloxacin (oh flox' a sin) is an oral, second generation fluoroquinolone that was previously widely used to treat mild-to-moderate urinary and respiratory tract infections caused by susceptible organisms. Ofloxacin is a semisynthetic antibiotic and a racemic mixture; its l-enantiomer is available as levofloxacin which continues to be a widely used antibiotic. Like other fluoroquinolones, ofloxacin is active against a wide range of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative organisms and is believed to act by inhibition of type II DNA toposiomerases (gyrases) that are required for synthesis of bacterial mRNAs (transcription) and DNA replication.
FDA approval information for Ofloxacin
Ofloxacin was approved for use in the United States in 1990, but was discontinued by its initial sponsor in 2009, partially because of the frequency of adverse side effects. Nevertheless, ofloxacin remains available several in generic forms as 200, 300 and 400 mg tablets.
Clinical use of Ofloxacin
Current indications are acute bronchitis, community acquired pneumonia, skin, infections, cystitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis, urethritis and gonorrhea.
Dosage and administration for Ofloxacin
Typical doses are 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for 3 to 10 days, but longer courses are sometimes used for complicated or recurrent infections.
Side effects of Ofloxacin
- Common side effects include gastrointestinal upset, headaches, skin rash and allergic reactions.
- Less common but more severe side effects of fluoroquinolones include prolongation of the QT interval, seizures, hallucinations, tendon rupture, hypersensitivity reactions and photosensitivity.
List of flouroquinolones