Organs and their tissue systems
These specific systems are widely studied in anatomy. They are present in many types of animals.
- Circulatory system: pumping and channeling blood to and from the body and lungs with heart, blood and blood vessels.
- Integumentary system: skin, hair, fat, and nails.
- Skeletal system: structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons.
- Reproductive system: the sex organs, such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles and prostate
- Digestive system: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, rectum and anus.
- Urinary system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and excretion of urine.
- Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, larynx, bronchi, lungs and diaphragm.
- Endocrine system: communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands.
- Immune system: protects the organism from foreign bodies
- Muscular system: allows for manipulation of the environment, provides locomotion, maintains posture, and produces heat. Includes skeletal muscles, smooth muscles and cardiac muscle.
- Nervous system: collecting, transferring and processing information with brain, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system.