Outline of nutrition

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and a topical guide to nutrition:

Nutrition (also called nutrition science) studies the relationship between diet and states of health and disease. The scope of nutrition science ranges from malnutrition to optimal health. Many common symptoms and diseases can often be prevented or alleviated with better nutrition.

Essence of nutrition

Main article: Nutrition

Branches of nutrition

History of nutrition

Main article: History of nutrition





Amino acids


Saturated fats
Monounsaturated fats
Polyunsaturated fats
Essential fatty acids
Other fats
Fat substitutes


Dietary fiber
Sugar substitutes
  • Artificial sugar substitutes
    • Acesulfame-K
    • Acesulfame potassium – 200× sweetness (by weight), Nutrinova, E950, FDA approved 2003
    • Alitame – 2,000× sweetness (by weight), Pfizer, pending FDA approval
    • Aspartame – 160–200× sweetness (by weight), NutraSweet, E951, FDA approved 1981
    • Cyclamate – 30× sweetness (by weight), Abbott, E952, FDA banned 1969, pending re-approval
    • Dulcin – 250× sweetness (by weight), FDA banned 1950
    • Neohesperidine dihydrochalcone – 1,500× sweetness (by weight), E959
    • Neotame – 8,000× sweetness (by weight), NutraSweet, FDA approved 2002
    • P-4000 – 4,000× sweetness (by weight), FDA banned 1950
    • Saccharin – 300× sweetness (by weight), E954, FDA approved 1958
    • Sucralose – 600× sweetness (by weight), Tate & Lyle, FDA approved 1998
  • Natural sugar substitutes
    • Brazzein – Protein, 2,000× sweetness of sucrose (by weight), Exxx
    • Curculin – Protein, 550× sweetness (by weight), Exxx
    • Erythritol – 0.7× sweetness (by weight), 14× sweetness of sucrose (by food energy), 0.05× energy density of sucrose
    • Fructose
    • Glycyrrhizin – 50× sweetness (by weight)
    • Glycerol – 0.6× sweetness (by weight), 0.55× sweetness (by food energy), 1.075× energy density, E422
    • Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates – 0.4–0.9× sweetness (by weight), 0.5–1.2× sweetness (by food energy), 0.75× energy density
    • Isomalt – 0.45–0.65× sweetness (by weight), 0.9–1.3× sweetness (by food energy), 0.5× energy density, E953
    • Lactitol – 0.4× sweetness (by weight), 0.8× sweetness (by food energy), 0.5× energy density, E966
    • Mabinlin – Protein, 100× sweetness (by weight), Exxx
    • Maltitol – 0.9× sweetness (by weight), 1.7× sweetness (by food energy), 0.525× energy density, E965
    • Mannitol – 0.5× sweetness (by weight), 1.2× sweetness (by food energy), 0.4× energy density, E421
    • Miraculin – Protein, n× sweetness (by weight), Exxx
    • Monellin – Protein, 3,000× sweetness (by weight), Exxx
    • Pentadin – Protein, 500× sweetness (by weight), Exxx
    • Sorbitol – 0.6× sweetness (by weight), 0.9× sweetness (by food energy), 0.65× energy density, E420
    • Stevia – 250× sweetness (by weight)
    • Tagatose – 0.92× sweetness (by weight), 2.4× sweetness (by food energy), 0.38× energy density
    • Thaumatin – Protein, 2,000× sweetness (by weight), E957
    • Xylitol – 1.0× sweetness (by weight), 1.7× sweetness (by food energy), 0.6× energy density, E967




Organic acids


Pyramid groups

Qualities of food

General nutrition concepts

Diets and dieting

Nutrition problems

Behavioral problems

Nutrition politics


Nutrition scholars

Nutrition lists

See also

-- -- This module implements Template loop detected: Template:Sidebar -- require('Module:No globals')

local p = {}

local getArgs = require('Module:Arguments').getArgs local navbar = require('Module:Navbar')._navbar

local function trimAndAddAutomaticNewline(s)

-- For compatibility with the original

-- implementation, which passed some parameters through {{#if}} to trim -- their whitespace. This also triggered the automatic newline behavior. -- (meta:Help:Newlines and spaces#Automatic newline) s = mw.ustring.gsub(s, "^%s*(.-)%s*$", "%1") if mw.ustring.find(s, '^[#*:;]') or mw.ustring.find(s, '^{|') then return '\n' .. s else return s end end

local function hasSubgroup(s) if mw.ustring.find(s, 'vertical%-navbox%-subgroup') then return true else return false end end

function p.sidebar(frame, args) if not args then args = getArgs(frame) end local root = mw.html.create() local child = args.child and mw.text.trim(args.child) == 'yes'

root = root:tag('table') if not child then root :addClass('vertical-navbox') :addClass(args.wraplinks ~= 'true' and 'nowraplinks' or nil) :addClass(args.bodyclass or args.class) :css('float', args.float or 'right') :css('clear', (args.float == 'none' and 'both') or args.float or 'right') :css('width', args.width or '22.0em') :css('margin', args.float == 'left' and '0 1.0em 1.0em 0' or '0 0 1.0em 1.0em') :css('background', '#f9f9f9') :css('border', '1px solid #aaa') :css('padding', '0.2em') :css('border-spacing', '0.4em 0') :css('text-align', 'center') :css('line-height', '1.4em') :css('font-size', '88%') :cssText(args.bodystyle or args.style)

if args.outertitle then root :tag('caption') :addClass(args.outertitleclass) :css('padding-bottom', '0.2em') :css('font-size', '125%') :css('line-height', '1.2em') :css('font-weight', 'bold') :cssText(args.outertitlestyle) :wikitext(args.outertitle) end

if args.topimage then local imageCell = root:tag('tr'):tag('td')

imageCell :addClass(args.topimageclass) :css('padding', '0.4em 0') :cssText(args.topimagestyle) :wikitext(args.topimage)

if args.topcaption then imageCell :tag('div') :css('padding-top', '0.2em') :css('line-height', '1.2em') :cssText(args.topcaptionstyle) :wikitext(args.topcaption) end end

if args.pretitle then root :tag('tr') :tag('td') :addClass(args.pretitleclass) :cssText(args.basestyle) :css('padding-top', args.topimage and '0.2em' or '0.4em') :css('line-height', '1.2em') :cssText(args.pretitlestyle) :wikitext(args.pretitle) end else root :addClass('vertical-navbox-subgroup') :css('width', '100%') :css('margin', '0px') :css('border-spacing', '0px') :addClass(args.bodyclass or args.class) :cssText(args.bodystyle or args.style) end

if args.title then if child then root :wikitext(args.title) else root :tag('tr') :tag('th') :addClass(args.titleclass) :cssText(args.basestyle) :css('padding', '0.2em 0.4em 0.2em') :css('padding-top', args.pretitle and 0) :css('font-size', '145%') :css('line-height', '1.2em') :cssText(args.titlestyle) :wikitext(args.title) end end

if args.image then local imageCell = root:tag('tr'):tag('td')

imageCell :addClass(args.imageclass) :css('padding', '0.2em 0 0.4em') :cssText(args.imagestyle) :wikitext(args.image)

if args.caption then imageCell :tag('div') :css('padding-top', '0.2em') :css('line-height', '1.2em') :cssText(args.captionstyle) :wikitext(args.caption) end end

if args.above then root :tag('tr') :tag('td') :addClass(args.aboveclass) :css('padding', '0.3em 0.4em 0.3em') :css('font-weight', 'bold') :cssText(args.abovestyle) :newline() -- newline required for bullet-points to work :wikitext(args.above) end

local rowNums = {} for k, v in pairs(args) do k = .. k local num = k:match('^heading(%d+)$') or k:match('^content(%d+)$') if num then table.insert(rowNums, tonumber(num)) end end table.sort(rowNums) -- remove duplicates from the list (e.g. 3 will be duplicated if both heading3 and content3 are specified) for i = #rowNums, 1, -1 do if rowNums[i] == rowNums[i - 1] then table.remove(rowNums, i) end end

for i, num in ipairs(rowNums) do local heading = args['heading' .. num] if heading then root :tag('tr') :tag('th') :addClass(args.headingclass) :css('padding', '0.1em') :cssText(args.basestyle) :cssText(args.headingstyle) :cssText(args['heading' .. num .. 'style']) :newline() :wikitext(heading) end

local content = args['content' .. num] if content then root :tag('tr') :tag('td') :addClass(args.contentclass) :css('padding', hasSubgroup(content) and '0.1em 0 0.2em' or '0 0.1em 0.4em') :cssText(args.contentstyle) :cssText(args['content' .. num .. 'style']) :newline() :wikitext(content) :done()

:newline() -- Without a linebreak after the , a nested list like "*

  • ...

" doesn't parse correctly.

end end

if args.below then root :tag('tr') :tag('td') :addClass(args.belowclass) :css('padding', '0.3em 0.4em 0.3em') :css('font-weight', 'bold') :cssText(args.belowstyle) :newline() :wikitext(args.below) end

if not child then local navbarArg = args.navbar or args.tnavbar if navbarArg ~= 'none' and navbarArg ~= 'off' and (args.name or frame:getParent():getTitle():gsub('/sandbox$', ) ~= 'Template:Sidebar') then root :tag('tr') :tag('td') :css('text-align', 'right') :css('font-size', '115%') :cssText(args.navbarstyle or args.tnavbarstyle) :wikitext(navbar{ args.name, mini = 1, fontstyle = args.navbarfontstyle or args.tnavbarfontstyle }) end end

return tostring(root) .. (child and or ) end

function p.collapsible(frame) local args = getArgs(frame)

args.abovestyle = 'border-top: 1px solid #aaa; border-bottom: 1px solid #aaa;' .. (args.abovestyle or ) args.belowstyle = 'border-top: 1px solid #aaa; border-bottom: 1px solid #aaa;' .. (args.belowstyle or ) args.navbarstyle = 'padding-top: 0.6em;' .. (args.navbarstyle or args.tnavbarstyle or ) if not args.name and frame:getParent():getTitle():gsub('/sandbox$', ) == 'Template:Sidebar with collapsible lists' then args.navbar = 'none' end

local contentArgs = {}

for k, v in pairs(args) do local num = string.match(k, '^list(%d+)$') if num then local expand = args.expanded and (args.expanded == 'all' or args.expanded == args['list' .. num .. 'name'])

local row = mw.html.create('div') row :addClass('NavFrame') :addClass((not expand) and 'collapsed' or nil) :css('border', 'none') :css('padding', 0) :cssText(args.listframestyle) :cssText(args['list' .. num .. 'framestyle']) :tag('div') :addClass('NavHead') :addClass(args.listtitleclass) :css('font-size', '105%') :css('background', 'transparent') :css('text-align', 'left') :cssText(args.basestyle) :cssText(args.listtitlestyle) :cssText(args['list' .. num .. 'titlestyle']) :wikitext(trimAndAddAutomaticNewline(args['list' .. num .. 'title'] or 'List')) :done() :tag('div') :addClass('NavContent') :addClass(args.listclass) :addClass(args['list' .. num .. 'class']) :css('font-size', '105%') :css('padding', '0.2em 0 0.4em') :css('text-align', 'center') :cssText(args.liststyle) :cssText(args['list' .. num .. 'style']) :wikitext(trimAndAddAutomaticNewline(args['list' .. num]))

contentArgs['content' .. num] = tostring(row) end end

for k, v in pairs(contentArgs) do args[k] = v end

return p.sidebar(frame, args) end

return p


Portions of content adapted from Wikipedias article on Outline of nutrition licensed under GNU FDL.

External links


Databases and search engines

Governmental agencies and intergovernmental bodies

Template:Outline footerPortal:Food

Calories and Nutritional Information of Foods


Glossary of healthy eating | Nutritional value of foods: UK Foods | US Foods | Dietary Supplements | Nutrition values of foods | Nutrition lookup (USDA) Portions of content adapted from Wikipedias article on Outline of nutrition licensed under GNU FDL.

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