Premedication

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Premedication refer to a drug treatment given to a patient before a (surgical or invasive) medical procedure. These drugs are typically sedative or analgesic.

Premedication before chemotherapy for cancer often refers to special drug regimens (usually 2 or more drugs, e.g. dexamethasone, diphenhydramine and omeprazole) given to a patient minutes to hours before the chemotherapy to avert side effects or hypersensitivity reactions (i.e. allergic reactions).

Melatonin has been found to be effective as a premedication in both adults and children due to its pharmacological properties of hypnotic, antinociceptive and anticonvulsant which produce effective anxiolosis and sedation. Unlike midazolam melatonin does not impair psychomotor skills or adversely affect the quality of recovery. It has a faster recovery time compared to midazolam and has a reduced incidence of post-operative excitement and results in a reduction in dose required of propofol and thiopental.[1]

Midazolam is effective in children in reducing anxiety associated with separation from parents and induction of anesthesia.[2] Sufentanil is also sometimes used as a premedication. Clonidine is becoming increasingly popular as a premedication for children. One drawback of clonidine is that it can take up to 45 minutes to take full effect.[3] In children, clonidine has been found to be equal to and possibly superior to benzodiazepines as a premedication. It has a more favourable side effect profile. It also reduces the need for an induction agent. It improves post-operative pain relief, is better at inducing sedation at induction, reduces agitated emergence, reduces shivering and post-operative nausea and vomiting and reduces post-operative delirium associated with sevoflurane anaesthesia. Benzodiazepines such as midazolam are more commonly used due largely to a lack of a marketing effort by the pharmaceutical companies. As a result clonidine is becoming increasingly popular with anesthesiologists.[4][5] Dexmedetomidine and atypical antipsychotic agents are other premedications which are used particularly in very uncooperative children.[6]

Non-drug interventions for children include playing relaxing music, massages, reducing noise and controlling light to maintain the sleep wake cycle.[7] Other non-pharmacological options for children who refuse or cannot tolerate premedication include clown doctors; low sensory stimulation and hand-held video games may also help reduce anxiety during induction of general anesthesia.[8]

References

Metabolic.jpg

Featured disease

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of the most dangerous heart attack risk factors: diabetes and prediabetes, abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol and high blood pressure.

Affects one in three adults

Affecting about 35 percent of all adults in the United States according to the CDC, metabolic syndrome contributes to weight gain, by causing a state of internal starvation called metabolic starvation. This in turn leads to increases hunger, sugar cravings and increased portions leading to overeating and weight gain.

Cause and effect misunderstood

Since we traditionally thought that the portion control (which in turn was attributed wrongly to poor will power)is the cause of weight gain, rather than the effect of this metabolic starvation, all our traditional ideas about cause and effect of obesity were not only wrong but lead to the “blame the victim” attitude when it comes to obesity.

Secret of weight gain revealed

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References

Metabolic.jpg

Featured disease

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of the most dangerous heart attack risk factors: diabetes and prediabetes, abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol and high blood pressure.

Affects one in three adults

Affecting about 35 percent of all adults in the United States according to the CDC, metabolic syndrome contributes to weight gain, by causing a state of internal starvation called metabolic starvation. This in turn leads to increases hunger, sugar cravings and increased portions leading to overeating and weight gain.

Cause and effect misunderstood

Since we traditionally thought that the portion control (which in turn was attributed wrongly to poor will power)is the cause of weight gain, rather than the effect of this metabolic starvation, all our traditional ideas about cause and effect of obesity were not only wrong but lead to the “blame the victim” attitude when it comes to obesity.

Secret of weight gain revealed

Secret of weight gain, and metabolic syndrome revealed - it has been recently proven that metabolic syndrome, and the weight gain itself are caused by a process called insulin resistance. Check your metabolic syndrome risk using the free Metabolic syndrome meter. Watch this amazing Ted Med video that reveals the secret of weight loss - Stop blaming the victim for obesity


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