The free dictionary of medicine

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Dictionary of medicine

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

#-A

  • Ablepharon (ah-blef -ar-on) [see Ablepharia]. Absence of the eyelids.
  • Ablepharous (ah-blef -ar -us) [see Ablepharia]. Without eyelids.
  • Ablepsia (ah-blep' -se-ah) [afiXeifica, without sight]. 1. Blindness. 2. Dulness of percep- tion.
  • Abluent (ab'-lu-ent) [abluere, to wash away]. Detergent. That which cleanses or washes away.
  • Ablution (ab-lu'-shun) [see Abluent]. Washing or cleansing the body. Separation of chemic impurities by washing.
  • Abnormal (ab-nor' -mat) [ab, away from; nor- ma, a law]. Not normal; not conformable with nature or with the general rule.
  • Abnormity, Abnormality (ab-nor' -mit-e, ab- nor-mal'-it-e. The quality of being abnormal; a deformity or malformation.
  • Abomasum (ab-o-ma'-sum) [ab, away; oma- sum, paunch]. The reed or proper digestive stomach of ruminating mammals ; also called "fourth," or "true," stomach.
  • Aboral (ab-o'-ral) [ab, away from; os, the mouth]. Opposite to, or remote from, the mouth.
  • Abort (ab-ort') [ab, from; ortus, from oriri, to grow]. 1. To miscarry; to expel the fetus before it is viable. 2. To prevent full development, as of a disease. 3. To come short of full development.
  • Abortient (ab-or'-shent) [see Abort]. Abort- ive; abortifacient.
  • Abortifacient (ab-or-te-fa' -shent) [abortus; fa- cere, to make]. 1. Causing abortion. 2. A drug or agent inducing the expulsion of the fetus.
  • Abortion (ab -or' -shun) [abortus, a miscarriage]. The expulsion of the ovum before the child is viable; that is, any time before the end of the sixth month. By some authors expulsion of the ovum during the first 3 months is termed abortion; from this time to viability it is termed immature delivery, or miscarriage, and from the period of viability to that of maturity, premature delivery. A., Accidental. See A., Spontaneous. A., Artificial, that produced intentionally. A., Criminal, that not demanded for therapeutic reasons. A., Epidemic, the occurrence of many cases at about the same time, due to wide-spread dis- tress, excitement, or privation, or to some form of poisoning, such as ergotism. A., Habitual, repeated abortion in successive pregnancies, usually due to syphilis. A., Incomplete, when the membranes or the placenta is retained. A., Induced. See A., Artificial. A., Inevitable, when the embryo or fetus is dead, or when there is an extensive detachment or rupture of the ovum. A., Missed, the death of the fetus and not fol- lowed within two weeks by its expulsion. A., Partial, the premature loss of one fetus in a case of multiple gestation. A., Spontaneous, • that not induced by artificial means. A., Tubal, the escape of a fertilized ovum through the abdominal opening of the oviduct into the peritoneal cavity.
  • Abortionist (ab-or'-shun-ist) [see Abortion]. One who criminally produces abortions; especially one who follows the business of producing abortions.
  • Abortive (ab-or'-tiv) [see Abortion]. Pre- maturely born; coming to an untimely end; incompletely developed; cutting short the course of a disease; abortifacient.
  • Abortus (ab-or'-tus) [L.]. An aborted fetus; abortion.
  • Aboulia (ah-boo' -le-ah) . See Abulia.
  • Abrachia (ah -bra' -ke -ah) [a, priv.; ftpa- X'tojv, arm]. The condition of an armless monster.
  • Abrachiocephalia (ah - bra -ke-o-sef-a'- le-ah) [abrachius; necfraXr}, head]. Absence of the head and arms.
  • Abrachius (ah-bra' -ke-us) [see Abrachia]. A monster without arms.
  • Abrasio (ab-ra' -ze-o) [L.]. An abrasion. A. corneas, a scraping off of the superficial epi- thelium of the cornea.
  • Abrasion (ab-ra' -zhun) [ab, from; radere, to rub]. The rubbing off of the cutaneous or mucous surface by an injury.
  • Abrin (a'-brin). The chemic ferment or poison- ous principle of jequirity. It has been em- ployed in the study of immunity.
  • Abrotanum (ab-rof -an-um) [afipoxovov, an aromatic plant]. The plant called southern- wood, Artemisia abrotanum.
  • Abrus (a'-brus) [afipoc, pretty]. Jequirity; In- dian licorice. The seeds of A. precatorius, or wild licorice. Its properties are thought to be due to the presence of certain ferments.
  • Abrin. Infusions applied to the conjunc- tiva or to any mucous surface induce violent purulent inflammation with growth of false membrane. It is used in producing artificial conjunctivitis.
  • Abscess, Abscessus (ab'-ses, ab-ses'-us) [ab- scessus, a departure or separation]. A local- ized collection of pus surrounded by a wall of ABSCESS ABSCESS lymph. Syn., Ecpyema; Gathering. Accord- ing to location, abscesses are named dorsal, mammary, ischiorectal, perityphlitic, retrophar- yngeal, etc. A., Acute, one resulting from an acute inflammation of the part in which it is formed. Syn., Abscessus per fluxum. A., Alveolar, abscess in the gum or alveolus. A., Amebic, a variety of abscess found in the liver and lung and containing amebas. A., Anorectal, one of the celluloadipose tissue near the anus. A., Arthrinuent, a wander- ing abscess having its origin in a diseased joint. Abscessus arthriticus, Musgrave's term for intestinal abscesses due to "gouty dysentery." A., Atheromatous, an area of softening in the wall of a vessel the result of sclerotic endarteritis. A., Bicameral, one with two pockets. A., Biliary, one connected with the gallbladder or a bile-duct. A., Bro- die's, chronic abscess of bone, most frequently of the head of the tibia. A., Bursal, abscess in the bursas. A., Canalicular, mammary abscess that communicates with a milk-duct.
  • Abscessus carniformis, Severinus' name for a hard sarcoma of the joints. A., Chronic, A., Cold, one of slow and apparently non- inflammatory development, generally about a bone, joint, or gland. It is usually tuber- culous and contains cheesy material. A., Circumscribed, one that is limited by an ex- udation of lymph. A. , Cold. See A ., Chronic. A., Congestive, one in which the pus appears at a point distant from where it is formed. A., Embolic, one formed at the seat of a septic embolus. A., Fixation, an abscess produced by the subcutaneous injection of an irritant as a treatment of grave septicemia. A., Glandular, one formed about a lymph- gland. A., Gravitation, one in which pus formed in one part of the body tends to migrate, usually to portions deeper or lower down, in the direction gravity would take it. A., Hematic, one due to an extra vasated blood-clot. A., Hemorrhagic, one contain- ing blood. A., Idiopathic, one not attri- butable to any disease. A., Iliac, a wan- dering abscess of the iliac region. A., In- fecting Mitral, one due to a lymph em- bolus caused by endocarditis. A., Intra- mastoid, one of the mastoid process of the temporal bone. A., Lumbar, a wandering abscess of the lumbar region. A., Lymph- atic, i. The suppuration of a lymphatic gland. 2. An enlarged bursa mucosa. A., Marginal, one located near the anal orifice. A., Mastoid, suppuration occurring in the cells of the mastoid portion of the temporal bone. A., Metastatic, an abscess secondary to pyemia and ulcerative endocarditis, but not occurring through septicemia. It is usually of embolic origin and generally lo- cated in the lungs and liver. A., Miliary, a small embolic abscess. A., Otic Cerebral, A., Otitic Cerebral, an abscess of the brain following a purulent disease of the inner ear. A., Paget's. See A., Residual. A., Para- metric, A., Parametritic, a form occurring frequently between the folds of the broad ligament of the uterus or in the neighbor- ing cellular tissue. A., Paranephric, one occurring in the tissues about the kidney. A., Perimetric, A., Perimetritic, pus within the peritoneum originating from in- flammation of the peritoneal covering of the uterus. A., Perinephric, one occur- ring in the region immediately surrounding the kidney. A., Peripleuritic, one that occurs beneath the parietal pleura as the result of pleurisy, a diseased rib, or an injury. A., Periproctitic, one in the loose areolar tissue surrounding the lower part of the rectum. A., Peritoneal, a collection of softened exudate which has become encysted in cases of peritonitis. A., Peri- tonsillar, one that forms in acute tonsillitis around one or both tonsils. Abscessus pneumococcalis, one due to infection by pneumococci. A., Postcecal, one located back of the cecum. A., Posttyphoid, chronic abscess following typhoid. A., Pre- lacrimal, an abscess due to caries of the lac- rimal or the ethmoid bone, producing a swelling at the inner canthus immediately below the upper margin of the orbit. A., Primary, one formed at the seat of pyogenic infection. A., Psoas, one arising from dis- ease of the lumbar or lower dorsal vertebras, the pus descending in the sheath of the muscle, and usually pointing beneath Poupart's ligament. A., Pyemic. See Pyemia. A., Residual, one formed in or about the residues of former inflammation. A., Septicemic, one resulting from septic infection or accompanying septicemia. A., Spermatic, one involving the seminiferous tubules. A., Spinal, one due to necrosis or disease of a vertebra. A., Spirillar, Ver- neuil's name for an abscess containing spirilla from the saliva. A., Stitch, one formed about a stitch or suture. A., Subaponeuro- tic, one beneath an aponeurosis or fascia. A., Subareolar, one beneath the alveolar epithelium of the nipple. A., Subfascial, one beneath a fascia; postfascial abscess. A., Submammary, one lying between the mam- mary gland and the chest-wall. Syn., Post- mammary abscess; Retromammary abscess. A., Subpectoral, one beneath the chest muscles. A., Subperitoneal, one arising between the parietal peritoneum and the abdominal wall. Syn., Preperitoneal abscess. A., Subphrenic, one located beneath the diaphragm. A., Sudoriparous, an abscess due to inflamma- tion of obstructed sweat-glands. A., Sym- pathetic, a secondary or metastatic abscess at a distance from the part at which the exciting cause has acted (e.g., a bubo). A., Tuberculous. See A., Chronic. A., Tym- panitic, one containing gas generated by putrefaction. Syn., Abscessus flatuosus; Gas abscess. A., Urethral, i . Suppuration of a urethral lacuna; a lacunar abscess. 2. One involving the circumurethral tissue. A., Urinary, one resulting from extravasation of ABSCISSAE 6 ACACIA urine. A., Urinous, one containing urine mingled with the pus. A., Verminous, A., Worm, one containing intestinal worms, from communication with the intestine. A., Wan- dering, one in which the pus has traveled along the connective-tissue spaces and points at some locality distant from its origin. Syn., Hypostatic abscess; A bscessus per congestum; Abscessus per decubitum.
  • Abscissae (absis'se) [ab, away; scindere, to cut]. The transverse lines cutting vertical ones at right angles, to show by a diagram the relations of two series of facts, as, e. g., the number of pulse-beats or the temperature record in given periods of time.
  • Abscission (absish'-un) [see Abscissa], Re- moval of a part by cutting.
  • Absinthe (ab'sinth). See under Absinthium.
  • Absinthiate (absin'-the-dt). A salt of absin- thic acid.
  • Absinthiated (absin'-the-a-ted). i. Mixed with absinthe. 2. Containing wormwood.
  • Absinthin (absinth' -in) [absinthium]. A bitter crystalline principle obtainable from worm- wood. See Absinthium.
  • Absinthism (absinth' -izm). A disease similar to alcoholism, the result of the excessive use of absinthe. It is characterized by general muscular debility and mental disturbances, that may proceed to convulsions, acute mania, or general paralysis.
  • Absinthium (absinth' -e-um) [L.]. Wormwood. The leaves and tops of Artemisia absinthium. Absinthium contains a volatile oil and an in- tensely bitter principle, absinthin, C 20 H 28 O 4 , which is a narcotic poison. Absinthium in- creases cardiac action and produces tremor and epileptiform convulsions. Dose 20-40 gr. (1.3-2.6 Gm.) in infusion. It is used as a stom- achic tonic. Unof. Absinthe, a French liqueur, is an alcoholic solution of the oil exhibited with oils of anise, marjoram, and other aromatic oils.
  • Absinthol (absinth' -of), C 10 H 16 O. The prin- cipal constituent of oil of wormwood; it is isomeric with ordinary camphor.
  • Absorb (absorb') [absorbere, to suck up]. To suck up or imbibe; to take within one's self.
  • Absorbefacient (absorb-e-fa'shent) [absorptio, absorption; facere, to make]. Favoring or tending to produce absorption.
  • Absorbing; capable of absorbing. 2. An organ or part that absorbs. 3. A term ap- plied to the lacteals and lymphatics. 4. In materia medica, a drug or medicine that pro- duces -absorption of diseased tissue. A. Glands. See Lymphatics. A. System, the lacteals and lymphatics with their associated glands.
  • Absorptiometer (absorpshe-om' -et-er) [absorp- tion; /ihpoi>, a measure]. A device for measur- ing the thickness of the layer of liquid that is taken up between two glass plates by capillary attraction. Used in conjunction with a spectrophotometer, it serves as a hematoscope.
  • Absorption (absorp'shun) [see Absorb]. The permeation or imbibition of one body by another. A., Chylous, the act or process of the entrance of the oil-globules of the chyle into the central canals of the intestinal villi. A., Coefficient of, that num- ber which represents the volume of a gas absorbed by a unit volume of water at o° C. and at a barometric pressure of 760 mm. A., Excrementitial. 1. The absorption of fluid excretions by the mucosa. 2. The ab- sorption of excretions or morbid products (bile, pus) by the blood. Syn., Pathologic ab- sorption; Absorptio morbosa. A., External, the taking up by the skin Or mucous sur- faces of pabulum or medication applied to the exterior of the body or of an organ. A., Internal. 1 . The absorption of waste-products by the tissues; absorption of decomposition of disassimilation. 2. The taking up of pab- ulum by the tissues; absorption of nutrition; molecular, nutritive, organic absorption. A., Interstitial, the removal by the absorbent system of effete matters. A. Lines, A. Bands, dark lines of the spectrum, called Fraun- hofer's lines, caused by the arrest or absorp- tion of the ethereal waves of certain lengths and rapidities, mainly by vapors of the sun's atmosphere. A., Lymphatic, that which oc- curs in lymphatic vessels. A., Physiologic, a phenomenon forming an important part of the digestive process, caused in part by the vital activity of the epithelial cells and in part by the physical laws of imbibition, diffusion, and osmosis. Syn., Absorptio sana. A., Ulcerative, that by which an ulcer forms or extends its area.
  • Absorptive (absorp'-tiv) [see Absorb]. Having the power or function of absorbing.
  • Abstergent (abster'-jent) [abs, from; tergere, to cleanse]. Cleansing; detergent. See Deter- gent.
  • Abstersive (abster'siv) [abstersivus]. Abster- gent.
  • Abstract (ab'strakt) [abstrahere, to draw away]. In pharmacy, a solid preparation in which two parts of the drug are represented by one part of the abstract (which is compounded with milk-sugar). Abstracts are double the strength of the nuidextracts.
  • Abterminal (ab-ter' -min-al) [ab, from; ter- minus, end]. Passing from tendinous into muscular tissue (used of electric currents).
  • Abulia (ah-bu'-le-ah) [a, priv.; ^ouXr), will]. Loss or defect of will-power.
  • Abulic (ah-bu'-lik) [see Abulia]. Character- ized by or affected with abulia.
  • Abulomania (ah-bu-lo-ma' -ne-ah) [abulia; fxavca, madness]. A disease of the mind characterized by imperfect or lost will- power.
  • Abuse (ab-us') [abusus, a using up]. Rape.
  • Acacia (ah-ka' she-ah) [L.]. A large genus of leguminous trees, shrubs, and herbs, many of them Australian or African. A number of the species are medicinal, and some are ACALYPHA ACCOMMODATION poisonous. The bark is usually very astrin- gent. Gum-arabic is produced by various species — A. lebbek, A. nilotica, A. vera, and A.verek. A. Senegal also furnishes gum-ara- bic, a nearly white, transparent gum, soluble in water. It is used in the manufacture of mucil- age, and contains arabin, C l2 H 22 O n , identical in composition with cane-sugar. A. anthel- mintica. See Mussanin. A. catechu. See Catechu. A., Mucilage of (mucilago acacia, U.S. P.), acacia, 34; water, to make 100 parts; incompatible with alcoholic tinctures. A., Syrup of (syrupus acacice, U.S. P.), mucilage, 25; simple syrup, 75. It is used in various mixtures as a demulcent and to suspend in- soluble powders.
  • Acalypha (ah-kal'-if-ah) [aKaXu^rjc, unveiled]. A genus of euphorbiaceous plants. A. jruti- cosa, of India, is useful in dyspepsia and diar- rhea, and is tonic and alterant. A. hispida has similar uses. A. indica is a plant common in India. The leaves are expectorant, emetic, laxative. A. virginica, of North America, is diuretic and expectorant. Dose of the fluid- extract 10 min.-i dr. (0.6-4.0 Cc); of the juice {succus acalyphce), for an infant, 1 dr. (4 Cc).
  • Acanthial (ak-an' -the-al) [see Acanthion]. Per- taining to the acanthion.
  • Acanthion (ak-an' -the-on) [amvdtov, a little thorn]. A point at the base of the nasal spine.
  • Acanthoma (ak-an-tho' -mah) [anavda, a spine]. A localized excessive growth in any part of the prickle-cell layer of the skin.
  • Acanthosis (ak-an-tho' -sis) [amvOa, a spine]. Any skin disease marked by abnormities in the prickle-cell layer. A. nigricans, a gen- eral pigmentation of the skin, with papillary, mole -like growths.
  • Acsadia. (ah-kar' -de -ah) [a, priv.; napd ca, heart]. Congenital absence of the heart.
  • Acardiac (ah-kar'-de-ak). 1. Having no heart. 2. A fetus with no heart.
  • Acardiacus (ah-kar -di' -ak-us) [see Acardia]. A synonym employed by German writers for omphalosite. A. acephalus, one in which the head is wanting, the thorax rudimentary, the pelvis and contiguous parts perfectly formed. A. amorphus, a shapeless lump with only rudiments of organs.
  • Acardius (ah-kar' -de-us) . Affected with con- genital absence of the heart. An acardiac monster.
  • Acarid, Acaridan (ak'-ar-id, ak-ar' -id-an) [(XKapTjc, small; tiny]. Pertaining to Acarus.
  • Acarinosis (ak-ar -in-o' -sis) [acarus, a mite]. Any disease, as the itch, -produced by a mite or acarid.
  • Acarodermatitis (ak-ar -o-der -mat-i' -tis) [acarus, a mite; dermatitis]. Dermatitis caused by acari, or mites.
  • Acaroid (ak'-ar-oid) [acarus; eldoc, like]. Mite- like. A. Gum, Botany Bay gum; resina lutea. An aromatic resin used in Australia as a remedy for gastric troubles, intestinal catarrhs, diarrheas, etc. Dose 8-16 gr. (0.5-1.0 Gm.) in alcoholic solution. Unof. Benzoic acid is prepared from it, and it is said to have the properties of storax and balsam of Peru. A. Resin. See A. Gum.
  • Acarpia (ah-kar p'-e-ah) [amp-nca]. Sterility; barrenness; unfruitfulness.
  • Acarus (ak'-ar-us) [a, priv.; nt-'cpecv, to cut (because so small)]. The mite, or tick, a parasite of man. and animals. A. scabiei, Sarcoptes scabiei, the itch-mite, a small para- site with numerous sharp tubercles, spines, and hairs on the dorsal surface. See Scabies.
  • Acataphasia (ah-kat-aj-a'-ze-ah) [a, priv.; Kara, after; (j>aocg, utterance]. A disorder in the syntactical arrangement of uttered speech, due to some central lesion.
  • Acathectic (ak-ah-thek'-tik) [amOsa-dc, unre- tained]. A term applied by Liebermeister to that form of icterus caused by pathologic changes in the liver-cells, through which they become unable to retain their secretion.
  • Acceleration (ak-sel-er-a' -shun) [accelerare, to hasten]. Quickening, as of the rate of the pulse or of the respiration.
  • Accelerator (ak-sel' -e-ra-tor) [see Acceleration]. 1. That which accelerates. 2. A muscle which hastens a physiologic discharge. A. Nerves, nerves passing from the medulla to the heart and conducting stimuli that cause acceleration of the heart's action. A. partus, an abortifacient or ecbolic agent. A. urinse, a muscle of the penis the func- tion of which is to expel the last drops in urination, to expel the semen, and to assist erection. The sphincter vaginae is its ana- log in the female.
  • Accentuation (ak-sen-tu-a' -shun) [accentuare]. Increased loudness or distinctness.
  • Accessory (ak'-ses-o-re or ak-ses'-o-re) [acces- sorizes]. A term applied to certain glands, muscles, ducts, nerves, arteries, etc., that are auxiliary in function, course, etc., to the prin- cipal. Certain small muscles, as the lumbri- cales, are regarded as accessory to more im- portant muscles.
  • Accidental (ak-se-denf -at) [accidentalis]. 1. Due to, or caused by, an accident. 2. In- tercurrent; having no essential connection with other conditions or symptoms.
  • Accipiter (ak-sip' -it-er) [L., " a hawk "]. A facial bandage with tails radiating like the claws of a hawk. A. quinqueceps, a five-headed accipiter bandage. A. triceps, a three- headed accipiter bandage.
  • Acclimatation, Acclimation, Acclimatiza- tion (ak-li-mat-a' -shun, ak-lim-a' -shun, ak- li-mat-iz-a' -shun) [ad, to; clima, climate]. The process of becoming accustomed to the climate, soil, water, etc., of a country to which a plant, animal, person, or a people has removed.
  • Accommodation (ak-om-o-da' -shun) [accommo- dare, to adjust]. Adaptation or adjustment, particularly the adjustment of the eye for -different' distances. A., Absolute, the ac- ACCOMMODATION ACEPHALOGASTER commodation of either eye separately. A., Asthenopia of, subnormal power of the function of accommodation, or the pain or discomfort from accommodative effort. A., Binocular, the combined accommodation of the two eyes. A., Histologic, the occur- rence of changes in the morphology and func- tion of cells following changed conditions. A., Negative, the opposite of positive ac- commodation, the refractive power of the eye being lessened. A. of the Eye, that I The Left Half Represents the Eye at Rest; the Right, during Accommodation. function of the ciliary muscle and lens whereby objects at different distances are clearly seen. It depends upon the inherent elasticity of the lens, which when the ciliary muscle of an emmetropic eye is at rest, is adapted to the proper focalization of theoretically paral- lel rays of light. Objects nearer, to be clearly seen, require a greater refracting power on the part of the eye because the rays from such objects are more divergent. This addi- tional refracting power is gained by an in- creased anteroposterior diameter of the lens, brought about by the contraction of the ciliary muscle, which occasions a loosening of the suspensory ligament and a thickening of the lens by its own elasticity. A. Phosphenes, the peripheral light-streak seen in the dark after the act of accommodation. A., Posi- tive, that when the eye being focused for a more distant object is required for fixa- tion upon a nearer point. A., Range of Relative, the range of accommodation at the command' of the eye for any particular degree of convergence. A., Region of, the extent controlled by the eye within which it distinguishes objects clearly from the state of rest to that of maximum accommodation. A., Spasm of, a term used to express excessive or persistent contraction of the ciliary muscle, following the attempt to overcome error of re- fraction. It stimulates myopia. A., Subnor- mal, deficient power of accommodation. A., Supernormal, excessive power of accommo- dation. A., Theory of, Helmholtz's, that the increased convexity of the lens is produced by a relaxation of the suspensory ligament, thus removing the influence which tends to flatten the lens and permitting the latter by its elasticity to become more convex. A., Theory of, Schoen's, that the contraction of the ciliary muscle produces the same effect on the lens as is produced upon a rubber ball when held in both hands and compressed with the fingers. A., Theory of, Tschern- ing's, by the contraction of the anterior part of both the radiating and circular fibers of the ciliary muscle the ciliary processes are drawn backward, and the suspensory liga- ment pulled backward and outward; pres- sure of the anterior portion of the muscle causes increased convexity of the lens.
  • Accouchement (a-koosh-mon(g)) [Fr.]. The French term for childbirth. A. force, rapid and forcible delivery with the hand.
  • Accoucheur (a-koo-shur) [Ft.]. A professional male assistant at childbirth.
  • Accretion (ak-re' -shun) [ad, to; crescere, to increase], i. A term denoting the manner by which _ crystalline and certain organic forms increase their material substance. 2. The adherence of parts normally separate.- 3. An accumulation of foreign matter in any cavity.
  • Accumulation (ak-u-mu-la' -shun) [accumulare, to heap up]. An amassing or collecting to- gether. A., Fecal, an excessive aggregation of feces in the large intestine; coprostasis.
  • Accumulator iak-u' ' -mu-la-tor) [accumulare, to heap up]. An apparatus to store electricity. A. C. E. Mixture. An anesthetic mixture com- posed of alcohol, 1 part; chloroform, 2 parts; ether, 3 parts. See Anesthetic.
  • Acelia, Acoelia (ah-se' -le-ah) [a, priv.; nodca, a cavity]. The absence of a natural cavity. Syn., Acelosis.
  • Acentric (ah-sen'-trik) [a, priv.; Kkvxpov, cen- ter]. Not eccentric; not originating in, or pertaining to, a nerve-center; peripheric.
  • Acephalia (ah-se f-a f -le-ah) [a, priv.; K.ea\T), head; napdca, heart]. Absence of the head and heart.
  • Acephalocardius (ah-sef-al-o-kar'-de-us). A monster with neither head nor heart.
  • Acephalocheirus (ah-se f-al- o-ki'-rus) [see Acephalocheiria]. A monster with neither head nor hands.
  • Acephalocyst,Acephalocystis(a/i-^/'-a/-o-jw/, ah-sef-al-o-sist 1 '-is) [a, priv.; K£aXr), head; ardfia, mouth]. Absence of the head, with a mouth-like opening on the superior aspect.
  • Acephalostomus (ah-sej-al-os' -to-mus) [see Acephalostomia]. A monster without a head, but with a mouth-like aperture.
  • Acephalous iah-sef -al-us) [ankcjiakoc, headless]. Headless.
  • Acephalus (ah - sef -al- us) [see A cephalia]. A species of omphalositic monsters charac- terized by complete absence of the head and usually of the upper extremities. It is the commonest condition among the omphalosites. A. dibrachius, an acephalus with two upper limbs in a more or less rudimentary state. A. dipUS, an acephalus with two more or less developed lower extremities. A. monobrach- ius, one with one upper extremity, a cervical vertebra, and one or two more or less devel- oped lower extremities. A. monopus, one with only one lower extremity, more or less developed. See Acephalopodius. A. sym- pus, one in which the trunk ends in a long conic point at the end of which are attached one or two feet.
  • Acercus (ah-ser'-kus) [anspKoc, without a tail]. A monstrosity without a tail or the coccy- geal vertebra.
  • Acerdol (as'-er-dol), MnO ? K 2 KOH. An oxi- dation-product of potassium and manganese. It is used as an oxidizer and disinfectant.
  • Acervulus, A. cerebri (as-er' -vu-lus ser'-e-bri). Concretionary matter near the base of the pineal gland, consisting of alkaline phosphates and car- bonates, with amyloid matter. Syn., Brain- sand.
  • Acescence (as-es'-ens) [acescere, to grow sour], i. The process of becoming sour; the qual- ity of being somewhat sour. 2. A disease of wines, whereby they become sour, owing to the agency of Mycoderma aceti.
  • Acesodyne  Acesodynous (ah-ses'-o-din, ah-ses- od'-in-us) [diceawduvoc]. Allaying pain; ano- dyne.
  • Acestoma (as-es'-to-mah) [ain-o-oc, curable]. The mass of young granulation tissue which later forms the cicatrix.
  • Acetabular (as-et-aV '-u-lar) [acetabulum, a cup]. Pertaining to the acetabulum.
  • Acetabulum (as-et-ab' -u-lum) [see Acetabular]. A cup-shaped depression on the outer aspect of the innominate bone for the reception of the head of the femur. A. cotyle, the articu- lar cavity of the innominate bone. A. uter- ina, a placental cotyledon.
  • Acetal (as'-et-al) [acetum, vinegar]. 1. C 6 H ]4 - 2 . Ethidene diethylate, a colorless liquid with an ethereal odor, produced by the im- perfect oxidation of alcohol under the in- fluence of platinum black. It is sparingly soluble in water; boils at 104 C; sp.gr. at 20 is 0.8304. Its action is that of a soporific. Dose 1 dr. (4 Gm.). 2. A mix- ture said to consist of acetic ether and oils of cloves, bergamot, lavender, lemon, men- thol, orange, rosemary, thyme, and abso- lute alcohol. A., Dimethyl. See Methylal.
  • Acetaldehyd (as-et-aV -de-hid). The normal aldehyd; ethaldehyd. See Aldehyd.
  • Acetamid (as-et'-am-id), C 2 H 5 NO. A white, crystalline solid produced by distilling am- monium acetate, or by heating ethyl acetate with strong aqueous ammonia. It combines with both acids and metals to form unstable compounds.
  • Acetaminol (as-et-am'-in-ol), C^H^NO^ A reaction-product of paranitrobenzoyl chlorid with eugenol-sodium, followed by reduction and acetylization. It occurs as white scales or crystalline powder, soluble in alcohol and insoluble in water, and melting at 160 C. It is used in pulmonary tuberculosis. Syn., Para- acetamido -benzoyleugenol; A cetamido-benzoyl.
  • Acetanilid (as-et-an'-il-id), C 8 H 9 NO. Phenyl- acetamid. A white, crystalline solid, pro- duced by boiling anilin and glacial acetic acid together for several hours, the crystal- line mass being then distilled. It melts at 114 and boils at 259 . It is soluble in hot water, alcohol, and ether. Under the name antifebrin it is prescribed as an antipyretic. Dose 2-10 gr. (0.13-0.65 Gm.), not exceed- ing 30 gr. (2 Gm.) in the 24 hours; of the compound powder (pulvis acetanilidi com- positus, U. S. P.) 7^ gr. (0.5 Gm.). A., Ammoniated, a mixture of acetanilid, 25 parts; ammonium carbonate, 10 parts; so- dium bicarbonate, 5 parts; sugar of milk, 60 parts. It is recommended as causing less depression than acetanilid alone. A., Mono- bromated. See Antisepsin.
  • Acetate (as'-et-dt) [see Acetic]. Any salt of acetic acid.
  • Acetic (as-e'-tik) [acetum, vinegar]. Pertaining to acetum or vinegar; sour. See Acid, Acetic. A. Acid Amid. See Acetamid. A. Acid Esters. See Methyl Acetate and Ether, Acetic. A. Acid Salts. 1. Readily soluble crystalline salts formed from the bases. 2. Basic salts formed from iron, aluminium, lead, and copper; sparingly soluble in water. 3. Alkali salts, which have the property of combining with a molecule of acetic acid to produce acid salts. A. Aldehyd. See under Aldehyd. A. Anhydrid, C 4 H 6 O s , a colorless, mobile liquid, highly refractive, and with an odor of acetic acid. Sp. gr. 1.080 at 15 C; boils at i36°-i38° C. Syn., Acetyl oxid; Acetic oxid; socalled Anhydrous acetic acid.
  • ACETIN 10 ACETOPHENONEPHENETIDIN A. Ether. See under Ether. A. Fermenta- tion, the development of acetic acid by the activity of the Mycoderma aceti. A. Fungus, any one of several minute fungoid organ- isms capable of inciting and maintaining acetic fermentation, as first proved by Pas- teur in 1864.
  • Acetin (as'-et-in) [acetum, vinegar], C 3 H 5 - (C 2 H 3 2 ) 3 . A chemic compound formed by the union of glycerol and acetic acid.
  • Acetoacetic Acid (as-et-o-as-e'-tik). A mono- basic acid formed from acetic acid by re- placing one of the hydrogen atoms of the acid radicle with the acetic-acid radicle, acetyl. See Gerhardt. A. Esters, CH 3 . CO . CH 2 .- C0 2 R, liquids possessing an ethereal odor, produced by the action of metallic sodium upon acetic esters; they dissolve with diffi- culty in water and can be distilled without decomposition.
  • Acetoarsenite ias-et-o-ar' -sen-it). A salt com- posed of an acetate and an arsenite of the same base.
  • Acetobromid (as-et-o-bro'-mid). An acetic- acid salt in which part of the hydrogen of the acid radicle has been replaced by bromin.
  • Acetoglycocoll ( as - et - - glV - ko - kol ) , CH 2 <^p/-N Vt 2 3 " A substance resembling a monobasic acid, obtained from the action of acetyl chlorid on glycocoll silver and of acetamid on monochloracetic acid; it is soluble in alcohol; melts at 206 C. Syn., Acetamidoacetic acid ; Aceturic acid.
  • Acetoiodid (as-et-o-i'-o-did). A double salt containing the acetate and iodid of the same radicle.
  • Acetol (as'-et-ol). 1. See Acetyl Carbinol. 2. A remedy for toothache, said to consist of acetic acid, 8.46 %; alum, 3.07 % ; water, 88.5 %; with a small proportion of essential oils of sage, clove, and peppermint.
  • Acetoluid (as-e-toV -u-id), C 7 H 7 NH . C 2 H 3 0.
  • Acetoorthotoluid. An antipyretic resembling acetanilid. The dose is not accurately de- termined.
  • Acetometer (us-et-om' -et-er) [acetum, vinegar; fihpov, a measure]. An instrument used in the quantitative determination of acetic acid.
  • Acetonasthma (as-et-on-az' '-mah) [acetone; as- thma]. Attacks of dyspnea similar to uremic asthma, accompanied with restlessness, head- ache, nausea, vomiting, transient amaurosis, and acetonuria.
  • Acetone (as'-et-on) [acetum, vinegar], C 3 H 6 0. Dimethylketone. A colorless, mo- bile liquid, of peculiar odor and burning taste, present in crude wood-spirit; it occurs in small quantities in the blood and in normal urine, and in considerable quantities at times in the urine of diabetic patients. It is mis- cible with ether, alcohol, and water. It is used as an anesthetic and anthelmintic. Dose 15-20 min. (0.9-1.2 Cc). Syn., Mesitic alcohol; Mesityl alcohol; Methyl acetyl; Acetyl methyl. See Chautard, Gunning, Legal, Lie- ben, Malerba, le Nobel, Penzoldt, Reynolds. A. Chloroform, HO . C(CH 3 ) 2 CC1 3 , a com- pound formed by the addition of potash to equal weights of acetone and chloroform. It occurs as white crystals, sparingly soluble in water, more freely in alcohol and glycerol. Its 1 % aqueous solution is called Anescn. It is used as a hypnotic and anesthetic. Dose 15-20 gr. ( 1. 0-1.3 Gm.). Syn., Chloretone; Trichlor tertiary butyl alcohol; Trichlor pseudo- butyl alcohol. A. Diethylsulfone. See Sul- fonal. A., Monochlorated, C 3 H 5 C10, a colorless liquid having a pungent odor, ob- tained by chlorinating acetone. A. Phenyl- hydrazone, (CH 3 ) 2 C: N 2 HC 6 H 5 , one of the nitrogen derivatives of ketone. A. Re- sorcinol, C 15 H 16 4 + H 2 0, a combination of resorcinol with acetone and fuming hydro- chloric acid added hot. It occurs in small an- hydrous prisms, soluble in alkaline solutions, insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, and chloro- form. It melts at 2i2°-2i3° C. It is used in the same manner as resorcinol.
  • Acetonemia (as-et-on-e' -me-ah) [acetone; al/ia, blood]. The presence of acetone in the blood.
  • Acetones (as' -et-onz) . A class of compounds that may be regarded as consisting of two alcoholic radicles united by the group CO, or as aldehyds in which hydrogen of the group COH has been replaced by an alcoholic radicle.
  • Acetonin (as-et'-on-in). 1. A body produced by the action of ammonia on acetone. 2. Dihydrotriacetonamin.
  • Acetonitril (as-et-on-i'-tril), CH 3 CN or C 2 H 3 N. Methyl cyanid. It is a colorless liquid, hav- ing an agreeable odor, and is prepared by distilling acetamid with P 2 5 . It may also be produced from prussic acid and diazo- methane. It melts at — 41 C, boils at 81. 6° C.j and has a sp. gr. of 0.789 at 15 C. Syn., Carbamin.
  • Acetonuria (as-et-o-nu' -re-ah) [acetone; odpov, urine]. The presence of acetone in the urine.
  • Acetonyl (as-et'-on-il), CH 2 — CO— CH 3 . A univalent radicle obtained from acetone by taking away one atom of hydrogen.
  • Acetophenone (as-et-o-je'-non), C H 5 (CO)- (CH 3 V Hypnone ; a hypnotic and antisep- tic. It results from the action of zinc methyl upon benzoyl chlorid and crystallizes in la] ge plates, melts at 20. 5 and boils at 202 . It is without satisfactory action. Dcse 4-15 min. (0.26-1.0 Cc).
  • Acetophenoneorthooxyquinolin (as-et-o-fe- non-or-lho-oks-e-kwin'-ol-in), C 2 H 6 NO. CH 2. CO . C 6 H 5 . A base obtained by interaction between a halogen compound of aceto- phenone and orthoquinolin in the presence of solvents and an alkali. It forms well- defined salts, is soluble in volatile solvents, and melts at 130 C. It is said to have hyp- notic and antineuralgic properties; is odor- less, tasteless, and nonirritating.
  • Acetophenonephenetidin (as-et-o-fe-non-fen- et'-id-in). A condensation-product of aceto- ACETOPYRIN 11 ACHE phenone and paraphenetidin. A. Citrate, ^ 6 -ti4^ N = C ( C H 3 )(C 6 H 5 ) . H 3 C, lemon-yellow needles, soluble in ether and hot alcohol, insoluble in water. It melts at 88° C; is antipyretic and antineuralgic. Dose 8-15 gr. (0.5-1.0 Gm.). Syn., Malarin.
  • Acetopyrin, Acetopyrina (as-et-o-pi'-rin, -ah). A mixture of antipyrin and acetyl 'saHcy He acid, occurring as a whitish, crystalline pow- der, soluble with difficulty in cold water, ether, and petroleum ether, readily soluble in warm water, alcohol, chloroform, and warm toluol. It is antipyretic. Dose 7 gr. (0.4 Gm.) 6 times daily. Syn., Antipyrin acetylsalicylate. A. Acetosalicylate, antipy- retic, analgesic, sedative; employed in in- fluenza, bronchitis, rheumatic headache, sci- atica, hemicrania, and acute articular rheu- matism.
  • Acetous (as-e'-tus) [acetum, vinegar]. Resem- bling vinegar; pertaining to or charged with vinegar or acetic acid.
  • Acetozone (as-et'-o-zon). See Benzoylacetyl- peroxid.
  • Acetparatoluid (as-et-par-ah-toV -u-id), C 9 H n - NO. Antipyretic, colorless crystals, slightly soluble in water, moderately soluble in alcohol; it melts at 149 C. Dose 15-30 gr. (1-2 Gm.). Syn., Acetparamidotoluol ; Paratolylacetamid.
  • Acetphenetidin (as-et-fe-nef -id-in) [acetum; phenol]. A compound derived from phenol, having antipyretic and antineuralgic proper- ties. It is crystalline, tasteless, and almost insoluble in water. Dose 4-30 gr. (0.26-2.0 Gm.). Syn., Phenacetin.
  • Acetum (as -e'- turn) [L.; gen., aceti; pi., aceta]. Vinegar. An impure, dilute acetic acid produced by acetous fermentation of wine, cider, or other fruit-juice. In phar- macy, a solution of the active principles of certain drugs in dilute acetic acid. A.
  • aromaticum (N. F.) ["aromatic vinegar"], a mixture of alcohol, water, and acetic acid, aromatized with the oils of rosemary, laven- der, juniper, peppermint, cassia, lemon, and cloves. A. britannicum, an aromatic vine- gar consisting of glacial acetic acid, 600; camphor, 60; oil of cloves, 2; oil of cinnamon, 1; oil of lavender, 0.5.
  • Acetyl (as'-et-i!) [acetum, vinegar], C 2 H 3 0. A univalent radicle supposed to exist in acetic acid and its derivatives. Aldehyd may be re- garded as the hydrid, and acetic acid as the hydrate, of acetyl. Syn., Acetosyl; Acetoyl; Acetoxyl; Othyl. A. Anhydrid. See Acetic Anhydrid. A. Benzene. See Acetophenone. A. Bioxydamid. See Acetamid. A. Bro- mid, C 2 H 3 BrO, a reaction-product of acetic acid with phosphorus pentabromid; it is a fuming liquid which turns yellow in the air; it boils at 8i° C. It is used as a reagent. A. Carbinol, CH 3 . CO . CH 2 OH, a satu- rated ketol produced by the action of water and barium carbonate upon chloracetone, also by fusing cane-sugar and grape-sugar with caustic potash. It is a colorless oil with a feeble, peculiar odor; boils at 145 - 150 C. Syn., Pyroracemic alcohol ; Acetone alcohol; O xy acetone ; Methyl ketol; AceioL A. Chlorid, C 2 H 3 C10, a reaction-product of acetic acid with phosphorus trichlorid; it is a colorless, highly refracting, fuming liquid; sp. gr. 1. 1305 at o° C; boils at 55 C. It is used as a reagent. A. Ethylphenylhydrazin, C l4 H 22 N 4 2 , colorless needles obtained by heating a solution of ethylenephenylhydrazin with an excess of acetic anhydrid. It is recommended as an antipyretic. Syn., Plien- ylhydrazinacetylethyl. A. Formyl. See Alde- hyd, Pyroracemic. A. Hydrate, acetic acid. A. Hydrid. Same as Acetic Aldehyd. See under Aldehyd. A. Iodid, C 2 H 3 OI, a reac- tion-product of acetic acid with iodin and phosphorus; it is a brown, fuming liquid; sp. gr. 1.98 at i7°C; boils at io5°-io8° C. A.
  • Isocyanid, (C 2 H 3 6) — N=Q a liquid in its simple form, but capable of polymerization as a crystalline solid. It boils at 93 C. Syn., A cetic isocyanid ; Cyanacetyl. A. Isoeugenol , the direct antecedent of vanillin in the manu- facture of the synthetic product, and is used as a substitute for vanillin. A. Leukomethy- lene-blue, a colorless form of methylene-blue for internal use. A. Methyl. See Acetone. A. Oxid. Same as Acetic Anhydrid. A.- paraamidophenylsalicylate. See Salophen. A. Peroxid, (C 2 H 3 0) 2 2 , a thick liquid, insoluble in water, but readily dissolved by ether and alcohol. It is a powerful oxidizing agent. It is decomposed in sunlight and ex- plodes violently when heated. A. Phenyl- hydrazid, A. Phenylhydrazin. Same as Hydracetin and Pyrodin. A. Tannin, a grayish-yellow, slightly hygroscopic, odorless, tasteless powder, soluble in alcohol, dilute sodi- um phosphate, sodium carbonate, or sodium borate; slightly soluble in hot water and ether; insoluble in cold water; melting at 190 C. It is an astringent and is used internally in chronic diarrhea. Externally, it is used in chronic pharyngitis. Dose 3-7^ gr. (0.2-0.5 Gm.). Application, 3 % solution in 5 % sodium phos- phate. Maximum dose 60 gr. (4 Gm.) daily. Syn., Tannigen. A. Thymol, C 12 H 16 - 2 , a colorless antiseptic liquid with a pungent taste having a specific gravity of 1.009 at o° C. and boiling at 244.4 C. Syn., Thymol acetate. A. Tribromsalol, fine, white acicular crystals which melt at 108. 5 ; insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol. Syn., Cordyl. ■ A. Urethane. See Urethane.
  • Acetylene (as-et f -il-en) [acetum, vinegar], C 2 H 2 . A colorless gas, with a characteristic, un- pleasant odor, burning with a luminous, smoky flame. It is formed by the imperfect combustion of illuminating gas and other hydrocarbons.. The acetylene series of hy- drocarbons has the general formula C n H 2n _ 2 .
  • Acetylization (as-et-il-i-za'-shun). The act of combining with or producing compounds of acetic acid or acetyl.
  • Ache (dk) [AS., acan, to ache]. Any con- tinuous or throbbing pain.
  • Acheilous (oh-ki'-lus) [see Acheilia]. Without lips.
  • Acheiria (ah-ki'-re-ah) [d, priv.; %£~cp, a hand]. The congenital absence of hands.
  • Acheirous (ah-ki'-rus) [see Acheiria]. Affected with acheiria.
  • Achilia (ah-ki'-le-ah). See Acheilia.
  • Achillea (ak-il-e' -ah) (Achilles, its reputed dis- coverer]. Milfoil; yarrow. The herb A. millefolium. Its properties are due to a bit- ter, aromatic, astringent, tonic extractive, achillein, and a volatile oil. It has long been used as a vulnerary, and has been highly recommended for intermittent and low exanthematous fevers. Dose i oz.-i pint infusion ad lib.; of the extractive, 1-3 dr. (4-12 Gm.); of the volatile oil, 5-15 min. (0.3-1.0 Cc). Unof. To the genus Achillea belong various other unofficial medicinal plants, as A. moschata, of the Alps, used in preparing cordials and a diaphoretic medi- cine, and A. ptarmica, or sneezewort, a strong sialagog.
  • Achillein, Achilleinum (ak-il-e' -in, -i'-num), C 2 r 1 H3 8 N 2 15 . A glucosid obtained from Achillea millefolium and A. moschata. It occurs as a brownish-red, amorphous mass, of a strongly bitter taste, soluble in water, less soluble • in alcohol, insoluble in ether. It is stated that divided doses up to 30-75 gr. (2-5 Gm.) cause marked irregularity of the pulse.
  • Achilles Tendon (ak-il'-ez ten' -don). The ten- don of the gastrocnemius and soleus mus- cles, inserted into the back of the heel.
  • Achillobursitis (ak-il-o-bur-si' -tis) [achilles ten- don; bursitis]. Inflammation of the bursas lying approximate to the achilles tendon.
  • Achillodynia (ak-il-o-din f -e-ah) [achilles ten- don; odbvq, pain]. Pain referred to the inser- tion of the achilles tendon.
  • Achillorrhaphy (ak-il-or'-af-e) [achilles tendon; pacj>7], suture]. Suture of the achilles ten- don; practised by C. Bayer instead of achil- lotomy for the sake of lengthening the ten- don. This is exposed, the length divided in half, the upper end of one side, the lower end of the other, cut across, and both the cut surfaces united by a suture.
  • Achillotomy (ak-il-ot' '-o-me) [achilles tendon; TOfiTj, a cutting]. The subcutaneous division of the achilles tendon.
  • Achlorhydria (ah-klor-hi'-dre-ah) [a, priv.; ylojpbc, green; udcop, water]. Absence of free hydrochloric acid from the gastric juice.
  • Achloropsia (ah-klor-op 1 '-se-ah) [d, priv.; yXoupbc, green; b^cc, vision]. Green-blindness.
  • Acholia (ah-ko'-le-ah) [d, priv.; xoli), bile]. 1. Absence of biliary secretion. 2. Any con- dition obstructing the escape of the bile into the small intestine. 3. Asiatic cholera. 4. A mild temperament. A., Pigmentary, that in which there are deficiency of bile and lack of color in the feces, but no jaundice.
  • Acholuria (ah-kol-u'-re-ah) [d, priv.; jo^tj, bile; oupov, urine]. The absence of bile-pigment in the urine.
  • Achor (a'-kor) [a%u)p, chaff, scurf, or dandruff]. Crusta lactea, a small pustule, followed by a scab, upon the heads of infants; milk-crust.
  • Achoresis (ah-kor-e'-sis) [d, priv.; %a>phv, to make room; pi., achoreses). Grossi's term for the diminished capacity of a hollow organ, as of the bladder. Syn., Achoria. Cf . S ten ochoria.
  • Achorion (a-ko' -re-on) [dim. of aycop, chaff]. A genus of fungous organisms, including several species (possibly modified forms of Penicillium glaucum) found in the skin, espe- cially the hair-follicles. A. keratophagus, the form causing Onychomycosis. A. le- bertii, the parasite of Tinea tonsurans. A. schonleinii, the species occurring in ring- worm, or Tinea favosa.
  • Achras (ak'-ras) [dypdc, the wild pear]. A genus of arboraceous plants of the order Sapotacece. A. sapota [cochitzapotl, Mex.], the sapodilla plum ; a species indigenous to South America. The fruit is edible, sweet, cloying ; said to be beneficial in strangury. The seeds are laxative and diuretic ; they are exhibited in emulsion in cases of gravel and renal colic. The bitter astringent bark {cortex jamaicensis) has been used as a sub- stitute for cinchona bark. The bark and seeds yield the glucosid sapotin. The sap yields chicle-gum.
  • Achroma (ah-kro' '-mah) [d, priv.; ypajfia, color]. Absence of color; albinism. Syn., Achrom- asia; Achromatia ; Achromatosis ; Achromo- dermia ; Vitiligo. A., Congenital. See Albin- ism. A. cutis. See Leukoderma.
  • Achromacyte (ah-kro' -mas-it) [a, priv.; xpu>p.a, color; kutoc, cell]. A degenerated, decolor- ized erythrocyte; a "phantom" or shadow corpuscle. Syn., TonfcVs shadow corpuscle; Bizzozerd* s blood-platelet ; Hayem's corpuscle or hematoblast.
  • Achromatic (ah-kro-mat'-dk) [d, priv.; xp(bp.a, color]. Without color. A. Lens, one the dispersing power of which is exactly neu- tralized by another lens with the same cur- vature, but having a different refractive index.
  • Achroma tin (ah-kro' -mat-in) [d, priv.; ^w/xa, color]. The groundwork of the nucleus of a cell; it is so called because it is not readily stained by coloring agents.
  • Achromatism (ah-kro' -mat-izm) [d, priv.; ip&>p.a, color]. Absence of chromatic aberra- tion.
  • Achromatophil (ah-kro-mal'-o-fil) [d, priv.; Xpcbfia, color; cXecv, to love]. 1. Showing no affinity for stains. 2. A microbe or his- tologic element which does not stain readily.
  • Achromatopsia (ah-kro-mat-op' -se-ah) [a, priv.; Xptipta, color; o chyme]. Deficient formation of chyme.
  • Achymous (ah-ki'-mus) [see Achymosis]. De- ficient in chyme.
  • Acicular (as-ik' -u-lar) [acus, a needle]. Needle- like.
  • Acid, Acidum (as' -id, -um) [acere, to be sour], i. A name applied to any substance having a sour taste. 2. A compound of an electronega- tive element with one or more atoms of hydro- gen which can be replaced by electropositive or basic atoms. The majority of acids contain oxygen, and are known as oxyacids; those not containing oxygen are termed hydrogen acids. Acids vary in their terminations according to the quantity of oxygen or other electronegative constituent. Those having the maximum of oxygen end in -ic; those of a lower degree, in -ous. When there are more than two combinations, the prefix hyper- is joined to the highest, and hypo- to the lowest. Acids that end in -ic, as sulfuric acid, form salts terminating in -ate; those ending in -ous form salts terminating in -ite. A., Abietic. See Abietic. A., Abric, C 12 H 24 N 3 0, a crystallizable acid, said to exist in jequirity. A., Absinthic, an acid obtained from wormwood; said to be identical with succinic acid. A., Acetic, an acid solution composed of 36 parts of abso- lute acetic acid, C 2 H 4 2 , and 64 parts of water. It has strongly acid properties. A., Acetic, Dilute, contains 6 % of absolute acid. Dose 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc). An impure form, obtained by the destructive distillation of wood, is known as wood-vinegar ? or pyro- ligneous acid. A., Acetic, Glacial, the absolute acid occurring in crystals melting at 22. 5 C. It is an escharotic. A., Aconitic, C 6 H 6 6> occurs in different plants, as Aconi- tum napellus, sugar-cane, and beet-root. It crystallizes in small plates that dissolve readilv in alcohol, ether, and water, and melt at i86°-i87°. A., Acrylic. 1. CH 2 =CH.- CO . OH = C 3 H 4 2 . A monobasic acid which may be considered as the oxid of acrolein, a colorless liquid. 2. A general term for or- ganic acids of the group C n H 2n _ 2 2 , com- prising two groups, the normal acrylic and the isoacrylic acids. Normal acrylic acids occur in vegetable or animal organisms or are derived from natural products. Isoacrylic acids are formed synthetically by the abstrac- tion of the elements of water from certain acid ethers, which in turn are derived from oxalic acid by substituting 2 molecules of an alcohol radicle of the series C n H 2n -t-! for an atom of hydrogen. A., Adipic, C 6 H 10 O 4 , ob- tained by oxidizing fats with nitric acid. It crystallizes in shining leaflets or prisms ; is soluble in 13 parts of cold water; melts at 148 . It is dibasic. A., Agaric, A., Agaricic, C 16 H 30 . 5 + H 2 0, a resin acid obtained from the fungus Polyporus officinalis, growing on larch trees. The acid has been recom- mended for checking night-sweats. It also checks the other excretions and diminishes thirst. It is mildly cathartic. A.s, Alcohol, c "H" ^OH n 2 n< \Q0 2 H, monobasic acids having the properties of the monohydric alcohols. They are distinguished as primary, secondary, and tertiary, according as they contain, in ad- dition to the carboxyl group, the group — CH 2 OH, the radicle == CHOH, or the group — C . OH. Syn., Oxyacids; Hydroxy-jatty acids. Cf. A ., Glycollic. A.s, Aldehyd, bodies which combine the properties of a carboxylic acid and of an aldehyd. A., Aldepalmitic, C 16 H 30 O 2 , the chief component of the butter of the "cow. A., Alloxanic, C 4 H 2 N 2 4 , a crystalline acid obtained by treating alloxan with alkalis. A., Amidoacetic. See Glycin. A., Amidobenzoic, C 7 H 7 N0 2 , occasionally found in the urine. A., Amidosuccinamic. Same as Asparagin. A., Anacardic, C 22 - H 32 3 , a tetratomic acid obtained by Stadler from the cashew-nut. It is used as an an- thelmintic in the form of ammonium anacar- date. A., Angelic, C 5 H 8 2 , a crystalline monobasic acid. It exists free along with valeric and acetic acids in the roots of Angelica archangelica, and as~ butyl and amyl esters in Roman oil of cumin. It crystallizes in shin- ing prisms, melts at 45 , and boils at 185 . It has a peculiar odor and taste. A., Anisic, C 8 H 8 3 , obtained by oxidizing anisol and anethol with HNO s , and from aniseed by the action of oxidizing substances. It is anti- septic and antipyretic, and is used in the treatment of wounds and acute articular rheu- matism. Dose of the sodium salt 15 gr. (1 Gm.). Syn., Methyl par aoxybenzoic acid, ACID 14 ACID A., Anisuric, C 10 H u NO 2 , an acid formed by the action of anisyl chlorid on the silver com- pound of glycocoll; it also occurs in the urine after the ingestion of anise. A., Anticyclic, a white, fragrant powder with pleasant, acid taste, readily soluble in water, alcohol, and glycerol; it is used as an antipyretic. Dose T ^ gr. (0.0006 Gm.). A., Apocrenic, Berzelius' term for a brown, amorphous substance ob- tained from the sediment of chalybeate waters. A., Arabic. See Arabin. A., Ar- achic, A., Arachidic, A., Arachinic, C^H^- 2 = C 19 H 39 . CO OH, a monobasic fatty acid obtained from oil of peanut, Arachis hypogcea. A., Argentic, silver monoxid. A., Aromatic, a name applied to certain organic acids occurring in the balsams, resins, and other odoriferous principles. Also, in pharmacy, a dilute mineral acid reinforced by aromatic substances in order to modify its flavor. A., Arsenic, A., Arsenous. See Arsenic Tri- oxid. A., Arsinic, any one of a class of acids formed by the oxidation of arsins or arsonium compounds. A., Aseptic, an antiseptic so- lution consisting of an aqueous solution of 5 Gm. of boric acid in 1000 Gm. of hydrogen dioxid (1.5 %); 3 Gm. of salicylic acid may be added. A., Asparagic, A., Asparaginic, A., Asparamic. Same as A., A spartic. A., As- partic, C 4 H 7 N0 4 , occurs in the vinasse ob- tained from the beet-root, and is procured from albuminous bodies in various reactions. It is prepared by boiling asparagin with alkalis and acids; crystallizes in rhombic dibasic prisms or leaflets, and dissolves with difficulty in water. A., Aspartic, Inactive, NH 2 C 2 H 3 (C0 2 H) 2 , formed by heating aspartic acid with water or with alcoholic ammonia to i40°-i5o° C, or with HO to i7o°-i8o° C. Syn., Asparacemic acid. A., Atrolactic, C 9 H 10 O 3 , a. monobasic acid obtained from acetophenone by means of prussic acid and H 2 S0 4 or dilute HC1. A., Auric, Au(OH),, gold trihydroxid. A., Aze- laic, A., Azeiainic, C 9 H 16 4 , an oxida- tion-product of oleic acid, Chinese wax, castor oil, or cocoanut oil; soluble in water, alcohol, and ether, melts at io6°-io7° C, and boils at 360 C. Syn., Anchoic acid; Lepargylic acid; Azelic acid ; Azeloinic acid. A., Benzamic. See A., Amidobenzoic. A., Benzoic, C 7 H 6 2 , occurs free in some resins, chiefly in gum benzoin and in coal-tar. It crystallizes in white, shining needles or leaf- lets, melts at 120 , and distils at 250 . It volatilizes readily, its vapor possessing a pecu- liar odor. A., Blattic. See Antihydropin. A., Boric, A.,Boracic. See Boron. A. of Borax, orthoboric acid. A., Borocitric, a combina- tion of boric and citric acid forming a white powder which is used as a solvent for urates and phosphates in urinary calculi, gout, etc. Dose 5-20 gr. (0.3-1.3 Gm.). A.,Borophen- ylic, Q;H 7 B0 2 , obtained by the action of phosphorus oxychlorid upon a mixture of boric acid and phenol. It is an antiseptic white powder with a mild aromatic taste, not easily soluble in water, melting at 2 04° C, It is fatal to lower forms of life, but does not affect the higher forms. Syn., Phenylboric acid. A., Borosalicylic, B(OH)(OC 6 H 4 . CO,H) 2 , a combination of boric and salicylic acids in molecular proportion. It is used externally instead of salicylic acid. A., Brom-, one in which bromin has replaced one or more atoms of hydrogen in the acid radicle. A., Brom- acetic. See A ., Monobromacetic. A. , Brom- hydric, hydrobromic acid. A., Bursic, A., Bursinic, a yellow, hygroscopic mass ob- tained from an aqueous extract of Capsella bursa-pastoris by the action of lead acetate and ammonia and evaporating. Its aqueous solution is used in the same manner as ergotin, hypodermatically and also internally. A., Butic, A., Butinic. See A., Arachic. A., Butyric, C 4 H 8 O z , an acid having a viscid appearance and rancid smell. It is obtained commercially by the fermentation of a mixture of sugar and butter or cheese in the presence of an alkaline carbonate, but occurs in various plants, in cod- liver oil, in the juice of meats, and in the perspiration. Combined with glycerol as glyceryl butyrate, it is essentially butter. A., Cacodylic. See A., Dime thy larsenic. A., Caffeic, C 9 H 8 4 , obtained when the tannin of coffee is boiled with potassium hydroxid. A., Camphoric, C ]0 H 16 O 4 , a dibasic acid, ob- tained by boiling camphor with HN0 3 ; it crystallizes from hot water in colorless leaflets ; melts at 178 , and decomposes into water and its anhydrid, C 8 H 14 (CO) 2 0. It is used in night-sweats of phthisis. Dose 10-30 gr. (0.65-2.0 Gm.). A., Capric, C 9 H 19 CO.OH, occurs in small quantity as a glycerid in cow's butter. It crystallizes in fine needles, melting at 30 C, and is very insoluble in boiling water. A., Caproic, C 6 H 12 2 , the sixth in the series of fatty acids; a clear, mobile oil, colorless, inflammable, and with a very acid and penetrating taste. A., Caprylic, C 7 H 15 - CO.OH, an acid combined with glycerol, forming a glycerid existing in various animal fats; it is liquid at ordinary temperatures. A., Carbamic, H 2 N.CO.OH, carbonic acid in which NH 2 replaces OH; it is not known in the free state; its ammonium salt is contained in commercial ammonium carbonate. The esters of carbamic acid are called urethanes. A., Carbazotic. See A., Picric. A., Car- bolic, C 6 H 5 OH, phenol, — the official desig- nation of this substance, — is procured from coal-tar by fractional distillation. It has a very peculiar and characteristic odor, a burn- ing taste, is poisonous, and has antiseptic properties. The sp. gr. at the melting-point is 1. 060-1. 066; it crystallizes in colorless rhombic needles that melt at about 40 C, boiling at about 180 , and it is not decom- posed upon distillation. At ordinary tempera- tures it dissolves in water with difficulty (1 : 19.6 at 25 C), but is soluble in alcohol, ether, glacial acetic acid, and glycerol in all proportions. It unites with bases to form salts, known as carbolates. Upon exposure to ACID 15 ACID light and air it deliquesces and acquires a pinkish color. It is used in the manufacture of many of the artificial coloring-matters, e. g., picric acid. It is a powerful antiseptic and germicide. Internally it is useful in vomiting, fermentation in the stomach, and as an in- testinal antiseptic; locally, as a caustic. Dose, internally, \-2 gr. (0.03-0.13 Gm.). A., Carbolic, Camphorated, a mixture of phenol 1 part and camphor 3 parts. A., Carbolic, Chlorinated. See Trichlor phenol. A., Carbolic, Iodized, a solution of 20 parts of iodin in 76 parts of phenol with the addition of 4 parts of glycerol. It is used as an antiseptic and escharotic. A. Carbolic.
  • Liquefactum (B. P.). Dose 1-2 min. (0.06- 0.13 Cc). A., Carbolsulfuric, a mixture of equal parts of phenol and concentrated sul- furic acid. It is used as a disinfectant in 2 to 3% solution. A., Carbonaceous. See Car- bon Dioxid. A., Carbonic, C0 2 , carbon dioxid; an ultimate product of the combustion of carbon compounds; a colorless, odorless gas, heavier than air, incapable of sustaining res- piration. A., Carminic, C 17 H ls O 10 , a color- ing-matter found in the buds of certain plants, and especially in cochineal, an insect inhabit- ing different varieties of cactus. It is an amorphous, purple-red mass, readily soluble in water and alcohol, and yields red salts with the alkalis. A., Caseic, lactic acid (q. v.). A., Cathartic, A., Cathartinic, an active principle from several species of Cassia. A., Cerotic, C 27 H 54 2 , a fatty acid exist- ing in beeswax and in Chinese wax. A.- characteristic, the replaceable hydrogen and the elements immediately bound to it in the molecule of an acid, as the CO . OH of organic acids. A., Chloracetic [chlorin and acetic], an acid, called also monochlor- acetic acid produced by the substitution of chlorin for the hydrogen of the radicle in acetic acid. It is sometimes used as a caus- tic. A., Chloric, HC10 3 , an acid known only in its compounds (chlorates) and its aqueous solution. A., Cholalic. See A., Cholic. A., Cholesteric, C 12 H 10 O 7 , an acid obtained by Tappeiner from the oxidation of cholic acid with potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid. This must not be confounded with cholesterinic acid. A., Cholesterinic, C s H in 5 , a dibasic acid obtained from cho- lesterin and from cholic acid by action of nitric acid; it occurs as a gum-like, yellow, hygroscopic body with an acrid taste. A., Cholic, A., Cholalic, C 24 H 42 5 , from gly- cocholic and taurocholic acids; it crystallizes from out of a hot solution in small anhydrous prisms, sparingly soluble in water, and melt- ing at 195 . A., Chromic (chromii tri- oxidum, U. S. P.), strictly, the compound H 2 Cr0 4 ; it forms salts called chromates. It is a crystalline solid; escharotic. A., Chry- sophanic, C n H 10 O 4 , exists in the lichen, Parmelia parietina, in senna leaves, and in the rhubarb root. It crystallizes in golden-yellow needles or prisms, melting at 162 . Syn., Rheinic acid. See Chrysarobin. A.,Cincho- tannic. See Cinchotannin. A., Cinnamic, C 9 H 8 2 , occurs in peru and tolu balsams, in storax, and in some benzoin resins. It has been used in tuberculosis, both in- ternally and externally. Dose 1-10 min. (0.06-0.65 Cc.) hypodermatically. A., Citric, C 6 H 8 7 , occurs free in lemons, black cur- rants, bilberries, beets, and in various other acid fruits. It crystallizes with one molecule of water in large rhombic prisms that melt at ioo°, are colorless, inodorous, and ex- tremely sharp in taste. It is refrigerant, antiseptic, and diuretic. A., Colopholic, A., Colophonic, an acid obtained from turpen- tine; it is used in plasters. A., Copahuvic, A., Copaivic, C 20 H 30 O 2 , an almost colorless, coarsely crystalline powder, obtained from copaiba; it is soluble in alcohol, ether, and benzene. Sometimes written Copaibic A. A., Cresolsulfuric, C 7 H 7 . S0 2 .OH, exists in the urine in small traces. A., Cresotic, A., Cresotinic, C 8 H 8 3 , an aromatic hydroxy acid of which 3 isomeric compounds may be formed by the action of sodium and car- bonic anhydrid on the 3 modifications of cre- sol. They all occur in acicular crystals. The para compound, melting at 151 C, is used as an antipyretic in the form of sodium creso- late. Dose 2-20 gr. (0.13-1.3 Gm.); maxi- mum dose 60 gr. (4 Gm.). Syn., Oxytoluic acid; Homo salicylic acid. A., Cresylic. See Cresol. A., Cubebic, C 13 H l4 7 (?), a white, waxy mass, turning brown on exposure, ob- tained from cubeb berries, the unripe fruit of Piper cubeba, soluble in alcohol, ether, and alkaline solutions, and used as a diuretic. Dose 5-10 gr. (0.3-0.6 Gm.) in pills several times daily. A.,Cumic, C 10 H 12 O 2 , produced by the oxidation of cuminic alcohol with dilute HNO3. Very soluble in water and alcohol; crystallizes in colorless needles or leaflets; melts at 11 6° and boils at about 290 . A., Cyanic, CONH, obtained by heat- ing polymeric cyanuric acid. A., Cyanuric. See A., Tricyanic. A., Diacetic, C 4 H 6 O s , an acid present in the urine in certain stages* of diabetes and other diseased conditions. A., Dichloracetic, CHC1 2 . C0 2 H ; produced when hydrated chloral is heated with CNK or potassium ferrocyanid and water. At ordinary temperature it occurs as a caustic, colorless liquid, but crystallizes at a low temperature. Sp. gr., 1.522 at 15 C; boils at i8a°-ioi C; soluble in water and alcohol. It is used as an escharotic in skin diseases. A., Diiodo- salicylic, C 7 H 4 I 2 3 , a white, crystalline pow- der, soluble in alcohol and ether, slightly solu- ble in water, and melting at 2 20°-230° C. It is antipyretic, analgesic, and antiseptic, and is used' in rheumatism and gout. Dose 8-20 gr. (0.5-1.3 Gm.) 3 or 4 times daily in wafers; maximum dose 30 gr. (2 Gm.). A., Dimethylarsenic, As(CH 3 ) 2 OOH, a sub- stance formed by the oxidation of cacodyl, occurring in large, permanent prisms, odor- less and slightly sour. It is soluble in water ACID 16 ACID and alcohol and melts at 200 C. It is con- sidered not to be toxic, and because of its solubility is easily absorbed. Syn., Cacodylic acid. A., Dithiochlorsalicylic, SC 6 H . CI. OH . COOH, a reddish-yellow powder ob- tained by heating a mixture of salicylic acid and sulfur chlorid to 140 C. It is recom- mended as an antiseptic. A., Dithiosa- licylic, C l4 H 10 S 2 O 6 , obtained from salicylic acid and sulfur chlorid heated to 150 C, and existing in two modifications differing in the solubility of their salts. It is an antiseptic, analgesic, antipyretic, yellowish-gray powder, partly soluble in water. Its lithium and sod- ium salts only are used in medicine as substi- tutes for salicylic acid. A., Doeglic, C 19 H 36 - Oj, a crystalline monobasic acid obtained from the oil of the doegling, or bottle-nosed whale. A., Dracic, A., Draconic, A., Dra- conylic. See A., Anisic. A., Ethylenelac- tic, CH 2 (OH) . CH 2 C,H fi O„ an acid isomeric with ethidene lactic acid or the lactic acid of fermentation; is obtained from acrylic acid by heating with aqueous sodium hydroxid to ioo° C. and in var- ious other ways. It is a thick, uncrystal- lizable syrup; on heating it loses water and is converted into acrylic acid. Syn., Hydra- crylic acid; ft -Oxy propionic acid; ^-Hyd- roxy propionic acid. A., Ethylenephenylhy- drazinsuccinic, C 20 H 22 N 4 O 6 , an acid obtained from an alcoholic solution of ethylenephenyl- hydrazin and succinic anhydrid by boiling. It occurs in acicular crystals, soluble in water. It is used as an antipyretic. A., Ethylidene- lactic, lactic acid. A., Fatty, a monobasic acid formed by the oxidation of a primary alcohol. The fatty acids have a general formula of C n H 2a 2 . Syn., Aliphatic acid. A., Fellic, C 23 H 40 O 4 , a crystalline cholic acid obtained by Schotten from human bile; it is due to admixture with this acid that cholic acid from human bile differs in appearance from that obtained from other sources. A., Fluoric, hydrofluoric acid in aqueous solu- tion; a strong escharotic. A., Formic, CH 2 2 , an acid obtained from a fluid emitted by ants when irritated; it is also found in stinging nettles, in shoots of the pine, and in various animal secretions. It is prepared by heating oxalic acid and glycerol. It is a colorless, mobile fluid, with a pungent odor ; it is a vesicant. A., Gallic, C 7 H 6 5 , occurs free in nutgalls, in tea, and in the fruit of various other plants. It is obtained from ordinary tannic acid by boiling it with dilute acids. It crystallizes in fine, silky needles containing one molecule of water. It dis- solves slowly in water and readily in alco- hol and ether; has a faintly acid, astringent taste; melts at near 220 . It is astringent and disinfectant; useful in night-sweats, dia- betes, and chronic diarrhea. A., Gaultheric. See Methyl Salicylate. A., Gluconic, C 6 H 12 - 7 , formed by the oxidation of dextrose, cane- sugar, dextrin, starch, and maltose with chlor- in or bromin water, Most readily obtained from glucose. It is dextrorotatory, but does not reduce Fehling's solution. Melts at 200 . A., Glycerinophosphoric, A., Glycerin- phosphoric, C 3 H 9 PO e , a dibasic acid in combination with the fatty acids and cholm as lecithin in the yolk of eggs, in bile, in the brain, and in the nervous tissue. It is formed by mixing glycerol with metaphosphoric acid. It is a pale yellow, oily liquid, without odor, having a sour taste; soluble in water and alcohol; is used in the treatment of neuras- thenia, tabes, etc. Dose 1J-5 gr. (0.1-0.3 Gm.) 3 times daily. A., Glycerinsulfuric, C 3 H 8 S0 6 , a monobasic body forming a series of salts called glycerosulfates. Syn., Sulfogly- ceric acid. A., Glycerosulfuric. See A., Glycerinsulfuric. A., Glycocholic, C 26 H 43 - NO e , a monobasic acid found in bile; spar- ingly soluble in water and crystallizing in minute needles. A., Glycollic, C 2 H 4 3 , oxyacetic acid, produced by the action of nascent hydrogen upon oxalic acid. It is a thick syrup that gradually crystallizes on standing over sulfuric acid; the crystals melt at 8o° and deliquesce in the air. It dissolves readily in alcohol, water, or ether. A. , Glycu- ronic, C 6 H 10 O 7 . This acid has been found in urine; it probably does not exist there normally, but appears after taking certain drugs, as benzol, indol, nitrobenzol, and the quinin derivatives. A., Guaiacolcar- bonic, A., Guaiacolcarboxylic, C 8 H 8 4 , a monobasic crystalline acid, melting at 150 C. It is antiseptic and antipyretic. A., Gummic. See Arabin. A., Gymnemic, C 32 H 55 O l2 , a greenish -white, amorphous pow- der with a harsh acid taste, soluble in al- cohol and chloroform and slightly soluble in water and ether. It is obtained from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and ob- tunds the taste for bitter or sweet things, but not for sour, pungent, or astringent ones. It is used as a mouth-wash in 12 % hydro- alcoholic solution before taking nauseous medicines. A., Helvellaic, an acid which destroys red blood-corpuscles, obtained by Bohm from juice of the mushrooms belong- ing to the genus Helvella. A., Helvellic, C l2 H 20 O 7 , an acid obtained from fresh bella- donna, occurring as a yellow, transparent, syrupy liquid of strong acid reaction. A., Hippuric, C 9 H 9 N0 3 , occurs in considerable amount in the urine of herbivorous animals, sometimes in that of man. It crystallizes in rhombic prisms, and dissolves readily in hot water and alcohol. Syn., Benzoyl gly- cocoll. A., Hydra-. See Hydrogen Acids under Acid. A.,Hydracrylic, C 3 H 6 3 , an acid isomeric with lactic acid. See A., Ethylene- lactic. A., Hydriodic, HI, a gaseous acid.
  • P.) and a syrup prepared from it, syrupus acidi hydriodici (U. S. P.), are used as altera- tives, with the general effects of iodin. Dose of the syrup 1-4 dr. (4-16 Cc). A., Hydri- odic, Dilute, a 10 % solution of hydriodic acid in 90 % of water; an alterative of especial value ACID 17 ACID in scrofulosis of children. A., Hydro- bromic, HBr; the dilute acid, which is the chief form used, consists of 10 parts acid and 90 parts water. It is a solvent for quinin, is useful in hysteria, congestive headaches, and neuralgia, and is recom- mended as a substitute for potassium and sodium bromids. Dose 20 min.-2 dr. (1.3- 8.0 Cc). A., Hydrochloric, HC1, a liquid consisting of 31.9% by weight of HC1 gas in 68.1 % of water. It is colorless, pun- gent and intensely acid. Syn., Muriatic acid. A., Hydrochloric, Dilute, a 10 % solution of absolute acid in water. Valu- able as an aid to digestion. Dose 3-10 min. (0.19-0.65 Cc). A., Hydrocyanic, Aqueous, the hydrocyanic acid obtained by distillation, which contains a certain per- centage of water before removal by fractional distillation and desiccation. A., Hydro- cyanic, Dilute, HCN, a liquid consisting of 2 % of the acid with 98 % of water and alcohol. It possesses an odor like that of bitter almonds. Prussic acid is found in the bitter almond, the leaves of the peach, and in the cherry-laurel, from the leaves of which it is distilled. It is one of the most active poisons known, death from complete as- phyxia being almost instantaneous. It is valu- able for its sedative effects in vomiting, whoop- ing-cough, and spasmodic affections. Dose 1-3 min.(0.06-0.2 Cc). 'Syn., Prussic acid. A., Hydrocyanic, Vapor, 1 part of dilute acid in 4-6 parts of water, warmed, and the vapor inhaled to relieve irritable coughs. A., Hydrofluoric, HF, a compound of hydrogen and fluorin; powerfully corrosive, used for etching on glass. A., Hydrosulfuric, H 2 S, a gas formed during the putrefaction of albuminous substances; it occurs in sulfur mineral waters, and is produced by the action of mineral acids on metallic sulfids. It has the odor of rotten eggs. Syn., Hydrogen sulfid ; Sulfureted hydrogen ; Sulfhydric acid. A., Hypochlorous, HCIO, an unstable compound, important as a dis- infecting and bleaching agent. A., Hypo- geic, A., Hypogaeic, C l6 H 30 O 2 , a monobasic acid found in peanut (Arachis hypogcea) oil, occurring as fine, colorless, stellate groups of needles which melt at 33 C. and solidify again at 28°-3o° C; soluble in alcohol and ether; insoluble in water. A., Hypophos- phorous, H 3 P0 2 ; its salts (hypophosphites), also the dilute acid, and a syrup prepared *from it, are used as remedial agents. A., Ichthyolsulfonic, C 28 H 3S S 3 6 , an acid pro- duced from Tyrolean bituminous mineral by the action of sulfuric acid; it is strongly acid and contains about 16.4% of sulfur. It is antiphlogistic and astringent, and is used in the form of its salts, chiefly "ichthyol," the ammonium salt. A., Ind- oxylsulfuric, an acid that, combined with potassium, occurs in the urine as indican. A., Inorganic, a mineral acid or one in which the carboxyl group CO . OH is ab- 3 sent. A., Iodic, HIO s , a monobasic acid. Its solution(2 %) has been recommended as an alterative by subcutaneous injection. A., Iodosobenzoic, C 6 H 4 . OI . COOH 2 , a compound analogous in action to iodoform. A., Isobutylcarbonic, A., Isobutylcarbox- ylic. See A., Valeric, Normal. A., Iso- butylformic, A., Isopropylacetic. See A., Isovaleric. A., Isovaleric, (CH 3 ) 2 . CH .- CH 2 . C0 2 H, an isomer of valeric acid, ob- tained from oil of valerian or from oxida- tion of amyl-alcohol; occurs as a transpar- ent, colorless, oily liquid with odor of valerian and old cheese; melts at 51 C; boils at 74 C. Sp. gr., 0.9470 at o° C. Used in nervous affections. Maximum dose 10 drops; a day, 40 drops. Syn., Monohydrated valerianic acid; Valerianic acid; Primary pentoic acid; Isobutyl carboxyl; Isopropylacetic acid. A., Jecoleic, an acid forming one of the essen- tial constituents of cod-liver oil and isomeric with doeglic acid. A., Kombic, a compound obtained by Fraser in the lead precipitate from an aqueous solution of alcoholic ex- tract of strophanthin. It is freely soluble in water and of strongly acid reaction. A. , Lactic, HC 3 H 5 3 , a liquid containing 75 % of absolute acid in 25 % of water, produced in the fermentation of milk. It is useful in aid- ing digestion, in diabetes, in tuberculosis of the larynx, and as a solvent of false mem- brane in diphtheria. Dose \ dr.-oz. (2-16 Cc.) in the 24 hours. A., Lactic, Diluted (B. P.), lactic acid, 3 oz., distilled water, sufficient to make one pint. Dose \-2 dr. (2-8 Cc). A., Lactolactic, ' A., Lactylolactic, C t H 10 O 5 , a monobasic acid obtained from a solution of lactic acid heated to 130 to 140 C. Syn., Laclyl lactate; Lactic anhydrid; Laclyl anhydrid. A., Lanoceric, C 30 H f0 O 4 , an acid result- ing from the saponification of lanolin; it melts at 104 C. A., Lanopalmitic, C 16 Hg 2 3> resulting from the saponification of lanolin. It melts at 87 . A., Leucamic. See Leucin. A., Levulinic, C 5 H s O a , obtained from levulose, cellulose, cane-sugar, etc.; a very hygroscopic crystalline substance, sol- uble in water, ether, or alcohol, and melting at 33-5° c - -A-., Linoleic, Ci 6 H 28 2 , occurs as a glycerid in drying oils, such as linseed oil, hemp oil, poppy oil, and nut oil. A., Lupamaric, the bitter acid of hops. A., Lysuric, C 6 H 12 (C0C e H 5 ) 2 N 2 2 , a substance obtained by Drechsel from lysin by action of benzoyl chlorid. A., Maleic, A., Maleinic, C 4 H 4 6 4 , obtained from malic acid by dis- tillation; it occurs in prisms, soluble in water, alcohol, and ether, melting at 130 C, boiling at 160 C. A., Malic, C 4 H,b 5 , a bibasic acid, occurring free or in the form of salts in many plant-juices, in unripe ap- ples, in grapes, and in mountain-ash berries. It forms deliquescent crystals that dissolve readily in alcohol, slightly in ether, and melt at ioo°; it has a pleasant acid taste. A., Malonic, C 3 H 4 4 , occurs in the deposit found ACID 18 ACID in the vacuum pans employed in. beet- sugar manufacture; it may be obtained by the oxidation of malic acid with chromium trioxid. A. , Mandelic, C 6 H 5 . CH(OH) . C0 2 - H, formed from benzaldehyd by the action of prussic acid and HC1. A., Margaric, A., Margarinic, C n H 34 2 , a monobasic acid ex- isting in nearly all animal fats and occurring as a solid substance melting at about 6o° C. It is believed by some to be a mere mixture of palmitic and stearic acids. A., Marine, hydrochloric acid. A., Meconic, C 7 H 4 7 , a tribasic acid, occurring in opium in union with morphin. It crystallizes with 3H 2 in white laminas. A., Mephitic, carbon dioxid. A., Mesotartaric, inactive tartaric acid obtained by heating 30 parts of tar- taric acid with 4 parts of water for 2 hours to 165 C. A., Metaphosphoric, HP0 3 , a glassy solid, freely soluble in cold water, and converted by boiling into ortho- phosphoric acid. It is used as a test for albumin in the urine. A., Mineral. See A., Inorganic. A., Monobromacetic, C 2 H 3 - Br0 2 , produced by heating acetic acid with bromin; it is escharotic and antiseptic. Syn., Bromacetic acid. A., Monoiodosalicylic, C 7 - H 5 I0 3 , produced by boiling salicylic acid with iodin and alcohol. It is used in acute articular rheumatism. Dose 15-45 gr. (1- 3 Gm.) a day. A., Mononitrosalicylic, C 6 H 3 (N0 2 )OH . C0 2 H, an acid obtained by action of nitric acid on indigo or on salicylic acid. Syn., Indigotic acid; Nitrospiroylic acid; Nitroanilic acid; Anilic acid. A., Morphoxylacetic, C 17 H 28 N0 3 . C . H 2 C0 2 H, a narcotic similar to morphin but weaker. A., Muriatic. See A., Hydrochloric. A., Muriatic, Dephlogisticated, A., Muri- atic, Oxygenated, chlorin. A., Muriatic, Superoxygenated, chloric acid. A., Myoc- tonic, an acid obtained from Palicourea marcgrafii,- occurring as a yellowish, oily, narcotic, and extremely poisonous liquid. A., Myronic, C 10 H 19 NS 2 O 10 , an acid that occurs as a potassium salt in the seeds of black mustard. A., /?-Naphthalinsulfonic, C 10 H 7 .- S0 3 H, an acid occurring in white, opalescent scales with generally a tinge of red; freely solu- ble in water and alcohol, slightly in ether. It is a sensitive reagent for albumin. . A., Naphthionic, C 10 H 6 (NH 2 ) . S0 3 H, an acid obtained from naphthylamin by action of ammonium sulfite. It is recommended as an antidote for nitrite poisoning; also in the treatment of acute iodism and in troubles of the bladder originating in the alkalescence of the urine. Dose 40-60 gr. (2.5-4.0 Gm.) daily. Syn., a-Naphthylaminsulfonic acid. A., Naphthoic, C n H 8 2 , a crystalline sub- stance of which 2 isomeric compounds may be formed by saponification of the 2 modi- fications of naphthonitril. A., Narcotic. See Narcotin. A., Nitric, HNO s , a liquid consisting of 68% absolute acid in 32% of water. The pure acid is colorless, fum- ing, and highly caustic. It is used in cau- terization of chancres and phagedenic ulcers and as a reagent. A., Nitric, Anhydrous, nitrogen pentoxid. A., Nitric, Dilute, con- tains 10 % absolute acid. It is used internally to aid digestion, to stimulate the hepatic function, etc. Dose 3-15 min. (0.2-1.0 Cc), well diluted. A., Nitric, Monohydrated, pure nitric acid. A., Nitro-, an acid pro- duced from another acid by replacing the hydrogen with nitryl (N0 2 ). A., Nitro- anilic. Same as A ., M ononitro salicylic. A., Nitrohydro chloric, A., Nitromuriatic, a golden-yellow, fuming mixture of 4 parts •of nitric and 15 of hydrochloric acid. It is a solvent of gold ; it is valuable in affec- tions of the liver. Dose 1-7 min.(0.06- 0.45 Cc), very dilute. Syn., Aqua regia. A., Nitrohydro chloric, Dilute, consists of 4 parts nitric acid, 18 parts hydrochloric acid, and 78 parts water. Dose 5-20 min. (0.3-1.3 Cc), well diluted. A., Nitroso- nitric, fuming nitric acid. A., Nitrospir- oylic. See A., Mononitrosalicylic. A., Nordhausen, brown, fuming sulfuric acid, first manufactured at Nordhausen. A., Nu- cleic, A., Nucleinic, any one of a group of organic acids containing C, H, O, N, and a large proportion of P. The nucleic bases are present in the nucleic acid rad- icles as organic compounds. The nucleic acids occur in nature, free or in combina- tion with albumins, when they are called primary acids. On decomposition they yield nucleic bases, and according to their origin are termed sperma-rmcleic acid, thymono- nucleic acid, yeast-nuc\eic acid, etc. Ac- cording to Kossel, there are in reality only 4 true nucleic acids, viz., adenylic acid, guanylic acid, sarcylic (hypoxanthylic) acid, and xanthylic acid. On decomposition the primary acids give rise to secondary acids which contain more phosphorus than the primary acids, and may or may not give rise to xanthin bases on further decomposi- tion; according to Simon, they may be divided into acids of the type of plasminic acid and of thyminic acid respectively. A., Oleic, CisH^Og, an acid present in many fats and oils. It is a colorless oil, crystal- lizing on cooling, soluble in alcohol, benzol, and the essential oils; insoluble in water. It saponifies when heated with alkaline bases. It is used in making the oleates. A., Organic, an acid characterized by the presence of the carboxyl group, CO . OH. A., Orthoamidosalicylic, C 6 H 3 (NH 2 )(OH)- COOH, a gray, amorphous, slightly sweet, inodorous powder obtained by reduction of orthonitrosalicylic acid and insoluble in water, alcohol, and ether. It is employed in chronic rheumatism. Dose 3-7 gr. (0.25- 0.5 Gm.). A., Orthoboric. See Boron. A., Orthophosphoric, H 3 P0 4 , ordinary phos- phoric acid, as distinguished from metaphos- phoric and pyrophosphoric acids. A., Os- mic, Os0 4 , the oxid of osmium, one of the rarer elements; it occurs as yellow, acrid, ACID 19 ACID burning crystals, yielding an intensely irrita- ting vapor; it has been recommended for hypodermatic use in sciatica, strumous glands, and cancer. It is used in histology as a fixing agent and as a stain for fat. A., Oxalic, C 2 H 2 4 , a colorless, crystalline solid obtained by treating sawdust with caustic soda and potash. It occurs in many plants, chiefly as potassium oxalate; with 2 parts of water it crystallizes in fine, transparent monoclinic prisms. It is soluble in 9 parts of water at moderate temperature and quite easily in alcohol. It has been recommended in amenorrhea. Dose £-§• gr. (0.03-0.05 Gm.). In large doses it is a violent poison. A., Oxuric, Vauquelin's name for impure alloxanic acid. A., Oxybutyric. See under Oxybutyric. A., Oxygen, an acid which con- tains more oxygen than is requisite for satu- ration. A., Oxymuriatic. 1. Hydrochloric acid. 2. Chloric acid. 3. Chlorin. A., /?- Oxynaphthoic, C u H 8 3 , obtained from so- dium betanaphthol by the action of carbon dioxid with heat. It is a surgical antiseptic. Syn., j3-Naphtholcarboxylic acid; (3-Carbo- naphthoic acid. A., Oxypropionic, lactic acid. A., Palmitic, C 16 H 32 2 , an acid existing as a glycerol ether in palm-oil and in most of the solid fats. A., Para- fumaric. See A., Maleic. A. of Pearls, acid phosphate of sodium. A., Periodic, HI0 4 + 2H 2 0, an acid obtained from iodin by the action of concentrated perchloric acid. It is soluble in water and alcohol, slightly in ether, and melts at i3o°-i33° C. It is a powerful oxidizer. Syn., Heptaiodic acid. A., Phenolsulfonic. See A., Sulfocarbolic. A., Phenylic, phenol. A., Phenylsali- cylic, C 13 H 10 O 3 , a white, antiseptic powder, soluble in alcohol, ether, and glycerol, but very slowly in water; it is used as a surgical dressing in the same manner as iodoform. Syn., Orthooxydiphenylcarbolic acid ; Phenyl- orthooxybenzoic acid. A., Phenylsulfuric. See A., Sulfocarbolic. A., Phocenic. See A., Valeric. A., Phosphoantimonic, a yellow- ish, very acid substance, obtained from anti- monium pentachlorid by the action of con- centrated aqueous solution of sodium phos- phate. It is used as an alkaloid re- agent. A., Phosphoric, H 3 P0 4 , contains 50 % each of acid and of water; it is obtained from bones or by oxidation of phosphorus. Syn., Or Iho phosphoric acid. A. , Phosphoric, Anhydrous, P 2 5 , obtained from phosphorus by complete combustion, occurring as a bulky, light, white, deliquescent powder, soluble in water. It is used as a chemic agent. A., Phosphoric, Dilute, contains 10% of abso- lute acid. It is employed in digestive dis- turbances, in strumous diseases, and to dis- solve phosphatic deposits. Dose 5-30 min. (0.32-2.0 Cc). A., Phosphoric, Glacial, A., Phosphoric, Monobasic. See A., Meta- phosphoric. A., Phosphorous, H 3 PO a , a di- basic oxyacid of phosphorus, containing one atom of oxygen less than phosphoric acid. A., Picric, C 6 H 2 (N0 2 ) 3 OH, obtained by the nitration of phenol. It forms pale yellow, shining, prismatic, laminar, or columnar crystals, which possess a very bitter taste. It is readily soluble in hot water, its solu- tion imparting a beautiful yellow color to silk and wool. It is recommended as an anti- periodic and anthelmintic. It is used as a test for albumin and sugar. Dose 5-15 gr. (0.32-1.0 Gm.) a day. Syn., Carbazotic acid; Trinitro phenol. A., Pimentic. See Eugenol. A. , Pipitzahoic, A. , Pipitzahoinic, C 15 H 20 O 3 , a purgative principle discovered by Rio de la Loza in species of Perezia, and also obtained from Trixis radiale. It is used as a mild drastic. Dose 3-5 gr. (0.2-0.3 Gm.). A., Pivalic. See A., Valeric, Tertiary. A., Plasminic, a secondary nucleic acid ob- tainable from yeast. It is soluble in water and precipitates albumins in acid solution. Its phosphoric acid radicle is capable of forming a true organic iron compound con- taining 1 % of iron. On decomposition with mineral acids by boiling it yields nucleic bases and phosphoric acid. A-, Polybasic, acids containing several carboxyl groups. A., Polychromic. See A., Aloetic. A., Propionic, C 3 H 6 2 , an oxidation-product of propylic alcohol; it is a clear, colorless liquid with an odor like butyric and acetic acids and a specific gravity of 1.013 at o° C; it is miscible with water and boils at 141 C. A., Propionylsalicylic, a com- pound obtained from salicylic acid by action of anhydrous propionic acid. It is used in gout and rheumatism. A., Prussic. See A.., Hydrocyanic. A., Pyridintricarbox- ylic, A., Pyridintricarbonic, C 8 H 5 N0 6 , an oxidation-product of cinchona alkaloids; it is a white, crystalline powder, soluble in water and alcohol, and melting at 250 C. It is antipyretic, antiseptic, and antiperiodic, and is used in whooping-cough, typhoid and intermittent fevers, etc., and externally as an injection in urethral inflam- mation. Dose 10 gr. (0.6 Gm.) 5 times daily. Syn., Carbocinchomeronic acid. A., Pyro-, an acid formed from another acid by action of heat. A., Pyrogallic, C 6 H 6 3 , pyrogallol, formed by heating gallic acid with water to 210 . It forms white leaflets or needles, is readily soluble in water, less so in alcohol and ether. It is useful in the treatment of certain skin diseases, but is poisonous and must be used with caution. A., Pyroligneous, the crude acid obtained in the destructive distillation of wood. It is a clear liquid, of reddish-brown color and strong acid taste, with a peculiar penetrating odor described as empyreumatic, due largely to the furfurol it contains. It contains from 4 to 7 % of real acetic acid. A., Pyrophos- phoric, the dihydric phosphate, 2H 2 . P 2 O s , one of the forms of phosphoric acid. It is poisonous. Its iron salt is used in medi- cine. The pure acid is a soft, glassy mass. A.,Pyrosorbic. See A., Maleic. A.,Rheinic. ACID 20 ACID See A., Chry so phanic. A., Salicylacetic, A., Salicyloacetic, C 9 H 8 5 , a reaction-product of sodium salicylate in a soda solution with sodium monochloracetate; soluble in boiling water and alcohol, slightly in cold water, ether, chloroform, and benzene. It is anti- septic and used in the same manner as sali- cylic acid. Syn., Acetosalicylic acid; Salicyloxy- acetic acid; Salicylhydroxy acetic acid. A., Salicylic, C 7 H 6 3 , occurs in the buds of Spiraa ulmaria, in the oil of wintergreen, and in other varieties of gaultheria. It forms either a white crystalline powder, or white prismatic and acicular prisms without odor or taste. It is soluble in water and in chloroform, and is antiseptic; it is used in the treatment of acute articular rheumatism and myalgia. Dose 5-20 gr. (0.3-1.3 Gm.), not exceeding 1 dr. (4 Gm.) daily. Syn., Orthooxybenzoic acid. A., Salicylsulfonic, A., Salicylsulfuric. See A., Sulfo salicylic. A. of Salts, hydrochloric acid. A., Sarcolactic, C 3 H 6 3 , occurs in blood and in muscles, to which it gives their acid reaction, especially after the muscles have been in a state of activity. It is also found in urine in phosphorus-poison- ing. A., Sclerotinic, an acid found in ergot, of which it is one of the active prin- ciples. A. of Sea-salt, hydrochloric acid. A., Septic, nitric acid. A., Sphacelinic, an acid, regarded as the constituent of ergot, which causes gangrene and develops the cachexia of that disease. A., Stearic, C ls H 3o - 2 , associated with palmitic and oleic acids as a mixed ether, in solid animal fats, the tallows. A., Stibious, SC1 3 , a colorless, transparent mass, soluble in alcohol and car- bon disulfate, and melting at 73. 2 C. It is a caustic. Syn., Antimonious oxid of anti- mony; Antimony trichlorid. A., Stibous, C 15 H l2 3 (Gmelin), a crystalline substance obtained from oil of bitter almonds by action of fuming sulfuric acid. A., Succinic, C 4 - H O 4 , an acid obtained in the distillation of amber, and also prepared artificially. A., Sulfanilic, C 6 H 4 (NH 2 ) . S0 3 H, obtained by heating anilin (1 part) with fuming H 2 S0 4 (2 parts) to 180 until S0 2 appears. It crystallizes in rhombic plates which effloresce in the air. It is used as a reagent. A., Sulfazotized, a class of acids formed from potassium nitrite by action of sulfurous acid. A., Sulfocarbolic, C e H 5 HS0 4 , phenyl bisul- fate, formed by the union of phenol and sulfuric acid. Its salts, the sulfocarbolates, are used in medicine as intestinal antisep- tics, etc. A.s, Sulfonic, a class of acids of the general formula Rn . (S0 2 . OH) n when Rn is a radicle whose quantivalence is N. Such acids are derived from sulfuric acid by the substitution of a radicle for hydroxyl; or they may be regarded as acid sulfites derived from sulfurous acid, H 2 S0 3 , by the replace- ment of half of its hydrogen by a basic radicle. A., Sulfonilic. See A., Sulfanilic. A., Sulfophenic. See A., Sulfocarbolic. A., Sulfophenolic. Same as Phenolsulfonic Acid. A., Sulfosalicylic, C 7 H 6 SO , an acid ob- tained from salicylic acid by the action of sulfuric anhydrid, occurring as white crystals, soluble in water and alcohol, melting at 120 C, and colored an intense violet-red by ferric chlorid. It is used as a test for albumin in urine. Syn., Salicylsidfonic acid. A.jSulfothiocarbonic. See A.,Xan- thogenic. A., Sulfuric, H 2 SG 4 , a heavy, oily, corrosive acid, consisting of not less than 92.5 % sulfuric anhydrid and 7.5 % of water. It is used as a reagent and as a caustic. Syn., Oil of vitriol. A., Sulfuric Aromatic, contains 20 % acid, diluted with alcohol and flavored with cinnamon and gin- ger. It is used as an astringent in diarrhea and in night-sweats; also in hemoptysis. Dose 5-15 min. (0.32-1.0 Cc). A., Sulfuric, Dilute, contains 10% strong acid to 90% of water. It is used as an astringent. Dose 10-15 m i n - (0.65-1.0 Cc), well diluted. A., Sulfuric, Fuming, H 2 S0 4 . SO s , an oily liquid, fuming in the air, obtained by roast- ing ferrous sulfate. Syn., Nordhauscn oil of vitriol; Nordhausen acid. A., Sulfurous, H 2 S0 3 , a colorless acid containing about 6.4 % of sulfurous anhydrid in 93.6% of water. The gas, S0 2 , is a valuable disinfectant. The acid is used as a spray or lotion in diph- theria, stomatitis, and as a wash for indolent and syphilitic ulcers. The various hyposul- fites are mainly valuable in that they de- compose and give off sulfur dioxid. Dose 5 min.-i dr. (0.32-4.0 Cc). A., Sulfhydric. See A:, Hydrosulfuric. A., Sumbulic, A., Sumbulolic. See A., Angelic. A., Tannic, C u H 10 O 9 , an astringent acid obtained from nutgalls, and occurring in yellowish, scaly crystals. It is soluble in water and alcohol. It is an antidote in poisoning by alkaloids and tartar emetic, and is used as an astrin- gent in catarrh of mucous membranes, and externally in many skin diseases. Dose 1-20 gr. (0.065-1.3 Gm.). Syn., Tannin. (For prepa- rations of Tannic Acid see respective head- ings.) A.,Tanningenic,A.,Tanningic. See Catechin. A., Tartaric, H 2 C 4 H 4 6 , an as- tringent acid widely distributed in the vege- table world, occurring principally in the juice of the grape, from which it deposits after fermentation in the form of acid potassium tartrate (argol). It is chiefly employed in refrigerant drinks and in baking-powders; 20 grains neutralize 27 of potassium dicar- bonate, 22 of sodium dicarbonate, and 15 J of ammonium carbonate. Dose 10-30 gr. (0.65-2.0 Gm.). A., Tartaric, Inactive. See A., Mesotartaric. A., Taurocholic, C 26 H 45 NS0 7 , occurs in bile; it is very soluble in Water and alcohol and crystallizes in fine needles. A., Tetraboric, H 2 E 4 7 , boric acid heated to 160 C, forming a glassy mass. Syn., Pyroboric acid. A., Tetrathiodichlor- salicylic, (S ? ; C 6 HCl[OH]COOH) 2 , obtained from salicylic acid by the action of sulfuryl chlorid and heat; it occurs as a reddish- yellow powder, soluble in aqueous alkalis.
  • Acidalbumin (as-id-al-bu'-min). A proteid acted upon or dissolved in the stronger acids, and yielding an acid reaction.
  • Acidifiable (as-id-i-fi'-a-bl) [acidum, acid; fieri, to become]. Capable of becoming an acid or of becoming sour.
  • Acidifiant (as -id -if -i- ant) [see Acidifiable']. Acid-forming.
  • Acidification (as-id' -if-ik-a-shun) [acidum, acid; facere, to make]. Conversion into an acid; the process of becoming sour.
  • Acidimeter (as-id-im'-et-er) [acidum, acid; jdzpov, a measure]. An instrument for per- forming acidimetry.
  • Acidimetry (as-id-im' -et-re) [see Acidimeter]. Determination of the free acid in a solution by an acidimeter or by chemic reactions.
  • Acidity (as-id' -it-c) [acidum, acid]. The quality of being acid; sourness; excess of acid.
  • Acidophil, Acidophile (as-id' -o-fil) [acidum, acid; (p'cloc, loving]. 1. Susceptible of im- bibing acid stains. 2. A substance having an affinity for acid stains.
  • Acidosis (a s -id -0' -sis) [aqidum, acid]. Acid con- ditions producing the comatogenous states of diabetes.
  • Acidoxyl (as-id -oks'-il). A compound of an acidyl or acid radicle with oxygen.
  • Acidulated (as-id' -u-la-ted) [acidulare, to make sour]. Somewhat sour or acid.
  • Acidulous (as-id' -u-lus) [zee Acidulated]. Mod- erately sour.
  • Acidum (as' -id-um) [L.]. See Acid.
  • Acinesia (as-in-e'-ze-ah). See Akinesia.
  • Aciniform (as-in'-if-orm) [acinus, a grape]. Grape-like.
  • Acinotubular (as-in-o-tu! -bu-lar) [acinus, a ACINOUS 22 ACNE grape; tubulus, a tube]. Applied to a gland or other structure having tubular acini or secreting sacs.
  • Acinous (as'-in-us) [acinus, a grape], i. Re- lating to an acinus or having acini. 2. Re- sembling a grape or a cluster of grapes; composed of granular concretions.
  • Acinus (as'-in-us) [acinus, a grape; pi., acini]. Any one of the smallest lobules of a com- pound gland, as an acinus of the liver.
  • Acleidian (ah-kli' -de-an) [a, priv.; /ole/c, the collar-bone]. Without clavicles.
  • Acme iak'-me) [clk/it), a point]. The highest point of anything. The critical stage of a disease; the crisis.
  • Acmon (ak'-mon) [aKjxcov, an anvil]. The incus.
  • Acne (ak'-ne) [anvq, a point]. A common, usually chronic, inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands, occurring mostly about the face, chest, and back. The lesions may be papular, pus- tular, or tubercular. It occurs usually between the ages of puberty and 24 years, is generally worse in winter, and is associated with men- strual and gastrointestinal troubles. The in- dividual lesions consist of minute pink, acu- minate papules or pimples, in the center of which is a black-topped comedo (^4. punctata, A . papulosa) . Sy n., A cne varus; A cne vulgaris; Whelk; Stone pock; Acne boutonneuse ; Acne eruptive. A., Adenoid. See Lupus, Dis- seminated Follicular. A. adolescentium. Synonym of A. vulgaris. A. albida. Syn- onym of Milium. A., Arthritic, a form common in adults, especially in women at the climacteric, and thought to be connected with the arthritic diathesis. A. artificialis, that form that disappears when the cause is removed. A. atrophica. Synonym of A.
  • varioliformis. A., Bromin. See A. coag- minata. A. cachecticorum, a form occur- ring in debilitated, cachectic persons after prolonged wasting diseases, as phthisis. The eruption occurs usually on the trunk or legs, and is characterized by flat, dull-red papules and pustules of the size of a pin-head to that of a lentil. A. cheloidienne. See Dermatitis papillaris capillitii. A., Chlorin, a form occurring among men engaged in manufac- turing hydrochloric acid. The skin of the face is pigmented, comedones and pustules of varying size are thickly scattered over the face, brow, scalp, neck, back, upper thorax, geni- tals, and inner surface of the thighs. Ather- omas and curious cornifications resembling those of Darier's disease are present on the scalp. A. ciliaris, acne at the edges of the eyelids. A. coagminata, a form in which the lesions occur in clusters. The name is generally applied to the acne due to the internal use of bromin or its compounds; the groups of closely aggregated pustules form thick patches covered with scabs of dried pus, presenting beneath a dusky red and often moist surface. A., Concrete. See Seborrhea sicca. A., Congestive. See A. rosacea. A. contagiosa, an inoculable pustular disease of horses, said to differ from horse-pox. A. cornea, a form character- ized by hard, conic, discolored outgrowths, grouped or solitary, and consisting of hard plugs of sebaceous matter projecting from the follicles. Syn., Ichthyosis Jollicularis. A. decalvans, an inflammatory disease of the hair-follicles attended with destruction of the hairs and atrophy or cicatrization of the skin. A. disseminata. Synonym of A. vulgaris. A., Elephantiasic. Same as A. hypertrophica. A. erythematosa. Synonym of A. rosacea. A., Fluent. See Seborrhcea oleosa. A. frontalis. Synonym of A . vario- liformis. A. generalis, acne that has be- come general over the surface of the body. A. granulosa. See A. cachecticorum. A. hordeolans, A. hordeolaris, a form with the pustules arranged in linear groups. A. hypertrophica, a stage of acne rosacea in which there is a permanent, intensely red, noninflammatory, nodulated thickening of the tips and sides of the nose, expanding it both laterally and longitudinally. A. indurata, a variety of acne vulgaris characterized by chronic, livid indurations, the result of ex- tensive perifollicular infiltration. It is espe- cially seen in strumous subjects. A. kera- tosa, a rare form in which a horny plug takes the place of the comedo, and by its presence excites inflammation. A. luposa. See A. telangiectodes. A. medicamentosa, acne due to the internal administration of certain drugs — as iodin, bromin, etc. A. mentagra. See Sycosis. A. miliaris. 1. Milium. 2. A pustular variety of acne rosacea. A., Miliary Arthritic. See A. cachecticorum. A., Miliary Scrofulous, a variety of the disease usually occurring on the forehead; the pustules are small, dis- crete, or confluent, and often arranged in geometric figures. A. molluscoidea, A. molluscum. See Molluscum contagiosum. A. necrotica. Synonym of A. varioliformis. A. papulosa. See Acne. A., Penicilli- form. See Tinea asbestina. A. picealis, a form of dermatitis common in fiber -dressers who work with paraffin and in persons other- wise brought in contact with tar or its vapor. It involves chiefly the extensor surfaces of the limbs. Syn., Tar acne. A., Pilous, a variety in which the pustules involve the hair- bulbs. A., Pilous, Umbilicated, a variety in which each pustule is umbilicated and pierced by a hair. A. punctata, a variety of acne vulgaris. A. punctata albida. See Milium. A. pustulosa, a variety of acne vulgaris characterized by abscesses. A. rhinophyma. Same as A. hypertrophica. A. rodens. Synonym of A. varioliformis. A. rosacea, a chronic hyperemic or inflammatory affec- tion of the skin, situated usually upon the face, especially the nose, cheeks, forehead, and chin. Syn., Rosacea; Telangiectasis faciei; Ncevus araneus ; Brandy nose ; Whisky nose ; Spider nevus; Spider cancer. A. rosacea congestiva. See A. hypertrophica. A. scrof- ulosa, a variety of acne cachecticorum, oc- ACNEMOUS 23 ACONITUM curring in strumous children. A. sebacea. Synonym of Seborrhea. A. sebacea cornea. See Darier's Disease. A. sebacea mollus- cum. See Atheroma. A., Sebaceous, Crusty. See Seborrhcea sicca. A., Seba- ceous, Dry, A. sebacea exsiccata. See Xeroderma. A., Sebaceous, Fluent. See Seborrhcea oleosa. A. simplex, a variety of acne vulgaris. A. Solaris, a form due to exposure to the sun, marked by red papules that seldom suppurate, occurring on the nose, lower eyelids, and cheeks. A. sycosiformis. Same as Sycosis non- par asitica. A., Syphilitic, A. syphil- itica, a form with inflammation in the follicles, appearing in scattered, pointed pustules with copper-colored base. Syn., Acneiform syphiloderm. A. tarsi, an inflam- matory affection of the large sebaceous glands of the eyelashes (meibomian glands). A. telangiectodes, A. teleangeiectodes, Ka- posi's name for a nonpustular disease hav- ing its origin in the hair -follicles and pre- senting smooth, shining, circumscribed, hemi- spheric nodules, pale-pink to brownish-red in color, from a pinhead to a cherry-stone in size. Epithelial cyst formation and degenera- tion of the hair-follicle attend it. Syn., Dis- seminated follicular lupus simulating acne ; Acne luposa; Lupus miliaris ; Lupus folli- cularis acneiformis ; Acute disseminated nod- ular tuberculous lupus. A. tuberata, A. tuberculosa. See A. indurata. A., Tuber- culoid, A., Tuberculous, Umbilicated, A. umbilicata. See Molluscum contagiosum. A., Varicose, a form characterized by dilated superficial capillaries. A. vario- liformis, a somewhat rare disease, situated chiefly about the forehead, at the junction with the hairy scalp, and extending into the hair. The pustules appear in groups. Its eti- ology is unknown. A. vulgaris. See Acne.
  • Acnemous (ak'-ne-mus) [a, priv.; kvtjjxt}, leg]. Having imperfect calves; having no legs.
  • Acocanthera (ak-o-kan-the' -ra) [aKcofd), a point; avdypoc, blooming]. A genus of plants of the order Apocynacece. A. abyssinica yields an African arrow-poison, mshangu, secured from a decoction of the branches, the toxic property being due to a crystalline glucosid, C 29 H 46 3 . A. defter sii and A. schimperi are used as arrow-poisons in Africa. The poison- ous principles are crystalline glucosids. A. venenata is a species indigenous to southern Africa; a decoction of the bark is used by the natives to poison arrows. The poisonous principle is a glucosid, acocantherin, similar to or identical with ouabain.
  • Acoin (ak'-o-in). Hydrochlorate of diparaany- silmonoparaphenetylguanidin, a white powder, used in infiltration anesthesia by Schleich's method in a i: iooo solution of 0.8% solution of sodium chlorid; also in 1 % aqueous solu- tion in ophthalmology.
  • Aconitin (ak - on' - it - in), C 33 H 45 N0 12 , aconiiina (U. S. P.). An intensely poisonous alkaloid from Aconitum napellus and other species; it occurs as white, flat crystals of slightly bitter taste. Dose ^aX6g, the navel], i. The center of the umbilicus, to which the cord is attached. 2. The first stage of umbilical hernia, marked by a pouting of the navel. 3. The remains of the umbilical cord attached to the child.
  • Acromyle (ak-rom' -il-e) [anpov, point; pbXr,, patella]. The patella.
  • Acronarcotic (ak-ro-nar-kot'-ik) [acer, sharp; narcotic]. 1. Both acrid and narcotic. 2. An agent which combines an irritating and obtunding effect; acting either directly upon the peripheral nerves when applied exter- nally, or upon the brain and spinal cord, producing paralysis, convulsions, and nar- cosis.
  • Acroneurosis (ak-ro-nu-ro 1 'sis) [axpov, extrem- ity; veupov, a nerve]. Any neurosis manifest- ing itself in the extremities.
  • Acronychous (ak-ron'-ik-us) [ciKpovoyoc]. Fur- nished with claws, nails, or hoofs; achro- nychous.
  • Acronyx (ak'-ro-niks) [fixpov, extremity; ovu£, a nail]. Ingrowing of the nail.
  • Acroparalysis (ak-ro-par-aV -is-is) [anpov, ex- tremity; TiapaXuocc, palsy]. Paralysis of the extremities.
  • Acroparesthesia (ak -ro - par - es - the' - ze - ah) [anpov, extremity; napot, around; a'codrjocc;, sensation]. Abnormal or perverted sensation in the extremities.
  • Acropathology (ak-ro-path-ol'-o-je) [anpov, ex- tremity; rcaOoc, disease; koyoc, treatise]. The pathology of the extremities.
  • Acropathy (ak-ro p' -a-the) [dupov, extremity; nadoc, disease]. Any disease of the extremities.
  • Acrophobia (ak-ro-fo'-be-ah) [dupov, a height; 6floc, fear]. Morbid dread of being at a great height.
  • Acrose (ak'-roz). A substance isolated from the condensation-products of glycerose (an oxidation-product of glycerol) and formalde- hyd, and forming the starting-point for the synthesis of fruit-sugar, grape-sugar, and mannose.
  • Acrostichum (ak-ros'-tik-um) [dxpov, a point; a ~' c X°C, a line of writing]. A genus of ferns of the order Polypodiacece. A. aureum, a tropical species; the rhizome is used in decoction for dysentery and disease of the spleen. A salt prepared from the leaves is applied to ulcers. A. dichotomum, an Arabian species [medjabese or mejahoese]; the leaves are applied to burns. A. flavens, a South American species, used as a laxative. A. furcatum, an Australian species having edi- ble rhizomes. A. huacsaro, a Peruvian spe- cies. It is said to be sudorific and anthel- mintic. A. sorbifoliutn, a West Indian species. The juice is mixed with oil, ginger, and pepper, and used as a cataplasm in sick headache.
  • Acrotarsium (ak-ro-tar' -se-um) [anpov, the sum- mit; rapaoc, the tarsus]. The instep.
  • Acroteric (ak-ro-ter'-ik) [aKpajx^pca, the ex- tremities]. Relating to the extremities; ap- plied to conditions in which the extremities are most affected.
  • Acrotic (ah-krot'-ik) [a, priv.; Kpo-og, a stak- ing]. Relating to acrotism.
  • Acrotism (ah'-krot-izm) [see Acrotic], Any de- fective beating of the pulse; failure of the pulse.
  • Aetata (ak-te'-ah) [ami}, the elder]. A genus of ranunculaceous plants having active medi- cinal qualities. A. alba, the white cohosh, has much the same qualities as A. spicata. A. cimicifuga and A. racemosa are more im- portant. See Cimicijuga. A. rubra, red co- hosh, and A. spicata are purgative and emetic.
  • Actinic (ak-tin'-ik) [anzee, a ray]. Referring to those rays of the spectrum capable of producing chemic changes; they occur in the violet and ultraviolet parts.
  • Actinism (ak'-lin-izm) [see Actinic]. The chemic quality of light.
  • Actinium (ak-tin'-e-um) [see Actinic]. A sup- posed element discovered by Phipson in 1881 in association with zinc. It is metallic and is said to resemble titanium.
  • Actinobolia (ak-iin-o-ho' -le-ah) [anTtvofioXiiv, to radiate]. 1. A term formerly used to express the process by which the impulses of the will are conveyed to the different parts of the body. 2. Van Helmont's term for the phenomena now included under hypnotism.
  • Actinochemistry (ak-lin-o-kem'-is-tre) [d/cric, a ray; yqjisca, chemistry]. Chemistry which deals with the decomposition of substances by light.
  • Actinodermatitis (ak - tin - - der -mat - i' - tis) [auric, a ray; dermatitis]. Cutaneous lesions produced by application of the rbntgen-rays. Syn., Radiodermatitis.
  • Actinogram (ak-tin' -o-gram) [duxes, a ray; ■fpafetv, to write]. The record made by the actinograph.
  • Actinograph (ak-tin' -o-graf). An apparatus to measure the actinism of sunlight.
  • Actinomyces (ak-tin-om' -i-sez) [aKztf. a ray; fiUKfjc, a fungus ; pi., actinomycetcs]. A vege- table parasite, the cause of the disease actino- mycosis. It is also called the ray-jungus. It probably belongs to the cladothlix group of schizomycetes. As seen in tissues it presents itself in the form of a roset of fine fila- ments clubbed at their outer ends; in the ACTINOMYCOSIS 26 ADAMRIEWICZ'S REACTION center are numerous coccus-like bodies, the spores of the organism. Actinomyces.
  • Actinomycosis (ak-tin-o-mi-ko'-sis) [duref, a ray; juu/«jf, a fungus]. A parasitic, infec- tious, inoculable disease, first observed in cattle, and also occurring in man, and char- acterized by the manifestations of chronic inflammation, with or without suppuration, often resulting in the formation of granula- tion tumors, especially about the jaws. The disease is due to the presence of a parasite, the ray-fungus, or actinomyces. Syn., Lumpy- jaw; Holdfast; Wooden tongue.
  • Actinomycotic (ak-tin-o-mi-kof -ik) [see Acti- nomycosis']. Pertaining to or affected with actinomycosis.
  • Actinotherapy (ak-tin-o-ther' '-ap-e) [dxr/c, a ray; departs ta, therapy]. The therapeutic use of actinic rays.
  • Action (ak'-shun) [agere, to do or perform]. A doing; a working; especially the perform- ance of a function. A., After-, the brief persistence of negative variation of the elec- tric current in a tetanized muscle. A.s, Animal, voluntary movements. A. of Ar- rest. See Inhibition. A., Automatic. See A., Reflex. A., Capillary. See Attraction, Capillary. A., Diastaltic. See A., Reflex. A., Electrocapillary, electric phenomena resulting from chemic reaction between dissimilar fluids connected by a capillary medium. A., Inhibitory. See Inhibition. A., Katalytic, A., Contact. See Katalysis. A., Local, the production of currents be- tween different parts of the same cell of a galvanic battery. A.s, Natural, the vegeta- tive functions. A.s, Pseudomotor, Heid- enhain's term for phenomena resulting from stimulation of the chorda tympani after section of the hypoglossal nerve; movements due to vascular or lymphatic engorgement. A., Reflex, an involuntary movement of part of the body resulting from an impression carried by a sensory or afferent nerve to a center, and then sent back by an efferent nerve to the part, usually at or near the source of irritation. A., Safety-valve, the in- complete closure of the tricuspid valve, espe- cially in cases of resistance in the pulmonary circulation. A., Sexual, functioning of the generative apparatus. A.S, Vital, those es- sential to the continuance of vitality, as of the heart and lungs.
  • Active (ak'-tiv) [see Action], i. Energetic; decisive; as, active treatment. 2. Due to an intrinsic force as distinguished from passive — e. g., active hyperemia.
  • Actol (ak'-tol). The commercial name for silver lactate.
  • Actual (ak'-chu-al) [agere, to do or perform]. Real; effective. A. Cautery. See Cautery.
  • Actuation (ak-chu-a' '-shun) [see Actual]. The mental function that is exercised be- tween the impulse of volition and its per- formance.
  • Acuclosure (ak-u-klo' -zhur) [acus, a needle; claudere, to close]. A method of arresting hemorrhage by the aid of a needle which holds the artery closed for a day. It em- braces acupressure and acutorsion.
  • Acuition (ak-u-ish' -un) [acuere, to sharpen]. Increased effect of a drug's action by the addition of another drug.
  • Acuity (ak-u'-it-e) [see Acuition]. Acuteness or clearness, as acuity of vision.
  • Acumeter (ak-u' -met-er) . See Acoumeter.
  • Acuminate (ak-u' -min-at) [acuminatus, pointed; acute]. Sharp-pointed.
  • Acupressure (ak' -u-presh-ur) [acus, a needle; pressura, pressure]. An operation to stop hemorrhage by compressing the artery with a needle inserted into the tissues upon either side.
  • Acupuncture (ak' -u-punk-chur) [acus, a needle; pungere, to prick]. Puncture of the skin or tissue by one or more needles for the relief of pain, the exit of "fluid, the coagulation of blood in an aneurysm, etc.
  • Acusia (ah-koo'-ze-ah). See Acousia (2).
  • Acute (ak-uf) [acutus, sharp]. Sharp; sharp- pointed; keen; of diseases, having a rapid onset, a short course, and pronounced symp- toms and termination.
  • Acuteness (ak-uf -nes). The quality of being acute.
  • Acuticostal (ak-ut-i-kos' -tat) [acutus, sharp; costa, a rib]. Having projecting ribs.
  • AcUtorsion (ak-u-tor' -shun) [acus, a needle; torsion]. The twisting of an artery with a needle as a means of controlling hemorrhage.
  • Acyclia (ah-sik' -le-ah) [a, priv. ; nunXe'cv, to circulate]. An arrest of the circulation of body-fluids.
  • Acyesis (ah-si-e' -sis) [a, priv.; kut}occ, preg- nancy]. 1. Sterility of the female. 2. The absence of pregnancy. 3. Incapacity for nat- ural delivery. Syn., Aciesis. Ad [ad, to]. A Latin preposition signifying to, toward, at, etc.; as, ad deliquium, to faint- ing; ad libitum, at pleasure or according to discretion.
  • Adactylism (ah-dak' -til-izm) [a, priv.; d&n- zuXoc, a finger]. The absence of the digits.
  • Adactylous (ah-dak' -til-us) [see Adactylism]. Without fingers or toes. Adam's Apple. See Pomum adami. Adamkiewicz's Reaction for Proteids. To a mixture of 1 volume concentrated sulfuric ADAMS' DISEASE 27 ADENOCARCINOMA acid and 2 volumes glacial acetic acid add the proteid. At the ordinary temperature a reddish-violet color is obtained slowly, but more quickly on heating. The liquid has also a feeble fluorescence, and gives an ab- sorption band between the lines B and F in the solar spectrum. Adams' Disease. See Adams-Stokes' Disease. Adams-Stokes' Disease. Permanent or recur- rent bradycardia, combined with syncopal or epileptoid attacks, dependent probably upon arteriosclerosis of the vertebral and basilar arteries.
  • Adansonia digitata (ad-an-so' -ne-ah dij-it-a'- tah). The baobab-tree, a native of Africa. The bark is used in the form of an infusion, oz. to 1 pint, as a remedy for intermittent fever. Unof. Adanto blaka. A malady common among the negroes of the Gold Coast and of frequent prevalence in the tropic zone; it is due to an animal parasite.
  • Adapter (ad-ap'-ter) [adaptare, to adjust]. 1. Anything which serves the purpose of fitting one thing to another. An instrument by means of which the direct electric current may be adapted to the various forms of electrotherapeutic treatment. 2. A piece of tubing used to connect the neck of a retort with a receiver. 3. A microscope attachment for centering or decentering the illuminating apparatus. 4. A collar used to fit an objec- tive to a different nose-piece than that for which it was made.
  • Addiment (ad'-im-ent) [addere, to add]. Ehr- lich's and Morgenroth's term (1899) for an active thermolabile substance (destroyed by a temperature of 5 6° C.) contained in normal serum and capable of rendering active the immune body of Ehrlich and setting up bac- teriolysis and hemolysis. See Complement. Addison's Anemia. Pernicious anemia. A.'s Disease, a disease of the suprarenal capsules, first described by Addison, and characterized by tuberculous infiltration of the capsules, discoloration of the skin, progressive anemia, and asthenia, ending in death from exhaus- tion. Bronzed skin may occur without dis- ease of the suprarenal capsules, and the latter have been the seat of morbid processes with- out an accompanying change in the skin. Syn., Melasma suprarenale; Dermatomelasma suprarenale; Cutis cerea; Bronzed skin. A.'s Keloid, morphea.
  • Addition (ad-ish'-un) [addere, to add]. The formation of a molecule by the direct union of two or more different molecules without decomposition. A. Compound. See under Compound. A. Product. See under Pro- duct. A. Reaction. See under Reaction.
  • Adducens (a-du'-senz) [adducere, to bring toward]. An adductor, a term applied to certain muscles. A. oculi, the internal rectus muscle of the eye.
  • Adducent (a-du'-sent) [see Adducens - ]. Per- forming adduction.
  • Adduction (ad-uk' '-shun) [see Adducens]. Any movement whereby a part is brought toward another or toward the median line of the body.
  • Adductor (ad-uk' -tor) [see Adducens]. Any muscle effecting adduction.
  • Adelodermatous, Adelodermous (ad-el-o-der' - mat-us, ad-el-o-der' -mus) [aorjXoc, not seen; okpjia, skin]. Having concealed integument, as invaginated tracts.
  • Adelomorphous (ad-el-o-mor' -}us) [adf}Xoc, not seen; IJ-op(f)rj, form]. Not clearly defined; not having a determinate form (a term ap- plied to certain cells in the gastric glands).
  • Adenasthenia (ad-en-as-lhe' -ne-ah) [dof/V, a gland; daOiveca, weakness]. A disorder of the stomach characterized by diminished and enfeebled secretion without anatomic lesion.
  • Adenectomy (ad-en-ek' -to-me) [dorp, a gland; iKZOfiTj, excision]. The excision of a gland.
  • Adenia (ad-e* -ne-ah) [dorp, a gland]. A hyper- plasia of the tissue of lymphatic glands lead- ing to the formation of tumors. See Lymph- adenoma. A.s, Angibromic, Piorry's term for diseases of the glandular adnexa of the digestive tract. A., Leukemic, adenia as- sociated with a leukemic condition of the blood. A., Simple, that form which is un- accompanied by any increase in the num- ber of the white blood-corpuscles. A syno- nym of Hodgkin's disease.
  • Adeniform (ad-en' -e-form) [dorp, a gland; forma, resemblance]. Of the shape of a gland; gland -like.
  • Adenin (ad'-en-in) [dorp, a. gland], C 5 H 5 N 5 . The simplest member of the uric -acid group of leukomains, apparently formed by poly- merization of hydrocyanic acid, first discovered in the pancreas. It occurs, with other bases, as a decomposition-product of nuclein, and may be obtained from all animal and veget- able tissues rich in nucleated cells. It crys- tallizes in leaflets with pearly luster. It exists abundantly in the fiver and urine of leuko- cythemic patients. Adenin is not poisonous.
  • Adenitis (ad-en-i'-tis) [dorp, a gland; czcc, in- flammation]. Inflammation of a gland. Syn., Phlegmasia adenosa; Phlegmasia glandulosa. A. cervicalis syphilitica, an engorgement of the cervical lymphatic glands; a sign of syphilitic infection. A. cubitalis, Griinfeld's term for inflammation of the epitrochlear lymphatic gland. A. hyperplastica, Griin- feld's term for a bubo in which plastic exu- dation predominates. A. pubica, bubo of the pubic region, often accompanied by sup- purative lymphangitis of the dorsum of the penis. A., Syphilitic, Primitive. See Bubo, Syphilitic. A. universalis, a wide- spread induration of the lymphatic glands accompanying primary syphilis. Adeno- [ddr)v, a gland]. A prefix denoting relation to glands.
  • Adenoblast (ad' -en-o -blast) [dorp, a gland; ftXacruoc, a germ]. 1. Any functionally active gland-cell; a cell that assists in the glandular action. 2. Haeckel's name for an embryonic cell which forms a gland.
  • Adenocarcinoma (ad-en -o-kar -sin -0' - mah) ADENOCELE 28 ADENOPHARYNGEAL [ddrjv, a gland; carcinoma]. Adenoma blended with carcinoma.
  • Adenocele (ad'-en-o-sel or ad-en-o -se'-le) [ddrjv, a gland; xrjXrj, a tumor]. A cystic tumor containing adenomatous elements.
  • Adenocellulitis (ad-en-o -sel-u-W -tis) [ddrjv, a gland; cellulitis). Inflammation of a gland and the surrounding cellular tissue.
  • Adenocyst (ad-en' '-o-sist) [ddrjv, a gland; kuotcc, a cyst]. A cystic lymphatic gland; a glandu- lar cyst. Cf. Adenocystoma.
  • Adenocystoma (ad-en-o-sis-to' -mah) [ddrjv, a gland; noouc, a cyst; ojia, a tumor]. A cystic adenoma.
  • Adenofibroma (ad-en-o- fi-bro' -mah) [ddrjv, a gland; fibroma]. A combination of adenoma and fibroma.
  • Adenofibrosis (ad-en-o-fi-bro' -sis) [ddrjv, a gland; fibrosis]. Fibroid degeneration of a gland, particularly the inflammatory neoplasms involving sudoriparous glands, due to infection with Botryomyces. Cf. Botryomycosis.
  • Adenography (ad-en-o g'-ra-fe) [ddrjv, a gland; j-pacbetv, to write]. That part of descriptive anatomy which treats of the glandular system.
  • Adenohypersthenia (ad-en-o- hi-per-sthe'-ne- ah) [ddrjv, a gland; bnkp, over; oOivoc, strength], Excessive activity of the glands. A. gastrica, a condition characterized by the secretion of gastric juice abnormally rich in hydrochloric acid or excessive in quantity.
  • Adenoid (ad'-en-oid) [ddf)v, a gland; eldog, resemblance]. Resembling a gland. A. Acne. See Lupus, Disseminated Follicular. A. Body. i. The prostate gland. 2. A melanotic tumor. A. Disease. Synonym of Hodgkin's disease. A. Muscle. See Thyro- adenoideus under Muscle. A. Tissue, lym- phadenoid tissue. A. Tumor. See Adenoma. A. Vegetations, a term applied to a hyper- trophy of the adenoid tissue that normally exists in the nasopharynx.
  • Adenolipoma (ad-en-o-lip-o'-mah) [ddf)v, a gland; lipoma]. A combination of adenoma and lipoma.
  • Adenolipomatosis (ad-en-o-lip-o-mai-o'-sis) [adenolipoma]. A diseased condition of the lymphatic system characterized by fatty de- posits in the neighborhood of the neck, axillas, and groins. It is generally unattended with pain. Syn., Multiple lipomas; Symmetric lipomas of nervous origin.
  • Adenology (ad-en-ol' -o-je) [ddrjv, a gland; Xoyoc, a discourse]. The science of the glandular system.
  • Adenolymphoma (ad-en-o -lim-} o' -mah) [ddf)v, a gland; lymphoma]. A combined adenoma and lymphoma. See Lymphadenoma.
  • Adenoma (ad-en-o' -mah) [ddf)v, a gland; opta, a tumor]. 1. An epithelial tumor constructed after the type of a secreting gland. 2. Any tumor which has as its characteristic feature tubes or spaces lined with epithelium, whether or not it arises from or is connected with a gland. A. carcinomatodes renis, a renal neoplasm probably derived from aberrant adrenal tissue in the kidney. A. destruens, a destructive form of adenoma. A. dif- fusum, hyperplasia of the mucous mem- brane with predominance of glandular ele- ments. A. fibrosum, a fibrous growth in the stroma of a gland. A., Heteropodous, one arising from the metastasis of normal glandular tissue. A.,Lupiform. See Lupus erythematosus. A., Malignant, an adeno- matous carcinoma. A., Papillary, A. papil- liferum, a form arising from either the alveolar or the tubular adenoma through stronger growth of the epithelium and the formation of papillas of connective tissue. A., Racemose, an adenoma after the type of a racemose gland. A., Renal, glandular carcinoma of the kidney. A. simplex, a tumor -like hyperplasia of a gland. A. sudoriparum, a cutaneous tumor involving hyperplasia of the sweat-glands. Cf. Hidros- adenitis. A., Tubular, an adenoma after the type of a tubular gland. A., Umbilical, a tumor at the navel originating through the coalescence of Meckel's diverticulum with the umbilical ring, through which the intestinal mucosa appears in the navel. Syn., Intestinal ectropia.
  • Adenomalacia (ad-en-o -mal-a' -she-ah) [ddrjv, a gland; fxakaida, softening]. Abnormal soft- ening of a gland.
  • Adenomatome (ad-en-o' -mat-om) [adenoma; rout), a cutting] . Cutting forceps or scissors for use in the removal of adenomatous growths.
  • Adenomeningeal (ad-en-o -men-in' -je-al) [ddrjv, a gland; firjvcjr£, a membrane]. Pertaining to or affecting the glands of a membrane.
  • Adenomyoma (ad-en-o -mi-o' -mah) [ddrjv, a gland; fiuc, a muscle; fijia, a tumor]. A tumor composed of glandular and muscular tissues. A., Branchiogenic, cyst-formation in consequence of inflammation of the mucous bursa in the median line of the neck.
  • Adenomyxoma (ad-en-o-miks-o' -mah) [ddijv, a gland; fiu£ a, mucus; o/x a, a tumor] . A growth having the characters of adenoma and myxoma.
  • Adenomyxosarcoma (ad-en-o -miks' '-o-sar-ko- mah). A rare combination of malignant tumor forms (observed in the cervix uteri); a primary adenoma with secondary sarcoma and finally myxomatous degeneration of the stromas.
  • Adenopathy, Adenopathia (ad-en-op' -a-the, ad-en-o -pa' -the -ah) [ddrjv, a gland; izbBoc, dis- ease]. Any disease of a gland. A., Angio- bromic. See Adenias, ' Angibromic. A., Primary, the lymphadenitis resulting from primary syphilitic infection. A., Syphilitic, the enlarged and indurated cervical, inguinal, and cubital glands symptomatic of syphilitic infection. A., Tracheobronchial, A., Tra- cheobronchic, hypertrophy of the peribron- chial lymphatic glands observed in the course of various diseases, causing spasmodic cough. A., Tracheolaryngeal, inflammation and hypertrophy of the tracheolaryngeal lym- phatic glands.
  • Adenopharyngeal (ad-en-o -far -in' -je-al) [ddrjv f ADENOPHARYNGITIS 29 ADIPOMA a gland; (frdpyrg, pharynx]. Pertaining to the thyroid gland and the pharynx.
  • Adenopharyngitis (ad-en-o-far-in-ji'-tis) [dorp, a gland; (faapojZ, pharynx; ncc, inflamma- mation]. Inflammation of the tonsils and pharynx.
  • Adenophthalmia (ad-en-of-thal'-me-ah) [ddr,v, a gland; 6p.a, blood; puocg, flowing]. Failure of the circulation of the blood through the veins, due to some obstruc- tion.
  • Adipatum (ad -ip' -a -turn). An ointment-base said to consist of lanolin, vaselin, paraffin, and water.
  • Adipic (ad-ip'-ik) [adeps, lard]. Of or belong- ing to fat. A. Acid. See Acid, Adipic.
  • Adipocele (ad'-ip-o-sel) [adeps; kt.at), hernia]. A true hernia with hernia sac, containing only fatty tissue.
  • 'Adipo cellular (ad-ip-o-sel'-u-lar). Made up of fat and connective tissue.
  • Adipocere (ad'-ip-o-ser) [adeps; cera, wax]. A wax-like substance formed by the expo- sure of fleshy tissue to moisture, with the exclusion of air; i. e., in the earth or under water. It consists of the fatty acids in com- bination with the alkaline earths and am- monium. Human bodies in moist burial places often undergo this change.
  • Adipofibroma (ad-ip-o-fi-bro'-mah) [adeps; fi- broma]. A combined fatty and fibrous tumor.
  • Adipolysis (ad-ip-oV '-is-is) [adeps; )jjocc, disso- lution]. The cleavage or hydrolysis of fats in the process of digestion by the action of a fat-splitting enzym.
  • Adipoma (ad-ip-o'-mah) [adeps; b t ua, a tumor] A fatty tumor; lipoma.
  • Adipose (ad'-ip-os) [adeps]. Fatty. A. Tis- sue, fatty tissue, which is distributed exten- sively through the body. It consists of ar- eolar connect- ive tissue, the cells of which contain fat- globules.
  • Adiposis (ad-ip- o'-sis) [adeps]. Corpulence ; fatty infiltra- tion. A. do- lorosa, Der- cum's dis- ease, charac- terized by the formation of soft nodules throughout the connective tis- sue of the body, accompanied by neuralgic pains. A. hepatica, fatty degeneration or infiltration of the liver.
  • Adipositas (ad-ip-os' '-it-as) [L.]. Fatness; cor- pulency. A. cordis, a fatty condition of the heart.
  • Adiposity (ad-ip-os' -it-e). Fatness; corpulency.
  • Adipsa (ad-ip'-sah) [neut. pi. of adipsus, with- out thirst]. 1. Remedies to allay thirst. 2. Foods which do not produce thirst.
  • Adipsia (ah-dip' -se-ah) [a, priv.; di(pa, thirst]. Absence of thirst.
  • Aditus (ad'-it-us) [adire, to go to]. In anatomy, an entrance. A. ad antrum, the outer side of the attic, opening upward, backward, and outward into the mastoid antrum. It gives lodgment to the head of the malleus and the greater part of the in- cus. A. ad aquaeductum sylvii, the en- trance to the ventricular aqueduct situated at the lower posterior angle of the third ventricle of the brain. A. ad infuridibulum, a smaller canal extending from the third ventricle into the infundibulum; it is also called vulva. A. ad laryngem, A. laryngis, the entrance to the larynx.
  • Adjuster (ad-jus 1 '-ter) [Fr., adjuster, to adjust]. 1. He who or that which adjusts. 2. A de- vice formerly used for the forcible reduction of dislocations. 3. A device for holding to- gether the two ends of a silver wire suture, to secure approximation of the parts without strain on the tissues. Adjustment, Coarse. The rack and pinion for raising or lowering the tube of a micro- scope a considerable distance. A., Fine, the micrometer screw, generally at the top of the column of a microscope, for raising or lower- ing the tube slowly through a short distance.
  • Adjuvant (ad'-ju-vant) [adjuvare, to assist]. A medicine that assists the action of another to which it is added.
  • Admaxillary (ad-maks' '-il-a-re) . Pertaining to maxillary structures. Cf. Gland, Admaxillary.
  • Adnasal (ad-na'-sal) [ad, near to; nasus, the nose]. Pertaining to the nose.
  • Adnexa (ad-neks' -ah) [ad, to; nectere, to join]. Adjunct parts, as the adnexa of the uterus. A. bulbi, the appendages of the bulb of the eye. A. uteri, the fallopian tubes and the ovaries.
  • Adolescence (ad-o-les' -ens) [adolescere, to grow]. Youth, or the period between puberty and maturity, usually reckoned as extending in males from about 14 to 25 years, and in females from 12 to 21 years.
  • Adonidin (ad-on' -id-in) [Adonis]. A glucosid derived from Adonis vernalis, a plant in- digenous in Europe and Asia. It is recom- mended in cardiac dropsy. Dose \-\ gr. (0.008-0.016 Gm.). Unof. A. Tannate, a yellowish-brown powder, soluble in alcohol, slightly soluble in water; it is used in the same manner as the glucosid.
  • Adonis (ad-o'-nis). A genus of European herbs belonging to the order Ranunculacece. A. aestivalis, a plant much used in Italy as a cardiac tonic. Dose of ftuidextract 1-2 min. (0.06-0.12 Cc); of the tincture 10-30 min. (0.6-2.0 Cc). A. vernalis, is used as a cardiac stimulant, antipyretic, and diuretic. Dose of the tincture 3-20 min. (0.2-1.3 Cc).
  • Adorbital (ad-orb' -it-at) [ad, near to; orbita, orbit]. Pertaining to the orbit. A. Bone. See Lacrimal Bone.
  • Adrenal (ad-re' -naV) [ad, near to; ren, the kid- ney]. 1. Adjacent to the kidney. 2. The suprarenal capsule.
  • Adrenalin (ad-ren'-al-in), C 10 H 15 NO 3 . The active principle of the suprarenal gland. A. Chlorid, used in solution of 1 : 10,000 to 1 : 1000 in surgical operations on the eye, ear, nose, urethra, etc; it is a power- ful astringent, hemostatic, and heart tonic.
  • Adrenoxin (ad-ren-oks'-in) [adrenal; oxygen], Sajous' name for an organic compound or oxidizing substance formed in the lungs by the internal secretion of the adrenals com- bined with the atmospheric oxygen. He claims that this substance endows the blood- plasm with its oxidizing properties.
  • Adrue (ad-ru'-e). Antiemetic root. The root of Cyperus articulatus ; it is anthelmintic, aromatic, stomachic Dose of the ftuidex- tract 20-30 min. (1.3-2.0 Cc). Unof.
  • Adsternal (ad-stern' -al) [ad, near to; sternum]. Pertaining to or situated near the sternum.
  • Adstrictio (ad-strik' -she-o) [adstringere, to draw together; pi., adstrictiones]. 1. The reten- tion of any natural excretion. 2. The action of an astringent. 3. The ligation of a blood- vessel. A. alvei, constipation.
  • Advancement (ad-vans' -ment) [Fr., avancer, to advance]. The act of bringing or going for- ward. Specifically, an operation to remedy strabismus, generally in conjunction with tenotomy, whereby the opposite tendon from the overacting one, having been cut, is brought forward, so that, growing fast in a more advanced position, it shall have more ADVENTITIA 31 AEROTHERMOTHERAPY power to act upon the globe of the eye. A., Capsular, an operation similar to that on the tendon upon Tenon's capsule. It differs from advancement in that the tendon itself is not divided. A. of the Round Ligaments, an operation for replacement of the uterus by taking up "the slack of the round liga- ments." See Operation, Alexander's. A. of Tenon's Capsule. See A., Capsular.
  • Adventitia (ad-ven-iish' -e^ah) [adventitius, foreign]. The external coat of a blood- vessel.
  • Adynamia, Adynamy (ah-din-a' -me-ah, ah- din'-a-me) [a, priv.; obvapcg, power]. Defi- ciency or loss of vital or muscular power; prostration.
  • Adynamic (ah-din-am' -ik) [see Adynamia]. Per- taining to or characterized by adynamia.
  • Adynamicoataxic (ad-in-am-ik-o-at-aks' -ik) . Pertaining to or characterized by adynamia and ataxia. JE-. For all English words sometimes spelled with the diphthong JE see words beginning E. Aeby, Plane of. In craniometry, one passing through the nasion and basion perpendicular to the median plane.
  • Aer (a'-er). See Air.
  • Aerated (a' -er-a-ted) [df)p, the atmosphere]. Impregnated or charged with carbon dioxid or air; arterialized.
  • Aeration (a-er-a' '-shun) [df)p, air]. The pro- cess of supplying or charging with air or with some gas, such as carbon dioxid; the state of being supplied with air or gas.
  • Aerator (a'-er-a-tor). A machine for forcing gas or air into liquids.
  • Aerial (a-e' -re-al) . Pertaining to the air; con- veyed by the air, as aerial conduction of sound-waves.
  • Aeriform (a-e' -re-form) [df]p, air; forma, form]. Resembling air or gas.
  • Aeroanaerobic (a-er-o-an-a-er-o'-bik). Applied to organisms which are both aerobic and anaerobic.
  • Aerobic (a-er-o'-bik) [drjp, air; /Hoc, life]. Re- quiring oxygen (air) in order to live. A term applied to those bacteria requiring free oxy- gen. Those which do not grow in its pres- ence are called anaerobic. Between. these ex- tremes there are forms that are able to grow without oxygen under favorable conditions, though they make use of it when present; others that may grow in its presence, though nourishing best in its absence; these are called respectively facultative aerobic or facul- tative anaerobic, in distinction from those first mentioned, which are called obligatory aero- bic or obligatory anaerobic.
  • Aerobioscope (a-er -o-bi' -o-skop) [df)p, air; ftcoc, life; onoxelv, to examine] . An apparatus, con- sisting of a glass tube of special form, for col- lecting and filtering the bacteria from the air.
  • Aerobiotic (a-er-o-bi-ot'-ik) [df)p, air; (3 coot choc, pertaining to life]. Thriving only in the pres- ence of air.
  • Aerocele (a-er' -o-sel) [df)p, air; kt)\t), tumor], A tumor varying with respiration, found in the thyroid region, usually unilateral, with walls resembling mucosa and containing mucous or mucopurulent matter. It is sometimes congenital, but oftener the result of violent coughing or straining. When ac- quired it may disappear spontaneously. Syn., Aerial bronchocele ; Aerial -goiter ; Pneumato- cele; Tracheocele; Hernia of the trachea; " Luftkropf." Aeroductor (a-er -o-duk' -tor) [dr,p, air; ducere, to lead]. An apparatus to prevent asphyxia in the fetus when the after-coming head is re- tained.
  • Aerodynamics (a-er-o-di-nam 1 '-iks) [df,p, air; dwap.cc, power]. The branch of physics that deals with gases in motion.
  • Aerography (a-er-og'-ra-fe) [df)p, air; Ypdrj, a writing]. The description of the air and its qualities.
  • Aerology (a-er-ol'-o-je) [drjp, air; Myoc, trea- tise]. The science of the air and its qualities.
  • Aerometer (a-er-om' -et-er) [df)p, air; pkzpov, a measure]. An instrument for ascertaining the -density of gases.
  • Aerophagy (a-er-of'-a-je) [drjp, air; (payslv, to eat]. The imbibing and swallowing of air, especially observed in hysteric patients.
  • Aerophil (a-er'-o-fil) [dt/p, air; cke~cv, to love]. An open-air -loving person or creature.
  • Aerophobia (a-er-o-fo' -be-ah) [drjp, air; 6j3o£, fear]. Dread of a current of air.
  • Aerophone (a'-er-o-fon) [drjp, air; tovr), sound]. An instrument for increasing the amplitude of sound-waves.
  • Aerophore (a' -er-o-for) [df)p, air; (fripscv, to carry], i. A device for the inflation of the lungs of a still-born child with air. 2. A breathing apparatus for the use of firemen and others, to prevent the inhalation of nox- ious gases.
  • Aerophysic (a-er-o-fiz'-ik) [drjp, air; cfiuoav, to in- flate]. Inflated; distended with air; flatulent.
  • Aeroplethysmograph (a-er-o-pleth-iz' '-mo-graf) [df)p, air; TtXrjduopoc, an enlargement; ypoKpscv, to write] . An apparatus for registering graph- ically the expired air; the latter raises a very light and carefully equipoised box placed over water, and this moves a writing-style.
  • Aeroporotomy (a-er-o-por-of '-o-me) [drjp, air; Tibpoc, a pore; ropf), a cutting]. The opera- tion of admitting air to the lungs, as by intubation or tracheotomy.
  • Aeroscope (a'-er -o-skop) [df]p, air; okotzs'cv, to observe]. An instrument for estimating the purity of the air.
  • Aeroscopy (a-er-os'-ko-pe) [see Aeroscope]. The investigation of atmospheric conditions.
  • Aerostatics (a-er -o-stat' -iks) [df)p, air; otoxckoc, standing]. The branch of physics that treats of the properties of gases at rest.
  • Aerotherapeutics, Aerotherapy (a-er-o-ther-a- pu'-tiks, a-er-o-ther' -ap-e) [df]p, air; dspaneuecv, to heal]. A mode of treating disease by compressed or rarefied air or by other gases.
  • Aerothermotherapy (a-er -o-ther-mo-ther' '-ap-e) [df)p, air; dippy, heat; 6 spans ca, therapy]. Treatment with hot air.
  • Aerotonometer (a-er-o-ton-om' -et-er) [drjp, air; tovoc, tension; ukzpov, a measure]. An in- strument for estimating the tension of gases in the blood.
  • Aerourethroscopy (a-er-o-u-re- thros' -ko-pe) [drjp, air; ouprjdpa, urethra; onoize'cv, to ex- amine]. Urethroscopy conjoined with infla- tion of the urethra with air.
  • Aerozol (a'-er-o-zol) [drjp, air; bt^ecv, to smell]: A mixture of essential oils said to contain 75 % of ozone; it is used by inhalation in catarrhal affections.
  • iErugo (e-ru'-go) [L., gen., ceruginis\. i. Rust of a metal. 2. Copper rust; verdigris. JE. ferri, the subcarbonate of iron. JE. plumbi, lead carbonate or subcarbonate.
  • Aerva (a-er'-vah) [Ar.]. A genus of plants of the order Amarantacece. A. lanata, a species native of tropical Asia and Arabia. It furnishes chaya-root, which contains a mucilaginous principle and has been used as a diuretic, in strangury, and as a depurative.
  • -ffisculus (es'-ku-lus) [L.]. A genus of sapin- daceous shrubs and trees; buckeye. JE.
  • Estates (es-ta'-tez) [L., pi.]. Freckles or sun- burn.
  • JEtas (e'-tas) [L.]. Age; a period of life. See Age.
  • ^thomrna (eth-om' '-ah) [atdoc, of a burnt color; biifia, the eye]. 1. Part's term for a pigmented condition of the humors and tunics of the eye. 2. Kiihn's term for a morbid condition marked by flashes of light and flame appearing before the eye.
  • Afebrile (ah-feb'-ril) [a, priv.; febrilis, fever- ish]. Without fever.
  • Affection (af-ek'-shun) [afficere, to affect]. Dis- ease. A., Parainfectious, one in which the symptoms or conditions are only indirectly related to the disease named; a by-condi- tion or accessory infection of certain diseases characterized by the appearance of symptoms attributable to an intercurrent or secondary infection, as in the case of noma occurring in cases of measles and due to infection with diphtheria.
  • Affective (af-ek'-tiv) [see Affection]. Exciting emotion. A. Faculties, the emotions and pro- pensities, especially those peculiar to man. • A. Insanity, emotional or impulsive insanity.
  • Afferent (a}' '-er-ent) [afferens, carrying to]. Carrying toward the center. Of nerves : con- veying impulses toward the central nervous system; sensory; centripetal. Of blood-ves- sels: those, as the arteries, conveying blood to the tissues. Of lymphatics : those convey- ing lymph to a lymphatic gland.
  • Affiliation (af-il-e-a'-shun) [ad, to; filius, son]. In medical jurisprudence, the act of imput- ing or affixing the paternity of a child in order to provide for its maintenance.
  • Affinity (af-in'-it-e) [afflnis, akin to]. 1. Re- lationship. 2. Attraction. 3. In biology, mor- phologic, physiologic, and phylogenetic re- lationship between organisms. A. of Ag- gregation, cohesive attraction; the mechanic affinity of similar molecules tending to the formation of masses. Syn., Quiescent affinity; Afflnitas quiescens. A., Chemic, the force, exerted at inappreciable distances, that unites atoms of different substances. A. of Com- position, the tendency of substances to unite directly without previous decomposition. Syn., Afflnitas compositions; Simple affinity; Single affinity; Compound affinity; Mixing affinity. A., Developed, that exhibited by compounds, but which is not possessed by the constituents separately. Syn., Afflnitas pro- ducta; Resulting affinity; Secondary affinity. A., Divellent, the tendency to form new compounds at the expense of decomposition of those previously existing. Syn., Afflnitas divellens ; Separating affinity. A., Elective, „ the preference of one substance for another. A., Elementary. 1. That which exists be- tween the elements of two or more com- pounds. 2. Physicochemic relationship of elementary substances. A., Mediating, that by virtue of which a substance lacking the power of combination with a certain substance secures it by preliminary combination with another. Syn., Appropriate affinity ; Imparted affinity; Intermediate affinity; Inducing affinity; Inductive affinity ; Affinity of an intermedium ; Afflnitas adjuta; Afflnitas appropriata; Afflni- tas approximata. A., Morbid, the tendency of certain affections to exist synchronously or as sequels. A., Reciprocal, chemic attraction be- tween the elements of a secondary compound, tending, under altered conditions, to the reformation of the primary compound. Syn., Alternating elective affinity ; Afflnitas reciproca. A., Simple Elective, that exhibited by a simple body for a single element of a compound. Syn., Single elective affinity. A. of Solution, that existing between a dissolved substance and its solvent. A., Vital, the selective action or chemiotaxis exhibited by the several tissues of an organism for their peculiar pabulum. Affion, Affioni [Turkish]. Crude opium ; it con- tains regularly 10 % of morphin. Syn., Oflflum.
  • Affixion (af-ik'-shun) [afflgere, to fasten]. Ad- hesion.
  • Afflux (af'-luks) [affluere, to flow toward]. The flow of the blood or other liquid to a part.
  • Affusio (af-u'-se-o) [L.; pi., affusiones], 1. An AFFUSION 33 AGEUSIA affusion. 2. A suffusion. 3. An infusion. 4. A cataract.
  • Affusion (af-u'-zhun) [affundere, to pour upon]. The pouring of water upon an object, as upon the body in fever, to reduce tempera- ture and calm nervous symptoms.
  • Afibroma (ah-fi-bro' -malt) [a, priv.; fibroma]. A mass of fibrous tissue which is not arranged so as to form a tendon or fascia. African Arrow-poison. See Strophanthus. A. Fever. Synonym of Dengue. A. Gum, gum-arabic. A. Lethargy, a "sleeping- sickness" affecting negroes of the west African coast. Increasing somnolence is the charac- teristic symptom. It is very fatal — death from exhaustion follows in from 3 to 6 months. Syn., Nelavan.
  • After (af'-ter) [AS., cefter, back]. 1. The anus; the buttocks. 2. Next in succession. A.- action, the negative variation in an electric current continuing for a short time in a tetanized muscle. A. -birth, the popular des- ignation of the placenta, cord, and mem- branes. A. -brain. See Hind-brain and Met- encephalon. A. -cataract, an opacity of the media of the eye after operation for cataract; due to opacification of the capsule or to non- absorption of the remains of the lens-substance. Syn., Cataracta secundaria. A. -gilding, a term designating the process of treating nerve- tissues with salts of gold after fixation and hardening. A. -hearing, a condition in which sounds are heard after the wave-motion that produces them has ceased. A. -images, con- tinued retinal impressions after the stimulus of the light or image has ceased to act. A positive after-image is a simple prolongation of the sensation; a negative after-image is the appearance of the image in complemen- tary colors. A. -pain. See Pain. A.- perception, the perception of a sensation after the stimulus has passed away. A.- production, a newgrowth; neoplasm. A.- sensation, a sensation lasting longer than the stimulus producing it. A. -sound, an auditory sensation or impression remaining after the causative vibrations have ceased. A. -taste, a gustatory sensation produced some time after the stimulus has been re- moved.
  • Agalactia (ah-gal-ak' -te-ali) [a, priv.; yaXa, milk]. Failure of secretion of the milk after childbirth.
  • Agar, Agar-agar (a'-gar) [Ceylon]. A kind of glue made from certain seaweeds, such as Gracilaria lichenoides and Gigartina speciosa, used in medicine to make suppositories, and in bacteriologic studies in the preparation of culture-mediums.
  • Agaric (ag-ar f -ik). Touchwood; spunk; tin- der; the product of different species of Boletus, a genus of mushrooms. Boletus laricis, Poly- porus officinalis — is the white or purging agaric. Agaric or agaricinic acid, in doses of yV~i g r - (0.004-0.02 Gm.), is also useful in night-sweats. Dose of the extract 3-6 gr. (0.19-0.38 Gm.); of the tincture 3-20 min. 4 (0.18-1.2 Cc). Agaricus chirurgorum, Bole- tus chirurgorum, surgeon's agaric, a parasitic fungus formerly used for moxa. Soaked in solution of potassium nitrate it forms spunk. Agaricus muscarius, fly agaric, poisonous mushroom, contains an alkaloid, muscarin. Dose of the alkaloid 5-2 gr. (0.008-0.13 Gm.). Muscarin nitrate is used hypodermatically. Dose xV~4 g r - (0.006-0.048 Gm.).
  • Agaricin (ag-ar' -is-in) [see Agaricus]. 1. C 16 - H 30 O 5 -H 2 O. A white, crystalline substance, the active principle of Agaricus albus. It has proved useful in the night-sweats of pul- monary tuberculosis. Dose 2V - To g r - (°-°°3~ 0.006 Gm.). Unof. 2. An alkaloid iden- tical with amanitin.
  • Agaricus (ag-ar'-ik-us) \ayapCKov, of Diosco- rides, from Agaria, a former district of Po- land or Sarmatia, whence the Greeks de- rived the larch agaric]. A large genus of hymenomycetous fungi; mushrooms and toadstools. Cf. Polyporus amanita. A. chirurgorum. See under Agaric. A. rubra, A. sanguinea, these species, indigenous to France, were formerly included under A. rubra. They yield the alkaloid agarythrin, and the rose-red coloring-matter ruberin.
  • Agarythrin (ag-ar' -ith-rin). A yellowish-white alkaloid extracted by ether from Agaricus rubra and A. sanguinea. It has a bitter taste and leaves a burning sensation in the mouth.
  • Agaster (ah-gas'-ter) [a, priv.; yaarr'jp, the stomach]. One without a stomach.
  • Agastric (ah-gas' -trik) [see Agaster]. Without an intestinal canal, as the tape-worms.
  • Agathin (ag'-ath-in) \ayadbc, good], C 6 H 4 - (OH).CH.N.N.(CH,).C 6 H 5 . A greenish-white, crystalline substance, obtained by the inter- action of salicylic aldehyd and a-methyl- phenylhydrazin. It is used as an antineuralgic in doses of 8 gr. (0.52 Gm.) 2 or 3 times daily. Its action is cumulative. Unof.
  • Agave (a-ga'-ve) [dyaurj, noble]. A large genus of amaryllidaceous plants, natives of North America. A. americana, American aloe, the leaves of a plant growing in North America. It is diuretic and antisyphilitic. Dose of the fluidextract £-1 dr. (2-4 Cc). The fresh juice is also similarly employed. The fermented juice, called pulque, is a moderately stimulant drink, very popular in Mexico. Unof.
  • Agenesia, Agenesis (ah-jen-e 1 '-se-ah, ah-jen'- es-is) [a, priv. ; yiveotf, generation] . Imperfect development.
  • Agenosomus (ah-jen-o-so'-mus) [a, priv.; yev- vdv, to beget; ocop.a, body]. A variety of single autositic monsters, of the species Celosoma, in which there is a lateral or me- dian eventration occupying principally the lower portion of the abdomen, while the genital and urinary organs are either absent or very rudimentary.
  • Ageusia, Ageustia (ah-gu' '-se-ah, ah-goost'- e-ah) [a, priv.; ytbocc, taste]. Abolition of the sense of taste. A., Central, that due to AGGLOMERATE 34 AGUE lesion of the cerebral centers of the gustatory nerves. A., Conduction, that due to lesion in the nerves between their origin and distri- bution. A., Peripheral, that due to disorder of the ends of the nerves of taste.
  • Agglomerate (ag-lom'-er-dt) [agglomerare, to wind into a ball]. Grouped or clustered.
  • Agglutinate (ag-lu' -tin-at) [see Agglutinant]. To glue together; to unite by adhesion.
  • Agglutinatio (ag-lu-tin-a'-she-o) . Agglutina- tion. A. maxillae inferioris, trismus. A. pilorum, the replacement of ingrowing eye- lashes by means of viscous matter on a probe.
  • Agglutination (ag-lu-tin-a' -shun) [agglutinate, to paste to], i. A joining together. 2. A co- ulative phenomenon accompanying hemo- lysis or bacteriolysis, thought by Gruber to be due to some deleterious effect on the membrane of the bacteria or blood-corpuscles which makes it sticky.
  • Agglutinative (ag-lu' '-tin-a-tiv) [see Aggluti- nation]. 1. Favoring agglutination; adhesive. 2. Any substance with adhesive properties, fitted to retain the edges of wounds in apposi- tion. 3. A remedy promoting the repair of wounds by favoring nutrition.
  • Agglutinin (ag-lu' -tin-in) [see A gglutination]. A specific principle occurring in the blood-serum of an animal affected with a disease of mi- crobic origin and capable of causing the clump- ing of the bacteria peculiar to that disease, as exemplified in the Widal reaction. It was first described by Gruber and Durham in 1896.
  • Agglutitio (ag-lu-tish'-e-o) [ad, against; glutire, to swallow]. Difficult deglutition; an ob- struction to swallowing.
  • Aggregate (ag' -re-gat) [ad, to; gregare, to col- lect into a flock]. Grouped into a mass.
  • Aggressin (ag-res'-in) [aggressio, an attack]. A hypothetic bacterial product which inhibits the protective action of phagocytes, largely by preventing their migration.
  • Aglobulia (ah-glo-bu' -le-ah) [a, priv.; globulus, a globule]. A decrease in the quantity of red blood-corpuscles.
  • Aglossia (ah-glos'-e-ah) [a, priv.; yXcoaaa, the tongue]. 1. Absence of the tongue. 2. Dumbness; senile impairment of speech.
  • Aglossostomia (ah-glos-o-sto' -me-ah) [a, priv.; jXcbooa, the tongue; aropta, mouth]. The condition of a mouth without a tongue.
  • Aglossus (ah-glos'-us) [see Aglossia]. A person without a tongue.
  • Agmatology (ag-mat-ol'-o-je) [ay /16c, a frac- ture; Xoyoc, a, discourse] . The science or study of fractures.
  • Agminate (ag'-min-dt) [agmen, a, multitude]. Aggregated; clustered. A. Glands. See Gland, Peyer's.
  • Agnail (ag'-nal) [AS., angncegl]. 1. Hangnail. 2. A whitlow. 3. A corn.
  • Agnathia (ah-gna'-the-ah) [a, priv.; yvhdog, a jaw]. Absence or defective development of the jaws, Agnin (ag'-nin) [agnus, a lamb]. A fatty sub- stance derived from sheep's wool.
  • Agnosia (ah-gno' -se-ah) [a, priv.; yvcboacg, a recognizing]. Loss of the perceptive faculty which gives recognition of persons and things.
  • Agomphious (ah-gom'-fe-us) [a, priv.; yoiufrcoc, a tooth]. Without teeth.
  • Agomphosis (ah-gom-Jo' -sis) [see Agomphious]. 1. Absence of the teeth. 2. A loosening of the teeth.
  • Agonal (ag'-on-al) [dyoyvia, a struggle]. Strug gling; relating to the death-struggle.
  • Agony (ag'-o-ne) [see Agonal]. Violent pain; extreme anguish; the death-struggle.
  • Agoraphobia (ag-o-ra-Jo' -be-ah) [dyopd, a mar- ket-place, assembly; 4>b[log, fear]. A morbid fear of open places or spaces. Agostini's Reaction for Glucose. To 5 drops of the urine add 5 drops of 0.5 % solution of gold chlorid and 3 drops of 20 % potassa solution, and heat gently. In the presence of glucose a red color will be produced.
  • Agrammatism (ah-gram' -at-izm) [a, priv.; ypdp.ua, a word]. A phenomenon of aphasia, consisting in the inability to form words gram- matically, or the suppression of certain words of a phrase; a form of aphasia.
  • Agraphia (ah-gra' -fe-ah) [a, priv.; ypdfyecv, to write]. Inability to express ideas by writing. A., Absolute, a variety in which no letters can be formed. Syn., Literal agraphia. A., Acoustic, loss of capacity to write from dictation. A. amnemonica, a form in which letters can be written, but without convey- ing any meaning. A. atactica, that form in which letters cannot be formed from lack of muscular coordination. A., Literal, A. literalis. See A., Absolute. A., Optic, in- ability to copy writing, but ability to write from dictation. A., Verbal, a variety in which a number of words without meaning can be written. Cf. Paragraphia.
  • Agraphic (ah-gra'-fik) [see Agraphia]. Affected with agraphia.
  • Agria (ag'-re-ah) [aypioc, wild]. A pustular eruption; malignant pustule; herpes.
  • Agrimony (ag'-rim-o-ne) [dypbf, a field; pibvof, alone]. The root of Agrimonia eupatoria, a mild astringent. Dose of fluidextract \-2 dr. (2-8 Cc). Unof.
  • Agriothymia (ag-re-o-thi' -me-ah) [aypcog, wild; do p.6c, mind; will]. Maniacal fury.
  • Agrippa (ag-rip'-ah) [L.]. One born with the feet foremost.
  • Agromania (ag-ro-ma'-ne-ah) [dypbg, a field; fiavca, madness], A mania for living in the country. Agron [East Indian]. A disease which occurs in India, marked by roughening of the ton- gue, with fissures.
  • Agrypnia (ah-grip' -ne-ah) [d, priv.; unvog, sleep]. Loss of sleep; insomnia.
  • Agrypnotic (ah-grip -not' -ik) [see Agrypnia]. 1. Preventing sleep. 2. A medicine that prevents sleep.
  • Ague (a'-gu) [acutus, sharp; acute; Fr., aigu]. Malarial or intermittent fever; characterized AGURIN 35 AIR-BREAK WHEEL by paroxysms consisting of chill, fever, and sweating, at regularly recurring times, and followed by an interval or intermission the length of which determines the epithets quotidian, tertian, etc. In some cases there is a double paroxysm, and hence these are called double quotidian, double tertian, etc. The duration of each paroxysm varies from 2 to 12 hours. Syn., Fever and ague; In- termittent lever; Periodic lever; . Malarial fever; Marsh fever; Paludal fever; Mias- matic fever. A., Aden. See Dengue. A., Brass-founders', a disease common among brass-founders, characterized by symptoms somewhat resembling an imperfect attack of intermittent fever, the recurrence of the paroxysms, however, being irregular. The direct cause is generally thought to be the inhalation of the fumes of deflagrating zinc or "spelter." A., Brow-, intermittent neu- ralgia of the brow. A.-cake, chronic en- largement of the spleen in diseases of malarial origin. A., Catenating, ague associated with other diseases. A. -drop. See Fowler's Solu- tion. A., Dumb, ague without well-marked chill, and w'th at most only partial or slight periodicity. Syn., Dead ague; Irreg- ular ague; Latent ague; Masked ague. A., Face, tic douloureux. A., Partial, ague attended with pain which is limited to some part or organ. A.-tree, common sassafras. A.-weed. i. See Gentiana. 2. Eupatorium perfoliatum, or thoroughwort.
  • Agurin (ag'-u-rin). A compound of sodium theobromate and sodium acetate; it is recom- mended as a diuretic in doses of 24 gr. (1.5 Gin.). Ahlfeld's Sign. Irregular tetanic contractions affecting localized areas of the uterus, ob- served after the third month of pregnancy.
  • Ail (dl) [ME., eyle]. 1. To be out of health. 2. A slight indisposition. 3. Garlic. A., Wetherbee, a popular name for progressive muscular atrophy, from the fact that sev- eral successive generations of a Massachu- setts family of that name were affected with the disease.
  • Ailantus (a-el-an' -tus) [Malacca, ailanto, "tree of heaven"]. The bark of A. glandulosa, commonly known as "tree of heaven." Its properties are due to an oleoresin and a volatile oil. It is a nauseant and drastic purgative and an excellent anthelmintic against tape-worm. Dose of fluidextract 10 min.-i dr. (0.6-4.0 Cc); of tincture 10 min.-2 dr. (0.6-8.0 Cc). Ailment [aV-ment) [ME., eyle]. A disease ; sickness; complaint.
  • Ailurophobia (a-lu-ro-fo'-be-ah) [aUoupoc, a cat; 0o/?of, fear]. A morbid fear of cats.
  • Ainhum (in'-hum) [negro word, meaning to saw]. A disease of Guinea and Hindustan, peculiar to negroes, in which the little toes are slowly and spontaneously amputated at about the digitoplantar fold. The process is very slow, is unaccompanied by any constitu- tional symptoms, and its cause is unknown. It sometimes attacks the great toe.
  • Aiodin (ah-i' -o-din) . A preparation of the thyroid gland and tannin. It is a tasteless powder, of which each gram is said to repre- sent 10 Gm. of the fresh glands and to con- tain 0.4 % of iodin. It is used in myxedema. Air [drjp, from aecv, to blow or breathe]. The atmosphere. Atmospheric air consists of a mixture of 77 parts by weight, or 79.19 by volume, of nitrogen, and 23 parts by weight, or 20.81 by volume, of oxygen, with 3.7 to 6.2 parts by volume of CO z in 10,000 parts. It also contains traces of ammonia, argon, nitrites, and organic matter. By virtue of its oxygen it is able to sustain respiration. One hundred cubic inches weigh 30,935 grains. The pressure of the air at sea-level is about 14! pounds upon the square inch. A., Alka- line, free or volatile ammonia. A., Azotic, nitrogen. A. -bag. See A. -cushion. A.- bath, therapeutic exposure to air, which may be heated, condensed, or variously medicated. A. -bed, an air-tight rubber mattress, inflated with air, employed in conditions requiring prolonged confinement to bed. A. -bladder. See A.-vesicles. A. -cell, an air-sac; an air- vesicle of the lung. A., Complemental, the amount of air that can still be inhaled after an ordinary inspiration. A. Conduc- tion, a method of testing the hearing-power by means of a watch held at varying distances from the ear, or by the employment of a number of tuning-forks of varying pitch. A.- cure, the therapeutic employment of air. A.- cushion, a cushion filled with air, and usually made of soft india-rubber. A., Dephlogisti- cated, an old name for oxygen. A. -douche, the inflation of the middle ear through the nose. A. -embolism, the entrance of free air into the blood-vessels during life. A., Expired, that driven from the lungs in ex- piration. A., Factitious, carbon dioxid. A., Fixed, an old name for carbon dioxid. A., Hepatic, hydrogen sulfid. A., Inspired, that taken into the lungs on inspiration. A., Mephitic, carbon dioxid. A. -passages, the nares, mouth, larynx, trachea, and bron- chial tubes. A.-pump, an apparatus for ex- hausting or compressing air. A., Reserve, A., Supplemental, the air that can still be exhaled after an ordinary expiration. A., Residual, that remaining in the lungs after the most complete expiration possible. A.- sac. See A.-vesicles. A., Solid, of Hales, carbon dioxid; so called because of its property of forming solid carbonates with metallic oxids. A., Stationary, that remain- ing in the lungs during normal respiration. A., Supplemental'. See A., Reserve. A.- tester, an instrument for testing the purity of the air. A. , Tidal, that taken in and given out at each respiration. A.-vesicles, the alveoli of the lung, the ultimate division of the air- passages. A., Vital, an old name for oxygen. Air-break Wheel, Air-breaking Wheel. An arrangement by means of which the sparks AKANTHION 36 ALBICANS may be promptly extinguished when using a no-volt continuous current to excite a coil; the spark formed at the contact-brushes when the coil is energized is blown out in- stantaneously by the air-blast.
  • Akatamathesia (ah-kat-am-ath-e' -ze-ah) [d, priv.; Kazafxad-qacc, understanding]. Inabil- ity to understand.
  • Akathisia (ah-kath-e' -ze-ah) [a, priv.; Kad'c^cv, to be seated]. A name given by Lad Has- kovec to a form of rhythmic chorea in which the patient is unable to remain seated; the affection resembles astasia-abasia.
  • Akinesia, Akinesis (ah-k'n-e'-se-ah, ah-kin-e'- sis) [a, priv.; Kivqocc;, motion]. Lack of or imperfect motion; motor paralysis. A. al- gera, an affection characterized by abstinence from voluntary movement on account of pain, which any active muscular effort causes. The condition is probably a form of neurasthenia. A., Crossed, a motor paralysis on the side opposite that in which the lesion exists. A., Reflex, impairment or loss of reflex action.
  • Akinetic (ah-ki-nef -ik) [akinesia]. Relating to or affected with akinesia.
  • Akromegaly, Akromegalia (ak-ro-meg' -a-le, ak-ro-me-ga' -le-aK) [aKpov, extremity; jxsjalr), large]. A disease characterized by an over- growth of the extremities and of the face, including the bony as well as the soft parts. The etiology is unknown. In a number of cases the pituitary body has been enlarged; disease of the thyroid gland has also been found in some instances. Al. i. The Arabic definite article the, pre- fixed to many words to designate preemi- nence, etc., as alkali, alcohol. 2. A chemic suffix denoting similarity to or derivation from an aldehyd, as chlora/, butyra/, etc. 3. The symbol for aluminium.
  • Ala (a'-lah) [L., "a wing"]. 1. A wing. 2. The arm or shoulder; in animals, the shoulder- blade. A. alba lateralis, the nucleus of the glossopharyngeal nerve. A. alba medialis, the hypoglossal nucleus. A. auris, the pinna of the ear. A. cinerea, a triangular space of gray matter in the fourth ventricle of the brain, probably giving origin to the pneumo- gastric nerves. A. descendens, the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone. Alae later- ales. 1. The great wings of the sphenoid bone. 2. Wing -like processes on each side of the nasal spine of the frontal bone. Alas majores. 1. The greater wings of the sphe- noid. 2. The external labia pudendi. Alae minores. 1. The lesser wings of the sphe- noid. 2. The labia minora pudendi. A. nasi, the lateral cartilage of the nose. Alae parvae, the lesser wings of the sphenoid. A. pontis. See Ponticulus. Alae pulmonum, the lobes of the lung. A. of Sacrum, the flat, triangular surface of bone extending out- ward from the base of the sacrum, support- ing the psoas magnus muscle. A. uvulae, a medullary layer running from the posterior part of the uvula of the cerebellum to the amygdalas. A. vespertilionis, the broad ligament of the uterus. Alae vulvae, the labia of the pudendum.
  • Alalia (al-a' -le-ah) [a, priv.; XaXca, talk]. Im- pairment of articulation from paralysis of the muscles of speech or from local laryn- geal disease. A., Mental, a form observed in children, which consists in inability to speak through excessive stammering. Cf. Dys- lalia, Lalophobia, Mogilalia, Paralalia. A., Relative. Same as A., Mental.
  • Alangin, Alanginum (al-an'-jin, -urn). An amorphous principle from Alangium lamarkii, soluble in alcohol, in ether, and in chloro- form; it is used as a febrifuge and emetic.
  • Alanin (al' -an- in) [L., aldehyd], C 3 H 7 N0 2 . Lactamic acid. An organic base obtained by heating aldehyd ammonia with hydrocyanic acid in the presence of an excess of HO. It occurs in aggregated hard nodules with a sweetish taste. It is soluble in 5 parts of cold water; less soluble in alcohol; insoluble in ether.
  • Alantic (al-an'-tik) [Ger., Alant, elecampane]. Pertaining to or derived from elecampane. A. Anhydrid, C 15 H 20 O 2 , a crystalline sub- stance derived from the root of elecampane, melting at 66° C.
  • Alantin (al-an' -tin) . Same as Inulin.
  • Alantol (al-an' -tol), C 20 H 22 O. Inulol. An aromatic liquid obtained from elecampane; used in the same manner as creasote in pul- monary tuberculosis. Alar ia'-lar) [ala, a wing]. Wing-like. A. Ligaments, lateral synovial folds of the lig- ament of the knee-joint. A. Ligaments, Odontoid, lateral ligaments of the odontoid process. Alares [pi. of alaris]. 1. The pterygoid mus- cles. 2. The wings of the sphenoid.
  • Alaris (al-a'-ris) [ala, a wing]. Wing-shaped. See Alar.
  • Alate (a'-lat) [ala]. Winged.
  • Alatus (al-a' -ties). 1. Winged. 2. An indi- vidual in whom there is a marked back- ward projection of the scapulas. Albaras, Albarras [Ar.]. A skin disease char- acterized by the formation of white, shin- ing patches. Syn., White leprosy; Baras; B a.rras.
  • Albargin (al-bar' -jin) . A compound of silver (15 %) and gelatose (a transformation-product of glue). A yellow powder, freely soluble in water, used in treatment of gonorrhea in injec- tions of 0.2 % solution 4 or 5 times daily.
  • Albedo (al-be'-do) [L., "whiteness"]. White- ness. A. retinae, retinal edema. A. unguis, the lunula of the nail. Albert's Disease. Achillodynia; inflammation of the retrocalcanean bursa, generally secon- dary to osteitis of the os calcis.
  • Albescent (al-bes'-ent) [albescere, to become white]. Whitish.
  • Albicans (al' -be-kanz) [albicare, to grow white]. 1. One of the corpora albicantia of the brain. 2. White; whitish.
  • ALBICANTIA 37 ALBUMINOSE Albicantia (al-be-kan' 'she-ah) [L.]. Plural of Albicans (i). Albini's Nodules. Small nodules found on the free edge of the auriculoventricular valves in some infants.
  • Albinism, Albinismus (al'-bin-izm, al-bin-iz'- mus) [a lb us, white]. That condition of the skin in which there is a congenital absence of pigment involving its entire surface, in- cluding the hair and the choroid coats and irises of the eyes. It is usually associated with nystagmus, photophobia, and astigma- tism. Syn., Alphosis; Congenital achroma; Congenital leukoderma; Leukcethiopia; Achro- matosis; Leukopathia; Albitudo. A., Ac- quired, A. acquisita. See Vitiligo. A., Partial, congenital absence of pigmentation in certain parts of the skin, appearing in irregular, white, sharply defined spots. Espe- cially characteristic are the changes of color in the hair, often observed in negroes. The hairs are white and grow upon skin devoid of pigment, or normally colored. Syn., Po- liosis circumscripta.
  • Albino (al-bi'-no) [Sp.]. A person affected with albinism.
  • Albino tic (al-bin-ot'-ik). Affected with albinism.
  • Alboferrin (al-bo-fer'-in). An odorless, light- brown powder, readily soluble in cold water. It is said to consist of albumin, 90.14%; iron, 0.68%; phosphorus, 0.324%; amido- nitrogen, 0.13%; and mineral substances, 9.5 %. It is indicated in chlorosis, anemia, etc. Dose 15-45 gr. (1-3 Gm.) for children; 45 - 75 g r - (3 _ 5 Gm.) for adults, a day.
  • Albolene (al'-bo-len) [albus, white; oleum, oil]. A hydrocarbon oil, colorless, tasteless, odor- less, used as an application to inflamed sur- faces.
  • Albor (al'-bor) [albus]. 1. A whiteness. 2. Egg- albumen. 3. [Ar., al bill.] Urine. A. cutis, A. nativus, albinism. A. ovi, white of egg- Albuginea (al-bu-jin'-e-ah) [albus]. 1. White or whitish. 2. A layer of white fibrous tissue investing an organ or part. Syn., Tunica albuginea. A. oculi, the sclerotic coat of the eye. A. ovarii, the tunica albuginea of the ovary. A. testis, the tunica albuginea of the testicle.
  • Albukalin (al-bu' -kal-in) , C 8 H 17 N 2 6 . A sub- stance found in leukemic blood.
  • Albumen (al-bu' -men) [albus]. The white of an egg. See Albumin.
  • Albumimeter (al-bu-mim' -et-er) [albumin; fiir- pov, a measure]. An instrument for the quan- titative estimation of albumin in urine.
  • Albumin (al-bu'-min) [albus, white]. A pro- teid substance, the chief constituent of the animal tissues. Its molecule is highly com- plex. It is soluble in water and coagulable by heat. It contains the following elements: Carbon, 51.5 to 54.5; hydrogen, 6.9 to 7.3; nitrogen, 15.2 to 17.0; oxygen, 20.9 to 23.5; sulfur, 0.3 to 2.0. Its approximate formula is C 72 H 112 H 18 22 S. Albumen, white of egg, often called albumin, is largely composed of it. Other varieties are called after their sources or characteristic reactions, as acid- albumin, alkali-albumin, muscle-albumin, serum-albumin, ovum-albumin, vegetable- albumin, etc. Syn., Coagidable animal lymph; Coagulable lymph of the serum. See Axenfeld, Barral, Boedeker, Cohen, Furbringer, Heller, Heynsius, Hindenlang, Johnson, MacWilliam, Mehu, Millon, Oliver, Oxyphenylsulfonic Acid, Parnum, Raabe, Rees, Roberts, Spiegler, Tanret, Zouchlos. A., Blood-. See Serum-albumin. A., Caseiform, that variety not coagulated by heat, but precipitated by acids. A., Cir- culating, that found in the fluids of the body. A., Derived, a modification of albumin resulting from the action of cer- tain chemicals upon native albumin. A., Imperfect, one which fails to give all the ordinary reactions. A., Lacto-. See Lactal- bumin. A., Muscle-, a variety found in muscle-juice. A., Native, any albumin oc- curring normally in the tissues. A., Organic, that forming an integral part of the tissue. A., Serum-. See Serum -albumin. A., Vegetable, that found in various vegetable juices.
  • Albuminate (al-bu' -min-dt). A compound of albumin and certain bases, as albuminate of iron.
  • Albuminid (al-bu' -min-id) . Acidalbumin; syn- tonin.
  • Albuminif erous (al-bu-min-if '-er-us) [albumin ; jerre, to bear]. Yielding albumin. Albumimm.eter(al-bu-min-im' -et-er). See Albumimeter.
  • Albuminimetry (al-bu-min-im'-et-re). The quantitative estimation of the albumin in a liquid.
  • Albuminogenous (al-bu-min-oj' -en- us) [albumin; yzwav, to produce]. Producing albumin.
  • Albuminoid " (al-bu' -min-oid) [albu- min; ddoc, likeness]. 1. Resemb- ling albumin. Applied to certain compounds having many of the characteristics of albumin. 2. Any nitrogenous principle of the class of which normal albumin may be J_j regarded as the type. A. Disease. See Amyloid Degeneration.
  • Albuminone (al-bu' '-min-on) [albumin]. A principle derived from certain albuminoids; it is soluble in alcohol and is not coagulable by heat.
  • Albuminorrhea (al-bu-min-or-e' -ah) [albumin; po'ca, a flow]. Excessive discharge of albu- mins.
  • Albuminose (al-bu'-min -os) [albumin]. 1. A product of the digestion of fibrin or of any albuminoid in very dilute hydrochloric acid; Albumi- meter. ALBUMINOUS ALCOHOL acidalbumin. 2. Albumose, or one of the products of the digestion of albumin by the gastric juice.
  • Albuminous (al-bu' -min-us) [albumin]. Con- taining, or of the nature of, albumin.
  • Albuminuria (al-bu-min-u' -re-ah) [albumin; oupov, urine]. The presence in the urine of albumin, usually serum-albumin. Albumin in the urine may result from disease of the kidneys or from the admixture of blood or pus with the urine. Its presence is some- times not accounted for by either of these causes. See A., Cyclic. A. acetonica, albu- minuria due to asphyx a. Syn., Anoxemic albuminuria. A. of Adolescence. See A., Cyclic. A., Adventitious. See A., Pseudo-. A., Cardiac, that due to chronic valvular disease. A., Catarrhal, albuminuria due to distribution of or changes in the renal epi- thelium. A., Cicatricial, a form in which epithelial desquamation is assumed to be re- placed by tissue incapable of restraining the transudation of albumin from the blood. A., Colliquative, that due to great disassimila- tion of the blood-corpuscles or adipose tis- sue. A., Consumptive. See A., Colliqua- tive. A., Cyclic, a condition, also known as physiologic, simple, functional, or tran- sient albuminuria, or the albuminuria of adoles- cence, in which a small quantity of albumin appears in the urine, especially of the young, at stated times of the day; hence the term, "cyclic." The nature of this phenomenon is not positively known, but it is probably the result of some changes in the renal circula- tion. A., Dietetic, that due to the inges- tion of certain forms of food. A., Dys- trophic, that dependent upon imperfect for- mation of the blood-corpuscles. A., Emul- sion, that in which the urine has a milky turbidity due to minute corpuscular elements. A., Exudative, Gubler's name for albumin- uria partially due to the filtration of albumin through the membranes of the kidney and also to the presence in the urine of products of inflammation, as in cases of nephritis. A., False, a mixture of albumin with the urine during its transit through the urinary pass- ages, where it may be derived from blood, pus, or special secretions that contain albu- min. A., Febrile, that due to fever, or as- sociated with acute infectious diseases, slight changes occurring in the glomerules without organic lesion. A., Functional. See A., Cyclic. A., Globular, that due to destruc- tion of blood-corpuscles or dependent upon the presence of blood in the urine. A., Gouty, albumin in the urine of elderly per- sons, who secrete a rather dense urine con- taining an excess of urea. A., Intrinsic. See A., True. A., Mixed, the presence of a true with a pseudo-albuminuria. A., Nephrogenous, that due to renal disease. A., Orthostatic, a form dependent upon an upright posture. A., Partial, a form in which it is assumed that only certain tubules are affected. Syn., Albuminuria parcellaire. A., Physiologic, the presence of albumin in normal urine, without appreciable coexisting renal lesion or diseased condition of the system. A., Pretuberculous, a condition observed in young persons as a premonitory stage of tuberculosis, believed to be due to the congestive action of the tuberculous virus upon the renal structure. A., Pseudo-, al- buminuria dependent upon the presence of such fluids as blood, pus, lymph, spermatic fluid, or the contents of an abscess cavity, in the urine. Syn., Adventitious albuminuria. A., Residual, a form in which a small amount of albumin may persist following an attack of nephritis. A., True, that due to the excretion of a portion of the albuminous constituents of the blood with the water and salts of the urine. Syn., Intrinsic albuminuria.
  • Albuminuric (al-bu-min-u' -rik) [see Albumin- uria]. Associated with, of the nature of, or affected by, albuminuria.
  • Albumoscope (al-bu' -mo-skdp) [albumin; oko- 7ze~cv, to examine]. An appliance for de- termining the presence and amount of al- bumin in urine.
  • Albumose (al'-bu-mos) [albumin]. Any albu- minoid substance ranking among the first products of the splitting-up of proteids by enzyms, and intermediate between the food- albumins and the typical peptones. Accord- ing to Kuhne, there are at least two albu- moses, antialbumose and hernia Ibumose. Hemi- albumose yields the following: Protalbumose, deuteroalbumose, heteroalbumose, and dysalbu- mose. Albumosuria ial-bu-mos-u' -re-dK) [albumose; oupov, urine]. The presence of albumose in the urine. A., Bence-Jones'. See A., Myelopathic. A., Myelopathic, a condition marked by persistent occurrence of albumose in the urine, accompanied by softening of the bones, owing to multiple myelomas.
  • Alcarnose (al-kar'-noz). A nutrient prepara- tion containing maltose combined with al- bumoses.
  • Alchemy (al'-kem-e) [Ar., of doubtful deri- vation]. The supposed art of the transmu- tation of metals (into gold) and of finding a remedy for all diseases. Alcock's Canal. A canal formed by the sepa- ration of the layers of the obturator fascia for the transmission of the pudic nerve and vessels.
  • Alcogel (al'-ko-jet). A jelly-like combination of alcohol and silicic acid.
  • Alcohol (al'-ko-hol) [Ar., al-koh'l, the fine powder for staining eyelids]. 1. Any com- pound of "an organic hydrocarbon radicle with hydroxyl. Alcohols are classed as monacid (monatomic), diacid(diatomic), and triacid (triatomic), according to the number of hydroxyl radicles present in the mole- cules. 2. Ethyl-alcohol, C 2 H e O. A liquid obtained by the distillation of fermented grain or starchy substance. It is inflamma- ble, colorless, and possesses a pungent odor and burning taste. Internally, it is a cerebral ALCOHOLATE 39 ALDEHYD excitant and cardiac stimulant; in large doses a depressant, narcotic poison, producing mus- cular incoordination, delirium, and coma. It exists in wine, whisky, brandy, beer, etc., and gives to them their stimulant properties.
  • Commercial alcohol contains 92.3 % of abso- lute alcohol with 7.7 % of water. It is valua- ble as a cardiac stimulant in acute failure of the heart's action and in adynamic con- ditions. A., Absolute (alcohol absolutum, U. S. P.), ethyl-alcohol deprived of water. A., Benzyl, CyH^O, obtained from benzaldehyd by the action of sodium amalgam. A., Caustic, sodium ethylate. A., Chlor ethyl, C 2 H 5 OCl, a substitution-product of ethyl-alcohol in which 1 atom of hydrogen is replaced by r atom of chlorin. A., Cinnamic, A., Cinnamyl, A., Cinnamylic, C 3 H 10 O, yellowish needles or crystalline masses ob- tained from the distillation of styracin. It is soluble in alcohol, ether, water, glycerol, and benzin; melts at S° ~33° C.; boils at 250 C. It is antiseptic and is a deodorizer in a 12.5 % glycerol solution. Syn., Styrilic alcohol; Crystallized styrone. A. deodora- tum, ethyl-alcohol from which odorous and coloring-matters have been removed by fil- tration through charcoal. A., Dilute (alcohol dilution, U. S. P.) contains 41.5 %, bv weight, of alcohol. A., Ethyl-. See Alcohol (2). A., Fatty, one obtained from a hydrocarbon of the fatty series. A., Iso-, an alcohol derived from a hydrocarbon containing carbon atoms which unite directly with more than two other carbon atoms. A., Methyl-, CH 4 0, commonly known as " wood spirit." A., Phenic. Same as Phenol. A., Primary, A., Secondary, A., Tertiary, an alco- hol produced by. the replacement of r, 2, or 3 hydrogen atoms in carbinol by alky Is. A., Unsaturated, that derived from the un- saturated alkylens in the same manner as the normal alcohols are obtained from their hydrocarbons. In addition to the general character of alcohols, they are also capable of directlv binding two additional affinities. A., Wood-. See A., Methyl-.
  • Alcoholate (al' -ko-hol-at) . 1. A chemic com- pound, as a salt, into which an alcohol enters as a definite constituent. 2. A preparation made with alcohol.
  • Alcoholature (al-ko-hoV '-at-chur) [Fr., alcoola- ture]. An alcoholic tincture. Alcoholic Radicle. The name applied to the hydrocarbon radicle that unites with hydro- gen and oxygen to form an alcohol.
  • Alcoholica (al-ko-hoV -ik-ah) . In pharmacy, alcoholic preparations. • Alcoholimeter (al-ko-hol-im'-et-er). See Alco- holometer.
  • Alcoholism (aV-ko-hol-izm). The morbid re- sults of excessive or prolonged use of alcoholic liquors. The term acute alcoholism has been used as a synonym for inebriety. The chronic form is associated with severe disturbances of the digestive and nervous systems.
  • Alcoholization (al-ko-hol-iz-a* '-shun). The art or process of alcoholizing; the state of being alcoholized; the product of the process of alcoholizing.
  • Alcoholize (aV -ko-hol-iz) . 1. To impregnate with alcohol. 2. To convert into an alco- hol.
  • Alcoholometer (al-ko-hol-om' '-et-er) [alcohol; ftirpov, a measure]. A hydrometer or other instrument used in determining the percent- age of alcohol in any liquid.
  • Alcoholophilia (al-ko'-hol-o-fil'-e-ah) [alcohol; ocXi'cv, to love]. The appetite for strong drink; a craving for intoxicants.
  • Alcometric (al-ko-met'-rik). Relating to the estimation of the amount of alcohol in a liquid.
  • Aldehyd (al'-de-htd) [al, the first syllable of alcohol; dehyd, from dehydratus]. 1. A class of compounds intermediate between alcohols and acids, derived from their corresponding primary alcohols by the oxidation and re- moval of 2 atoms of hydrogen, and converted into acids by the addition of an atom of oxygen. They contain the group COH. 2. CJH/D. Alcohol deprived of 2 atoms of hy- drogen, or acetic aldehyd. It is a colorless, limpid liquid with a characteristic odor. A.- alcoholate, C 4 H 10 O 2 an addition compound of acetic acid and ethyl-alcohol. A. -am- monia, C 2 H 4 ONH 3 , obtained from aldehyd by action of dry ammonia; soluble in water, slightly soluble in ether. It was found by Dobereiner, and named by Liebig. Syn., Ammoniated ethylic aldehyd; Aceiylammon- inm; Ammonium aldehydate; Ethidene hydra- min. A., Anisic, C,H s 2 , results on oxidiz- ing various essential oils (anise, fennel, etc.) with dilute HNO s . A., Aromatic, an alde- hyd obtained as an oxidation-product of a primary aromatic alcohol and in turn giving rise by oxidation to a monobasic aromatic acid. 'A., Benzoic, C 7 H 6 0, the oil of bitter almonds. Syn., Benzaldehyd. A. Character- istic, the univalent radicle, C(H) = O, com- mon to the aldehyds. A., Cinnamic, C 9 H 8 0, the chief ingredient of the essential oil of cin- namon and cassia. A., Collidin, A., Col- linic, an oxidation-product of albuminoids and gelatin; a colorless, viscid oil with odor like oil of cinnamon. A. , Formic, CH 2 or HCHO is microbicidal and antiseptic. Svn., Formal- dehyd. A.,Glycolyl, CH 2 (OH)\ CHO, an oxidation-product of tartaric acid when di- gested with water -6o° C. A., Iso- butylic, A., Isobutyryl, C 4 H s O, a transpar- ent, colorless, highly refractive, pungent liquid; sp. gr., 0.797 at 15 C; soluble in alcohol; boils at 6i°C. A., fsovaleral, A., Isovaleric, C 5 H 10 O, a pungent, oily liquid, with an odor of apples, obtained from oxidation of amyl- alcohol; sp. gr., 0.804 at 15 C; miscible in alcohol and ether; boils at 92. 5 C. A., Pyroracemic, CH 3 . CO . CHO, a yellow volatile oil obtained by boiling isonitroso- acetone with dilute sulfuric acid. Syn., Acetylformyl; Methylglyoxal; Propanalon. A., Thio-, an aldehyd in which the oxygen in the aldehyd characteristic is ALDEHYDASE 40 ALGOGENIC replaced by sulfur. A., Toluic, A., Tol- uylic, C 8 H g O, a substance occurring in 3 isomeric forms, all of which are liquids.
  • Aldehydase (al-de-hi'-daz). An oxydase occur- ring in the liver, capable of oxidizing sal- icylic aldehyd to the corresponding acid and supposed to be closely concerned in the func- tions of that organ.
  • Aldin (al'-din) [see Aldehyd]. An amorphous basic chemic substance, formed from an ammonia compound of aldehyd. Several al- dins are known.
  • Ale (al) [AS., ealu]. An alcoholic beverage brewed from malt and hops. It contains from 3 to 7 % of alcohol. Alecithal iah-les' -ith-at) [a, priv.; XencQoc, yolk]. A term applied to certain ovums having the food-yolk absent, or present only in very small quantity.
  • Aleipsis (al-ip'-sis) [aXeapcg, an anointing]. Steatosis; fatty degeneration.
  • Alembic (al-em'-bik) [Ar., al, the; a/z/?^, a cup]. A vessel used for distillation.
  • Alembroth (al-em' -broth) [origin unknown]. An old name for a compound of the chlorids of ammonium and mercury. Its solution has been used as an antiseptic. Aleppo Boil, A. Button, A. Evil, A. Pustule, A. Ulcer. See Furunculus orientalis.
  • Alepton P (al-ep' -ton) . Colloidal ferroman- ganese peptonate. Alepton S. Colloidal ferromanganese saccha- rate.
  • Aletris (al'-et-ris). Star-grass; unicorn-root; starwort; colic root. The root of A. far- inosa. It is tonic, diuretic, and anthelmin- tic, and was formerly a popular domestic remedy in colic, dropsy, and chronic rheuma- tism. Dose of fluidextract 10-30 min. (0.65- 2.0 Cc); of tincture (1 in 8 proof spirit) 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc); of aletrin, the extractive, \-\ gr. (0.016-0.26 Gm.).
  • Aleukemia (ah-lu-ke' -me-ah) [a, priv.; Xsukoc, white; alp.a, blood]. Deficiency in the pro- portion of white cells in the blood.
  • Aleukocytosis (ah-lu-ko-si-to f -sis) [a, priv.; Xsukoc, white; kotoc, cell]. A diminished or insufficient formation of leukocytes.
  • Aleurometer (al-u-rom! -et-er) [aleuron; jnerpov, a measure]. An instrument used for the examination of crude gluten as to its power of distending under the influence of heat, as a means of judging of the value of a flour for bread-making.
  • Aleuron (al-u'-ron) [aXeopov, flour]. 1. Wheat flour. 2. Small, round proteid particles found in seeds.
  • Aleuronat (al-u'-ro-nat) [aleuron]. A vegetable albumin used as a substitute for bread in cases of diabetes.
  • Aleuroscope (al-u'-ro-skop). See Aleurometer. Alexander's Operation. A shortening of the uterine round ligaments through an inguinal incision, to cure retrodisplacement.
  • Alexeterium (al-eks-e-te' -re-um) [dh^rjzrjp, a. defender]. An external defensive remedy against poison or infection, as distinguished from alexipharmac, an internal remedy. The plural alexeteria was formerly used to desig- nate remedies in general, but applied later to those used against the poisonous bites of animals.
  • Alexia (ah-leks' '-e-ah) [a, priv.; Xe£tc, word]. Word -blindness. A form of aphasia in which the patient is unable to recognize written or printed characters. A., Cortical, a variety of Wernicke's sensory aphasia produced by lesions of the left gyrus angularis. A., Motor, inability to read aloud what is writ- ten or printed, although it is comprehended. A., Musical, loss of the ability to read music. A., Optic, inability to comprehend written or printed words. A., Subcortical, that due to interruption of the direct con- nection between the optic center and the gyrus angularis.
  • Alexin (al-eks'-in) [aXe£cc, help]. A defensive proteid existing normally in the blood.
  • Alexipharmac, Alexipharmic (al-eks-e-far'- mak, -mik) [dXk^ecv, to repel; (fiapjiaKov. a poison]. 1. A medicine neutralizing a poison. 2. Acting as an internal antidote.
  • Alexipharmacon (al-eks-e-jar'-mak-on) [see Alexipharmac]. Any alexipharmac medi- cine. Alexiterium ial-eks-it-e' -re-um) See Alex- eterium.
  • Alexocyte (al-eks' '-o-sit) [aXk^eiv, to ward off; kotoc, a cell]. Hankin's name for an am- phophil leukocyte.
  • Alga (al'-ga) [alga, a seaweed ;-*pl., algce]. A sea- weed; one of a group of acotyledonous plants living mostly in the water.
  • Algaroth (al'-gar-oth). Antimony oxychlorid.
  • Algesia (al-je' '-ze-ah) [aXyrjocc, pain]. 1. Pain; suffering. 2. Hyperesthesia as regards the sensation of pain; also neuralgia.
  • Algesimeter (al-jes-im' -et-er) [algesia, pain; fiirpov, a measure]. An instrument for de- termining the acuteness of the sense of pain. A., Bjornstrom's, one to test the sensibility of the skin. A., Boas', an instrument con- sisting of a pad and spring, used to determine the relative sensitiveness over the epigas- trium. The normal tolerance is 9 to 10 kilo- grams; in cases of gastric ulcer, 1 to 2 kilo- grams.
  • Algesthesis (al-jes-the' -sis) [aX^yoc, pain; a'ta- Otjgcc, feeling]. The perception of pain; pain- ful disease.
  • Algid (al'-jid) [algidus, cold]. Cold; chilly. A. Cholera, the cold stage of Asiatic cholera. A. Fever, a pernicious intermittent fever, with great coldness of the surface of the body. A. State, the cold stage of a dis- ease.
  • Algidism, Algidity (al'-jid-izm, al-jid'-it-e) [see Algid]. A marked sense of coldness; chilliness. A., Progressive. See Sclerema neonatorum.
  • Algiomotor (al-je-o-mo' '-tor) [dXyoc, pain; movere, to move]. Causing movements attended with pain.
  • Algogenic (al-go-jen' '-ik) [algos; yzwav, to ALGOLAGNIA 41 ALIMENTATION produce]. i. Causing neuralgic pain. 2. [algidus, cold; yevvdv, to produce.] Lowering the body-temperature below the normal.
  • Algolagnia (al-go-lag'-ne-ah) [algos; Xayve'ca, venery]. Sexual perversion in which pain en- joined or endured plays a part.
  • Algometer (al-gom' -et-er) [algos; fihpov, a meas- ure]. An instrument for testing the sensibility of a part to pain.
  • Algor (al'-gor) [L.]. A sense of chilliness or coldness. Alibert's Disease. Mycosis fun- goides. A.'s Keloid, true keloid.
  • Alible (al'-i-bl) [alibilis, nutritive]. Nutritive; absorbable and as- similable.
  • Ali cyclic (al-i-si' -klik) [aXeccfxip, fat; kukXoc, a circle] . Pertaining to any hydroaromatic derivative having a ring-formation, carbocyclic, but approaching the aliphatic deriva- tives in chemic behavior. Syn., A liphatic-cyclic.
  • Alienatio (al-yen-a'-she-o). See Alienation. A. partis, gangrene.
  • Alienation (dl-yen-a'-sh un) [alienus, strange]. Mental derangement.
  • Alienist (a/' -yen-ist) [see Alien- ation]. One who treats mental diseases.
  • Aliform (al'-if-orm) [a la, wing; forma, shape]. Wing-shaped. A. Process, the wing of the sphe- noid.
  • Alima (al-i'-mah) [aXqioc, without hunger]. Alimentary substances.
  • Aliment (al'-im-ent) [alimentum, from alimentare, to nourish]. Nourishment; food. A., Acces- sory, A., Adjective, a condiment. A., Substantive, a food with nutritive value as distinguished from a condiment.
  • Alimentary (al-im-en' -ta-re) [see Aliment]. Nourishing. A. Bolus, the food after mastication and just prior to swallowing. A. Canal, A. Duct, A. System, A. Tract, A. Tube, the digestive tube, from the lips to the anus, with its accessory glands.
  • Alimentation (al-im-en-ta' 'shun) [alimentare, to nourish]. The act of supplying with food. A., Rectal, the nourishing of a patient by the administration of small quantities of concentrated food through the rectum. There are many formulas for these nutritive enemas, the most important of which are the follow- ing: 1. Leake's Pancreatic-meat Emulsion. — "For rectal alimentation: chop 5 oz. of finely scraped meat still finer, add to it 1^ oz. of finely chopped pancreas free from fat, and then 3 oz. of lukewarm water; stir to the consistence of a thick pulp. Give at one time, care being taken to wash out the rectum with water about an hour before." 2. Mayefs Formula.— "Fresh ox-pancreas, 150 to 200 Gm.; lean meat, 400 to 500 Gm. Bruise the pancreas in a mortar with water at a temperature of 37° C., and strain through a cloth. Chop the meat and mix thoroughly with the strained fluid, after separating all the fat and tendinous portions. Add the yolk of one egg; let stand for 2 hours, and administer at the same temperature, after having cleansed the rectum with an injection - \Salivary Gland Spleen Vermiform Appendix General Scheme of the Digestive Tract, With the Glands Opening into it, Together With the Lacteals Arising from the Intestine and Joining the Thoracic Duct. — (Lan- dois.) of oil. This quantity is sufficient for 24 hours' nourishment, and should be adminis- tered in 2 doses." 3. Rcnnie's Formula. — "Add to a bowl of good beef -tea one-half pound of lean, raw beefsteak pulled into shreds. At 99° F. add 1 dr. of fresh pepsin and § dr. of dilute HC1. Place the mixture before the fire and let it remain for 4 hours, stirring frequently. The heat must not be too great, or the artificial digestive process will be stopped altogether. It is better to have the mixture too cold than too hot. If alcohol is to be given, it should be added at the last moment. Eggs may also be added, but should be previously well beaten." 4. Feaslee's Formula. — "Crush or grind a AL1NASAL 42 ALKAPTONURIA pound of beef -muscle fine; then add i pint of cold water; allow it to macerate 40 min- utes, and then gradually raise it to the boil- ing-point; allow it to boil 2 minutes — no more — and then strain." 5. Flint's Mixture.
  • Aliphatic (al-e-fat'-ik) [aXec(f>ap, fat]. Fatty. A. Acid. See Acid, Fatty. A.-cyclic. See Alicyclic.
  • Aliquot (al-i'-kwot) [aliquot, several]. A part of a number or quantity which will measure it without a remainder, as 4 is an aliquot of 12.
  • Alisphenoid (al-is-fe' -noid) [ala, a wing; sphenoid]. 1. Pertaining to the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. 2. The bone that in adult life forms the main portion of the greater wing of the sphenoid.
  • f OTT Alizaramid (al-iz-ar' -am-id), C u H 6 2 < NH . A brown, crystalline substance obtained from boiling a dilute solution of alizarin in am- monia. Syn., Amidoanthraquinon.
  • Alizarimid (al-iz-ar' -im-id), C u H 7 N0 2 . A vio- let-red substance obtained from v flocculent precipitated alizarin by action of ammonia with heat; it becomes nearly black on dry- ing. Syn., Alizarein.
  • Alizarin (al-iz-a'-rin) [Ar., al, the; 'agar ah, to extract], C u H 8 4 . The red coloring prin- ciple occurring in Rubia tinctorum and in anthracene. It occurs in red, prismatic crystals, readily soluble in ether and alcohol. The alizarins form a group of the anthracene colors. A. -blue, a crystalline blue coloring-matter formed by heating nitroalizarin in combination with H 2 S0 4 and glycerol.
  • Alkadermic (al-ka-der'-mik) [alkali; dipp.a, skin]. Pertaining to or containing an alka- loid used in subcutaneous injection.
  • Alkalescence (al-ka-les'-ens) [Ar., al-qaliy, soda- ash]. Slight or commencing alkalinity.
  • Alkalescent (al-ka-les' '-ent) [see Alkalescence]. Somewhat alkaline.
  • Alkali (al'-ka-ll) [see Alkalescence]. The term includes the hydrated oxids of the al- kali metals; these are electropositive, are strong bases, uniting with acids to form salts, turn red litmus blue, and saponify fats. A. -albumin, a derived albumin; a proteid that has been acted upon by dilute alkalis and yields an alkaline reaction. A.- albuminate, a soluble powder used as a culture-medium in bacteriology. A., Caus- tic, the solid hydroxid of potassium or sodium. A., Fixed, potassium or sodium hydrate. A. Metals, sodium, potassium, lithium, cesium, and rubidium. A., Or- ganic, one forming an essential constituent of an organism. A., Vegetal, potash; also applied to the alkaloids. A., Volatile, am- monium hydrate, which is decomposed by heat with the evolution of ammonia; also ammonium carbonate.
  • Alkalimeter (al-ka-lim' -et-er) [alkali; fxhpov, a .measure]. An instrument for estimating the alkali in a substance.
  • Alkalimetry (al-ka-lim' -et-re) [see Alkalimeter]. The measurement of the amount of an alkali in a substance.
  • Alkaline (al'-ka-lln) [alkali]. Having the qual- ities of or pertaining to an alkali. A. Earths, the oxids of calcium, barium, strontium, and magnesium.
  • Alkalinity (al-ka-lin'-i-le) [alkali]. The quality of being alkaline.
  • Alkalinuria (al-ka-lin-u' -re-ah) [alkali; oupov, urine]. Alkalinity of the urine.
  • Alkalithia (al-ka-lith'-e-ah). An effervescent preparation used in rheumatism, said to con- tain 1 gr. (0.065 Gm.) caffein, 5 gr. (0.32 Gm.) lithium bicarbonate, 10 gr. (0.65 Gm.) sodium bicarbonate, in each heaping tea- spoonful. Dose 1 heaped teaspoonful 3 times daily in a large glass of water.
  • Alkalization (al-ka-li-za'-shun) [alkali]. The act of rendering a thing alkaline; the state or quality of being rendered alkaline.
  • Alkaloid (al'-ka-loid) [alkali; eldoc, likeness]. Any one of the nitrogenous compounds oc- curring in plants, and resembling ammonia in being basic and capable of forming salts with acids. Alkaloids are believed to be sub- stituted ammonias. Several of the important ones are related to piperidin and to quinolin. Alkaloids are, as a rule, the most active parts of plants; many are used in medicine. A. s, Animal, substances chemic- ally like alkaloids, formed in the decom- position of animal tissues. See Leukomain. A., Artificial, one produced synthetically. A., Cadaveric, A., Putrefactive. See P to- main. A., Glucosid, a substance which ex- hibits the characteristics of an alkaloid, but is capable of decomposition into sugar and another substance when acted upon by dilute acid.
  • Alkanet (al'-kan-et) [Sp., dim. of alcana, henna]. The root of the herb, Alkanna (Anchusa) tinctoria, yielding a red dye that is used in staining wood, coloring adulterated wines, and in pharmacy to give a red color to salves, etc.
  • Alkanin (al'-kan-in). See Alkannin. Alkanna-red. See Alkannin.
  • Alkannin (al'-kan-in) [see Alkanet]. Alkanna- red; a valuable coloring-matter obtained from alkanet.
  • Alkapton (al-kap' -ton) . A yellowish, resinous, nitrogenous body occasionally found in urine.
  • Alkaptonuria (al-kap-ton-u' -re-ah) [alkapton; obpov, urine]. The presence of alkapton in the urine. It has been found in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis and in other instances in which there were no local lesions or general disease. Urine containing alkapton turns dark on standing or on the addition of an alkali.
  • Alkarsin (al-kar' -sin) [alcohol; arsenic]. "Ca- det's fuming liquid"; an extremely poison- ous liquid containing cacodyl. It is of a brown color, and on exposure to the air ignites spontaneously.
  • Alkeins (aV '-ke-inz) . A collective name for the ethers formed from the alkines.
  • Alkine (al'-kin) . Any member of the acetylene series of hydrocarbons. Syn., Alkamin.
  • Alkyl (al'-kil) [alkali]. The name applied to any of the univalent alcohol radicles, CnH^+i; methyl, ethyl, etc., are alkyls. A.-sulfids, thioethers; sulfur analogs of the ethers. They are colorless liquids, generally insoluble in water, and possessing a disagreeable odor resembling that of garlic.
  • Alkylamin (al-MV '-am-in) . A body having the constitution of ammonia in which an alkyl replaces hydrogen; i, 2, or 3 hydrogen atoms of the ammonia molecule may suffer this replacement, thus yielding primary or mon- alkylamins, having the general formula NH 2 - (C n H 2n -)- 1 ); secondary or dialkylamins, having the general formula NH(C n H 2n+1 ) (CpH^+j); and tertiary or trialkylamins, of the general formula N(C n H 2n + 1 ) (CpH^+j) (C q H^+j)- Alkylate (al f -kil-at) . A compound derived from a monatomic alcohol by replacement of the hydroxyl hydrogen by a metal.
  • Alkylation (al-kil-a' -shun) . The exchange of hydroxy lie hydrogen atoms for methyl groups.
  • Allachesthesia (al-ah-kes-the' -ze-ah) [dXXax^, in another place; aZodyotc, sensation]. Er- roneous localization of tactile impressions, differing from allocheiria in the respect that the sensation is felt on the same side of the body, but in a different place from that in which the irritation occurs.
  • Allantiasis (al-an-ti' -as-is) [dXX&c, a sausage]. Sausage-poisoning, due to the ingestion of sausages in which putrefactive changes have taken place.
  • Allantoic (al - an - to' - ik) [dXXdg, a sausage; eldoc, resemblance]. Pertaining to the al- lantois.
  • Allantoid (al-an' -toid) [see Allantoic]. 1. Re- sembling a sausage. 2. Relating to the allan- tois. A. Liquid. See Liquor amnii spu- rius.
  • Allantoides (al-an-to-i'-dez). 1. Allantoid. 2. A sausage. 3. The great toe. 4. The al- lantois.
  • Allantoin (al-an' -to-in) [see Allantoic], C 4 H 6 - N 4 3 . A crystalline substance occurring in traces in normal urine, and prepared from uric acid by oxidation. Also the characteristic constituent of the allantoic fluid, and likewise found in fetal urine and amniotic fluid.
  • Allantois (al-an' -to-is) [see Allantoic]. One of the fetal membranes derived from the meso- blastic and hypoblastic layers. Its function is to convey the blood-vessels to the chorion. The lower part finally becomes the bladder, the upper, the urachus.
  • Allantotoxicon (al-an-to-toks' -ik-on) [dXXac, a sausage; to^ckov, a poison]. A poisonous substance, probably a ptomain, that develops during the putrefactive fermentation of sau- sage.
  • Allen's (Charles W.) Iodin Test. See under Tinea versicolor. Allen's Reaction for Phenol. Add to one or two drops of the liquid to be tested a few drops of hydrochloric acid and then one drop of nitric acid. A cherry-red coloration is produced.
  • Allene (al-en'), CH 2 =C=CH 2 . An isomer of allylene. Syn., fi-Allylene; Isoallylene.
  • Allesthesia (al-es-the' -ze-ah) [aXXoc, other; a'iad-qocc, feeling]. Synonym of Allocheiria.
  • Alleviator (al-e' -ve-a-tor) [allevare, to lighten]. A device for raising or lifting a sick person from the bed.
  • Alliaceous (al-e-a'-shus) [allium, garlic]. Resembling garlic, or pertaining to the same. Allingham's Painful Ulcer. Anal fissure. Allis' Sign. Relaxation of the fascia lata be- tween the iliac crest and the trochanter major is indicative of fracture of the neck of the femur.
  • Alliteration (al-it-er-a'-shun) [ad, to; liter a, letter]. A form of dysphrasia in which the patient arranges his words according to the sound.
  • Allium (al'-e-um) [L.]. Garlic. The undried bulb of A. sativum. It contains a pungent, volatile oil that is found also in the leek and the onion. In small amounts garlic acts as a con- diment and aids in the digestion and absorp- tion of food. In chronic bronchitis garlic ap- plied as a poultice to the chest and internally in boiled milk is beneficial. Poultices of gar- He applied to the spine are recommended in infantile convulsions and may be applied over the abdomen in gastrointestinal catarrh. A. cepa, the common onion, and A. porrum, the leek, have similar qualities. A., Syrup of {syrupus allii), contains fresh garlic, 20 Gm.; sugar, 80 Gm.; dilute acetic acid, a sufficient quantity to make 100 Cc. Dose 1-4 dr. (4- 16 Cc). Unof.
  • Allochroism (al-ok'-ro-izm) [aXXof, other; XP^- [ia, color]. 1 . Variation in color. 2. A change of color.
  • Allogotrophia (al-o-go-tro' -je-ah) [alios; xpkfatv, to nourish]. The nourishment of one part ALLOLALIA 44 ALLYL of the body at the expense of some other part.
  • Allolalia (al-o-la' -le-ah) [alios; XaXe7v,to speak]. Any perversion of the faculty of speech. See Alalia.
  • Allopathy (al-op' -a-the) [alios; naOoc, affec- tion]. According to Hahnemann, the in- ventor of the term, that method of the treat- ment of disease consisting in the use of medi- cines the action of which upon the body in health produces morbid phenomena different from those of the disease treated; erroneously used of the regular medical profession; op- posed to homeopathy.
  • Allorrhythmia (al-or-rith' '-me-ah) [alios; pod- p.bc, rhythm]. Variation in intervals of the pulse.
  • Allotherm (aV -o-therm) [alios; dip/mrj, heat]. An organism whose temperature is directly dependent on its culture-medium.
  • Allotoxin (al-o-toks' -in) [alios; to^ckov, poison]. Any substance, produced by tissue-metamor- phosis within the organism, that tends to shield the body by destroying microorganisms or toxins that are inimical to it.
  • Allotriodontia (al-ot-re-o-dori-she-ah) [dXXb- rpcoc, strange; odoug, tooth], i. The trans- planting of teeth from one person to another. 2. The existence of teeth in abnormal situa- tions, as in tumors.
  • Allotriogeustia (al-ot-re-o-gus' -te-ah) [allotrios; yeuocg, taste]. Perversion of the sense of taste; abnormity of the appetite.
  • Allotriophagy (al-ot-re-oft'-a-je) [allotrios; (frayew, to eat]. Depraved or unnatural appetite.
  • Allotropic (al-o-trop'-ik) [aXXoc, other; rpoTzog, turn], i. Characterized by allotropism. 2. Relating to or marked by isomerism.
  • Allotropism (al-ot'-rop-izm) [see Allotropic]. 1. The term expresses the fact of certain ele- ments existing in two or more conditions with differences of physical properties; thus, car- bon illustrates allotropism by existing in the forms of charcoal, plumbago, and the diamond. 2 . Appearance in an unusual or abnormal form.
  • Alloxamid (al-oks' -am-id) [alloxan; ammonia]. A substance, C 8 H 4 N 4 4 , obtained from al- loxan by the action of ammonia.
  • Alloxan (al-oks'-an) [allantoin; oxalic], C 4 H 2 - N 2 4 . A crystalline substance produced by the oxidation of uric acid.
  • Alloxantin (al-oks-an'-tin) [alloxan], C 8 H 4 N 4 7 + 3H 2 0. A substance obtained by reducing alloxan with SnCl 2 , zinc, and HC1, or H 2 S in the cold. It occurs in small, hard, color- less prisms that turn red when treated with ammonia.
  • Alloxin (al-oks' -in) [allantoin]. Any of a series of xanthin bases, the result of the splitting- up of chromatin, and which on oxidation produce uric acid.
  • Alloxur, Alloxuric (al-oks'-ur, al-oks-u'-rik) [aXXoc, other; o$uc, sharp]. A term applied by Kossel and Kriiger to the xanthin bases, from the fact that these, like uric acid, contain all- oxan and urea groups. A. Bases, A. Bodies, xanthin, hypoxanthin, guanin, paraxanthin, adenin.
  • Alloxuremia (al-oks-u-re' -me-ah) [alloxur; ure- mia]. Toxemia due to the resorption of the xanthin or alloxur bases. Alloxuria ial-oks-u' -re-ah) [alloxur; ohpov, urine]. The pathologic secretion of alloxur bodies (uric acid, xanthin, hypoxanthin, paraxanthin, adenin, carnin, etc.) in the urine.
  • Alloy (al-oi') [from the French aloi, a contrac- tion of a la lot]. 1 . A compound of two or more metals by fusion. 2. The least valuable of two or more metals that are fused together.
  • Allspice (awl'-spls). The fruit of Eugenia pi- menta. A., Carolina, the leaves of Caly can- thus -floridus, having the properties of an aro- matic stimulant. See Pimenta.
  • Alius (al'-us) [L.]. The great toe. A. pollex, the thumb.
  • Allyl (al'-il) [allium, garlic], C 3 H 5 . A univalent alcohol radicle. Syn., Allylum; A cry I. A. Acetate: 1. C 3 H 5 . C 2 H 3 0, an aromatic liquid with sharp taste, boiling at 103 - 104 C. 2. A salt of . allylacetic acid. A. Alcohol, C3H5HO. A colorless, inflammable liquid, with pungent odor, boiling at 97° C. A. Aldehyd, C 3 H 4 0. A synonym of Acro- lein. A. Borate, (C 3 H 5 ) 3 B0 3 , a liquid giving off pungent, irritating vapors which cause a flow of tears; it boils at i68°-i75° C. A. Bromid, C 3 H 5 Br, a liquid with pungent odor; sp. gr., 1.436 at 15 C; soluble in alcohol and ether; boils at 7o°-7i° C. Syn., Br omo propylene. A. Carbamin, CN . C 3 H 5 , a liquid obtained by heating allyl iodid with silver cyanid; it has an extremely foul and penetrating odor; boils at 96°-io6° C. Syn., Allyl cyanid; Allyl isocyanid. A. Carbimid, CO . NC 3 H 5 , a foul liquid causing flow of tears, formed by the action of potassium pseudocyanate upon allyl iodid. Syn., Allyl isocyanate; Allyl carboxylamin; Allyl pseudo- cyanate. A. Chlorid, C 3 H 5 C1, a pungent liquid; sp. gr., 0.937 at 20 C; boils at 45 C. Syn., Chlorotritylen. A. Cyanamid. See Sinamin. A. Dioxid, C 6 H 16 O s , a color- less liquid obtained from allyl alcohol by action of glycerol and oxalic acid; sp. gr., 1. 16 at 16 C; boils at I7i°-i72° C; sol- uble in water, alcohol, and chloroform. Syn., Diallyl oxid. A. Iodid, C 3 H 5 I, a pungent liquid; sp. gr., 1.848 at 12 C.; soluble in alcohol; boils at ioo°-io2° C. It is a re- action-product of phosphorus, iodin, and allyl alcohol. A. Mustard Oil, CS . N .- C 3 H 5 . The principal constituent of ordinary mustard oil. Syn., Allyl pseudosulfocyanate; Allyl pseudothiocyanate; Allyl isothiocyanate; Allyl isosulfocyanate ; Allyl thiocarbimid. A. Nitrate, C 3 H 5 . NO s , a mobile liquid of pungent odor, boiling at 106 C, formed from silver nitrate by action of allyl bromid. A. Phenol, C 9 H 10 O, a body obtained from anisic aldehyd by action of potash; it forms laminar crystals . A . Sulfate , C 3 H 5 HS 4 , a substance acting as a monobasic acid and forming salts called allyl sulfates. Syn., Allyl- ALLYLAMIN 45 ALOIN sulfuric acid; Allyl and hydrogen sulfate. A.
  • Sulfid, (C 3 H 5 ) 2 S, the essential oil of garlic. It is stomachic and sedative. Dose i table- spoonful of a i : 600 mixture every £ hour. It is also used as an enema in cholera and subcutaneously in 0.5 % solution in sterilized olive oil in tuberculosis. A. Thiocyanate, NC . SC 3 H 5 , a colorless, strongly refracting, oily liquid, with odor of garlic and hydro- cyanic acid, isomeric with allyl mustard oil and producing headache, nervous excitement, and nausea when inhaled. Syn., Artificial oil of mustard; Allyl sulfocyanid. A. Tri- bromid, C 3 H 5 Br 3 , a colorless liquid used as an antispasmodic. Dose 5 drops. Unof.
  • Allylamin (al-il'-am-iri) [allium; ammonia], NH 2 (C :i H 5 ). Ammonia in which a hydrogen atom is replaced by allyl. It is a caustic liquid.
  • Allylene (al'-il-en), CH 3 . C=CH. A gas with strong odor, taking fire readily and burning with a smoky flame; was first ob- tained by Markownikow by heating pro- pylene bromid with alcoholic potash. Syn., Propine; Methylacetylene. Almen's Reagent for Blood. A liquid con- taining blood or blood-coloring matters, if well shaken with a mixture of equal parts of tincture of guaiacum and oil of turpentine, becomes blue. A.'s Test for Glucose, heat the liquid with a solution of bismuth subnitrate dissolved in caustic soda and ro- chelle salts; if it contains glucose, the liquid becomes cloudy, dark brown, or nearly black in color, and finally a black deposit appears.
  • Almond (ah'-mond) [ME., almonde]. See Amygdala. A. -bread, a variety of bread made from almond flour, for use in diabetes as a substitute for ordinary bread. A.-eyed, applied to the Mongolian race on account of the peculiar elliptic form and slanting ap- pearance of the eyelids. A. of the Ear, A. of the Throat, the tonsil. A. Mixture. See under Amygdala. A. Oil, oleum amygdalae. See Amygdala. A. Oil, Bitter, oleum amyg- dalae amarae. See under A my gdala. A. -paste, a magma of bitter almonds, alcohol, white of egg, and rose-water, used to soften the skin and prevent the hands and lips from chapping.
  • Alnus (al'-nus) [L.]. 1. Alder-bark. 2. A genus of shrubs and trees of the order CupulifercB. A. glutinosa, common Euro- pean alder, has astringent bark and leaves, which are used in intermittent fever and as an application in wounds and ulcers. A. serrulata contains tannic acid. The decoc- tion of bark and leaves is astringent and used as a gargle and as a lotion for wounds and ulcers. Dose of powdered bark 10 gr. (0.65 Gm.); of the fluidextract 30-60 min. (2-4 Cc). A. incana has qualities similar to A. serrulata. It is recommended as a hemostatic.
  • Alochia (ah-lo r -ke-ah) [d, priv.; Xoxca, the lochia]. Absence of the lochia.
  • Aloe (al'-o). A genus of liliaceous plants. See Aloes. A, americana. See Agave. A,- resin, an amorphous resinous constituent of aloes obtained as a deposit from a hot aque- ous solution of aloes on cooling.
  • Aloes (al'-oz) [dkorj, the aloe]. The inspissated juice of several species of aloe, of which Aloe socotrina, A. barbadensis, and A. capen- sis are most commonly used. Its properties are due to a glucosid, aloin, C 17 H 18 7 . It is a tonic astringent, useful in amenorrhea, chronic constipation, and atonic dyspepsia. It is also an emmenagog and anthelmintic. Dose 2-5 gr. (0.13-0.32 Gm.). A. -bitter, a bitter principle obtained from aloes by evap- oration of the aqueous extract from which the aloe-resin has been extracted. A.-bitter, Artificial, a body obtained from aloes by action of nitric acid. A., Decoctum, Compo- situm (B. P.), Socotrine aloes, myrrh, and saff- ron, of each, 2 parts; potassium carbonate, 4 parts; licorice-juice, 24 parts; water, 768 parts; reduce by boiling to 642 parts and add 192 parts of compound tincture of cardamom. Dose ^-2 gr. (0.032-0.13 Gm.). A., Enema (B.P.), aloes, potassium carbon- ate, and mucilage of starch. A. et Asafcet- idae, Pilulag (B.P.), aloes and asafetida, of each, i£ gr. (0.1 Gm.). A. et Ferri, Pilulae (U. S. P., B. P.), contain 1 gr. (0.065 Gm.) each of aloes, ferrous sulfate, and aromatic • powder, incorporated with confection of roses. A. et Mastiches, Pilulae (U. S. P., B. P.), "Lady Webster's pills," contain aloes, 2 gr. (0.13 Gm.); mastic and red rose, h gr. (0.032 Gm.). A. et Myrrhae, Pilulae (U. S. P., B.
  • purificata (U. S. P.), the common drug pur- ified by solution in alcohol and evaporation. Dose 1-5 gr. (0.065-0.32 Gm.). A. Soco- trinae, Pilula (B. P.), contains Socotrine aloes, hard soap, oil of nutmeg, and confec- tion of roses. Dose 5-10 gr. (0.32-0.65 Gm.). A., Tinctura (U. S. P., B. P.), consists of aloes, 10; licorice, 10; dilute alcohol, 100 parts. Dose \-2 dr. (2-8 Cc). A., Vinum (B. P.), has aloes, 6; cardamom, 1; ginger, 1; white wine, 100 parts. Dose 1-4 dr. (4-16 Cc).
  • Aloetic (al-o-ef '-ik) [aloes]. Containing or per- taining to aloes.
  • Aloetin (al-o-e'-tin). 1. Aloe-resin. 2. A yellow, crystalline principle obtainable from aloes.
  • Aloin (al'-o-in) [aloes]. A bitter principle found in aloes. It forms fine needles, pos- sesses a very bitter taste, and acts as a strong purgative. Several glucosids of this name ALOPECIA 46 ALTERNATE are described, as, barbaloin, nataloin, zan- aloin, socaloin. Dose J-2 gr. (0.032-0.13 Gm.).
  • Alopecia (al-o-pe' -she-ah) [aXumen'ca, a disease of foxes resembling mange]. Deficient hair; baldness. It may be universal or partial, congenital or acquired. It follows a large number of systemic affections. Syn., Lapsus capillorum; Defluxio capillorum; Vulpis mor- bus. A. adnata. See A., Congenital. A. areata, that condition in which, suddenly or slowly, one or several, usually asymmetrically distributed, patches of baldness appear upon the hairy regions of the body, more often upon the scalp and parts covered by the beard. Syn., Area celsi; Tinea decalvans; Porrigo decalvans; Alopecia circumscripta. A., Cachectic, that due to general malnutri- tion. A. circumscripta. See A. areata. A., Congenital, a rare form, seldom com- plete, due to absence of hair-bulbs. A. fur- furacea, a form of baldness associated with a disorder of the scalp, marked by hyper- emia, itching, and exfoliation of dry or fatty scales from its surface. It may be acute or chronic, and produce a dryness, brittleness, and lack of luster in the hair. Syn., Alopecia pityroides capillitii; Pityriasis capitis; Sebor- rhoea capillitii ;• Pityriasis simplex. A. localis, that form occurring in one or more patches at the site of an injury or in the course of a nerve. Syn., Alopecia neuritica. A. neurotica, a name given to baldness of trophoneurotic origin. A. orbicularis. Same as A. circumscripta. A. pityroides capillitii. See A. furfuracea. A. pity- roides universalis, a rapid and general de- nudation of hair occurring in debilitated states, preceded by abundant desquamation of fatty scales. A. senilis, that occurring in old age. A. simplex, the idiopathic prema- ture baldness of young adults. It is most com- mon in males, and is often associated with premature grayness. A. syphilitica, that due to syphilis. A. unguis, A. unguium, the ' falling-off of the nails. Syn., Onychoptosis. A. universalis, that in which there is a general falling-out of the hairs of the body.
  • Aloxanthin (al-oks-an f -thin), Ci 5 H 10 O 6 . A yel- low substance obtained from barbaloin and socaloin by the action of potassium dichro- mate.
  • Alpenstich (alp'-en-stik) [Ger.]. A form of severe pleurisy or pleuropneumonia with ty- phoid symptoms peculiar to mountainous regions. It occurred as an epidemic in the Swiss Alps in 1771 and in North Germany in 1832.
  • Alpha (al'-fah) [aA(f>a, the first letter of the Greek alphabet]. The Greek letter a, used in combination with many chemic terms to indicate the first of a series of isomeric bodies, as alphanaphthol. A.-eigon, a com- pound of iodin and albumin containing 15 % of iodin and soluble in water. A. -leukocyte, one disintegrating during blood-coagulation.
  • Alphenols (al' -fe-nolz) . A class of compounds having the characteristics of both alcohols and phenols.
  • Alphodeopsoriasis (al-fo-de-o-so-ri 1 '-a-sis) [dX- cooTjc, leprous; copiaoc<;, psoriasis]. A form of psoriasis resembling leprosy.
  • Alphodermia (al-fo-der' -me-ah) [dX6c, vitiligo]. 1. An old name for leprosy. 2. Psoriasis.
  • Alphosis (al-fo'-sis) [see Alphos]. Albinism; leukoderma.
  • Alphus (al'-fus). 1. See Alphos. 2. A scrofulous pustular disease of the skin attended with the formation of white crusts. A. confertus, a scrofulous form of impetigo with clustered lesions attended with formation of white crusts. A. leuce, Plenck's name for a skin disease marked by white spots, which penetrate the skin deeply and involve the hairs, and if pricked, a milky fluid exudes. Syn., Vitiligo leuce; Leuce. A. simplex, Plenck's name for a skin disease marked by white patches not involving the hairs and' wandering from one part to the other, with roughening of the skin. A. sparsus, a scrofulous dissemi- nated ecthyma attended with formation of white crusts.
  • Alpinia (al-pin' -e-ah) [Alpinus, an Italian botanist of the sixteenth century]. A genus of zingiberaceous tropical plants. A. chin- ensis, A. officinarum, and other species fur- nish galangal.
  • Alstonia (al-sto'-ne-ah). A genus of apocyna- ceous trees and shrubs. A. conslricta, the Australian fever-tree, yields the alkaloid al- stonin. The bark is tonic, antiperiodic, and antipyretic, and is used in intermittent fevers. Dose of fluidexlract 30-60 min. (2-4 Cc). A. scholaris, the devil-tree, a native of the East Indies, furnishes dita-bark; it is tonic, as- tringent, antiperiodic, and anthelmintic.
  • Alstonidin (al-ston f - id - in) . An amorphous substance contained in a variety of dita-bark.
  • Alstonin (al-sto' -nin) . 1. An amorphous sub- stance contained in a variety of dita-bark. 2. A crystalline alkaloid, C 21 H 20 N 2 O 4 , obtained from Alstonia conslricta.
  • Alter (awl'-ter). To castrate or spay.
  • Alterant (awl'-ter -ant). Same as Alterative.
  • Alterative (awV -ter-a-tiv) [alterativus]. 1. A medicine that alters the processes of nu- trition, restoring, in some unknown way, the normal functions of an organ or of the system. The most important alteratives are arsenic, iodin, the iodids, mercury, and gold. 2. Changing; alterant; reestablishing healthy nutritive processes.
  • Alternate (awl'-ter-ndt) [altemare f to do by ALTERNATING 47 ALUMINIUM turns]. Occurring successively in space or time. A. Hemiplegia. See Hemiplegia.
  • Alternating (awV -ter-na-ting) [see Alternate]. Occurring successively. A. Currents, electric currents the direction of which is constantly changing. A. Insanity, a form of insanity in which there are regular cycles of exaltation and depression.
  • Alternation (awl-ter-na' -shun) [see Alternate]. Repeated transition from one state to another. Alternator iawV-ter-na-tor). An apparatus for converting the direct dynamo current into an alternating current.
  • Althea, Althaea (al-the'-ah) [L.]. Marshmal- low. The peeled root of Althcea officinalis, a plant of the mallow family. It consists of about one -third of vegetable mucus and starch, together with the alkaloids asparagin and althein (latterly regarded as identical).
  • Its decoction is employed as a mucilaginous drink. A., Ointment of (unguentum althcece), an ointment composed of marshmallow root, 2 parts; turmeric, flaxseed, and fenugreek, each, 1 part; water, 70 parts; lard, 44 parts; yellow wax, 6 parts. Unof. A., Syrup of (syrupus althceae), contains 4 % althea. Dose indefinite. A sparagin possesses sedative and diuretic properties, and is useful in ascites and gout. Dose 2-3 gr. (0.13- 0.19 Gra.).
  • Altitude (al'-ti-tud) [altitudo, height]. The ele- vation of a place above the sea-level. Altmann's Granules. Round bodies staining readily with carbolfuchsin, and regarded as cell-derivatives which have grown through the assimilation of fat. They are probably allied to Russell's bodies.
  • Alum (al'-um) [alumen, alum]. Any one of a class of double sulfates formed by the union of one of the sulfates of certain non- alkaline metals with a sulfate of some al- kaline metal. The standard (or common commercial) alum, the official alumen (U. S. P.), is the aluminium-and-potassium sulfate, AlK(S0 4 ) 2 +i2H 2 0. It is a powerful as- tringent and styptic, and is also exten- sively used in the arts. A., Alumina-, a mixture of alum and aluminium sulfate. A., Aluminium-, an alum composed of a double sulfate of aluminium and another radicle. A., Ammonia, the same as the standard, except that the potassium is replaced by ammonium. It is official in Great Britain, and is extensively used on account of its cheapness. What is known as concentrated or patent alum is the normal aluminium sulfate (alumini sulphas, U. S. P.), which is not a true alum. A., Ammonioferric (ferri et ammonii sulphas, U. S. P.), is strongly styptic, and is useful in leukorrhea. Dose 5-10 gr. (0.32-0.65 Gm.). A., Burnt, alum dried by heat; a spongy, pulverizable sub- stance. It is used as an astringent and on fungous growths. Dose 5-30 gr. (0.333- 2.0 Gm.). Syn., Calcined alum; Alumen exsiccatum; Alumen ustum. A., Feather, A., Feathered. 1. Alum occurring in a fibrous form. 2. Asbestos. A. -hematoxy- lin, a purple stain for tissues, obtained from an alcoholic solution of hematoxylin by ad- dition of an aqueous solution of potash alum. A., Potash, A., Potassa, A., Po- tassic, A., Potassium, an alum containing potassium, particularly ordinary alum, or aluminium-and-potassium sulfate. A., Po- tassioferric, is similar to ammonioferric alum. A., Soda, double sulfate of sodium and aluminium; it is too soluble for ordinary uses. A. -whey, a preparation obtained by boiling 2 dr. of alum in a pint of milk and straining. It is used as an astringent and internal hemostatic in wineglassful doses.
  • Alumen (al-u'-men) [L., gen., aluminis]. See Alum. A. exsiccatum (U. S. P.), burnt or dehydrated alum. See Alum, Burnt.
  • Alumil (al'-u-mil). Alumina in combination with acids.
  • Alumina (al-u' -min-ah) [L.], A1 2 3 . Alumin- ium oxid; the principal ingredient of clay and of many stones, earths, and minerals.
  • Aluminate (al-u'-min-dt) [alumina]. A basic salt of alumina. Aluminated Copper. See Lapis divinus.
  • Aluminiferous (al-u-min-if '-er-us) [alum; ferre, to bear]. Yielding alum.
  • Aluminium (al-u-mhi' -i-um) [L.], Al = 27. Quantivalence n, iv. A silver-white metal distinguished by its low sp. gr. — about 2.6. It is largely used in the arts and for certain surgical instruments. A. Acetate, A1 2 . - 4C 2 H 3 2 + 4H 2 0. Used as an internal and external disinfectant. Dose 5-10 gr. (0.3-0.6 Gm.) 3 times daily. A. Aceto- borate, antiseptic and disinfectant. A. Acetoglycerinate, glycerite of aluminium acetate. It has one-fifth the strength of aluminium acetotartrate; used in 50% solu- tion in diseases of the nose, throat, and ear. A. Acetotartrate, an energetic nontoxic dis- infectant and astringent. It is applied in 0.5 to 2 % solutions in diseases of the air- passages; for chilblains, in 50% solution. A. Boroformate, prepared from freshly pre- cipitated aluminium hydroxid dissolved in 2 parts of formic acid, 1 part of boric acid, and 7 parts of water. It is used as an as- tringent and antiseptic. A. Borotannate, a reaction-product from tannic acid with borax and aluminium sulfate, containing 76% tan- nin, 13.23% alumina, 10.71% boric acid; used as a disinfectant and astringent in skin diseases, applied pure or attenuated in oint- ment or dusting-powder. Syn., Cutal; Cutol. A. Borotannotartrate, a compound of aluminium borotannate and tartaric acid; is used externally in skin diseases and in gonorrhea in 0.5 to iq % solution. Syn., ALUMINOL 48 AMA Soluble cutal or cutol. A. Borotartrate, an energetic, astringent, nonirritant antiseptic, used externally in inflammatory diseases of the throat and nose, and applied in sub- stance or in solution with the addition of glycerol. Syn., Boral. A. Bromid, Al 2 Br 6 . In combination with aluminium chlorid it is used as a gargle in diphtheria or taken internally. A. Casemate, an intestinal as- tringent. Dose 4-5 gr. (0.25^0.3 Gm.). A. Chlorid, A1 2 C1 6 , colorless hexagonal plates which fume in moist air. It is astringent and antiseptic, and is also used in bleach- ing teeth. A. Gallate, Basic, a brown, anti- septic dusting-powder made by precipitating a solution of aluminium sulfate with a solution of gallic acid to which sodium hydroxid has been added. A. Hydroxid (alumini hydroxi- dum, U. S. P.), Al 2 (HO) 6 , a tasteless white pow- der, feebly astringent. Dose 3-20 gr. (0.2-1.3 Gm.). Syn., Aluminium hydrate. A. Oleate, A1(C 18 H 33 2 ) 2 , ayellowish mass, soluble in alco- hol, in ether, in benzene, and in oleic acid. It is used as an antiseptic in skin diseases. A.- and-potassium Sulfate, A1K(S0 4 )^,+ i2H 2 0, a valuable astringent, used in catarrh, leu- korrhea, gonorrhea. Dose 10-20 gr. (0.65-1.3 Gm.). In teaspoonful doses it is an emetic. Syn., Alum. A.-and-potassium Sulfocar- bolate, A1 2 K 2 (C 6 H 4 HS0 4 ) 8 , an antiseptic, as- tringent, and styptic; it is used externally in a 5 to 20 % aqueous solution in cases of cancer and putrid ulcerations, and as a mouth- wash. A. Salicylate, A1(C 7 H 5 3 ) 3 , a red- dish-white antiseptic powder used in nasal catarrh and ozena. Syn., Salumin. A. Sal- icylate, Ammoniated, a yellowish- white powder used as an antiseptic and astringent in inflammation of the nose and throat by dry insufflations or painting with a 20 % solution in 50 % of glycerol and 30 % of water. Syn., Soluble salumin. A.-and-so- dium Silicate, Na 2 Si0 3 Al 4 (Si0 4 ) 3 , obtained by adding aluminium hydroxid to a boiling solution of sodium silicate and sodium hy- droxid. It is used in surgical dressings. A.
  • Sozoiodolate, is used as an antiseptic wash in 2 to 3 % solution. A. Sulfate (alumini sulphas, U. S. P.), A1 2 (S0 4 ) 3 , an antiseptic and astringent used as a lotion in 5 % solu- tion. A. Sulfocarbolate, A1 2 (C ? H 4 HS0 4 ) 6 , white crystals, soluble in water, in glycerol, and in alcohol. It is recommended as an antiseptic in cystitis and suppurating sores. Syn., Sozal. A. Tannate, a compound of aluminium and tannic acid. A. Tannotar- trate, yellowish- white plates or powder, soluble in water; used as an astringent and antiseptic insufflation or gargle in laryngeal or catarrhal troubles. Syn., Soluble tannal. A.-and-zinc Sulfate, Al 2 (S0 4 ) 3 ZnS0 4 , a white, crystalline powder, soluble in water. It is used as a caustic.
  • Aluminol, Alumnol (al-u'-min-ol, al-um'-nol) [aluminium]. An astringent and antiseptic sulfur compound of aluminium, used in gonorrhea, endometritis, and diseases of the ear, nose, skin, etc. Unof, Aluminous (al-u' -min-us) . Relating to or con- taining alum, alumina, or aluminium. A. Chalybeate, a term applied to mineral waters containing alum and iron.
  • Alveated (al'-ve-a-ted) [alveatus, hollowed out like a trough]. Honeycombed; channeled; vaulted like a beehive. Alvegniat's Pump. A mercurial air-pump used in estimating the gaseous constituents of the blood.
  • Alveola (al-ve' -o-lah) [alveolus, a small hollow]. A little depression.
  • Alveolar (al-ve' -o-lar) [see Alveola]. Pertaining to an alveolus. A. Abscess, a gum-boil. A. Arch, the alveolar surface of the jaw. A. Artery, a branch of the internal maxillary artery. A. Border, the margin of the jaws. A. Index, in craniometry, the gnathic index; the ratio of the distance between the basion and alveolar point, to the distance be- tween the basion and the nasal point, multiplied by 100. (Sometimes the basilar index is called the alveolar index.) A. Passages, the ultimate division of the bron- chi, emptying into the infundibula. A. Points. See Craniomelric Points. A. Pro- cess, the border of the superior maxilla, in which the alveoli are placed. A. Sar- coma. See Sarcoma.
  • Alveolitis (al-ve-o-W -tis) [alveolus; ncc, in- flammation]. Inflammation of the alveolus of a tooth.
  • Alveolodental (al-ve' ' -o-lo-den-tal) [alveolus; dens, a tooth]. Pertaining to the teeth and their sockets.
  • Alveolus (al-ve' -o-lus) [L.]. 1. The bony socket of a tooth. Syn., Phatne; Phatnia; Phatnion. 2. An air-cell of the lung. 3. A cavity, depression, pit, cell, or recess. A. of a Gland, the terminal lobule of a racemose gland. A. laryngeus. See Pouch, Laryngeal. A. of the Stomach, one of the honeycomb- like depressions found in the stomach.
  • Alvine (al'-vin or al'-vln) [alvus, belly]. Per- taining to the belly. A. Concretion, an in- testinal calculus. A. Dejections, A. Dis- charges, the feces. A. Obstruction, con- stipation.
  • Alvus (al'-vus) [L., pi. and gen., alvi]. 1. The belly or its contained viscera. 2. Diarrhea. A. adstricta, A. astricta, an extreme degree of constipation. A. dura, constipation. A. renis, the pelvis of the kidney.
  • Alympnia (ah-lim}' -e-ah) [a, priv.; lympha, lymph]. A deficiency of lymph.
  • Alyssus (al-is'-us) [a, priv.; XOooa, madness]. Preventing or curing rabies.
  • Ama (ah' -ma) [a pur), a water-pail]. An enlarge- ment at the end opposite the ampulla of a AMACRINE 49 AMBLYOPIA bony canal of the labyrinth of the internal ear.
  • Amacrine (am'-ak-ren) [d, priv.; fxanpoc, long; 7c, a fiber]. Applied to nerve-cells entirely devoid of axis-cylinder processes.
  • Amadou (am'-a-doo) [Fr., amadouer, to coax]. German tinder or touchwood; Boletus igni- arius, a fungus found on old tree-trunks, used to stanch local hemorrhage and as a dressing for wounds, etc. A. de Panama, a hemostatic prepared from the leaf-hairs of Micronia mucronata.
  • Amalgam (am-aV -gam) (jxaXaypa, a soft mass]. i. A combination of mercury with any other metal. 2. Any soft alloy. A., Dental, com- pounds of a basal alloy of silver and tin with mercury, used for filling teeth. Gold, platinum, copper, zinc, or bismuth is fre- quently added as a third metal to the basal alloy.
  • Amalgamation (am-al-gam-a'-shun) [see Amal- gam]. In metallurgy, the process of com- bining mercury with some other metal, as practised in separating silver and gold from ores.
  • Amanitin (am-an'-it-in) [duavl-ac, a kind of fungi]. 1. A principle identical with cho- lin, obtained from the fly-agaric. 2. A poi- sonous glucosid obtainable from various spe- cies of agaric.
  • Amara (am-a'-ra) [amarus, bitter]. 1. Bitters. 2. The bitter alkaloids. 3. [d/iapa, a trench.] A sewer, drain, or stream. In the plural, amarce, the hollows of the outer ear.
  • Amaril (am'-ar-il) [Sp., amarillo, yellow]. The poison induced by Bacillus icteroides.
  • Amarin (am'-ar-in) [see Amara], C 21 H l8 N 2 , tri- phenyldihydroglyoxalin. It results from boil- ing hydrobenzamid with caustic potash. It has a poisonous effect on animals.
  • Amaroids (am'-ah-roids). All distinctly bitter vegetable extractives of definite chemic com- position other than alkaloids and glucosids.
  • Amarylism (am' -ar-il-izm) [see Amaril]. Yel- low fever.
  • Amasesis (ah-mas-e'-sis) [a, priv.; p.aoT)acc, chewing]. Inability to chew.
  • Amastia (ah-mas' -ti-ah) [a, priv.; fiaoxbc, breast]. Absence of the mammas or nipples.
  • Amativeness (am'-at-iv-nes) [amare, to love]. The sexual passion.
  • Amaurosis (am-au-ro 1 -sis) [d/iavpoecv, to darken]. Blindness, especially that occurring without demonstrable lesion of the eye. Syn., Paropsis amaurosis; Gutta serena; Cataracta nigra. A., Albuminuric, that due to renal disease. A. atonica, that due to physical debility. A. centralis, that due to disorder of the central nervous system. A., Cere- bral, that due to disease of the brain. A. compressionis, cerebral amaurosis caused bv 5 pressure upon the optic nerve. A. conges- tiva, that due to cerebral congestion. A., Epileptiform, A., Epileptoid, sudden blind- ness not confined to epileptics, but considered by some to be epileptic in its nature. Dila- tion of the retinal veins has been noted, but no changes in the retinal arteries have been observed. Syn., Retinal epilepsy; Oph- thalmemicrania. A. ex haemorrhagia, A. ex hyperopsia, an incurable, inexplicable blind- ness occurring suddenly after hemorrhages, especially of the stomach. A. intermittens larvata, a blindness, often unilateral, occur- ring with mild intermittent fever, which is fre- quently followed by atrophy of the optic nerve. A., Intermittent, bilateral amaurosis occur- ring as a complication of intermittent fever. It usually begins with the chill and continues until the sweating stage. A., Progressive, the progressive atrophy of the intraocular optic nerve-endings. A., Reflex, that result- ing from a reflex action upon the optic nerve from some remote source of irritation. A., Saburral, sudden temporary blindness occur- ring in an attack of acute gastritis. A., Spasmodic, blindness due to convulsions. A., Spinal, that caused by atrophy of the optic nerve, due to lateral or multiple sclerosis. Syn., Rachialgic amaurosis. A. sympathica, A., Sympathetic, functional disorder of one eye from reflex transmission of disease of the other eye.
  • Amaurotic (am-au-rot'-ik) [see Amaurosis]. Relating to or affected with amaurosis. A. Cat's-eye, a light-reflex through the pupil in suppurative choroiditis.
  • Amazia (ah-ma'-ze-ah) [d, priv.; f.ia£oc, the breast]. Absence of the mammary gland.
  • Amber (am'-ber). See Succinum.
  • Ambergris (am' -her -gr is) [amber; Fr., gris, gray]. A substance excreted by the sperm- whale, Physeter macrocephalus. It is not known whether or not it is a pathologic product. It exhales a fragrant,~musky odor when warmed, and is used in adynamic fevers, chronic catarrh, and nervous diseases. Dose 1-3 gr. (0.065-0.2 Gm.). Unof.
  • Ambidexter (am-bi-deks'-ier) [ambo, both; dexter, the right hand]. An ambidextrous person.
  • Ambidextrous (am-bi-deks'-trus) [see Ambi- dexter]. Able to use both hands equally well.
  • Ambiopia (am-bi-o'-pe-ah). See Diplopia.
  • Ambitus (am'-bit-us) [ambire, to surround]. A circumference. A. cerebelli, Burdach's term for the cerebellum, pons, and oblongata taken together.
  • Amblotic (am-blot' -ik) [dfL^XajxcKdc]. Abortifac- ient.
  • Amblyopia (am-ble-o'-pe-ah) [dfifiXuc, dulled; u>(l>, eye]. Dimness of vision, especially that not due to refractive errors or organic dis- ease of the eye. It may be congenital or acquired, the acquired being due to the use of tobacco (amblyopia nicotinica), alco- hol, or other toxic influences; to trau- matism; or it may be hysteric. Nyctalopia AMBOCEPTOID 50 AMETRIA and hemeralopia are other forms; it may arise from entoptic phenomena, such as muscce volitantes, micropsia, megalopsia, metamor- phopsia, etc. It may take the form of con- tracted fields of vision, of color-blindness, or anesthesia 0} the retina. Syn., Obfuscatio; Offuscatio. A., Crossed, A. cruciata, am- blyopia occurring through lesion of the brain, in which a dimness of vision with contraction of the field of vision exists in the eye on the side opposite to the lesion. A. ex anopsia, amblyopia from disuse or from nonuse.
  • Amboceptoid (am-bo-sep'-toid). A degener- ated amboceptor which has lost its binding group (haptophore) on the one hand for the cell, or, on the other hand, for the com- plement.
  • Amboceptor (am-bo-sep'-tor) [ambo, both; capere, to receive]. In Ehrlich's lateral or side-chain theory, an immune body having two uniting processes. Syn., Intermediary body (Ehrlich); Copida(Miiller); Sensitizer; Substance sensibilisatrice (Bordet); Desmon (London); Philocytase; Hemotoxic sensitizer (Metchnikoff).
  • Ambra (am' -bra) [L.]. 1. Amber. 2. Amber- gris. 3. Spermaceti. A. alba. 1. Sper- maceti. 2. A light-colored amber obtained in Brazil. A. atrum. See A. nigra. A. cin- eracea, A. cineraceus, A. cineria, A. cin- eritia. See Ambergris. A. flava, A. ful- vum. See Succinum. A. nigra, general name for any dark-colored amber or am- bergris or dark, resinous substance; also lignite and jet.
  • Ambrosia (am-bro' -zhe-ah) [a^poa'ca, the food of the gods]. A genus of composite-flowered herbs. A. artemisice folia, common hog- weed of North America; stimulant, tonic, antiperiodic, and astringent. A. trifida has properties similar to A. artemisioefolia. The pollen of these plants is by some regarded as a cause of hay-fever.
  • Ambulance (am' -bu-lans) [ambidare, to walk about]. In Europe the term is applied to the surgical staff and arrangements of an army in service. In the United States the word is restricted to a vehicle for the trans- ference of the sick or wounded from one place to another.
  • Ambulant, Ambulating, Ambulatory (am r - bu-lant, am'-bu-la-ting, am' -bu-la-to-re). Re- lating to walking or changing location; not confined to bed. A. Blister, a blister that changes its location. A. Clinic, a clinic for patients that can walk. A. Erysipelas, ery- sipelas that shifts from place to place. A. Tumor, a pseudotumor. A. Typhoid, walk- ing typhoid; enteric fever in which the patient does not, or will not, take to his bed.
  • Ambustion (am-bus'-chun) [ambustio, a barn]. A burn or scald.
  • Ameba, Amoeba (am-e'-bah) [d/iotftrj, a change]. A colorless, single-celled, jelly-like, protoplasmic organism found in sea and fresh waters, constantly undergoing changes of form and nourishing itself by englobing sur- rounding objects. Amoeba coli, the ameba of dysentery. This is a protoplasmic mass, re- sembling the water ameba, 20 to 30 p. in diameter, and composed of a nucleus and a highly granular protoplasm containing vacu- oles. It is found in large numbers in the stools of certain forms of dysentery, in the intestinal mucous membrane, and at times in the socalled dysenteric abscess of the liver. Whether it is the real cause of the disease is not definitely established. A. -enteritis, chronic enteritis due to invasion of Amceba coli.
  • Amebic (am-e'-bik) [see Ameba]. Pertaining to or characterized by amebas. A. Dysen- tery, dysentery associated with the presence in the bowel of Amceba coli.
  • Ameboid (am-e'-boid) [ameba; sldoc, resem- blance]. Resembling an ameba in form or in movement, as the white blood-cells.
  • Amebula, Amcebula (am-e'-bu-lah). E. Ray Lankester's name for the amebiform parasite which develops from the exotospore of the malaria parasite.
  • Ameburia (am-e-bu' -re-ah) . The occurrence of amebas in the urine.
  • Amelia (ah-me'-le-ah) [a, priv.; pkXoe, limb]. Absence of the limbs.
  • Amelioration (am-el-yo-ra'-shun) [ad, to; melior, better]. Improvement.
  • Ameloblast (am-eV -o-blast) [Anglo - French, amel, enamel; [IXaoxbc, a germ] An en- amel-cell, one of the cylindric cells cover- ing the papilla of the enamel organ of the teeth, and forming a beautifully regular epi- thelial layer that produces the enamel.
  • Amelus (am'-el-us) [a, priv.; piXoc, limb]. A monstrosity without limbs. Amenia iah-me' -ne-ah) . See Amenorrhea.
  • Amenorrhea (ah-men-or-e'-ah) [a, priv.; prjv, month; pe'cv, to flow]. Abnormal absence of menstruation. Syn., Paramenia obstruc- tions; Amenia. A., Ovarian, A. /Radical, that due to nonovulation. A., Physiologic, absence of menstruation during pregnancy. A., Primitive, a term applied to those cases in which the catamenia have not appeared at the proper time. A., Secondary, that in which the discharge has been arrested after it has existed during the reproductive period.
  • Amenorrheal (ah-men-or-e'-al) [see Amenor- rhea]. Pertaining to amenorrhea.
  • Amentia (ah-men' -she-ah) [a, priv.; mens, mind]. Defective intellect; idiocy.
  • Ameristic (ah-mer-is'-tik) [a, priv.; pipoc, a part]. Not segmented.
  • Amesiality (ah-me-ze-al' -it-e) . The throwing of a part, as the pelvis, to one side of the mesial line of the figure.
  • Ametria (ah-mei' -re-ah) [a, priv.; prjrpa, AMETROMETER 51 AMMONIA womb], i. Absence of the uterus. 2. [d, priv.; (jthpov, a measure.] Immoderation; asymmetry.
  • Ametrometer (ah-met-rom'-et-er) [a, priv.; pkxpov, a measure]. An instrument for measuring ametropia.
  • Ametropia (ah-met-ro' -pe-ah) [a, priv.; (ikrpov, a measure; o(, both; apuuc, net; xpaj[xa, color]. A term applied by Nissl to a nerve-cell the stainable portion of whose cell-body is in the form of a pale network, the nodal points of which are joined by an intensely staining network.
  • Amphiarthrosis (am-fe-ar -thro' -sis) [am phi-; dpdpov, a joint]. A form of mixed articulation in which the surfaces of the bones are con- nected by broad discs of fibrocartilage or else are covered with fibro- cartilage and connected by external ligaments. It is distinguished by lim- ited flexion in every direc- tion, as, e.g., between the vertebras.
  • Amphiaster (am'-fe-as-ter) [amphi-; darrjp, a star]. The figure formed in in- AMPHIASTER IN AN i- ^ ii j- • • 1 ,1 Ovarian Egg. direct cell-division by the AMPHIBIA 54 AMPULLA achromatin threads and chromatin granules united to form the socalled nuclear spindle, together with the threads of cell-protoplasm radiating from a rounded clear space at each end of the spindle, known as the stars or suns.
  • Amphibia (am-fib'-e-ah) [am phi-; p'coc, life]. A class of the Vertebrata, living both in the water and upon the land, as the frog, newt, etc.
  • Amphibious (am-fib'-e-us) [see Amphibia]. Living both on land and in water.
  • Amphiblastic (am-fe-blas'-iik) [am phi-; ftXaozoc, a germ]. Pertaining to that form of complete segmentation that gives rise to an amphi- blastula.
  • Amphiblastula (am-fe-blas'-tu-lah) [am phi-; bias tula, dim. of fiAaaroc, a germ]. The mulberry -mass or morula-stage in the develop- ment of a holo- 3, blastic egg. It follows the stage known as amphimorula. Amphibolia(awz- }e-bo'-le-ah) [ajK^cfioXca, un- certainty]. The vacillating pe- •L riod of a fever or disease.
  • Amphibolic (aw- fe-bol'-ik) [see Amphib olia]. Uncertain; doubtful. Ap- plied to a pe- riod in the fe- brile process occurring between the fastigium and the defervescence, and marked by exa- cerbations and remissions.
  • Amphicrania (am-fe-kra'-ne-ah) [amphi-; upav- cov, the skull]. Headache affecting both sides of the head.
  • Amphicreatin (am-Je-kre' -at-in) [amphi-; Kpkag, flesh], C 7 H 19 X 7 4 . One of the muscle-leu- komains. It crystallizes in brilliant oblique prisms of a yellowish-white color, and is faintly basic.
  • Amphicreatinin (am-fe-kre-at r -in-in) [see Am- phicreatin], C 9 H 10 X 7 Oj,. A member of the creatinin group of leukomains derived from muscle.
  • Amphicroic (am-Je-kro'-ik) [amphi-; npouecv, to test]. Having the power to turn blue litmus- paper red and red litmus-paper blue.
  • Amphidiarthrosis (am-je-di-ar-thro' -sis) [am- phi-; dcapdpojocc, articulation]. The articu- lation of the lower jaw, as it partakes of the nature both of ginglymus and of arth- rodia.
  • Amphigony (am-fig'-o-ne) [amphi-; ybvoc, off- spring]. The sexual process in its broadest sense; gamogenesis.
  • Amphimicrobian (am-fe-mi-hro'-be-an) [am- phi-; ptiKpof, small; ficoc, life]. Both aero- bian and anaerobian.
  • Amphtblastula. — (A Her Balfour.) a. Granular cells which will form the epibla=t. b. Ciliated cells which become invaginated to form the hypoblast.
  • Amphimixis (am-fi-miks' -is) [amphi-; /*Jc.'f, mixing]. The mingling of two individuals or their germs; sexual reproduction.
  • Amphimorula (am -}e- mor'- u - lah) [amphi-; morula, a mulberry]. The morula, or globu- lar mass of cleavage cells resulting from un- equal segmentation, the cells of the hemi- spheres being unlike in size.
  • Amphistoma (am-fis'-to-mah) [amphi-; arbp.a, mouth]. A genus of trematode worms, named from the mouth-like apparatus at either end. One species, A. hominis, has been found in the large intestine of man.
  • Amphitrichous (am-fit'-rik-us) [amphi-; dp'cq, a hair]. Applied to the type of flagellation in bacteria in which there is a single flagellum at each pole.
  • Amphodiplopia (am-}o-dip-lo'-pe-ah) [dp.(jiio, both; oc-Aooc, double; axp, eye]. Double vision affecting each of the eyes.
  • Amyelus (ah-mi' -el-us) [d, priv.; jiueAoc, marrow]. A fetal monstrosity with partial or complete absence of the spinal cord.
  • Amygdalitis (am-ig-dal-i' '-lis) [amygdala; tree, inflammation]. Tonsillitis.
  • Amygdaloid (am - ig' - dal - oid) (amygdala; eldoc, form]. Resembling an almond. A. Fossa, the depression for the lodgment of the tonsil. A. Tubercle, a projection of gray matter at the end of the descending cornu of the lateral ventricle of the brain. It is attached to the temporal lobe, and appears to be nearly isolated by white sub- stance.
  • Amygdalolith (am-ig-daV -o-liih) [amygdala; A'tdoc, a stone]. A concretion or calculus found in the tonsil.
  • Amygdalopathy (am-ig-dal-op' -ath-e) [amyg- dala; Tiddoc, a disease]. Any disease of the tonsils.
  • Amygdalotome (am-ig' -dal-o-tom) [amygdala; ripvecv, to cut]. An instrument used in cut- ting the tonsils.
  • Amygdalotomy (am-ig-dal-of -o-me) [see Amyg- dalotome]. Tonsillotomy.
  • Amygdophenin (am-ig-do}' -en-in), C 6 H 4 (OC 2 - H 5 )NH . OC . CH(OH)C 6 H 5 gray ish- white, crystalline powder, derived from par- amidophenol. It is antirheumatic. Dose 15 gr. (1 Gm.) from 1 to 6 times daily in pow- der. Syn., Phenyl ' glycol phenetidin.
  • projecting into the fourth ventricle. 3. Al- Amyl (am' -il) [a/jtuXov, starch]. The radicle, mond. The seeds of A. amara and A. dul- C 5 H n , of amylic alcohol, the fifth member cis, containing the principle emulsin. The of the series of alcohol radicles, CnH^+j. former contains amygdalin. The expressed oil of the sweet almond is a demulcent and is useful in skin affections; in doses of 1-2 dr. (4-8 Gm.), a mild laxative; that of A.
  • P.), the bitter almond. A. dulcis (U. S. P.), the sweet almond. Amygdalae amarae, Aqua (U. S. P.), a 1: 1000 solution of the oil of bitter almonds in water. Dose 1 dr. (4 Cc).
  • Amygdalae amarae, Oleum (U. S. P.), con- tains 3-14 % of hydrocyanic acid and has similar uses. Dose \-i min. (0.016-0.065 Cc). Amygdalae amarae, Spiritus (U. S.
  • P.), the spirit of bitter almonds. Amygdalae, Emulsum (U. S. P.), oil of sweet almonds 6 %; sugar, water, and acacia q. s. Amygdalae Sxpressum, Oleum (U. S. P.), expressed oil of almonds. Dose 1 oz. (30 Cc). Amyg- dalae, Syrupus (TJ. S. P.), syrup of almond; demulcent and slightly sedative. Dose 1-2 dr.
  • , (4-8 Cc).
  • Amygdalectomy (am-ig-dal-ek' -to-me) [amyg- dala; iKTOfir), a cutting-out]. Excision of a tonsil.
  • Amygdalin (am-ig' -dal-in) [see Amygdala], QqH^NOh + 3H 2 0. A glucosid formed in bitter almonds, in various plants, and in the leaves of the cherry-laurel. Under the influence of emulsin, contained in the almond, it splits up into glucose and hydro- cyanic acid.
  • Amygdaline (am-ig' -dal-en) [see Amygdala]. 1. Almond-like. 2. Pertaining to the ton- sil. A. -alcohol. See Amylic Alcohol. A. Bromid, C 5 H n Br, a transparent, colorless liquid, soluble in alcohol. It is antiseptic and germicidal. A. Colloid, a fluid prepa- ration consisting of amyl hydrid, 480 parts; aconitin, 1 part; veratrin, 6 parts; collodion, to 960 parts. It is painted on the skin in neuralgia, sciatica, etc. Syn., Anodyne col- loid. A. Hydrate. See Amylic Alcohol. A. Hydrid, a fractional product of petroleum ether; it is an antiseptic. Syn., Hydramyl; Pentylene; Pentylhydrid. A. Iodid, C 5 H n I, the reaction-product of isoamylic alcohol, iodin, and phosphorus. It is sedative and antiseptic, and is used as an inhalation in dyspnea. A. Nitrite, C 5 H u N0 2 , a clear, yellowish, volatile liquid, of a penetrating odor. It produces vascular dilation and stimulates the heart's action, and is useful in angina pectoris, respiratory neuroses, etc. Dose, internally, \-i min. (0.016- 0.065 Cc) dissolved in alcohol; by inhala- tion, 2-5 min.(0.12-0.3 Cc). A. Nitrite, Carbureted, amyl nitrite saturated with car- bon monoxid. It is suggested as a sub- stitute for pure amyl nitrite, to obviate pres- sure in the head and other secondary ob- jectionable properties. A. Salicylate, a com- pound obtained from the action of chlorin on a saturated solution of salicylic acid in amylic alcohol. It is said to have the seda- tive properties of the amylic derivatives as well as antirheumatic qualities. Dose in acute rheumatism 10 capsules of 3 gr. Co. 2 AMYLACEOUS 57 ANABOLERGY Gm.) each, daily. A. Valerate, A. Val- erianate, C 10 H 20 O 2 . It is a cholesterin sol- vent and is used as a sedative in gall-stone colic. Dose 2-3 gr. (0.13-0.2 Gm.). Syn., Apple oil.
  • Amylaceous (am-il-a' -se-us) [see Amyl]. Con- taining starch; starch-like.
  • Amylamin (am-iV -am-hi) . See Isoamylamin. A. Hydrochlorate, C 5 H 14 NC1, a reaction- product of amyl cyanate, potassium hydrate, and hydrochloric acid, occurring as deliques- cent scales or crystals. It is an antipyretic. Dose 7-15 gr. (0.45-1.0 Gm.).
  • Amylate (am'-il-at). 1. A combination formed by the replacement of the hydrogen of the hydroxyl molecule in amylic alcohol with a metal or basic radicle. 2. A compound of starch with a radicle.
  • Amylene (am' -il-en) [see Amyl], C 5 H 10 . A liquid hydrocarbon having anesthetic properties. See Anesthetic. A. -chloral, CCI3 . CH . OH . O . C. (CH 3 ) 2 C 2 H 5 , dimethyl- ethyl-carbinol-chloral. It is hypnotic. Syn., Dormiol. A. Hydrate, C 5 H 12 0, a tertiary alcohol used as a hypnotic. Dose 30 min.- dr. (2-4 Cc). Unof.
  • Amylic (am-il'-ik) [see Amyl]. Pertaining to amyl. A. Alcohol, fusel oil; potato- starch alcohol; amyl hydrate. An alcohol having the composition C b H 12 0, produced in the continued distillation of fermented grain. It was formerly used to adulterate whisky. It is a solvent and reagent.
  • Amylin (am'-il-in) [see Amyl]. The insoluble wall of the starch-grain.
  • Amyloforrn (am-il'-o-form). An odorless white powder produced by the chemic combina- tion of starch with formaldehyd. It is non- toxic, quite insoluble, and is not decom- posed under 180 C. It is recommended as a surgical antiseptic.
  • Amylogenic (am-il-o-jen' -ik) [amylon; yewdv, to produce]. Starch-producing.
  • Amyloid (am'-il-oid) [amylon; stooc, form]. 1. Starch-like. 2. A starchy substance. 3. Glycogen. 4. Virchow's name for a waxy body found in animal tissue as a result of disease and resembling starch only in the one particular that it was stained by iodin. Cf. Amyloid Degeneration. A. Bodies, bodies resembling starch-grains, found in the nervous system, the prostate, etc. They are the result of a localized amyloid degeneration. A. Degeneration, waxy or lardaceous degeneration. A degen- eration characterized by the formation of an albuminous substance, resembling starch in its chemic reactions. The process affects primarily the connective tissue of the blood- vessels of various organs, and is connected with or due to chronic suppuration in the body. Amyloid substance gives a brown color with iodin, a red color with gentian- violet, and turns blue on being treated with iodin and sulfuric acid. A. Kidney. See Bright 's Disease.
  • Amylolysis (am-il-ol'-is-is) [amylon; \uoic, so- lution]. The digestion of starch, or its con- version into sugar.
  • Amylolytic (am-il-o-lit'-ik) [see Amylolysis]. Pertaining to or effecting the digestion of starch, as the ferments in the saliva and pancreatic juice that convert starch into sugar.
  • Amylon (am'-il-on) [L.]. 1. Starch. 2. Gly- cogen. 3. A principle found in grape-juice.
  • Amylophosphin (am-il-o-fos'-fin). A phosphin in which the hydrogen is replaced by amyl.
  • Arnylopsin (am -il- op' -sin) [amylon; o^f, appearance]. A ferment found in the pan- creatic juice, which changes starch into sugar.
  • Amylose (am'-il-os) [amylon]. Any one of the group of carbohydrates, comprising starch, glycogen, dextrin, inulin, gum, cellulose, and tunicin.
  • Amylum (am'-il-um) [L.], C 6 H 10 O 5 . Starch.
  • Amyli, Glyceritum (U.S. P.), contains starch, 10; water, 10; glycerol, 80%; used for external application. A. iodatum, contains starch, 95 %; iodin, 5 % ; triturated with distilled water and dried. Dose 1 dr.-J oz. (4-16 Gm.).
  • Amyocardia (am-i-o-kar'-de-ah) [a, priv.; jiuc, muscle; napoca, the heart]. Lack of mus- cular power in the heart's contractions.
  • Amyostasia (am-i-os-ta'-ze-ah) [a, priv.; hoc, muscle; ozaocc, standing]. An abnormal trembling of the muscles while in use, often seen in locomotor ataxia.
  • Amyosthenia (am-i-os-the'-ne-ah) [a, priv.; {.toe, muscle; odkvoc, force]. Deficient mus- cular power.
  • Amyotrophia (am-i-o-tro' -je-ah) [a, priv.; fiuc, muscle; rpou$tv, to grow]. 1. A monstrosity formed by the fusion of two male fetuses. 2. The growing together of the male geni- talia.
  • Anecpyetous (an-ek-pi-e' -tus) \aveKizuT)TO and morphin, \ gr. (0.9 eg.). To be administered hypodermatically and re- peated after 1 or 2 hours. It is asserted to be absolutely free from danger to life. Scopolam- in-morphin. See Korff's Method. Spinal Sub- arachnoid Method. See Coming-Bier Method. Tait and Caglieri's Method, spinal cocainiza- tion by injection of cocain into the sixth cer- vical intervertebral space. Tujfier's Method. See Coming-Bier Method. A. (Local) Mix- tures : Bagot's Mixture, contains cocain hydrochlorid, 0.04; spartein sulfate, 0.05; this is dissolved in 1 or 2 Cc. of boiled water. Bonain's Mixture, for anesthesia of the external surface of the tympanic membrane: Phenol, menthol, cocain hydrochlorid, of each, 1.0; or phenol, 2.9; menthol, 0.5; cocain hydrochlorid, 1.0. Heinze and Braun's Solution for general infiltration: /?-eucain, 0.1; sodium chlorid, 0.8; distilled water, 100. Lohmann's (W.) Solution: 4 % /?-eucain solution with 8 % of sodium chlorid. Luxenburger's Solution, a 2 % solution of nirvanin. Reclus' Solution, a 2 % /?-eucain solution.
  • Anesthetization (an-es-thet-iz-a' -shun) \av- o.'codi]Tog, insensible]. The act of placing un- der the influence of an anesthetic.
  • Anesthetize (an-es' -thet-iz) [see Anesthetiza- tion]. To put under the influence of an an- esthetic.
  • Anesthetizer (an-es 1 ' -thet-i-zer) [see Anestheti- zation]. One who administers an anesthetic.
  • Anesthyl (an-es' -thiV) . A local anesthetic said to consist of ethyl chlorid, 5 parts; methyl chlorid, 1 part.
  • Anethol (an' -eth-ol) \anethum; oleum, oil], C 10 - H 12 0. The chief constituent of the essen- tial oils of anise and fennel. It is employed in preparing the elixir anethi (N. F.), being more fragrant and agreeable than the anise oil. A., Liquid, an isomeric modification of anethol; it is an antiseptic, oil-like liquid. Syn., Isanethol.
  • Anethum (an-e'-thum) [dva, up; aWetv, to burn, from the pungency of the seeds]. Dill; the dried fruit of Peucedanum graveolens, indigenous to southern Europe. It is aroma- tic, carminative, and stimulant. Dose of the oil (oleum anethi, B. P.) 1-4 min. (0.06-0.24 Cc.).; of the water (aqua anethi, B. P.) 1-2 oz. (30-60 Cc).
  • Anetodermia (an-et-o-der' -me-ah) [dverSc, re- laxed; okpjia, skin]. Relaxation of the skin.
  • Aneuria (ah-nu'-re-ah) [a, priv.; veupov, a nerve]. Lack of nervous power.
  • Aneuric (ah-nu'-rik) [see Aneuria]. Character- ized by aneuria.
  • ANEURYSM 65 ANEURYSM Aneurysm Laid Open. — (Moullin.) Aneurysm (an' -u-rizm) [dvsupuo/xa, a widen- ing]. A circumscribed dilation of the walls of an artery. The symptoms of aneurysm depend upon the location of the aneurysmal tumor. Expansive pulsation and a bruit are important; very significant are the socalled pressure-symptoms, which vary with the or- gan or part pressed upon. Syn., Abscessus spirit uosus . A., Abdomi- nal, an aneu- rysm of the ab- dominal aorta. A., Active, cardiac dila- tion with hy- pertrophy. A., Acute, an ulceration of the heart-wall which, by com- munic ating with one of the chambers of the heart, forms an aneurysmal pouch. A., Ampullary, a small saccular aneurysm; it is most common in the arteries of the brain. A. by Anastomosis, a dila- tion of a large number of vessels, — small arteries, veins, and capillaries, — the whole forming a pulsating tumor under the skin. This form of aneurysm is especially seen upon the scalp. A., Arteriovenous, the simultaneous rupture of an artery and a vein, the blood from both being poured out into the cellular tissue and forming a false aneurysm. A varicose aneu- rysm is produced by the rupture of an aneurysm into a vein. An aneu- rysmal varix re- sults from the establishment of a communication between an artery and a vein, the latter becoming dilated and pul- sating. A., Bell's, aneurys- mal varix. A., Berard's, a vari- cose aneurysm with the sac in the tissues immediately around the vein. A., Cardiac, an aneurysm of the heart. A., Cir- cumscribed, an aneurysm, either true or false, in which the contents are still within the artery though there may be rupture of one or two 6i its coats. A., Cirsoid, a tortuous 6 Aneurysmal Varix.- lin.) -(Moul- lengthening and dilation of a part of an artery. A., Compound, one in which one or several of the coats of the artery are rup- tured and the others merely dilated. A., Consecutive, A., Diffused, follows rupture of all the arterial coats, with infiltration of surrounding tissues with blood. A., Dis- secting, one in which the blood forces its way between the coats of an artery. A., Ectatic, an expansion of a portion of an artery due to yielding of all the coats. A., Endogenous, one formed by disease of the vessel-walls. A., Exogenous, one due to traumatism. A., External, i. One remote from the great body-cavities. 2. One in which the cavity of the tumor is entirely or chiefly outside of the inner coat of the artery. A., False, A., Spurious, one due to a rupture of all the coats of an artery, Cirsoid Aneurysm of Scalp. — (Moullin.) the effused blood being retained by the sur- rounding tissues. A., Fusiform, a spindle- shaped dilation of an artery. A., Hernial, one in which the internal coat of the artery, with or without the middle coat, forms the aneurysmal sac which has forced its way through an opening in the outer coat. A., Lateral, an aneurysm projecting^ on one side of a vessel, the rest of the circumference being intact. A., Miliary, a sac-like dila- tion of an arteriole, often the size of a pin's head. A., Osteoid, a pulsating tumor of a bone. A., Park's, a variety of ar- teriovenous aneurysm in which the arterial dilation communicates with two contiguous veins. A., Partial. 1. See A., Lateral. 2. An aneurysmal dilation of a portion of the heart. A., Passive, A., Passive Car- diac, cardiac dilation with thinning of ANEURYSMAL 66 ANGIOCHEILOSCOPE the heart-wall. A., Peripheral, A., Peri- pheric, one involving the whole circumfer- ence of an artery. A., Pott's. Same as Aneurysmal Varix. A., Racemose. See A., Cirsoid. A., Rasmussen's, dilation of an artery in a tuberculous cavity; its rupture is a frequent cause of hemorrhage. A., Rodrigues', a varicose aneurysm in which the sac is immediately contiguous to the artery. A., Sacculated, a sac -like dilation of an artery communicating with the main arterial trunk by an opening that is rela- tively small. A., Spurious. See A., False. A., Subclavicular, an aneurysm of the axillary artery at a point too high to ad- mit of ligation below the clavicle. A., Sur- gical. See A., External. A., True, one in which the sac is formed of one, two, or all of the arterial coats. A., Varicose. See under A., Arteriovenous.
  • Aneurysmal (an-u-riz' -mat) [see Aneurysm]. Of the nature of or pertaining to an aneu- rysm. A. Varix. See under Aneurysm, Ar- teriovenous.
  • Anex (an'-eks). An abbreviation of anode ex- citation.
  • Angelica (an-jeV -ik-ah) [L.]. The seeds and root of Angelica archangelica. It is an aro- matic stimulant and emmenagog. Dose of the seeds or roots 30 gr.-i dr. (2-4 Gm.).
  • Angel's Wing (dn'-jelz wing). A deformity of the scapula in which it turns forward and then backward, giving the shoulder a peculiar dorsal bulge.
  • Angi (an'-je). Inguinal buboes.
  • Angiectasis (an-ji-ek' -tas-is) [ayje'cov, a vessel; eKzaacg, dilation]. Abnormal dilation of a vessel.
  • Angiitis, Angeitis (an-je-V -tis) [ajyelov, a vessel; ncc, inflammation]. Inflammation of a lymph-vessel or of a blood-vessel.
  • Angina (an'-jin-ah or an-ji'-nah) [angere, to strangle]. Any disease attended by a sense of choking or suffocation, particularly an affection of the fauces or pharynx presenting such symptoms. A. acuta, simple sore throat. Syn., Angina simplex. A. aphthosa, A., Aphthous, a form attended with the for- mation of aphthas in some part of the throat. A., Cardiac, angina pectoris. A. cruris, intermittent lameness. A. exsudativa, croup. A. externa. Synonym of Mumps. A., Fibrinous, a noninfectious disease of the throat simulating diphtheria, marked by the formation of a layer of fibrinous exudation which is chiefly confined to the tonsils. The constitutional symptoms are slight. A., Fol- licular, clergyman's sore throat. See Phar- yngitis, Granular. A., Herpetic, angina observed in connection with smallpox and herpes, marked by formation of vesicles in the throat which may be attended with patches of exudation. A. laryngea. Syn- onym of Laryngitis. A. lingualis. Same as Glossitis. A. ludovici, A., Ludwig's, acute suppurative inflammation of the con- nective tissue surrounding the submaxillary glands. A. maxillaris, mumps. A. mem- branacea. Synonym of Diphtheria. A. parotidea, the mumps, or parotitis. A. pectoris, a paroxysmal neurosis with in- tense pain and oppression about the heart. It usually occurs in the male after 40 years of age, and is generally associated with dis- eased conditions of the heart and aorta. There is a sense of impending death, and frequently there is a fatal termination. A. pectoris vasomotoria, a term given by Nothnagel and Landois to an angina as- sociated with vasomotor disturbances, cold- ness of the surface, etc. A., Phlegmonous. 1. An inflammation of the mucous and sub- mucous tissues of the throat, with a tendency to extend more deeply, attended by edema- tous swelling. 2. Acute inflammation of the deep-seated structures of the throat, with a tendency to pus-formation. A., Pseudo-, a neurosis occurring in anemic females, simu- lating angina pectoris, but characterized by a less grave set of symptoms and never result- ing fatally. A., Pultaceous, an affection of the throat marked by the presence of whitish or grayish patches which are easily detached, as they are not true exudations. A., Rheu- matic, a form of catarrhal angina in rheu- matic persons, marked by sudden onset of intense pain on swallowing. A. serosa, A., Serous. 1. Catarrhal angina. 2. Edema of the glottis. A. simplex. See A. acuta. A., Thymic. 1. Laryngismus stridulus. 2. Bronchial asthma. A. tonsillans, quinsy. A. trachealis, croup. A., Ulceromem- branous. See Tonsillitis, Herpetic. A. varicosa, dyspnea due to enlarged tonsil- lar vessels. A. vera, A. vera et legitima, quinsy. A., Vincent's, diphtheroid angina (ulceromembranous angina) due to Bacillus pseudodiphthericB.
  • Anginoid (an' -jin-oid) [see Angina]. Resemb- ling angina.
  • Anginose (an'-jin-os) [see Angina]. Pertain- ing to angina; characterized by symptoms of suffocation.
  • Angio- (an-je-o-). A prefix signifying relating to a vessel.
  • Angioataxia (an -je-o-at- aks'-e - ah) [angio-; axa^ca, want of order]. An irregularity in the tension of the blood-vessels.
  • Angioblast (an' -je-o-blast) [angio-, fiXaozoc-, a germ]. An embryonic cell developing into vascular tissue.
  • Angiocardiokinetic (an-je-o-kar-de-o-kin-el'-ik) [angio-; napoca, heart; ntveiv, to move]. 1. Stimulating or affecting the action or move- ments of the heart and blood-vessels. 2. A drug which stimulates or affects the move- ments of the heart and blood-vessels.
  • Angiocavernous (an-je-o -kav'-er-nus). Relat- ing to cavernous angioma. Angioceratodeitis. See Angiokeratoditis.
  • Angiocheiloscope (an-je-o-ki'-lo-skop) [angio-; Xettof, a lip; okotceIv, to look]. An instru- ment by means of which the blood-circulation ANGIOCHOLITIS 67 ANGIOPLEROSIS in the capillaries of the mucosa of the lips is magnified for observation.
  • Angiocholitis (an-je-o-ko-W -tis) [angio-; x°tf> bile; exec, inflammation]. Inflammation of the biliary ducts.
  • Angiofibroma (an-je-o- fi-bro f -mah). A fibrous degenerating angioma.
  • Angiogenesis, Angiogeny (an-je-o-jen'-es-is, an-je-og'-en-e) [angio-; yevvdv, to produce]. The development of the vessels.
  • Angioglioma (an-je-o-gli-o' -mah) [angio-; gli- oma]. A glioma rich in blood-vessels.
  • Angiograph (an' -je-o-graf) [angio-; ypdejieev, to write]. A variety of sphygmograph.
  • Angiography (an-je-o g f -ra-fe) [see Angiograph]. A description of the vessels; angiology.
  • Angiokeratoditis (an - je-o - ker -at-o-di' ' - tis) [angio-; nkpac, cornea; exec, inflammation]. Vascular keratitis.
  • Angiokeratoma (an-je-o -ker-at-o' '-mah) [angio-; Kepaf, horn; o/xa, tumor]. Lymphangiec- tasis; telangiectatic wart; a very rare dis- ease of the extremities, characterized by warty-looking growths that develop on di- lated vessels in persons with chilblains, etc. Dark vascular spots the size of pin-points or pin- heads develop as an attack of chilblains is subsiding. The disease is peculiar to child- hood.
  • Angiokinesis (an-je-o-kin-e' -sis) [angio-; kcvs'cv, to move]. Excitation or action of the blood- vessels.
  • Angioleucitis (an-je-o-lu-si' '-tis) [angio-; Xeunoc, white; neg, inflammation]. Inflammation of the lymphatic vessels.
  • Angioleukasia (an-je-o-lu-ka' '-zhe-ah) [angio-; hunog, white; luzaocc, dilation]. Dilation of the lymphatics.
  • Angiolithic (an-je-o -lith' -ik) [angio-; a Woe, a stone]. A term applied to neoplasms in which crystalline or mineral deposits take place, with hyaline degeneration of the coats of the vessels.
  • Angiology (an-je-oV -o-je) [angio-; Xoyoc, sci- ence]. The science of the blood-vessels and lymphatics.
  • Angiolymphoma (an-je-o-limf-o' '-mah) [angio-; lympha, lymph; ofxa, tumor]. A tumor formed of lymphatic vessels.
  • Angioma (an-je-o' -mah) [angio-; bp.a, a tumor]. A tumor formed of blood-vessels. A., Cav- ernous, an angioma with communicating blood-spaces, like the cavernous tissue of the penis, originating chiefly from the dis- tended veins. Syn., Angioma cavernosum; Angioma circumscriptum. A., Fissural, Vir- chow's name for a nevus which he judged, from its location, corresponding to that of a fetal fissure, might be due to a disposi- tion to form anomalies on the part of the region adjacent to the fissures. A., Plexi- form, one consisting of enlarged, tortuous capillaries forming a patch varying in color from claret to steel-blue; if there is great increase of blood-vessels, the growth has the character of a tumor, and large examples of this variety are lobular in structure. A., Telangiectatic, an angioma composed of dilated blood-vessels. A., Tuberose, A., Tuberous, one occurring in subcutaneous tissue and presenting the appearance of a lipoma as it gradually replaces the adipose tissue, or it may be accompanied by a true fatty growth.
  • Angiomalacia (an-je-o-mal-a' -she-ah) [angio-; [laXan'ca, a softening]. Softening of the blood- vessels.
  • Angiometer (an-je-om' '-et-er) . See Sphygmo- graph.
  • Angiomyces (an-je-o-mi'-sez) [angio^; [lOK-qc, a fungus; an excrescence]. A fungoid or spongy dilation of the capillaries.
  • Angiomyocardiac (an-je-o-mi-o-kar' -de-ak) [an- gio-; fide, muscle; napd'ca, the heart]. Per- taining to the muscles of the vessels of the heart.
  • Angiomyopathy (an-je-o-mi-op' -a-ihe) [angio-; p,uc, muscle; noBoc, disease]. Any affection of the vessels involving the musculature.
  • Angiomyosarcoma (an-je-o-mi-o-sar-ko'-mah) . A tumor containing elements of angioma, myoma, and sarcoma.
  • Angioneurectomy (an-je-o-nu-rek' -to-me) [an- gio-; veupov, nerve; e/cro/^, excision]. Resec- tion of all the cord-elements of the prostate except the vas, with its artery and vein.
  • Angioneurosis (an-je-o-nu-ro' -sis) [angio-; neu- rosis]. A neurosis of the blood-vessels; a disturbance of the vasomotor system, either of the nature of a spasm of the blood- vessels (angiospasm) or of paralysis (angio- paralysis).
  • Angioneurotic (an-je-o-nu-rof -ik) [see Angio- neurosis]. Pertaining to angioneurosis. A. Edema, an acute circumscribed swelling of the subcutaneous or submucous tissues, prob- ably due to vasomotor lesion. The disease often runs in families. It is at times peri- odic, and is associated with colic and gastric disturbances.
  • Angiopancreatitis (an-je-o-pan-kre-at-i' -tis) . Inflammation of the vascular tissue of the pancreas.
  • Angioparalysis (an-je-o-par-aV '-is-is) [angio-; xapaXuocc, paralysis]. Vasomotor paralysis.
  • Angioparalytic (an-je-o-par-al-if -ik) [see An- gioparalysis]. Relating to or characterized by angioparalysis.
  • Angioparesis (an-je-o-par' '-es-is) [angio-; %dpt- occ, paresis]. Partial paralysis of the vaso- motor apparatus.
  • Angiopathy (an-je-op'-a-the) [angio-; nadoc, disease]. Any disease of the vascular sys- tem.
  • Angiophorous (an-je-o J'-or-us) [angio-; (fropstv, to bear]. Applied to tissue which accom- panies and supports vessels.
  • Angioplerosis (an -je-o- pier - o'- sis) [angio-; ANGIOPRESSURE 68 ANGLE nXripu)acc, a filling-up]. Engorgement of the vessels.
  • Angiopressure (an-je-o-presh'-ur). The pro- duction of hemostasis by means of angio- tribe and forceps without ligation.
  • Angiorhigosis (an-je-o-ri-go'-sis) [angio-; p'c-fog, cold]. Rigidity of the vessels.
  • Angiorrhexis (an-je-or-eks'-is) [angio-; pr)£cc, a bursting]. Rupture of a blood-vessel.
  • Angiosarcoma (an-je-o-sar-ko'-mah) [angio-; oap$, flesh; o/ia, a tumor]. A vascular sar- coma.
  • Angiosclerosis (an-je-o-skle-ro'-sis) [angio-; okXtjpoc, hard]. The induration and thicken- ing of the walls of the blood-vessels.
  • Angiosialitis (an-je-o-si-al-i' -tis) [angio-; o'caXov, saliva; exec, inflammation]. Inflammation of the duct of a salivary gland.
  • Angiosis (an- je-o' -sis) [dyjelov, a vessel]. Any disease of blood-vessels or of lymphatics.
  • Angiospasm (an' -je-o-spazm) [angio-; oTzaojioc-, a spasm]. A vasomotor spasm.
  • Angiospastic (an-je-o-spas'-tik) [see Angio- spasm]. Characterized by or of the nature of angiospasm.
  • Angiostenosis (an -je-o- sten - o'- sis) [angio-; Gzkvojacc, a narrowing]. Narrowing of a ves- sel.
  • Angiosteogenic, Angiosteogenous (an-je-o- ste-oj'-en-ik, -us) [angio-; ooriov, a bone; yevvav, to produce]. Relating to, producing, or produced by calcification of the vessels.
  • Angiosymphysis (an -je-o- sim r - fiz - is) [angio-; adficfruacf, a growing together]. The growing together of vessels.
  • Angiosynizesis (an -je -o- sin -e-ze f - sis) [angio-; ouvc^avetv, to collapse]. The collapse of the walls of a vessel and subsequent growing together.
  • Angiotenic (an- je-o -ten' -ik) [angio-; re'eveev, to stretch]. Due to or marked by distention of the blood-vessels.
  • Angioteria (an-je-o-te' -re-ah) [angio-; xkpic, a wonder]. An abnormal development of the vascular system.
  • Angio thlipsis (an-je-o-thlip'-sis) [angio-; Ol't- fteev, to rub; to gall]. The abrasion of a ves- sel.
  • Angiotitis (an-je-o-ti' -tis) [angio-; otitis]. In- flammation of the blood-vessels of the ear.
  • Angiotome (an' -je-o -torn) [angio-; rop.Tj, a cut- ting]. The vascular tissue of an embryonic metamere.
  • Angiotomy (an-je-ot'-o-me) [see Angiotome]. i. Incision into a vessel. 2. That branch of anatomy relating to the vascular system.
  • Angio tribe (an'-je-o-trib) [angio-; rpCjSsiv, to grind or bruise]. A clamp furnished with powerful jaws used by Turner to occlude arteries in vaginal hysterectomy.
  • Angiotripsy (an-je-o-trip'-se) [see Angiotribe]. Vascular torsion and compression by means of the angiotribe.
  • Angle, Angulus (ang'-gl, ang'-gu-lus) [an- gulus, an angle]. 1. A corner. 2. The de- gree of divergence of two lines or planes that meet each other; the space between two such lines. A. of Aberration. See A. of Devia- tion. A., Acromial, that formed between the head of the humerus and the clavicle. A., Alpha, in optics, that formed by the intersection of the visual line and optic axis. A., Alveolar, that formed between a line passing through a spot beneath the nasal spine and the most prominent point of the lower edge of the alveolar process of the superior maxilla and the cephalic horizontal line. A. of Aperture, in optics, that in- cluded between two lines joining the oppo- site points of the periphery of a lens and the focus. A., Biorbital, in optics, that formed by the intersection of the axes of the orbits. A., Costal, the angle formed by the meeting of ribs at the ensiform cartilage. A., Critical, that made by a beam of light passing from a rarer to a denser medium, with the perpendicular, without being en- tirely reflected. A. of Deviation. 1. In magnetism, the angle traversed by the needle when disturbed by some magnetic force. 2. In optics, that formed by a re- fracted ray and the prolongation of the inci- dent ray. A. of Elevation, in optics, that made by the visual plane with its primary position when moved upward or downward. A. of Incidence, in optics, the angle at which a ray of light strikes a denser medium and undergoes reflection or refraction. A.
  • of Inclination (of Pelvic Canal) , in obstet- rics, that formed by the anterior wall of the pelvis with the conjugate diameter. A. of Inclination (of Pelvis), in obstetrics, that formed by the pelvis with the general line of the trunk, or that formed by the plane of the inferior strait with the horizon. A. of Jaw, the junction of the lower border of the ramus of the mandible with its posterior border. A., Limiting. , See A., Critical. A. of the Lips, that formed by the union of the lips at each extremity of the mouth. A., Louis', that between the manubrium and gladiolus of the sternum. A., Lud- wig's. See A., Louis'. A., Meter-, in optics, the degree of convergence of the eyes when centered on an object one meter distant from each. A., Optic, that in- cluded between lines joining the extremities of an object and the nodal point. The small- est is about 30 seconds. A. of Polarization, in optics, the angle of reflection at which light is most completely polarized. A. of the Pubes, that formed by the junction of the pubic bones at the symphysis. A. of Reflection, in optics, that which a reflected ray of light makes with a line drawn perpen- dicular to the point of incidence. A. of Refraction, in optics, that which exists between a refracted ray of light and a line drawn perpendicular to the point of inci- dence. A., Rolandic, the acute angle formed by the fissure of Rolando with the superior ANGLESEY LEG 69 border of the cerebral hemisphere. A., Sacrovertebral, that which the sacrum forms with the last lumbar vertebra. A., Sterno- clavicular, that existing between the clavicle and the sternum. A., Subcostal. See A., Costal. A., Subpubic, that formed at the pubic arch. A., Sylvian, the angle formed by the posterior limb of the sylvian fissure with a line perpendicular to the superior border of the hemisphere. A., Visual. See A., Optic. A., Xiphoid, that formed by the sides of the xiphoid notch.
  • Anglesey Leg (an'-gl-se) [so called after the Marquis of Anglesey], An artificial limb formed from a solid piece of wood hol- lowed out to receive the stump and provided with a steel joint at the knee. The ankle-joint was made of wood, to which motion was communicated by strong cat- gut strings posteriorly and a spiral spring anteriorly.
  • Angophrasia (an-go-fra' -ze-ah) \p-TX^ cv ^ to choke; (ppaotc, utterance]. A speech-defect consisting of a choking, drawling utterance, occurring in paralytic dementia.
  • Angor (an'-gor) [angor, a strangling]. Syn- onymous with Angina. A. animi, a sense of imminent dissolution. Afpectoris, angina pectoris.
  • Anguillula (an-gwiV '-u-lah) [dim. of anguilla, an eel]. A genus of parasitic roundworms. A. stercoralis. See Threadworm.
  • Angular (an'-gu-lar) [angulus, an angle]. Per- taining to an angle. A. Artery, the ter- minal branch of the facial artery. A. Gyrus, A. Convolution, a convolution of the brain. See Convolution. A. Move- ment, the movement between two bones that may take place forward and backward or inward and outward. A. Processes, the ex- ternal and internal extremities of the orbital arch of the frontal bone.
  • Angulation (an-gu-la' -shun) . The formation of angular loops in the intestine. Angulus [an' -gu-lus) . [L.]. See Angle.
  • Angustura (an-gus-tu f -rah) [Sp., Angostura, a S. A. town]. Cusparia bark. The bark of Galipea cusparia. It is a stimulant tonic and febrifuge, used in malignant bilious fever, intermittent fever, and dysentery. In large doses it is emetic. Dose of fluidextract 10-30 min. (0.6-2.0 Cc); of the bark 10-40 gr. (0.6-2.5 Gm.); of the infusion {infusum cusparice, B. P.) 1-2 oz. (30-60 Cc).
  • Anhalonin (an-hal-o 1 '-nin) [Anhalonium, a genus of cacti], C 12 H 15 N0 3 . A poisonous alkaloid from Anhalonium lewinii. It forms salts with the ordinary acids. A. Hydro- chlorate, C, 2 H 15 N0 3 HC1, is a cardiac and respiratory stimulant and is used as is strych- nin in angina pectoris, asthma, and pneu- mothorax.
  • Anhelation (an-hel-a' -shun) [anhelare, to pant]. Shortness of breath; dyspnea.
  • Anhelitus (an-heV -it-us) [L.]. 1. Respiration. 2. Difficult respiration; asthma.
  • ANIMAL Anhematosis (an-hem-at-o 1 '-sis) [dv, priv.; at/jtaroecv, to make bloody]. Defective for- mation of the blood.
  • Anhidrosis (an-hid-ro' -sis) [dv, priv.; idpcoc, sweat]. Partial or complete absence of sweat secretion.
  • Anhidrotic (an-hid-rof -ik) [see Anhidrosis], 1. Tending to check sweating. 2. An agent that checks sweating.
  • Anhydremia (an-hi-dre' -me-ah) [dv, priv.; 00 cop, water; dlp.a, blood]. The opposite of hydremia. A diminution of the watery con- stituents of the blood. Anhydrid ian-hi' -drid) [dv, priv.'; uocop, water]. A chemic compound, particularly an acid, formed by the withdrawal of a mole- cule of water. Carbon dioxid and sulfur dioxid are examples.
  • Anhydrite (an-hi f -drit) . Anhydrous calcium sulfate.
  • Anhydrous (an-hi' '-dries) [see Anhydrid], In chemistry, a term used to denote the absence of water.
  • Anideus (an-id' -e-us) [dv, priv.; e'edoc, form]. The lowest form of omphalosite, in which the parasitic fetus is reduced to a shapeless mass of flesh covered with skin.
  • Anilid (an'-il-id) [Ar., al, the; nil, dark blue]. A compound formed by the action of acid chlorid or acid anhydrid upon anilin. The anilids are very stable derivatives.
  • Anilidmetarsenite (an-il-id-met-ar' -sen-it) , C 6 - H 6 N0 2 ASC 6 H 5 NHAs0 2 . A white, odorless powder containing 37.69% of arsenic, about half as much as arsenic trioxid. It dissolves in water up to 20 %, and is used by sub- cutaneous injection in skin diseases. Dose f-3 gr. (0.05-0.2 Gm.) of 20 % solution a day. Syn., Atoxyl.
  • Anilin (an'-il-in) [see Anilid], C 6 H 7 N. Amido- benzene; -formed in the dry distillation of bituminous coal, bones, indigo, isatin, and other nitrogenous substances. It is made by reducing nitrobenzene. It is a colorless liquid with a faint, peculiar odor, boiling at 183 ; its sp. gr. at o° is 1.036. When perfectly pure, it solidifies on cooling, and melts at — 8°. It is slightly soluble in water, but dissolves readily in alcohol and ether. Combined with chlorin, the chlorates, and hypochlorites, it yields . the various anilin dyes known by the names of a. purple, a. green, a. black, a. blue, etc. It is used in chorea and epilepsy in \ gr. (0.03 Gm.) doses. Unof. Syn., Phenylamin; Benzidam; Crystal- lin; Cyanol.
  • Anilism (an' -il-izm) [anilin]. An acute or chronic disease produced in workmen in ani- lin factories by the poisonous fumes. The symptoms are debility, vertigo, gastrointesti- nal disturbance, and cyanosis. Animal ian'-i-mal) [anima, the spirit, breath, or life]. An organism capable of ingesting ANIMALCULE 70 ANITOL and digesting food. No sharp line of distinc- tion exists between the lowest animals and certain vegetables. The higher animals are distinguished by the power of locomotion and the possession of a nervous system. A. Charcoal, bone-black, ivory-black, etc., is the product of the calcining of bones in closed vessels. A. Chemistry, that con- cerned with the composition of animal bodies. A. Electricity, electricity gener- ated in the body. A. -gum, C^H^O^ + 2- H 2 0. A substance prepared from mucin by Landwehr, and so named on account of its resemblance to the gum of commerce. It occurs in many tissues of the body, is soluble in water, and in alkaline solution readily dis- solves cupric oxid, the solution not being re- duced on boiling. It yields no coloration with iodin, and is very feebly dextrorotatory. A. Heat, the normal temperature of the body in man — about 98. 5 F. (37 C). A. Magnetism, mesmerism; hypnotism. A. Starch. See Glycogen.
  • Animalcule (an-im-aV -kul) [animalculum, a minute animal]. An animal organism so small as to require the microscope for its examination.
  • Anime (an'-im-e) [Fr., anime, origin doubt- ful]. A name of various resins, especially that of Hymencea courbaril, a tree of tropical America; sometimes used in plaster, etc. Unof.
  • Aniodol (an-i' -o-dol) . A glycerol solution of trioxymethylene, useful as an antiseptic in % solution.
  • Anion (an'-i-on) [ana, up; Icbv, going]. In electrolysis, an electronegative element.
  • Aniridia (an-i-rid'-e-ah) [dv, priv.; ipcc, the rainbow]. Absence or defect of the iris.
  • Anisalol (an-is' -al-ol) , C 6 H 4 (OCH 3 )C0 2 C 6 H 5 . The phenyl ester of anisic acid, forming colorless crystals. It is antirheumatic and analgesic. Dose 8-15 gr. (0.52-1.0 Gm.).
  • Anisalyl (an-is' -al-il) [anisic; alcohol], C 8 H 9 0. The univalent radicle of anisic alcohol. A. Hydrate, anisic alcohol.
  • Anisamid (an-is' -am-id) , C 8 H 9 N0 2 . The amid of anisic acid; anisyl amid.
  • Anisated (an'-is-a-ted) [anisum, anise]. Con- taining anise.
  • Anise (an' -is). See Anisum.
  • Aniseed (an'-i-sed). Anise-seed. The seed of Pimpinella anisum. See Anisum. Anisic Acid. See Acid, Anisic.
  • Anisidin (an-is' -id-hi), N(C 7 H 7 0)H 2 . A base obtained from nitranisol by action of am- monium sulfid in alcoholic solution; with acids it forms crystalline compounds. Syn., M ethyl phenidin; Methylamido phenol. A. Ci- trate, an analgesic similar to phenetidin citrate.
  • Anisin (an' -is -in) [anisum, anise], C 22 H 24 N 2 - 3 . A crystalline alkaloid, a derivative of anise.
  • Aniso chromatic (an-is -o-kro -mat' -ik) [avccoc, unequal; ypu)p.a, color]. Not having the same color throughout; said of solutions containing two pigments used in testing for color-blindness.
  • Anisocoria (an - is -0 -ko 1 '-re -ah) [anisos; Kopr), pupil]. Inequality of the diameter of the pupils.
  • Anisol (an' -is -of) [see Anisin], C 7 H s O. Methylphenyl ether, produced by heating phenol with potassium and methyl iodid or potassium methyl sulfate in alcoholic solution. It is an ethereal-smelling liquid, boiling at 15 2 ; its sp. gr. at 15 is 0.991.
  • Anisomelous (an - is - om' -el- us) [anisos; pekoe, a limb]. Having limbs of unequal length.
  • Anisometropia (an-is-o-met-ro' -pe-ah) [anisos; fihpov, a measure; dxp, the eye]. A difference in the refraction of the two eyes.
  • Anisometropic (an-is -0 -met -rop' -ik) [see Anisometropia]. Affected with anisomet- ropia.
  • Anisopia (an-is -o r -pe-ah) [anisos; uxp, eye]. In- equality of visual power in the two eyes.
  • Anisosthenic (an-is -0 -sthen' -ik) [anisos; odevbc, strength]. Not of equal power; used of pairs of muscles.
  • Aniso tachys (an-is-ot f -a-kis) [anisos; ~aybc, quick]. Applied to an accelerated pulse of varying rapidity.
  • Anisotropal, Anisotropic, Anisotropous (an- is -o-tr op' -al, an-is -o-trop'-ik, an-is -of -ro -pus) [anisos; rporcoc, turning]. Not possessing the same light-refracting properties in all direc- tions; a term applied to doubly refracting bodies. In biology, varying in irritability in different parts or organs.
  • Anisotrophy (an-is-ot'-ro-fe) [see Anisotropal]. The quality of being doubly refractive or un- equally refractive in different directions; or of being unequally responsive to external in- fluences.
  • Anisum (an'-is-um) [L.]. Anise. The fruit of Pimpinella anisum. Its properties are due to a volatile oil. It is slightly stimu- lant to the heart action. It liquefies bron- chial secretions, and is therefore a favorite ingredient in cough -mixtures. Dose 10-20 gr. (0.65-1.3 Gm.).. Anisi, Aqua (U. S. P.), oil of anise, 1; water, 500 parts. Dose in- definite. Anisi, Essentia (B. P.). Dose 10-20 min. (0.6-1.2 Cc). Anisi, Oleum (U. S. P.), an ingredient in tinctura opii cam- phorata. Dose 1-5 min. (0.06-0.3 Gm.).
  • Anisi, Spiritus (U. S. P.), a 10% solution of the oil in alcohol. Dose 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc).
  • Anisyl (an'-is-il) [anisum], C 8 H 7 2 . A hypo- thetic radicle supposed to be found in anise and its derivatives.
  • Anitin (an'-it-in). A brownish powder ob- tained from ichthyol. In 33 % aqueous solution it combines with phenols, etc., to form anitols. Syn., I chthyo sulfonic acid.
  • Anitol (an'-it-ol). Any one of the soluble compounds formed by anitin with phenols, cresols, etc.; they possess germicidal proper- ties.
  • Ankle (ang'-kl) [ME., ancle]. The joint be- tween the leg and the foot. It is a gingly- mus joint, with three ligaments, the anterior, internal, and external. A. -bone, the astra- galus. A. -clonus, the succession of a num- ber of rhythmic muscular contractions in Posterior View of the Ankle-joint. — (Sappey.) Posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament. 2. Transverse ligament. 3. Posterior fasciculus of the external lateral ligament. 4, 6. Internal lateral ligament. 5. Exter- nal calcaneoastragalar ligament. 7. Middle fasciculus of external lateral ligament. 8. Tubercle on outer side of groove for flexor longus pollicis. 9. Posterior tuber- osity of os calcis. 10. Tubercle on inner side of groove for flexor longus pollicis. n. Groove on astragalus for flexor longus pollicis. 12. Posterior calcaneoas- tragalar ligament. 13. Point of insertion of achilles tendon.
  • Vertical Section of Ankle-joint. — (Henle.) Tibialis posticus. 2. Flexor longus digitorum. 3. Flexor longus hallucis. 4. Astragalus. 5. Astragalocalcanean ligament. 6. Peroneus brevis. 7. Os calcis. 8. Peroneus longus. The calf of the leg when the foot is suddenly flexed by pressure upon the sole. It is a symptom of various diseases of the spinal cord, especially those involving the lateral pyramidal tracts. A. -jerk. See A. -clonus. A.-joint. See Ankle. A. Reflex. See A.- clonus. A., Tailors', a ganglion or synovial sac over the external malleolus in tailors, due to their constrained posture when at work. A. Valgus, a debilitated condition of the ankle-joint due to laxity of the in- ternal lateral ligament, permitting the foot to act as in talipes valgus.
  • Ankola (an-ko'-lah) [Hind.]. The bitter, em- etic root-bark of Alangium lamarkii, a tree of tropical Asia and Africa. It is used in India in skin diseases and leprosy.
  • Ankyla, Ankyle (ang'-kil-ah, -e) [dyKuXrj, any- thing bent]. 1. An angular part, particularly the elbow. 2. Ankylosis of a joint with flexion. 3. Abnormal adhesion of parts.
  • Ankyloblepharon (ang-kil-o-blef'-ar-on) [an- kyle; ftXicfiapov, the eyelid]. The adhesion of the ciliary edges of the eyelids.
  • Ankylocolpos (ang-kil-o-kol'-pos) [ankyle; koItzoc, the vagina]. Atresia of the vagina or vulva.
  • Ankylomele (ang-kil-om'-el-e) [ankyle; fiiXoc, a limb]. The abnormal growing together of limbs (as of the fingers or toes).
  • Ankylose (ang'-kil-os) [dy-KuXi), a loop]. To be, or to become, consolidated or firmly united.
  • Ankylosis (ang - kil - 0' - sis) [see Ankylose]. Union of the bones forming an articulation, resulting in a stiff joint. A., Capsular, that due to cicatricial shrinking of the joint-cap- sule. A., Cartilaginous, a form observed as a sequel of subacute coxitis in the young, marked with great muscle tension and ab- sence of suppuration; the cartilages may remain intact for a long time, although the shrunken synovial membrane has ceased to secrete. A., Central, that due to causes present within the joint. A., Extracapsular, that due to rigidity of the parts external to the joint. A., False, A., Spurious, that due to the rigidity of surrounding parts. A., Generalized, ankylosis affecting many joints, or a tendency toward it. A., Intra- capsular, that due to rigidity of the struc- tures within a joint. A., Ligamentous, when the medium is fibrous. A., Muscular, that due to muscular contraction. A., True, A., Bony, that in which the connecting material is bone.
  • Ankylostoma, Ankylostomum (ang-kil-os' -to- mah, -mum) [dyKuXoc, crooked; ozofxa, a ANKYLOSTOMIASIS 72 ANONA mouth]. A genus of nematode worms, one species of which, A. duodenale, is some- times found in the human intestine. It pro- duces a condition analogous to pernicious an- emia.
  • Ankylostomiasis (ang-kil-os-to-mi' -as-is) [see Ankylo stoma]. The morbid condition pro- duced by the presence of the parasite An- kylostoma duodenale in the human intestine. It is especially prevalent among brickmakers and other workmen in Europe. Syn., Doch- miasis; Brickmakers' anemia; Tunnel anemia; Miners' cachexia; Egyptian chlorosis ; Un- cinariasis ; Hookworm disease.
  • Ankylo tia (ang-kil-o' -she-ah) [dfKuX-q, a loop; ouc, ear]. Union of the walls of the meatus auditorius.
  • Annatto (an-at'-o). See Annotto. Annectent ian-ek' '-tent) [ad, to; nectere, to bind]. Linking or binding together. A. Convolutions. See Convolution.
  • Annidalin (an-id' -al-in) . i. Dithymoltriiodid. A substitute for iodoform and aristol. 2. See Aristol.
  • Annotto (an-ot'-o) [native American]. A color- ing-matter obtained from the pellicles of the seeds of Bixa orellana. It is used to color plasters and as an artificial color for butter. Syn., Annatto; Arnotto.
  • Annuens (an'-u-enz) [annuere, to nod]. The rectus capitis anticus minor muscle.
  • Annular (an'-u-lar) [annulus, a ring]. Ring- like. A. Cartilage, the cricoid cartilage. A. Finger, the ring-finger. A. Ligament, the ligament surrounding the wrist and the ankle. A. Muscle of Muller, the circular fibers of the ciliary muscle. A. Process, A. Protuberance, the pons varolii. A. Re- flex(of macula), a ring-like reflection some- times seen with the ophthalmoscope around the macula. Annulus ian'-u-lus) [see Annular]. A ring- shaped or circular opening. A. abdomin- alis, the external or internal abdominal ring. A. abdominis, the inguinal ring. A. ciliaris, the boundary between the iris and the choroid. A. fibrosus. 1. The external part of the intervertebral discs. 2. Firm connective tis- sue containing elastic fibers surrounding the auriculoventricular openings of the heart. Syn., Annulus -fibrosus atrioventricular. A. inguinalis abdominalis, the internal abdominal ring. A. inguinalis cutaneus, the external abdominal ring. A. membranse tympani, an incomplete bony ring that forms the fetal auditory process of the tem- poral bone. A. migrans, a disease of the tongue marked by crescentic bands of a light -colored rash which spread over its dorsal surface and sometimes over the sides and under surface. Syn., Annulus errans. A. osseus, the tympanic plate. A. ovalis, the rounded or oval margin of the foramen ovale. A. tracheae, a tracheal ring. A. umbilicus, the umbilical ring. A. ventri- culi, the pylorus.
  • Anoceliadelphous (an-o-se-le-ah-deV -jus) [avco, upward; KocX'ca, a cavity; aoe\(f)oc, a brother]. United by the thorax or upper part of the abdomen. Anocheiloschisis, Anochiloschisis ian-o- ki-los-ki' -sis) [avco, upward; %e!Xoc, a lip; 01't^s.tv, to split]. An operation of splitting the upper lip for reducing its size.
  • Anococcygeal (an-o-kok-sij' -e-al) [anus, the fundament; kokku$, the coccyx]. Pertaining to the anus and the coccyx. A. Ligament, a ligament that connects the tip of the coccyx with the external sphincter ani muscle. Anodal ian'-o-dat) [dvd, up; bdbg, a way]. Relating to the anode; electropositive. A. Closure, the closure of an electric circuit with the anode placed in relation to the muscle or nerve which is to be affected. A. Closure Clonus, A. Closure Contraction. See Contraction, Anodal Closure. A. Dura- tion, the duration of an anodal closure con- traction.
  • Anode (an'-od) [see Anodal], The positive pole of a galvanic battery. A., Soluble, Sprague's term for an anode formed of the metal which is deposited.
  • Anodermous (an-o-der' -mus) [a, priv.; okpp.a, the skin]. Without the appearance of an epidermis.
  • Anodinia (an -0 -din' -e -ah) [a, priv.; did eg, the pain of childbirth]. Absence of labor- pains.
  • Anodontia (an-o -don' -she-ah) [dv, priv.; coouc, tooth]. Absence of the teeth.
  • Anodyne (an'-o-din) [dv, priv.; douvq, pain]. A medicine that gives relief from pain. A., Hoffmann's. See under Ether.
  • Anodynia (an-o-din'-e-ah) [see Anodyne]. 1. Freedom from pain. 2. Loss of sensation. Cf. Anodinia. Anoesia ian-o-e' -ze-ah) [dvorjola, a want of sense]. Want of understanding.
  • Anoia (an-oi'-ah) [dvoca, idiocy]. Synonym of Idiocy.
  • Anomalous (an-om'-al-us) [see Anomaly], Irregular; characterized by deviation from the common or normal order. Anomaly ian-om' -al-e) [dvcojiaXca, irregularity]. A marked deviation from the normal; an abnormal thing or occurrence.
  • Anomous (an-o'-mus) [d, priv.; tofioc, the shoulder]. Without shoulders.
  • Anona (an-o'-nah) [Malay, menona]. A genus of shrubs and trees of the order A.nonacece, native of tropical America. A. amboiay is a native of French Guiana. The bark is applied to malignant ulcers. A. glabra is a West Indian species. The juice of the unripe fruit is applied to ulcers. A. muri- cata, sour-sop, rough anona, is an American tree, but cultivated in all tropical countries, where the ripe fruit is a favorite food and used in a cooling drink for fevers. The astringent unripe fruit is used in intestinal atony. The bark is astringent and irritant; the root-bark is used in cases of disease resulting from ingestion of poisonous fish; ANONYMA 73 ANSA the leaf is anthelmintic and externally a suppurant. The edible fruit of A. obtusi- folia is used in South America and in the West Indies by the natives as a narcotic. A. reticulata, custard -apple, is a West In- dian tree, but cultivated throughout the tropics. The unripe dried fruit and seeds are used as an intestinal astringent; the kernels of the seeds are very poisonous; the leaves are anthelmintic. A. spinescens, of Brazil; the seeds are used to poison ver- min; the fruit as a poultice. A. squamosa, sweet-sop, bullock' s-heart, is an American tree cultivated throughout the tropics for its fruit, which is used medicinally as is A. muri- cata. The seeds are used to destroy insects; the bark is employed by the Malays and Chinese as a tonic.
  • Anonyma (an-on f -im-ah) [dv, priv.; ovupa, name]. The innominate artery.
  • Anonymos (an-on' '-im-us) [see Anonymd\. The cricoid cartilage.
  • Anonymous (an -on' -im-us) [see Anony- ma]. Nameless. A. Bone. See Innomina- tum.
  • Anoperineal (a-no-per-in-e'-al). Relating to the anus and the perineum.
  • Anopheles (an-of -el-ez) [dvajfeArjc, harmful]. A genus of dipterous insects (mosquitos) founded by Meigen (1818), belonging to the family Culicidoe. A. christopherse, of India, har- bors sporozoits, and in districts where present the endemic index of malaria varies from 40 to 72 %. A. maculipennis, is the com- mon form of northern and central Europe and America, and the common agent in the trans- mission of the malaria parasite. Syn., Ano- pheles quadrimaculatus . A. rossii, the most widely distributed species in India, breeding in foul water; does not carry the parasite of benign nor of malignant tertian fever, and in Calcutta, where this is the preva- lent species, the endemic index of malaria is zero.
  • Anophthalmia (an-of-thal'-me-ah) [dv, priv.; 6af£lv, to devour]. 1. Cannibalism. 2. Sex- ual perversion leading to rape, mutilation, and cannibalism.
  • Anthropophobia (an-thro-po-fo'-be-ah) [anthro- po-; (f)6{3oc, fear]. A symptom of mental dis- ease consisting in fear of society.
  • Anthropotoxin (an-thro-po-toks' -in) [anthropo-; xo^ckov, poison]. The toxic substance sup- posed to be excreted by the lungs of human beings.
  • Anthydropic (ant -hi- drop' '-ik) [anti-; udpco(/>, dropsy]. Effective against dropsy.
  • Anthypnotic (ant -hip- not' -ik) [anti-; uizvoz, sleep]. 1. Preventive of sleep. 2. An agent that tends to induce wakefulness.
  • Anthysteric (ant-his-ter'-ik) [anti-; uaxipa, the womb]. Overcoming hysteria.
  • Anti- (an-ti-) [dv-'c, against]. A prefix meaning against.
  • Antiades (an-ti' -ad-ez) [pi. of dvxtcig, tonsil]. The tonsils.
  • Antiagglutinin (an-te -a g-lu' -tin-in). A sub- stance opposed in action to an agglutinin.
  • Antiaggressin (an-te-ah-gres' -in) [anti-; aggres- sin]. A hypothetic content of the serum of an animal immunized to aggressin-containing serous exudate produced in a second animal by bacterial, inoculation.
  • Antialbumate (an-te-al' -bu-mat) [anti-; albumen, white of egg]. Parapeptone; a product of the imperfect digestion of albumin. It is changed by the pancreatic ferment into antipeptone.
  • Antialbumin (an-te-al' -bu-min) [see Antialbu- mate]. One of the products of the action of the digestion of albumin; it is probably one of the preformed substances existing in the proteid molecule.
  • Antialbumose (an-te-al' -bu-mos) [see Antialbu- mate]. One of the albumoses produced by the action of pancreatic juice on albumin. It resembles syntonin or acidalbumin, and is convertible into antipeptone.
  • Antiarin (an-te' -ar -in) [Javanese, antiar or ant- jar], C 14 H 20 O 5 + 2H 2 0. The active prin- ciple of Antiaris toxicaria or Upas antiar, the Javanese poison-tree. It is intensely poisonous and is used as an arrow-poison. It is a cardiac depressant. Dose T qq gr. (0.00065 Cm.). Unof.
  • Antibacterial (an- te-bak-te'- re -al) [anti-; bac- teria]. Acting against bacteria.
  • Antibacterin (an-te-bak' -ter-in) . 1. A pale yel- low fluid said to consist of boric acid, 6.25 parts; iron chlorid solution, 1.5 parts; ether chlorate, to make 100 parts. It is used by inhalation in tuberculosis, beginning with 150' gr. (10 Gm.) daily and increasing to 10 times that quantity. 2. Crude aluminium sulfate mixed with soot.
  • Antibiotic (an-te-bi-ot'-ik) [anti-; p'coc, life]. Tending to destroy life.
  • Antiblennorrhagic (an-te-blen-or-aj'-ik) [anti-; ftXkvva, mucus; prffvuvac, to burst]. Efficient in preventing or curing gonorrhea.
  • Antibodies (an-te-bod'-ez). Characteristic con- stituents of the blood and fluids of the im- mune animal; substances antagonistic to the harmful action of bacteria; e. g., antitoxins, agglutinins, precipitins, etc. They cause the envelop surrounding the bacterial bodies to swell, and on this account they are called by Gruber glabrificins . This swelling of the bacteria renders them amenable to the action of the alexins, through which their death en- sues. Cf. Antitoxin.
  • Antibrachial (an-te-bra' -ke-al) [anti-; Ppa%iujv,. The arm]. Pertaining to the forearm.
  • Antibrachium (an-te-bra' -ke-um) [see Anti- brachial]. The forearm.
  • Anticardium (an-te-kar' -de-um) [anti-; napoca, the heart]. The scrobiculus cordis, or pit of the stomach; the infrasternal depression.
  • Anticheirotonus, Antichirotonus (an-te-ki- rot'-o-nus) [anti-; yj'ip, hand; tgvoc, tension]. Forcible and steady inflection of the thumb, seen at times in or before attacks of epilepsy.
  • ■Antichlor (an' -te-klor) . 1. Sodium thiosulfate. 2. Potassium sulfite.
  • Anticholerin (an-te-kol'-er -in) [anti-; %oXkpa, cholera]. A product isolated by Klebs from cultures of cholera bacilli. Immunizing and curative properties have been ascribed to it.
  • Anticipating (an-tis' -ip-a-ting) [anticipare, to take before]. Occurring before the regular ANTICLINAL 77 ANTIKATHODE or expected time, as an anticipating inter- mittent fever, one in which the paroxysms occur earlier on successive days.
  • Anticlinal (an-te-kli'-nal) [anti-; kIIvzcv, to slope]. Sloping in opposite directions. A. Vertebra, in man, the tenth thoracic ver- tebra, where the thoracic vertebras begin to assume the characters of the lumbar.
  • Anticnemion (an-tik-ne' -me-on) [anti-; Kvrjfir), leg]. The shin or front of the leg.
  • Anticnesmatic (an-tik-nes-maf -ik) [anti-; KvfjOfjLOC, itching], i. Efficient against itching. 2. A remedy for itching.
  • Anticoagulant (an-te-ko-ag' -u-lant) [anti-; coag- ulum]. i. Opposed to or preventive of coag- ulation. 2. A substance preventing coagula- tion.
  • Anticomplement (an-te-kom' -ple-ment) [anti-; complement]. A substance held by Ehrlich in his lateral-chain theory to enter into the composition of an antihemolysin (q. v.). Cf. Antiimmune Body under Body.
  • AntiCope (an-tik'-op-e) [avrcKo-rj, a beating back]. Resonance; reaction; repercussion; counters troke.
  • Anticrisis (an-le-kri'-sis) [anti-; crisis]. An agent or phenomenon preventing a crisis.
  • Anticus (an-ti'-kus) [anticus, that in front]. Anterior; in front of. Anticyclic Acid. See Acid, Anticyclic.
  • Antidiabeticum (an-te-di-a-bef -ik-um) . A preparation recommended for diabetes, said to consist of wheat starch, sugar of milk, sulfur, powdered senna leaves, and fennel. Syn., Glycosolveol; Glycosolvol.
  • Antidiabetin (an-te-di-ab-ef '-in) . A mixture of saccharin and mannite,. used instead of sugar by diabetics.
  • Antidiastole (an-te-di-as' -to-le) [dvxcocaozoXri, distinction]. Differential diagnosis.
  • Antidinic (an-te-din' -ik) [anti-; o'tvoc, a whirl]. Curing or preventing vertigo.
  • Antidiphtherin (an-te-dif -ther-in) . A solution containing cultures of Bacillus diphtheria with 0.2 % of orthocresol and some glycerol. It is used externally and subcutaneously in diphtheria. A., Klebs', a preparation ob- tained by precipitation with alcohol from the culture-fluid of Bacillus diphtheria after re- moval of the bacilli.
  • Antidotal (an -te- do' -tat) [anti-; oo-Sf, given]. Having the nature of an antidote.
  • Antidote (an'-te-dot) [see Antidotal]. An agent preventing or counteracting the action of a poison. A., Arsenical (G. Ph.), is prepared by dissolving ioo parts of the hydrated sulfate of iron in 250 parts of water, to which 15 parts of burnt magnesia and 250 parts of water are added. A., Chemic, one that changes the chemic nature of the poison so that it becomes insoluble or harmless. A., Mechanic, one that pre- vents absorption by holding the poison in mechanic suspension or by coating the stom- ach. A., Physiologic, one that counteracts the physiologic effects of a poison. A., Universal, a mixture of 1 part of dis- solved iron sulfate in 2 parts of magnesia water.
  • Antidotism (ant'-id-o-tizm) [see Antidotal]. Therapeutic or physiologic antagonism; the possession of antidotal properties; the act of giving antidotes.
  • Aritidynamic (an-te-di-nam'-ik) [anti-; duvapicc, force]. Weakening. ' Antidysenteric (an-te-dis-en- ter'- ik) [anti-; duaevrep'ca, dysentery]. 1. Serviceable against dysentery. 2. A remedy for dysentery.
  • Antiemetic (an-te-em-et'-ik) [anti-; ifxexcKoc, causing vomit]. Preventing emesis; relieving nausea.
  • Antifebrin (an-te-feb' -rin) [anti-; febris, a fever], C 6 H 5 . C 2 H 3 . NH. The proprietary name of acetanilid or phenylacetamid. A white, crystalline powder, insoluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform. It is antipyretic and analgesic. The drug's official name is acetanilidum. Dose 5-10 gr. (0.3-0.6 Gm.).
  • Antiferment (an-te-fer' -ment) [anti-; fermentum, leaven]. An agent that prevents fermenta- tion.
  • Antifermentative (an-te-fer-men' -ta-tiv) [anti- ferment]. Preventing fermentation.
  • Antigalactic (an-te-gal-ak'-tik) [anti-; jala, milk]. 1. Lessening the secretion of milk. 2. A drug that lessens the secretion of milk.
  • Antigermin (an-te-jer'-min). A compound of copper and an acid, forming a yellowish- green, tenacious mass, soluble in 200 parts of water. It is said to be disinfectant, deo- dorant, and bactericidal.
  • Antigerminal (an-te-jer' '-min-al) [anti-; germen, germ]. Relating to the pole of the ovum opposed to the germinal pole.
  • Antihemolysin (an-te-hem-o-W -sin) [anti-; alfia, blood; Xuocc, solution]. A complex substance developed in the blood-serum as the result of inoculations with hemolysins. It is com- posed of anticomplements and antiimmune bodies.
  • Antihemo lytic (an-te-hem-o-lit'-ik). Relating to an antihemolysin; not capable of dis- solving blood-corpuscles.
  • Antihidrotic (an-te-hi-drot'-ik) [anti-; (dpcbf, sweat]. 1. Diminishing the secretion of sweat. 2. An agent lessening the secretion of sweat.
  • Antihydropin (an-te-hi'-dro-pin) [anti-; uocop, water]. A crystalline principle obtainable from the common cockroach, Blatta (Peri- planeta) orientalis, and said to be diuretic. Dose 10-20 gr. (0.6-1.3 Gm.).
  • Antikamnia (an-te-kam' -ne-ali) [anti-; Kap.v£cv, to suffer pain]. A proprietary remedy said to be composed of sodium bicarbonate, acetanilid, and caffein. It is used as an analgesic in doses of 5-10 gr. (0.32-0.65 Gm.).
  • Antikathode (a?i-te-kath , -od) [anti-; kathode]. A piece of platinum foil so placed in a Crookes tube as to intercept the kathode rays; being ANTIKOL 78 ANTIPALUDEAN thus rendered fluorescent, it becomes a source of rontgen-rays.
  • Antikol (an' -tik-ol) . A proprietary antipyretic mixture said to contain acetanilid, sodium bicarbonate, and tartaric acid.
  • Antileptic (an-til-ep'-tik) [ovzcXthJjcc, a receiv- ing in return]. Revulsive.
  • Antilithic (an-te-lith' -ik) [anti-; Xcdoc, a stone], i. Efficacious against calculus. 2. An agent preventing the deposit of urinary sedi- ment.
  • Antiluetic (an-te-lu-et'-ik) [anti^; hies, the plague; syphilis]. Efficacious against syph- ilis.
  • Antilypyrin (an-te-le-pV '-rin) . An antipyretic and analgesic substance obtained by heat- ing acetanilid, 1 part, with antipyrin, 2 parts. Dose 7-8 gr. (0.45-0.52 Gm.).
  • Antilysin (an-te-W -sin) [anti-; Xuocc, a loosing]. A substance opposed to the activity of a lysin.
  • Antilysis (an-tiV -is-is) . The condition due to the activity of antilysins.
  • Antilyssic (an-te-lis' -ik) [anti-; Xuooa, rabies]. 1. Tending to cure rabies. 2. A remedy for rabies.
  • Antimetropia (an-te-met-ro 1 '-pe-ah) [anti-; metro- pia]. A condition characterized by opposing states of refraction in the two eyes, as, for example, the existence of myopia in one eye and of hyperopia in the other.
  • Antimiasmatic (an-te-mi-as-mat'-ik) [anti-; fitao/Jta, exhalation]. Preventive of malaria.
  • Antimonial (an-te-mo' -ne-aV) [antimonium, an- timony]. Containing antimony.
  • Antimonic (an-te-mon' -ik) [see Antimonial]. A term applied to those compounds of anti- mony that correspond to its higher oxid.
  • Antimonious (an-te-mo' -ne- us) [see Anti- monio.Q. A term denoting those compounds of antimony that correspond to its lower oxid.
  • Antimony (an'-te-mo-ne) [L., antimonium]. Sb = 122 ; quanti valence ill and v. A metallic, crystalline element possessing a bluish-white luster. The symbol Sb is derived from the old name, stibium. Antimony is found na- tive, as the sulfid, Sb 2 S 3 , as the oxid, and is a constituent of many minerals. It is used commercially chiefly for making alloys. Type-metal, Britannia metal, and Babbitt antifriction metal are alloys of antimony. In medicine antimonium salts are used less frequently than formerly. The salts are cardiac and arterial depressants, diaphoretic and emetic, and in large doses powerful gastrointestinal irritants, producing symptoms resembling those of Asiatic cholera. Antimony has been used as an antiphlogistic in sthenic inflammation, as a diaphoretic and expec- torant, and as an emetic. A. Arsenate, a heavy white powder; it is used in syphilitic affections of the skin. Dose -^ gr. (0.001 Gm.) 4 times daily. A. Arsenite, a fine white powder; it is used in skin dis- eases. A. Chlorid, SbCl 3 , the "butter" of antimony; a strong caustic. A. Iodid, Sbl 3 , red crystals, decomposed by water, soluble in carbon disulnd; melts at 167 C. It is alterative. Dose ^-1 gr. (0.016-0.065 Gm.) in pills. A. Oxychlorid, the "pow- der of algaroth"; now little used. A. Pent- oxid, Sb 2 5 , antimonic acid, combines with bases to form antimoniates. A., Pills of, Compound (piluloe antimonii compositce, B. P.), Plummer's pills, contain calomel and sul- fureted antimony, of each, gr. (0.032 Gm.). A. and Potassium Tartrate (antimonii et potassii tartras, U. S. P.; antimonium tar- taratum, B.P.), 2 KSbOC 4 H 4 6 . H 2 0, "tartar emetic." Dose xg-J gr. (0.004-0.016 Gm.). A., Powder of (pulvis antimonialis, B. P.), antimonial powder, James' powder, con- sists of antimonious oxid 33, and calcium phosphate 67 parts, and is diaphoretic; in large doses, emetic and cathartic. Dose 3-8 gr. (0.2-0.5 Gm.). A. Sulfid, Sb 2 S 3 , black sulfid of antimony. Dose f-i gr. (0.016-0.065 Gm.). A. Sulfid, . Golden, Sb 2 S 5 , a fine, odorless, orange-yellow powder, soluble in alkaline solutions. It is alterative, diaphoretic, emetic, and expectorant. Dose ^-igr. (0.01-0.1 Gm.) several times daily. A., Sulfurated (antimonium sulphur atum, B.
  • P.), the sulfid with a small but indefinite amount of the oxid. Dose 1-5 gr. (0.065-0.32 Gm.). A. Tartrate, (SbO) 2 C 4 H 4 O e + H 2 0, a white, crystalline powder. Used internally as a substitute for arsenic in affections of the skin. Dose T V gr. (0.0065 Gm.) 3 to 5 times daily. A. Trioxid, antimonious acid, Sb 2 - 3 ; soluble in hydrochloric and tartaric acids. Dose 1-2 gr. (0.065-0.13 Gm.). It is an in- gredient of James' powder. A., Vegetable, boneset. A., Wine of (vinum antimonii, U. S. P.), boiling water, 60; tartar emetic, 4; stronger white wine, 1000 parts. It contains about 2 gr. of tartar emetic to the ounce. Dose 5-15 min. (0.3-1.0 Cc).
  • Antimycotic (an-te-mi-kof -ik) [anti-; p-tfiais, a fungus]. Destructive to microorganisms.
  • Antimydriatic (an-te-mid-re-at'-ik) [anti-; [ludpcaocc, mydriasis]. 1. Opposed to or ar- resting dilation of the pupils. 2. A drug efficacious against mydriasis.
  • Antinarcotic (an-te-nar-kot'-ik) [anti-; vapnujoce, a benumbing]. Preventing narcosis.
  • Antineuralgic (an-te-nu-ral' -jik) [anti-; vzvpov, a nerve; aXyoc, pain]. Overcoming neu- ralgia.
  • Antinonnin (an-te-non' -in) , C 6 H 2 . (N0 2 ) 2 .CH 3 - OK, potassium orthodinitrocresylate. See Di- nitrocresol.
  • Antiotomia, Antiotomy (an-te-o-to'-me-ah, an- te-ot'-om-e) [avxikc, a tonsil; xepivecv, to cut]. Excision of the tonsils.
  • Antipaludean (an-te-pal-u' -de-an) [anti-; palus, ANTIPARASITIC 79 ANTIRHEUMATIN a marsh]. Efficient against malarial dis- eases.
  • Antiparasitic (an-te-par-as-W -ik) [anti-; napaa- cxoc, a parasite]. i. Destroying parasites. 2. An agent destroying parasites.
  • Antiparastata (an -te - par - as'- tat - ah) [anti-; 7iapaoxaxj)C, testicle]. Cowper's glands.
  • Antipeptone (an-te-pep' -ton) [anti-; nknxecv, to cook; digest]. A variety of peptone not acted upon by trypsin.
  • Antiperiodic (an-te-pe-ri-od' -ik) [anti-; nepcodoc, a going round], i. Preventing periodic at- tacks of a disease. 2. A remedy against periodic disease. A. Tincture. See War- burg's Tincture.
  • Antiperistalsis (an-te-per-is-taV -sis) [anti-; nep'c, around; axaXa'cc, compression]. Reversed peristalsis.
  • Antiperistaltic (an -te- per - is - tal' - tik) [see Antiperistalsis]. Relating to antiperistal- sis.
  • Antiperonosporin (an-te-per -o-nos' '-por-in) . Topasol G. I, an antiseptic preparation of zinc and copper sulfates.
  • Antiphlogistic (an-te-flo-jis' -tik) [anti-; (j>X6y- ojocc, inflammatory heat]. 1. Counteracting fever. 2. An agent subduing or reducing inflammation or fever. 3. Applied to the pneumatic theory of Lavoisier as having supplanted Stahl's phlogistic theory. A. Treatment, bloodletting, the application of cold, the administration of antipy- retics, etc.
  • Antiphlogistin (an-te-flo-jis' '-tin) . A paste said to consist of kaolin, glycerol, and antisep- tics; it is a substitute for poultices.
  • Antiphlogosis (an-te-flo-go' -sis) [see Antiphlo- gistic]. 1. The reduction of inflammation. 2. Inflammation purposely excited to counter- act other inflammation.
  • Antiphthisin (an-te-ti' -sin) . Dilute tuberculin, made from the slight residue after precipita- tion with sodium bismuth iodid.
  • Antiplastic (an-te-plas' -tik) [anti-; nXaooecv, to form]. 1. Unfavorable to granulation or to the healing process. 2. An agent impover- ishing the blood. 3. Preventing or checking plastic exudation.
  • Antipodal (an-tip' -od-al) [anti-; tiouc, a foot]. Situated directly opposite. A. Cells, a term applied to a group of four cells formed in the lower end of the embryo -sac op- posite to the cells constituting the egg- apparatus. A. Cone, the cone of astral rays opposite to the spindle -fibers.
  • Antipraxia (an-te-praks' -e-ah) [anti-; npaooecv, to do]. Antagonism of functions or of symptoms.
  • Antiprostatitis (an-te-pros-tat-i'-tis) [anti-; npooxaxa, the prostate; exec,' inflammation]. Inflammation of Cowper's glands. Syn., A ntiparastatitis.
  • Antipruritic (an-te-pru-rif -ik) [anti-; pruritus, itching]. 1. Relieving the sensation of itch- ing. 2. A drug that relieves the sensation of itching.
  • Antipsoric (an-tip-so'-rik) [anti-; (pebpa, the itch]. Effective against itching or the itch.
  • Antipyresis (an -te- pi -re' -sis) [anti-; nupexdc, fever]. The reduction of fever by means of antipyretics.
  • Antipyretic (an-te-pi-ref -ik) [see Antipyresis]. 1. Cooling; lowering the temperature. 2. An agent reducing temperature. The most im- portant antipyretic agents are cold, diaphor- etics, and the newer remedies, many of which are coal-tar products, such as antipyrin, acetanilid, phenacetin, etc.
  • Antipyrin (an-te-pi'-rin) [anti-; itbp, fever heat], C n n i2 N 2 0. Phenazon. The scien- tific name is dimethyloxychinicin-phenyldi- methylpyrazolon, or dihydrodimethylphenyl- pyrazin. An alkaloidal product of the de- structive distillation of coal-tar. It may be produced by heating acetoacetic ester with methylphenylhydrazin. It is a grayish or reddish-white, crystalline powder, slightly bit- ter, soluble in water, alcohol, and chloro- form, and crystallizes from an ethereal solution in shining leaflets melting at 113 . It reduces temperature, causes sweating, at times vomit- ing, peculiar eruptions, pruritus, coryza, etc. Not rarely a cyanotic condition of the face and hands is produced. Antipyrin is incom- patible with nitrous compounds. It is a powerful antipyretic and analgesic. Dose 5-15 gr. (0.3-1.0 Gm.). A. Bichloral, a trituration-product of 94 parts of anti- pyrin with 165.5 parts of chloral hydrate; it is hypnotic and analgesic. Maximum dose 45 gr. (3 Gm.). Syn., Dichloralanti- pyrin. A. Mandelate, a crystalline com- pound of antipyrin and amygdalic acid, used as a remedy for whooping-cough. Dose f-8 gr. (0.05-0.5 Gm.). Syn., Tussol; Phenyl- glycollate. A. Salicylate, A. Salol, a brown liquid obtained by fusing together equal parts of phenyl salicylate and antipyrin. It is recommended as an antiseptic, and as a hemostatic in uterine hemorrhage, applied by means of cotton tampons. Syn., Sali- pyrin. A., Test for. See Fieux.
  • Antirabic (an-te-ra' -bik) [anti-; rabies, madness]. Preventing or curing rabies.
  • Antirennene (an-te-ren'-en). Morgenroth's name for the principle which appears in the blood of an animal following the introduction of rennet. It has the power of impeding the action of rennet on milk.
  • Antirheumatic (an-te-ru-maf -ik) [anti-; rheu- matism]. Preventing or curing rheuma- tism.
  • Antirheumaticum (an-te-ru-maf -ik-um) . A compound of sodium salicylate and methyl- ene-blue. It occurs in blue, prismatic crys- tals, soluble in water and alcohol. Dose 1-1^ gr. (0.06-0.09 Gm.).
  • Antirheumatin (an-te-ru' -mat-in) . An oint- ment used in treatment of rheumatism, and said to contain fluorphenetol, 1 part; di- fluordiphenyl, 4 parts; vaselin, 10 parts; wool-fat, 85 parts.
  • ANTIRRHINUM 80 ANTITOXIC Antirrhinum (an-te-ri' -num) [L.]. A genus of scrophulariaceous plants. A. linaria, called also Linaria vulgaris, toadflax, ram- sted, " butter-and-eggs, " is a herbaceous plant of Europe and North America; diuretic, cathartic, and irritant; used as a poultice and fomentation.
  • Antiscorbutic (an-te-skor-bu' -tik) [anti-; scor- butus, scurvy]. i. Effective against scurvy. 2. A remedy useful in scurvy.
  • Antisensitizer (an-te-sen' '-sit-i-zer) . In Ehr- lich's side-chain theory, a substance antag- onistic in its action to that of the inter- mediary body or sensitizer.
  • Antisepsin (an-te-sep' -sin) [and-; orj^cf, putre- faction], C 6 H 4 BrNHC 2 H 3 0. Asepsin; bro- mated acetanilid; soluble in alcohol and ether, insoluble in water. It is antipyretic, analgesic, and antiseptic. Dose 6-7 gr. (0.30-0.45 Gm.).
  • Antisepsis (an-te-sep' -sis) [see Antisepsin]. Ex- clusion of the germs that cause putrefac- tion. Antiseptic ian-te-sep' '-tik) [see Antisepsin]. 1. Having power to prevent the growth of the bacteria upon which putrefaction depends. 2. An agent that prevents development of bacteria. Among the principal antiseptics are mercuric chlorid, creolin, phenol, iodoform, thymol, salicylic acid, boric acid, formaldehyd, and potassium permanganate. A. Gauze, open cotton cloth charged with an antiseptic. A. Ligature, catgut or other material rendered aseptic by soaking in antiseptic solutions. A. Treatment of Wounds, this looks to thor- ough antisepsis as regards the wound, the instruments, the operator's hands, the dress- ings, etc.
  • Antisepticism (an-te-sep' -tis-izm) [see Antisep- sin]. The theory or systematic employment of antiseptic methods.
  • Antisepticize (an-te-sep' -tis-lz) [see Antisepsin]. To render antiseptic; to treat with anti- septics.
  • Antiseptin (an-te-sep' -tin) [see Antisepsin]. 1. Zinc borothymoliodid. It consists of 85 parts zinc sulfate, 2.5 parts each of zinc iodid and thymol, and 10 parts boric acid. It is an antiseptic. 2. A proprietary preparation said to consist of sodium or potassium silicate, 2 parts, and a 0.1 % solution of mercuric chlorid, 1 part.
  • Antiseptol (an-te-sep' -tol) [see Antisepsin]. Cinchonin iodosulfate, an odorless and fairly effective substitute for iodoform. Antiserum Method. A method of differentiat- ing human from other blood; modified Uhlen- huth's antiserum method. Human blood- serum is injected into the peritoneal cavity of rabbits in doses of 10 Cc. every 8 or 10 days. After 6 injections their blood is collected and preserved on ice ; the serum is pipeted off after 24 hours. Some rabbits, as control-animals, are not injected. The blood to be tested is, if dried, first dissolved, and then, as is fluid blood, diluted with ordinary water and salt solution. Several drops of the test-serum are added and the tubes placed at a tempera- ture of 35 . If the blood to be tested is human, a turbidity appears invariably; if not human, it remains clear.
  • Antisialagog (an-te-si-aV -a-gog) [anti-; ocaXov, saliva; ayiDjbg, leading]. 1. Preventing or checking salivation. 2. A remedy that is .. effective against salivation.
  • Antisialic (an-te-si-al'-ik) [anti-; a'caXov, saliva]. 1. Checking the flow of saliva. 2. An agent that checks the secretion of saliva.
  • Antisideric (an-te-sid-er'-ik) [anti-; owepoc, iron]. 1. Incompatible with iron and count- eracting its effects; impoverishing the blood. 2. An agent or drug opposed to the action of iron; one which impoverishes the blood.
  • Antispasmin (an-te-spaz'-min), C 23 H 26 N0 8 Na- + 3NaC 7 H 6 3 . A compound of 1 molecule of narcein sodium united with 3 molecules of sodium salicylate, occurring as a white, slightly hygroscopic powder containing about 50 % of narcein. It is sedative and hypnotic. Dose \-i\ gr. (0.01-0.1 Gm.).
  • Antispasmodic (an-te-spaz-mod'-ik) [anti-; oxaofioc, a spasm]. 1. Tending to relieve spasm. 2. An agent relieving convulsions or spasmodic pains, as the narcotics, the nitrites, etc.
  • Antispastic (an-te-s pas' -tik) [anti-; anaozcKoc, drawing]. 1. Revulsive; counterirritant. 2. Antispasmodic. 3. A revulsive agent.
  • Antistaphylolysin (an-te-staf-il-o-li' -sin) [anti-; Staphylococci, a genus of bacteria; Xuocc, a loosing]. A substance antagonistic to the toxic products of staphylococci, contained in healthy blood -serum.
  • Antistreptococcic (an -te- strep -to- kok'-sik) anti-; Streptococci, a genus of bacteria]. An- tagonistic to or preventing the action of streptococci.
  • Antisudoral (an - te - su' - dor - at) [anti-; sudor, sweat]. Checking the secretion of sweat.
  • Antisyphilitic (an-te-sif-il-it'-ik) [anti-; syph- ilis]. 1. Effective against syphilis. 2. A remedy used in the treatment of syphilis.
  • Antithenar (an-tith' -en-ar) [anti-; dkvap, the flat of the hand or the sole of the foot]. 1. Opposite to thenar. 2. A muscle that ex- tends the thumb or opposes it to the hand; an antithenar muscle. A. Eminence, the border of the palm of the hand from the base of the little finger to the wrist. A. Muscles, of the toe and of the thumb; the abductor pollicis pedis and the flexor brevis pollicis manus; also, the first dorsal interosseous muscle.
  • Antithermic (an-.te-ther'-mik) [anti-; 6ipp.rj, heat]. Cooling; antipyretic.
  • Antithermin (an-te-ther' -min) [see Antithermic], C n H ]4 2 N 2 . Phenylhydrazinlevulinic acid, a coal-tar derivative used as an antipyretic, an- algesic, and antiseptic. Dose 5 gr. (0.3 Gm.). Unof.
  • Antitoxic (an-te-toks'-ik) [anti-; xo^ckov, poison]. Antidotal; counteracting poisons.
  • ANTITOXIN 81 ANURESIS Antitoxin (an-te -to ks' -in) [see Antitoxic], i. A counterpoison or antidote elaborated by the body to counteract the toxins of bacteria. According to some authorities, antitoxins are, like the toxins, bacterial products. Antitoxins are used in the treatment of certain infectious diseases and also to confer immunity against these diseases. 2. The commercial name for a fine white powder said to be a coal-tar product and used as an analgesic and anti- pyretic. Dose 10-15 g r - (0.65-1.0 Gm.) in from 1 to 4 hours. A., Artificial, an anti- toxin prepared by passing an electric cur- rent through a toxic bouillon. A., Diph- theria, one prepared from the blood-serum of an animal inoculated with Bacillus diph- theria. A., Tetanus, one prepared from the blood-serum of an animal inoculated with Bacillus tetani. A. Unit, 10 times the amount of serum requisite to neutralize com- pletely 10 times the minimum fatal dose of diphtheria toxin in a half-grown guinea- pig; or the amount of antitoxin which, when inoculated into a guinea-pig of 250 Gm. weight, will neutralize 100 times the mini- mum fatal dose of ioxin of standard weight.
  • Antitragic (an-te-traj'-ik) [anti-; ipajog, the tragus]. Pertaining to the antitragus. A. Muscle, a mere rudiment in man; it arises from the antitragus, and extends to the cauda of the helix.
  • Antitragus (an-te-tra' -gus) [see Antitragic]. An eminence of the external ear opposite the tragus.
  • Anti trismus (an-te-tris' -mus) [anti-; xpiap.bg, a creaking]. A condition in which the open mouth cannot be closed.
  • Antitrope (an'-te-trop) [anti-; xpkrcscu, to turn]. Any organ set over against another to form a symmetric pair. Thus, the right eye is an antitrope to the left.
  • Antityphoid (an-te-ti'-foid). Opposed to ty- phoid. A. Extract, a preparation obtained by injecting repeatedly cultures of typhoid bacilli of increasing virulence into the peri- toneal cavity of rabbits. The animals are killed as soon as they do not react to poi- sonous doses, and extracts are made of the thymus, spleen, bone-marrow, brain, and spinal cord, by soaking these organs in a solution of salt, glycerol, and alcohol, with the addition of some pepsin. The filtrate is injected in typhoid cases.
  • Antitypic (an-te -tip' -ik) [anti-; xutzoc;, a type]. 1. Efficient against the periodic recurrence of a paroxysm or fever. 2. Irregular; not conformable to a type. 3. An anti- periodic.
  • Antiuratic (an-te-u-rat'-ik). 1. Effica- cious against the deposition of urates. 2. An agent that prevents the deposit of urates.
  • Antivenin (an-te -ven'-in) [anti-; venenum, poison]. A serum perfected by Calmette by injecting cobra venom mixed with so- lutions of calcium hypochlorite into horses. It is used in doses of 2-3-5 ( ^ Lr - (10-20 Cc.) in 7 bites of venomous serpents. Syn., Anti- venene.
  • Antivenomous (an-te-ven'-om-us). Antago- nistic to venom; a term applied to im- munized animals, to certain serums, and to antitoxins.
  • Antivirulent (an-te -vir'-u-lent) [anti-; virus, a poison]. Effective against viruses.
  • Antizymotic (an-te-zi-mot'-ik) [anti-; £upoj- oYf, fermentation]. 1. Preventing or check- ing fermentation. 2. An agent preventing the process of fermentation; an antifer- ment.
  • Antocular (ant-ok' -u-lar) [ante, before; oculus, the eye]. Situated in front of the eye.
  • Antorbital (ant -orb'- it -al) [ante, before; or- bita, the orbit]. Located in front of the orbit.
  • Antracele (an'-tra-sel) [antrum; K-fjXrj, a tumor]. Dropsy of the antrum; an accumulation of fluid in the maxillary sinus.
  • Antral (an'-tral) [antrum]. Relating to an antrum.
  • Antrectomy (an-trek' '-to-me) [antrum; inxoprj, excision]. Surgical removal of the walls of the antrum.
  • Antritis (an-tri'-tis) [antrum; exec, inflamma- tion]. Inflammation of an antrum.
  • Antronalgia (an-tron-aV -je-ah) [antrum; dXyog, pain]. Pain in the antrum.
  • Antrophore (an'-tro-}or). Cacao-butter bou- gies, containing tannin, 5 %; resorcinol, 5 %; thallin sulfate, 2 to 5%; zinc sulfate, 0.5%.
  • Antroscope (an'-tro-skdp) [antrum; okotzeiv, to look]. An instrument for examining the max- illary sinus.
  • Antrotome (an'-tro-tom) [antrum; xepveiv, to cut]. An instrument for the performance of mastoid antrotomy.
  • Antrotomy (an-trot'-o-me). Incision of an an- trum.
  • Antrotympanic (an-tro-tim-pan'-ik) [antrum; xupnavov, a drum]. Relating to the cavity of the tympanum and to the tympanic antrum.
  • Antrum (an'-trum) [L.]. A cavity or hollow space, especially in a bone. A., Cardiac, Luschka's name for a dilation sometimes found in the esophagus immediately above its passage through the diaphragm. A., Duodenal, the normal dilation presented by the duodenum near its origin. A. eth- moidale, the ethmoid sinus. A. highmor- ianum, antrum of Highmore, a cavity in the superior maxillary bone. Syn., Antrum gence. A. highmori testis. See Medi- astinum testis. A., Mastoid, the hollow space beneath the' roof of the mastoid process. A., Maxillary. See A. highmorianum. A. pylori cum willisii, the cavity of the pylorus. A. tubae, a sac-like dilation of the fallopian tube about an inch from the fimbriated ex- tremity, regarded by some as occurring only in pregnancy.
  • Anuresis (an-u-re'-sis) [dv, priv.; oupov, urine]. " Anuria.
  • ANURETIC 82 APEPTIC Anuretic (an-u-ret' -ik) [see Anuresis]. Pertain- ing to or affected with anuria. Anuria ian-u' -re-ah) [see Anuresis]. Suppres- sion of the urine.
  • Anuric (an-u'-rik) [see Anuresis]. Pertaining to anuria. Anurous ian-u' -rus) [dv, priv.; oupa, a tail]. Without a tail.
  • Anus (a' -nus) [L., "the fundament"]. The extremity of the rectum; the lower opening of the alimentary canal. A., Artificial, an opening established from the bowel to the ex- terior at a point above the normal anus, most commonly from the colon, either in the lum- bar or in the iliac region. A., Fissure of, a slight tear in the mucous membrane at the anus, usually due to passage of hard- ened feces. It is very painful. A., Fistula of, fistula in ano, a sinus opening from the rectum' into the connective tissue about the rectum or discharging externally. A., Im- perforate, absence of the anus, the natural opening being closed by a membranous sep- tum. A., Infundibuliform, a relaxed con- dition of the anus with destruction of the natural folds. A., Preternatural, an ab- normal aperture serving as an anus, whether congenital, made by operation, or due to disease or injury. Syn., Fecal fistula; Anus prceternaturalis. A., Preternatural Ileo- vaginal, A., Preternatural Vaginal, A. praeternaturalis vestibularis, the rare ab- normity of the rectum opening through the vulva. A,, Rusconi's, the blastopore. A., Umbilical, a preternatural anus located in the umbilical region. A. vulyo vaginalis, an anal opening communicating with the vulva.
  • Anvil (an'-vit). See Incus.
  • Anypnia (an-ip r -ne-ah) [di>, priv.; o-voc, sleep]. Sleeplessness. Anytol. See Anitol.
  • Aorta (a-ort'-ah) [dopzrj, aorta]. The large vessel arising from the left ventricle and distributing, by its branches, arterial blood to every part of the body. It ends by bifurcating into the common iliacs at the fourth lumbar vertebra. The arch, that ex- tending from the heart to the third dorsal vertebra, is divided into an a scolding, a transverse, and a descending part. The thoracic portion extends to the diaphragm; the abdominal, to the bifurcation. A., Car- diac, that part of the embryonic vascular system giving rise to the aortic arches. A., Dorsal, i. The embryonic vessel formed by the junction of the two primitive aortas. Syn., Primordial aorta; Subvertebral aorta. 2. The thoracic aorta. A., Inferior, the abdominal aorta. A., Left, the embryonic division of the vascular system which finally becomes the aorta. A., Main, the embryonic vessel formed by the junction of the two primitive aortas. A., Pectoral, the thoracic aorta. A., Pelvic, the middle sacral artery. A., Pericardiac, the part of the aorta within the pericardial cavity. A., Primitive. 1. That part of the aorta extending from its origin to the point where it first branches. 2. Two embryonic branches of the cardiac aorta extending through the first visceral arch and uniting to form the dorsal aorta. A., Right, the embryonic division of the aortic bulb which finally forms the pulmo- nary artery. A., Root of, the origin of the aorta at the heart. Syn., Radix aorta. A., Superior, the -thoracic aorta. A., Sys- temic. See A., Left. A., Thoracic. See under Aorta.
  • Aortal (a-ort'-al) [see Aorta]. Relating to the aorta.
  • Aortic (a-ort'-ik) [see Aorta], Pertaining to the aorta. A. Arch. See Aorta and Arch. A. Foramen. See A. Opening of Diaphragm. A. Murmur, a murmur produced by disease of the aortic valves. A. Opening of Dia- phragm, the aperture in, or really behind, the diaphragm, through which the aorta passes. A. Opening of Heart, the opening between the heart and the aorta. A. Plexus, the plexus of sympathetic nerves, situated on the front and sides of the aorta, between the origins of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries . A . Sinus , a deep depression between the leaflets of the aortic valve and the aortic wall. A. Valve, the three semilunar valves closing the aortic opening during the cardiac diastole.
  • Aortitis (a-ort-i' -tis) [aorta; crcc, inflammation]. Inflammation of the aorta. A., Nummular, .that characterized by white, circular patches in the inner coat.
  • Aortolithia (a-or-to-lith' -e-ah) . A calcareous deposition in the aorta.
  • Aortosclerosis (a-ort-o-skle-ro' -sis) [aorta; okXtj- poc, hard]. Induration of the aorta.
  • Aortostenosis (a-ort-o-sten-o' -sis) [aorta; orevdc, narrow]. Stenosis or narrowing of the aorta. Apatropin iap-at' -ro-pin) [dub, from; atropin], C l7 H 21 N0 2 . A compound derived from atro- pin by the action of nitric acid. It is said to produce peculiar convulsions.
  • Ape (dp) [ME.]. A man-like monkey. A. Fis- sures, those fissures of the human brain that are also found in apes. A. -hand, a peculiar shape of the hand produced by the wasting of the thumb-muscles; it is seen in some cases of progressive muscular atrophy.
  • Apellous (ah-pel'-us) [d, priv.; xkXla, skin]. Skinless.
  • Apepsia (ah-pep' '-se-ah) [d, priv.; izinrecv, to digest]. Cessation or absence of the digestive function. A., Hysteric, apepsia due to hys- teria. Syn., Hysteric anorexia. A. nervosa. See Anorexia nervosa.
  • Apeptic (ah-pep'-tik) [see Apepsia]. Affected with apepsia.
  • Aperistalsis (ah-per-is-taV -sis) [a, priv.; xepi, around; oxalate;, constriction]. Cessation of the peristaltic movements of the intestine.
  • Apertometer (ap-ur-tom' -et-er) [aperture; /j.h- pov, a measure]. An optic device for deter- mining the angle of aperture of microscopic objectives. The apertometer of Abbe, which is mostly used, consists of a semicircular piece of thick glass with the straight edge beveled at 45 degrees. Light entering the curved edge is reflected upward by the bev- eled edge. This is received by the objec- tive of the microscope. By means of two metal slides moving on the curved edge the exact angle of the light required to fill the back lens of the objective is indicated on the curved edge and can be read off directly.
  • Aperture (ap'-er-chur) [apertura, an opening]. An opening. A., Angular, in the micro- scope, the angle formed between a luminous point placed in focus and the most divergent rays that are capable of passing through the entire system of an objective. A., Numeric, the capacity of an objective for admitting rays from the object and trans- mitting them to the image.
  • Apex (a'-peks) [L., "the extreme end of a thing"; pi., apices]. The summit or top of anything; the point or extremity of a cone. A. -beat, the impulse of the heart felt in the fifth inter- costal space, about 3! inches from the mid- dle of the sternum. A. of the Lung, the upper extremity of the lung behind the border of the first rib. A. Murmur, a mur- mur heard over the apex of the heart.
  • Aphacia (ah-fa' -se-ah). See Aphakia.
  • Aphacic (ah-fa' -sik). See Aphakic.
  • Aphagia (ah-fa' -je-ah) [a, priv.; (fiayelv, to eat]. Inability to eat or to swallow.
  • Aphakia (ah-fa' -ke-aK) [a, priv.; (fraKoc, a lentil; the crystalline lens]. The condition of an eye without the lens.
  • Aphakic (ah-fa' -kik) [see Aphakia]. Not pos- sessing a crystalline lens.
  • Aphasia (ah-fa' -ze-ah) [a, priv.; 6.occ, speech]. Partial or complete loss of the power of expressing ideas by means of speech or writ- ing. Aphasia may be either motor or sen- sory. Motor or ataxic aphasia consists in a loss of speech owing to inability to exe- cute the various movements of the mouth necessary to speech, the muscles not being properly coordinated, owing to disease of the cortical center. It is usually associated with agraphia, "aphasia of the hand," inability to write, and right-sided hemiplegia. Some aphasiacs can write, but are unable to articu- late words or sentences; this variety is vari- ously named aphemia, alalia, or anarthria, according as the impairment of speech is more or less marked. Charcot supposes the center for articulate language divided into 4 subcenters — a visual center for words, an auditory center for words, a motor center of articulate language, and a motor center of written language. Lesions of one or more of these centers produce the characteristic forms of aphasia, all of which have clinical exemplifications. Sensory aphasia, or am- nesia, is the loss of memory for words, and may exist alone or in association with motor aphasia. Amnesia appears clinically in 3 distinct forms: 1. Simple loss of memory of words. 2. Word-deafness, or inability to understand spoken words (there is usually some paraphasia connected with this form). 3. Word-blindness, or inability to understand written or printed words. A., Broca's, motor aphasia. A., Conduction, such as is due to defect in some commissural connec- tion between centers. A., Cortical, A., Pic- torial, A., True, destruction of the function of the auditory speech-center. A . , Functional , that in which there is no manifest lesion, but it occurs as a result of excitement in hysteria or in severe constitutional disorders. A., Gibberish, a form of transcortical aphasia in which the speech is confused, words or syllables being transposed or jumbled to- gether, due to disruption of the tracts as- sociating cortical speech-centers. Syn., Jar- gon aphasia. A., Kussmaul's, voluntary mutism, simulating aphasia, which sometimes affects the insane, particularly paranoiacs, with mystic ideas. A., Mixed, combined motor and sensory aphasia. A., Optic, inability to give the names for objects seen, due to in- terrupted connection between the centers for vision and speech. A., Pure, A., Isolated, A., Subcortical, A., Subpictorial, aphasia arising from a lesion interrupting impulses ' toward the afferent tracts proceeding to the auditory speech-center. A., Supracortical, A., Suprapictorial, that form of lesion com- pletely severing the connection of the auditory center with the cortical center, but not destroy- ing the auditory speech-center, the afferent tracts proceeding to it or the efferent tracts passing from it to the motor speech-center. A., Tactile, inability to recognize objects by the sense of touch, due to lesion in the cen- tral parietal lobule. A., Total, A. univer- salis, inability to utter a single word. A., Wernicke's, cortical sensory aphasia.
  • Aphasiac (ah-fa' -ze-ak) [see Aphasia.] One who is aphasic.
  • Aphasic (ah-fa'-zik) [see Aphasia]. Relating to or affected with aphasia.
  • Aphemesthesia (ah -fem-es-the' ' -ze-ah) [a, priv.; (prjfir), voice; a'coOrjotc, sensation]. Word- blindness; word-deafness.
  • Aphemia (ah-fe'-me-ah) [a, priv.; (f^WV^ voice]. Motor aphasia; inability to articulate words or sentences from centric and not from peripheral disease. See Aphasia.
  • Aphemic (ah-fem'-ik) [see Aphemia.] Relating to or affected with aphemia.
  • Aphlogistic (ah-flo-jist'-ik) [a, priv.; (f)M£, a flame]. 1. Noninflammable. .2. Burning without flame.
  • APHONIA 84 APLASTIC Aphonia (ah- jo' -ne-ah) [a, priv.; (frcovfj, voice]. Loss of speech, due to some peripheral lesion, as in clergyman's sore throat; it may be due to hysteria.
  • Aphonic (ah-fon'-ik) [see Aphonia]. Speech- less; voiceless.
  • Aphorama, Aphorema (af-o-ra'-mah, -re'-mah) [acfropav, to have in full view]. The state of having projecting eyes, enabling one to see at a distance on each side without moving the head.
  • Aphoria (ah-fo'-re-ah) [a, priv.; - pcodrjc, foamy], C 52 H 82 23 . A glucosid con- stituent of the cotyledons of horse-chestnut. It is a colorless, amorphous powder, soluble in alcohol and water, its watery solution frothing like soap.
  • Aphrodisia (af-ro-diz'-e-ah) ['Afipodhrj, Venus]. Sexual desire, especially when morbid or immoderate; sexual congress.
  • Aphrodisiac (af-ro-diz'-e-ak) [see Aphrodisia]. i. Stimulating the sexual appetite; erotic. 2. An agent stimulating the sexual passion.
  • Aphtha (af'-tha) [auocc, growth; pi., apophyses]. A process, outgrowth, or swelling of some part or organ, as of a bone. Apophyses, False. See Epiphyses. A. len- ticularis, the orbicular process of the tempo- ral bone. A. raviana, the processus gracilis of the malleus. Apophyses, True, those which have never been epiphyses.
  • Apoplectic (ap-o-plek'-tik) [apoplexy]. Pertain- ing to or affected with apoplexy. A. Equiva- lents, a name given to the premonitory symp- toms of apoplexy, indicating that the brain is subject to alterations in blood-pressure.
  • Apoplexy (ap'-o-pleks-e) [ano, off; nXijoaecv, to strike]. The symptom-complex resulting from hemorrhage or the plugging of a vessel in the brain or spinal cord. The term is sometimes also applied to the bursting of a vessel in the lungs, liver, etc. A., Asthenic, that due to vital depression. A., Atonic, that which comes on gradually and does not attain a high degree of development. Syn., Imperfect apo- plexy. A., Atrabilious, deep melancholy at- tributed to resorption of bile. A. , Bulbar, that due to hemorrhage into the substance of the oblongata, causing paralysis of one or both sides of the body, inability to swallow, diffi- culty in protruding the tongue, dyspnea, gastric disorders, and tumultuous action of the heart. A., Capillary, one resulting from rupture of capillaries. A., Consecutive, that due to the arrest of some habitual discharge or eruption. A., Cutaneous, i. See Purpura hemorrhagica. 2. A sudden effusion of blood to the skin and subcutaneous tissue. A., Dysarthritic, a form accompanying arthritic diseases, in which the pain disappears from- the joints, and vertigo, pain in the head, etc., appear. A., Epileptic, coma with epi- leptoid symptoms, sometimes observed in cere- bral and acute inflammatory diseases. A., Febrile, paroxysmal fever attended with deep sleep and stertor. Syn., Apoplexia febricosa. A., Fulminant, a sudden and fatal apoplexy. A., Ingravescent, a term applied to a form of apoplexy in which there is a slowly pro- gressive loss of consciousness, due to a gradual leakage of blood from a ruptured vessel. A., Muscular, an escape of blood into the muscular tissue. A., Nervous. 1. Acute anemia of the brain. 2. A condition marked by symptoms of cerebral congestion and hemorrhage which are due to functional disturbance of the nervous system. A. of the Ovary, A., Ovarian, hemorrhage into the stroma of the ovary, through the rupture of a follicle, converting the organ into a cyst or hematoma. The blood is gradually absorbed, though it gives rise to great pain; the cause is unknown. A., Phlegmonous, a condition attributed to inflammation of the brain and its membranes; it is marked by delirium, fever, severe headache, conjunctival injection, lacrimation, and a hard pulse. A., Pituit- ous, serous apoplexy. A., Placental, A., Placentary, escape of blood into the placental substance. A., Progressive, that in which there is a very gradual increase of the par- alysis and other symptoms. A., Pulmonary, escape of blood into the pulmonary par- enchyma. A., Pulmonary, Vascular, very acute and extensive congestion of the lungs, leading to apoplectic symptoms and a fatal termination. A., Sanguineous, hemorrhage into or upon the brain. A., Serous, that due to an effusion of serous matter into or upon the brain. A., Simple, the name given to those cases of death from coma in which no cerebral lesion is found. A., Spinal, rupture of a blood-vessel of the spinal cord. A., Suppurative, that due to purulent pro- cesses and fever. A., Symptomatic, that attributed to another disease or to the ar- rest of some habitual evacuation. A., Uterine, escape of blood into the muscular tissue of the uterus. A., Venous, that due to congestion of the veins.
  • Apoquinamin (ap-o-kwin'-am-in), C 19 H 22 N 2 0. An artificial alkaloid occurring as a white, amorphous substance derived from quinamin, conquinamin, or quinamidin by action of hydrochloric acid.
  • Aporetin (ap-o-re' -tin) [and, from; prjrhr), a resin]. A resinous substance found in rhu- barb.
  • Aporocephalous (ap-o-ro-sef -al-us) [dnopoc, difficult to distinguish; aecfraArj, the head]. Having a head scarcely distinguishable.
  • Apositia (ap-o-sif -e-ah) [and, from; o'cxoc, food]. Aversion to or loathing of food.
  • Apostasis (ap-os'-tas-is) [anooxaocc, a standing away from]. 1. An abscess. 2. The end or the crisis of an attack of disease; termina- tion by crisis. 3. An exfoliation.
  • Aposthia (ah-pos' -the-ah) [a, priv.; ~6odr), penis; prepuce]. Absence of the penis or of the prepuce. Apostoli's Method. The use of strong elec- trolytic or chemic galvanocaustic currents in the treatment of diseases of the female gen- erative organs, especially uterine fibroids. Apothecaries' Weight. A system of weights and measures used in compounding medi- , cines. The troy pound of 5760 grains is the standard. It is subdivided into 12 ounces. The ounce is subdivided into 8 drams, the dram into 3 scruples, and the scruple into 20 grains. For fluid measure the quart of 32 fluidounces is subdivided into 2 pints, the pint into 16 fluidounces, the ounce into 8 fluidrams, and the fluidram into 60 minims. The following symbols and abbreviations are used: IT], minim. 5, uncia, an ounce (480 grains). 3, scrupulus, a scruple ft, libra, a pound. (20 grains). O., octarius, a pint.
  • 5, drachma, a dram (60 gr., granum, a grain. grains). ss., semissis, one-half. See Weights and Measures.
  • Apothem, Apothema (ap' '-o-them, ap-oth'-em- ah) [and, from; dkfia, a deposit]. A brown powder deposited from vegetable infusions or decoctions exposed to the air.
  • Apothesis (ap-oth'-es-is) [dnodeocc, a putting back]. The reduction of a fracture or luxa- tion.
  • Apotheter (ap-oth'-et-er). A navel-string re- positor devised by Braun, consisting of a staff with a sling attached in which the pro- lapsed funis is placed and carried up into the uterine cavity.
  • Apozem, Apozema (ap'-o-zem, ap-oz'-em-ah) [and, away; £e?v, to boil]. A decoction, especially one to which medicines are added. APPARATUS 87 APRON Apparatus iap-ar-a'-tus) (apparatus, prepara- tion]. I. A collection of instruments or devices used for a special purpose. 2. Anatomically the word is ■ used to designate collectively the organs performing a certain function. 3. A collection of pathologic phenomena. A., Absorbent, the blood-vessels and lymphatics. A. ligamentosus colli, the occipitoaxoid ligament, a broad band at the front surface of the spinal canal that covers the odontoid process.
  • Apparition (ap-ar-ish' -un) [apparitio, an ap- pearance]. 1. A visual delusion or hallucina- tion. 2. The sudden aggregation of scattered principles into an element or corpuscle.
  • Appendage (ap-en'-ddj) [appendere, to weigh; hang]. Anything appended, usually some- thing of minor importance. A., Auricular. 1. The projecting part of the cardiac au- ricle. 2. Virchow's name for a round or elongated cartilaginous prominence in front of the tragus. A.s, Cutaneous, A.s, Der- mal, the nails, hair, sebaceous glands, and sweat-glands. A.s, Epiploic. See Appendi- ces epiploic^ under Appendix. A.s of the Eye, the eyelashes, eyebrows, lacrimal gland, lacrimal sac and ducts, and conjunctiva. A.s, Fetal, the placenta, amnion, chorion, and umbilical cord. A., Ovarian, the parovar- ium. A., Pineal, the epiphysis. A., Pitu- itary, the hypophysis. A.s, Uterine, the ovaries and oviducts.
  • Appendalgia (ap-end-al f -je-ah) [appendix; aX- yoc, pain]. Pain in the appendicular region.
  • Appendicectomy (ap-en-dis-ek' -to-me) (appen- dix; iicTotirj, excision]. Excision of the ver- miform appendix.
  • Appendicitis (ap-en-dis-i' -tis) [appendix; ctlc;, inflammation]. Inflammation of the vermi- form appendix. Syn., Paratyplilitis; Epity- phlitis; A bscess of iliac form. A. , Gangrenous , that in which the vermiform appendix is found gangrenous and sloughing, usually with one or more perforations and free leakage, a large section of the right groin full of lemon-colored, septic fluid, a puddle of filth underneath the cecum and ileum, the omen- tum fixed with a cluster of bowel adhesions beneath. Syn., Green groin. A. larvata, an incipient or latent form of appendicitis. A. obliterans, an inflammation characterized by the progressive obliteration of the lumen of the appendix, by the disappearance of the epithelial lining and glandular structure. The symptoms are acute attacks of brief duration, moderate swelling at the seat of disease, and persistence of tenderness in the region of the appendix during the intermis- sions.
  • Appendicular (ap-en-dik' -u-lar) [appendicular a small appendix]. Pertaining to the vermi- form appendix. A. Colic, a spasmodic colicky pain originating in the appendix.
  • Appendiculate (ap-ew-dik'-u-lat). Having ap- pendages or protruding accessory parts.
  • Appendix (ap-en'-diks) [appendere., to hang upon or to]. An appendage. A. auricularis. See Appendage, Auricidar (1). A. cerebri, the pituitary body. A., Ensiform. See Xi- phoid. A. epididymidis, the vas aber- rans. Appendices epiploicae, fatty projec- tions of the serous coat of the large intestine. A. lobularis, the flocculus. A., Supr^sphe- noid, A. ventriculi, the hypophysis. A., Vermiform, A. vermiformis, the small, blind gut projecting from the cecum. A., Xi- phoid. See Xiphoid.
  • Apperception (ap-er-sep' '-shun) [appercipere, to perceive]. The conscious reception or per- ception of a sensory impression; the power of receiving and appreciating sensory im- pressions.
  • Appetence, Appetency (ap'-e-tens, ap'-e-ten-sc) [appetentia, appetite]. An appetite or desire; the attraction of a living tissue for those materials that are appropriate for its nutri- tion. Appetite iap'-e-tii) [appetere, to desire]. The desire for food; also any natural desire; lust. A., Perverted, that for unnatural and indigestible things, frequent in disease and in pregnancy.
  • Applanate (ap'-lan-dt) [ad, to; planus, flat]. Horizontally flattened.
  • Applanatio, Applanation (ap-lan-a'-she-o, ap- lan-a'-shun) [L.]. A flattening. A. cornese, flattening of the entire surface of the cornea from disease.
  • Apple (ap'-l) [AS., cep pel, an apple]. The fruit of the tree, Pyrus malus. A., Adam's. See Pomum adami. A. -brandy, an alcoholic spirit distilled from cider; cider-brandy. A. Extract. See Extractum ferri pomatum under Extract. A. Eye. Synonym of Exophthalmos. A. Head, a term for the broad, thick skull of dwarfs. A. Oil, amyl valerinate.
  • Applicator (ap' ' -lilz-a-tor) [L.]. An instrument used in making applications.
  • Apposition (ap-o-zish' -un) [apponere, to apply to]. 1. The act of fitting together; the state of being fitted together. 2. An addition of parts. 3. Development by accretion.
  • Apraxia (ah-praks' '-e-ah) [a, priv.; xpaooetv, to do]. Soul-blindness; mind-blindness; ob- ject-blindness; an affection in which the memory for the uses of things is lost, as well as the understanding of the signs by which the things are expressed.
  • Aproctia (ah-prok' -she-ah) [d, priv.; npajKroe, anus]. Absence of the anus.
  • Apron (a'-pron) [ME., apern]. 1. A cloth or rubber covering to prevent the clothing from becoming soiled. 2. The omentum. A., Hottentot, artificially elongated labia minora. Syn., Pudendal apron. A., Masonic, a name sometimes given to a support, attached to the waist, for the penis and testicles in gonorrheal cases. A. of Succor, a canvas appliance borne by two men, and used for the transportation of wounded persons.
  • APROSEXIA AQUEDUCT Aprosexia (ah-pro-seks'-e-ah) [a, priv.; np-q- ok%£iv, to give heed]. A mental disturbance consisting in inability to fix the attention upon a subject. An inability to think clearly and to comprehend readily what is read or heard; a condition sometimes observed in the course of chronic catarrh of the nose or of the nose and pharynx.
  • Aprosopia (ah-pro-so' -pe-ah) [a, priv.; npboumov, the face]. A form of fetal monstrosity with absence of part or all of the face.
  • Apselaphesia (ap-sel-af-e' '-ze-ah) [a, priv.; f)occ, touch]. Loss of the tactile sense.
  • Apsithyria, Apsithurea (ah-psith-i'-re-ah, -u'- re-ah) [a, priv.; ^cdupc^ecv, to whisper]. Hysteric aphonia, in which the patient loses the voice and is also unable to whisper.
  • Apsychia (a-si' -ke-ah) [a, priv.; (, around; dazrjp, star]. In biology, those am- phiasters concerned in the production of the polar globules.
  • Archangelica (ark-an-jel' -ik-ah) [apyhxyzloc, archangel]. A genus of umbelliferous plants. See Angelica.
  • Archebiosis (ar-ke-bi-o'-sis) [arch-; fi'toc, life]. Spontaneous generation.
  • Archenteron (ark-en' -ter -on) [arch-; evzspov, intestine]. The embryonic alimentary cav- ity.
  • Archetype (ar'-ke-tip) [arch-; zbr.oc, a type]. In comparative anatomy, an ideal type or form with which the individuals or classes may be compared. A standard type.
  • Archiblast (ar'-ke-blast) [archi-; filaozoc, germ]. In embryology, the granular areola surround- ing the germinal vesicle. It is composed of three layers, the outer, or epiblast, from which the skin and its adnexa, the nervous system, and the terminal portions of the alimentary canal are formed; the middle, or mesoblast, from which the epithelium of the genitourinary organs and the smooth and striated muscle-tissue are derived; and the inner, or hypoblast, for the development of the' epithelium of the respiratory tract and of the alimentary canal. In pathology, the im- portant tissues of the body as contrasted with the parablast, or connective tissues.
  • Archiblastic (ar-ke-blas' -tik) [see Archiblast]. Derived from the archiblast. The paren- chymatous tissues are regarded as archi- blastic.
  • Archiblastoma (ar-ke-blas -to' '-mah) [archiblast; op.a, a tumor]. A tumor composed of archi- blastic tissue, such as myoma, neuroma, papilloma, adenoma, carcinoma, etc.
  • Archiblastula (ar-ke-blas' -tu-lali) [see Archi- blast]. In embryology 7 , a ciliated, vesicular morula, resulting from complete and regular yelk-division and by invagination forming the archigastrula.
  • Archigaster (ar-ke-gas' -ter) [archi-; yaorrjp, belly]. The primitive, perfectly simple intes- tine; archenteron.
  • Archigastrula (ar-ke-gas' '-tru-lah) [see Archi- gaster]. The gastrula as it is observed in the most primitive types of animal develop- ment; called also bell-gas trula, from its shape.
  • Archil (ar'-kil) [ME., orchell]. A coloring- matter similar to litmus, chiefly obtained from the lichen, Roccella tinctoria; used for staining animal tissues.
  • Archiinonerula (ar-ke-mon-er' -u-laK) [archi-; fiovrjprjf, single; solitary]. In embryology, a special name given by Haeckel to the monerula stage of an egg undergoing prim- itive and total cleavage.
  • Archimorula (ar-ke-mor' -u-lah) [archi-; p.bpov, a mulberry]. In embryology, the solid mass of cleavage cells, or mulberry mass, arising from the segmentation of an archicytula, and preceding the archiblastula and archi- gastrula.
  • Archinephron (ar-ke-nef-ron) [archi-; veu[xa, a swelling]. Swelling of a joint.
  • Arthroplasty (ar'-thro-plas-te) [arthro-; nXaoaetv, to form]. The making of an artificial joint.
  • Arthropodous (ar-throp' -o-dus) [arthro-; node, a foot]. _ In biology, having jointed legs.
  • Arthropyosis (ar- thro - pi - o' - sis ) [ arthro-; TtuciJocc, suppuration]. Pus-formation in a joint.
  • Arthrorrhagia ( ar - thro - ra'-je -ah) [ arthro-; prjyvuvat, to burst forth]. Hemorrhage into a joint.
  • Arthrosia (ar-thro' -ze-ah) [arthron]. Painful inflammatory or other affection of a joint.
  • Arthrosis (ar-thro' -sis) [dpdpbecv, to fasten by a joint]. Articulation or jointing.
  • Arthrospore (ar'-thro-spor) [arthro-; onopoc, a seed]. A permanent form assumed by some bacteria, chiefly the cocci. It is analogous to a spore.
  • Arthrosteitis (ar-thro-ste-i' -tis) [arthro-; oarkov. bone; ertc, inflammation]. Inflammation of the bone about a joint.
  • Arthrostenosis (ar - thro - sten - o' - sis) [arthro-; orivojoic, a narrowing]. Contraction of a joint.
  • Arthrotomy (ar-throf -o-me) [arthro-; zkp.vzcv, to cut]. Incision of a joint.
  • Arthrotropia (ar-thro-tro' -pe-ah) [arthro-; rpo~r h a turning]. Torsion of a limb. Arthro typhoid iar-thro-ti'-joid). Typhoid fever with articular involvement.
  • Arthroxerosis (ar -thro -zer-o' -sis) [arthro-; sipcootr, a dry state]. Chronic osteoarthri- tis.
  • Artiad (ar'-te-ad) [apzcoc, even]. In chemistry, a term designating atoms having an even quantivalence, as oxygen, which is bival- ent.
  • Articular (ar-tik f -u-lar) [articiilaris, of the joints]. Pertaining to an articulation or joint.
  • Articulate (ar-tik 1 '-n-lat) [articalare, to divide in joints]. Divided into joints; distinct. A. Speech, the communication of ideas by spoken words.
  • Articulation (ar-tik-u-la'-shuri) [articulus, a joint], i. A joint; a connection between two or more bones, whether or not allowing movement between them. The articulations are divided into: (i) Synarthroses, immov- able, subdivided into schindyleses, or grooved joints; gomphoses, in sockets, as the teeth; and suturas, as in the bones of the skull; (2) diarthroses, or movable joints, subdivided into the arthrodia, or gliding joints; the ging- lymus, or hinge-like; the enarthroses, or ball- and-socket joints; (3) amphiarthroses, or those of a mixed type. 2. The enunciation of spoken speech. 3. The articulating con- tact of the cusps in the positions of mastica- tion. A., False, one formed between the end of a dislocated bone and the contiguous parts or between the parts of a broken bone. Syn., Pseudar thro sis. A., Supplementary, a false articulation in which the ends of the fragments become rounded and covered with a fibrous capsule. Articulo mortis, In [ar-tik' -u-lo mor'-tis) [L.]. At the moment of death. In the act of dying. Articulus iar-tik' -u-lus) [dim. of artus, a joint; pi. and gen., articuli]. 1. A joint; a knuckle. 2. A segment; apart; alimb. 3. A moment of time.
  • Artificial (ar-te-fish' -al) [artificialis]. Made or imitated by art. A. Anus, an opening in the abdomen or loin to give exit to the feces. A. Eye, a film of glass, celluloid, rubber, etc., made in imitation of the front part of the globe of the eye, and worn in the socket or over a blind eye for cosmetic reasons. A. Feeding, the feeding of an infant by other means than mother's milk. Various mixtures and foods are to be had, such as Meigs', Rotch's, Biedert's Mixtures, etc. See Table on p. 106. A. Leech. See Leech, Artificial. A. Palate. See Palate, Artificial. A. Pupil, the result of removal of a piece of the iris (iridectomy, iridodialysis, etc.) to allow the light to pass through the opening. A. Respiration, the aeration of the blood by artificial means — a method of inducing the normal function of respiration, as in asphyxia neonato- rum, drowning, etc. Bain's Method: A modification of Sylvester's method, the structures surrounding the axilla being seized so that traction is made directly upon the pectoral muscles. Byrd's (H. L.) Method: The physician's hands are placed under the middle portion of the child's back, with their ulnar borders in contact and at right angles to the spine. With the thumbs extended, the two extremi- ties of the trunk are carried forward by gentle but firm pressure, so that they form an angle of 45 degrees with each other in the diaphragmatic region. Then the angle is reversed by carrying backward the shoul- ders and the nates. Calliano's Method: A modification of Sylvester's: the arms are drawn up so as to expand the thorax, and then fixed above and behind the head by fastening the wrists together; pressing with the hands upon the thorax some 18 to 20 times a minute to induce respiration. Dew's Method: The infant is grasped in the left hand, allowing the neck to rest between the thumb and forefinger, the head falling far over backward. The upper portion of the back and the scapulas rest in the palm of the hand, the other three fingers being inserted in the babe's left axilla, raising the arm upward and outward. The right hand grasps the knees, -and the lower portion of the body is depressed to favor inspiration. The move- ment is reversed to favor expiration, the head, shoulders, and chest being brought forward and the thighs pressed upon the abdomen. Forest's Method: The child is placed on its face, and quick, firm pressure is made on the back; then it is placed in a pail of hot water, and the hands carried upward until the child is suspended by its arms, and mouth-to-mouth insufflation is practised; the arms are then lowered and the body doubled forward; these movements are repeated at the rate of 40 a minute. Hall's Method: By turning the body alternately upon the side or face to compress the chest, and then upon the back to allow the lungs to expand. How- ard's Method: By pressure upon the lower ribs every few seconds. Laborde's Method: By rhythmic tractions of the tongue. Pacini's Method (for resuscitating asphyxiated in- fants) : The child lying on its back, the operator stands at its head and grasps the axillary structures, pulling the shoulders for- ward and upward to compress the thorax, and allowing them to fall in order to expand the chest. Rosenthal's Method: Compression of the knees, hips, and spine in rapid succession in order to induce expiration; inspiration is favored by stretching the body. Satter- thwaite's Method: Pressure upon the abdo- men alternating with relaxation to allow ARTISTOMIA 106 ASAFETIDA descent of the diaphragm. Schroeder 1 s Method: The babe while in a bath is sup- ported by the operator on the back, its head, arms, and pelvis being allowed to fall back- ward; a forceful expiration is then effected by bending up the body over the belly, thereby compressing the thorax. Schultze's Method: The child is seized from behind with both hands, by the shoulders, in such a way that the right index-finger of the operator is in the right axilla of the child from behind forward, and the left index -finger in the left axilla, the thumbs hanging loosely over the clavicles. The other three fingers hang diagon- ally downward along the back of the thorax. The operator stands with his feet apart and holds the child as above, practically hanging on the index-fingers in the first position, with the feet downward, the whole weight resting on the index-fingers in the axillas, the head being supported by the ulnar borders of the hands. At once the operator swings the child gently forward and upward. When the operator's hands are somewhat above the horizontal, the child is moved gently, so that the lower end of the body falls forward toward its head. The body is not flung over, but moved gently until the lower end rests on the chest. In this position the chest and upper end of the abdomen are com- pressed tightly. The child's thorax rests on the tips of the thumbs of the operator. As a result of this forcible expiration the fluids usually pour out of the nose and mouth of the infant. The child is allowed to rest in this position one or two seconds. The operator gradually lowers his arms, the child's body bends back, and he again holds the infant hanging on his index-fingers with its feet downward. These movements are repeated 15 to 20 times in the minute. Sylvester's Method consists chiefly of movements of the arms. This method is valueless in asphyxia neonatorum, owing to nondevelopment of the pectoral muscles. ARTIFICIAL FEEDING OF INFANTS. Table of Quantity Required. (0 X ■* W p fc 2 M w < > b«o ^. h W z z b 3 h H Oi a a z 2*8 2 Q u O Z P z Jofc < gs D z to < 1st week .... 2 hours. 10 I oz. 10 oz. 2d to 4th week . 2 " 9 1% '.' 135* " 2d to 3d month . 3 " 6 3 " 18 " 3d to 4th month . 3 6 4 " 24 " 4th to 5th month 3 6 4-4^ 24-27 " 6th month . . . 3 6 5 " 30 8th month . . . 3 " 6 6 " 36 " 10th month . . .
  • 3 5 8 " 40 " Artistomia (ar-te-sto 1 '-me-ah) [apt', exactly; ozopLa, a mouth]. 1. Distinctness in utterance. 2. The condition of an aperture, especially in surgical incisions, in which the size is per- fectly adapted to the purpose.
  • Artiyls (ar'-te-ils) [apnoc, complete]. Lowig's name for hydrocarbons of the general formula CnH 2n .
  • Artocarpus (ar-to-kar' -pus) [aproc, bread; naprzog, a fruit]. A genus of trees of the order Urticacece, including the breadfruit- tree, A. incisa. A. blumei is an East Indian species with an edible fruit, the oil of which is used in diarrhea; an ointment from the buds and leaves is applied to buboes. A. integrifolia, native in India, is prized for its wood; the root is used in diarrhea and as an external application in leprosy; the root- bark is used as a vermifuge.
  • Aryepiglottic (ar-e-ep-e-glot f -ik). Same as A rytenoepiglottic.
  • Arytenoepiglottic (ar-it-en-o-ep-e-glot r -ik) [dpu- xatva, a pitcher; eldoc, likeness; int, upon; yXajTzic, glottis]. Relating to an arytenoid cartilage and to the epiglottis; as the aryteno- epiglottic fold (or folds), consisting of a fold of mucous membrane that extends from each arytenoid cartilage to the epiglottis.
  • Arytenoid (ar-it'-en-oid) [apuzacva, a pitcher; eldoc, likeness]. 1. Resembling the mouth ^of a pitcher. 2. Pertaining to the arytenoid cartilages. A. Cartilages, two cartilages of the larynx regulating, by means of the at- tached muscles, the tension of the vocal bands. A. Glands, muciparous glands, found in large numbers along the posterior margin of the arytenoepiglottic fold in front of the arytenoid cartilages. A. Muscle, a muscle arising from the posterior surface of one arytenoid cartilage and inserted into the corresponding parts of the other. It is composed of three planes of fibers, two ob- lique and one transverse. It draws the aryte- noid cartilages together.
  • Arytenoidectomy (ar-e-ten-oid-ek' -to-me) [ary- tenoid; inTop.7), a cutting-out]. Removal of an arytenoid cartilage.
  • Arytenoiditis (ar-e-ten-oid-i'-tis). Inflamma- tion of the arytenoid cartilage or muscles. Arythmia iar-ith' -me-ah). See Arrhythmia. Arythmic iar-ith' -mik). See Arrhythmic. Asab [Ar.]. An African venereal disease said to differ from syphilis.
  • Asafetida, Asafcetida (as-a-fef -id-ah) [asa, gum; foetida, stinking]. A gum-resin ob- tained from the root of Ferula foetida. It is slightly soluble in alcohol and forms an emulsion with water. Its properties are due to a light volatile oil. It is antispasmodic, stimulating, expectorant, and is used in hysteria and in bronchial affections. Dose 5-20 gr. (0.32-1.3 Gm.). A., Emulsion of {emulsum asafcetidce, U. S. P.), a 4% emulsion of asafetida. Dose §-2 oz. (15-60 Cc). Syn., Milk of asafetida. A., Pills of (pilules asafcetidce, U. S. P.), composed of asafetida, soap, and water. Dose 1-3. A., Tincture of (tinctura asafcetidce, U. S. P.), strength, 20%. Dose 10-30 min.(0.6-2.0 Cc).
  • ASAPHIA 107 ASCLEPIAS Dewees' carminative (mist lira magnesia et asafcetidce) is an unofficial preparation com- posed of magnesium carbonate, 5 ; tincture of asafetida, 7; tincture of opium, 1; sugar, 10; distilled water, sufficient to make 100 parts- Dose § dr.— J oz. (1-15 Co).
  • Asaphia (as-a'-fe-ah) [doafica, indistinctness]. Indistinctness of utterance, especially that due to cleft palate.
  • Asaprol (as'-ap-rol), CaC 20 H 14 S 2 O 8 + 3H 2 O. Calcium betanaphthol-a-monosulfonate, a substance readily soluble in water and alcohol, and recommended in asthma, tonsillitis, and acute articular rheumatism, in doses of from 15-60 gr. (1-4 Gm.).
  • Asarol (as'-ar-ol) [asarum; oleum, oil], C 10 H ls O. A camphor-like body derived from asarum.
  • Asarum (as' -ar-um) [aoapov, asarabacca]. A genus of aristolochiaceous plants. A. cana- dense, called wild ginger, Canada snakeroot, with other North American species, is used chiefly in domestic practice. It is a fragrant, aromatic stimulant. Dose of fluidextract 15 min.— I dr. (1-2 Co). A. europium has diaphoretic, emetic, purgative, and diuretic qualities, but is now little used except in veterinary practice.
  • Asbestiform (as-best' -e-f or m) [asbestos]. Fibrous in structure.
  • Asbestos (as-bes'-tos) [aofcoroc, unquenchable]. A soft fibrous mineral made up of flexible or elastic filaments, and the best nonconductor of heat known. Mixed with plaster it is used in mechanic dentistry as a substitute for sand to form the investment preparatory to solder- ing. It has also a limited use in surgery.
  • Asbolin (as'-bol-in) [see Asbolic]. A bitter, acrid, yellow oil extracted from soot; it is used in tuberculosis.
  • Ascariasis (as-kar-i' -as-is) [ascaris]. The symptoms produced by the presence of ascar- ides in the gastrointestinal canal.
  • Ascaricide (as-kar'-is-id) [ascaris; ccedere, to kill]. A medicine that kills ascarides.
  • Ascaris (as'-kar-is) [aanapcc, a species of intestinal worm; pi., ascarides]. A genus of parasitic worms inhabiting the intestine of most animals. A. alata, a variety that has rarely been found in man. A. lumbricoides, a variety found in the ox, hog, and man. It inhabits the small intestine, especially of chil- dren. A. mystax, the roundworm of the cat, rarely found in man. A. vermicularis. Syn- onym of Oxyuris vermiaduris.
  • Ascending (as-end'-ing) [ascendere, to rise].
  • Taking an upward course; rising (as parts of the aorta and colon, and as one of the vena? cavae). A. Current, in electricity, one going from the periphery to a nerve-center. A. Degeneration, a degeneration of the nen-e-fibers extending from the periphery to the center, or, in the spinal cord, from below upward toward the brain. A. Paral- ysis. See Paralysis, Ascending. A. Tracts, the centripetal tracts of the spinal cord, carrying afferent impulses. Ascherson's Vesicles. The peculiar small globules formed when oil and an albuminous fluid are agitated together; formerly thought to be cells.
  • Ascia (ah'-se-ah or as'-ke-ah) [a, priv.; onca, shadow]. A spiral bandage applied without reverses, each turn of which overlaps the pre- ceding for about one-third of its width. Dola- bra repens is the same as the preceding, but the spirals are formed more obliquely and do not overlap each other, but are separated by a greater or less interval. Syn., Dolabra cur- rens; Fascia spiralis.
  • Ascites (as-i'-tez) [doKh^c, a kind of dropsy; from donor, a bag]. An abnormal collection of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity; dropsy of the peritoneum. It is either local in origin or part of a general dropsy. The ascitic fluid is usually clear, yellow, and coagulates on standing. It may be turbid, blood-stained, and contain lymph-particles or shreds. There are uniform enlargement of the abdomen, fluctuation, percussion-dulness. Its usual cause is cirrhosis of the liver. Syn., Abdom- inal dropsy; Hydroperitoneiim; Hydrops per- itonei. See Duparque's Method for Detecting Ascites. A., Active, A., Acute, that in which there is a sudden large effusion due to exposure or cold. A. adiposus, ascites characterized by a fluid, milky appearance, due to the presence in it of numerous cells that have undergone fatty degeneration and solution. It is seen in certain cases of car- cinoma, tuberculosis, and other chronic in- flammations of the peritoneum. Syn., Ascites oleosus. A. chylosus, the presence of chyle in the peritoneal cavity. It follows rupture of a chyle-duct. A. intercus, an effusion occurring between the skin and the peritoneum. A. intermuscularis, edema of the abdominal muscles. A., Mechanic, A., Passive, that due to diseases which retard the blood-current in the portal vein. A. saccatus. 1. A form in which the effusion is prevented by adhesions or inflammatory exudate from entering the general peritoneal cavity. Syn., Encysted dropsy of the peri- toneum. 2. An ovarian cystoma. A. vagin- alis, a collection of liquid within the sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle. A. vul- gatior, a form apparently due to diseased kidneys, and preceded by scant}*, highly colored urine.
  • Ascitic (as-it'-ik) [see Ascites]. Pertaining to or affected with ascites.
  • Asclepiadin (as-kle-pi'-ad-in) [asclepias]. A bitter glucosid obtainable from various species of Asclepias. It is poisonous, and has emetic, purgative, and sudorific properties. Unof.
  • Asclepias (as-kle'-pe-as) [doK/.^-idc]. 1. Pleu- risy-root. The root of Asclepias tuberosa. A popular remedy in the Southern States for pleurisy. It is diaphoretic, emetic, and ca- thartic. The infusion recommended has a strength of 1 oz. of the powdered root to ASCLEPIN 108 ASPERGILLIN 32 oz. of water. Dose a teacupful every 3 or 4 hours. 2. A genus of plants of the order Asclepiadacece. A. curassavica, blood- flower, is an herb common to tropical America; astringent, styptic, and anthelmintic against the tape-worm. Dose of fluidextract 20 min.-i dr. (1.3-4.0 Cc). A. longifolia, of the western United States, is diaphoretic.
  • Asclepin (as-kle'-pin) [asclepias]. 1. A poi- sonous principle obtainable from asclepiadin by the separation of glucose from the latter. 2. The precipitate from a tincture of Asclepias tuberosa; alterative, evacuant, tonic, sedative. Dose 2-4 gr. (0.13-0.26 Gm.). Unof.
  • Ascococcus (as-ko-kok'-us) [ascus; kokkoc, a kernel]. A genus of the family of Schizomycetes. The ascococci are micro- organisms made up of round or ovoid cells, united in massive colonies, and sur- rounded by tough, thick, gelatinous envelops. A. billrothii, a form found in putrid meat; its natural habitat is the air; it is probably not pathogenic.
  • Ascoidium (as-ko-id' -e-um) [ascus; eldoc, like- ness]. A genus of Infusoria found in the urine and feces of typhoid fever patients, in sewage, in the excrement of cattle, and in the cecum of swine.
  • Ascospore (as'-ko-spor) [ascus; oizopoc, spore]. A spore produced by or in an ascus.
  • Ascus (as'-kus) [aonoc, a bag or bladder]. The characteristic spore-case of some fungi and lichens, usually consisting of a single terminal cell containing eight spores. Aselli's Pancreas. A group of lymphatic glands situated at the root of the mesentery.
  • Asemasia (ah-sem-a'-ze-ah) [a, priv.; arjpLaom, a signaling]. Absence of the power to com- municate either by signs or by language.
  • Asepsin (ah-sep' -sin) . See Antisepsin.
  • Asepsis (ah-sep' -sis) [a, priv.; or)tycc, putrefac- tion]. Absence of pathogenic microorgan- isms.
  • Aseptic (ah-sep' -tik) [a, priv.; or)7ixbg, sep- tic]. Free from pathogenic bacteria, as asep- tic wounds. A. Surgery, the mode of sur- gical practice in which everything that is used, as well as the wound, is in a germ-free condition.
  • Asepticism (ah-sep' -tis-izm) [see Aseptic]. The doctrine or principles of aseptic surgery.
  • Asepticize (ah-sep' -tis-iz) [see Aseptic]. To render aseptic.
  • Aseptin (ah-sep' -tin) [see Aseptic]. A secret preparation containing boric acid, used for preserving articles of food.
  • Aseptol (ah-sep' -tol) [see Aseptic], C 6 H 6 S0 4 . A reddish liquid, with an odor of phenol, recommended as a disinfectant and antiseptic. It is used externally (1 to 10% solution) and internally in about the same dose as phenol. Syn., Sozolic acid; Sulfocarbolic acid.
  • Aseptolin (ah-sep' -tol-in). A preparation of pilocarpin (0.018%) in an aqueous solution of phenol (2.74%); it is used in tuberculosis and in malaria. Dose 50-70 min. (3-4 Cc.) daily, injected subcutaneously.
  • Asexual (ah-seks'-u-al) [a, priv.; sexus, sex]. Without sex; nonsexual. Ash [ME., asch]. 1. The incombustible min- eral residue that remains when a substance is incinerated. 2. See Manna. A. Marina. See Manna. A., Prickly. See Xanthoxy- lum.
  • Asialia (as-e-a'-le-ah) [d, priv.; o'caXov, spittle]. Deficiency or failure of the secretion of saliva.
  • Asiatic (a-zhe-at'-ik) [Asia]. Pertaining or belonging to Asia. A. Cholera. See Cholera, Asiatic. A. Pill, a pill composed of arsenic trioxid, black pepper, powdered licorice, and mucilage.
  • Asimina (as-im-e'-nah) [L.]. A genus of trees. A. triloba is the papaw tree of North America.
  • Asitia (ah-sit'-e-ah) [a, priv.; a'cxog, food]. The want of food; also a loathing for food.
  • Askelia (ah-ske'-le-ah) [a, priv.; onkXoc, leg]. Nondevelopment of the legs.
  • Asoma (ah-so'-mah) [d, priv.; ou£cc, the pulse]. Suffocation; the suspension of vital phenomena resulting when the lungs are de- prived of oxygen. The excess of carbon dioxid in the blood at first stimulates, then paralyzes, the respiratory center of the medulla. Artificial respiration is therefore required in cases of asphyxia. A. cataphora, that with brief incomplete remissions. A., Lethargic, deep sleep accompanying mental and physical torpor. A., Local, that stage of Ray- naud's disease in which the affected parts are dusky red from intense congestion. A. neonatorum, the asphyxia of the new- born from any cause. A. sideratorum, loss of consciousness from lightning-stroke. A., Solar, A. Solaris, sunstroke. A., Syncopal, a form of asphyxia in which the heart-cavities are found vacant. A. valsalviana, syncope due to disturbance of cardiac functions.
  • Asphyxiant (as-fiks'-e-ant) [see Asphyctic]. 1. Producing asphyxia. 2. An agent capable of producing asphyxia.
  • Asphyxiate (as-fiks'-e-dt) [see Asphyctic]. To produce or cause asphyxia.
  • Aspidiopsoriasis (as-pid-e-o-so-ri' -as-is) [da- Ti'cdcov, a little shield; psoriasis]. A form of psoriasis marked by the formation of scutiform scales.
  • Aspidium (as-pid'-e-um) [L.; gen., aspidii]. 1. A genus of ferns known as shield-ferns. 2. The rhizome of Aspidium filix-mas and of A. marginale, or male-fern. Its proper- ties are due to a resin containing filicic acid. It is valuable chiefly against tape-worm. Dose £dr.-^ oz. (2-15 Cc). A., Liquid Ex- tract of (extr actum filicis liquidum, B. P.). Dose 15 min.-i dr. (1-4 Cc). A., Oleoresin of (oleoresina aspidii, U. S. P.), an ethereal extract. Dose §-1 dr. (2-4 Cc).
  • Aspidosamin (as-pid-os'-am-in), CgatyS^Og. A basic principle from quebracho bark. It is emetic. Unof.
  • Aspidosperma (as-pid-o-sper' -mah) [dan eg, a shield; onkpixa, a. seed]. A genus of apo- cynaceous trees, of which the quebracho is the most important.
  • Aspidospermin (as-pid-o-sper' -min) [see Aspi- dosperma], C22H3QN202. An alkaloid extracted from quebracho (Aspidosperma quebracho). It is a respiratory stimulant and antispas- modic. Dose 1-2 gr. (0.065-0.13 Gm.).
  • Aspiration (as-pir-a' -shun) [ad, to; spirare, to breathe]. 1. The act of sucking up or sucking in; inspiration; imbibition. 2. The act of using the aspirator. 3. A method of withdrawing the fluids and gases from a cavity. A. Pneumonia. See Pneumonia, Aspiration.
  • Aspirator (as'-pir-a-tor) [see Aspiration]. An apparatus for withdrawing liquids from cavi- ties by means of suction.
  • Aspirin (as'-pir-in). The acetic-acid ester of salicylic acid; small needles without color or taste, used as an antipyretic and analgesic, as is sodium salicylate. Dose 15 gr. (1 Gm.). Syn., Acetyl salicylic acid.
  • Asporogenic (ah-spor-o-jen'-ik) [d, priv.; oizbpoc;, seed; jevqc, producing]. Not repro- ducing by means of spores; not producing spores.
  • Assault (as-awlt') [assalire, to assail]. An attack. A., Criminal, in medical jurispru- dence, the touching or attempting to touch, on the part of a male, any of the sexual organs (the breasts included) of a female against her will, even though they be covered by clothing.
  • Assideration (as-id-er-a' -shun) [ad, intensive; sideratio, an evil influence]. In forensic medicine, infanticide by immersing in ice- cold water.
  • Assimilable (as-im'-il-a-bl) [assimulare, to make like]. Capable of being assimilated; nutritious.
  • Assimilation (as-im-il-a' -shun) [see Assimil- able]. The process of transforming food into so nutrient a condition that it is taken up by the circulatory system, to form an integral part of the economy; synthetic or constructive metabolism; anabolism. A., Mental, the mental reception of impressions and their assignment by the consciousness to their proper place. A., Primary, that con- ASSOCIATED 110 ASTHMA cerned in the conversion of food into chyle and blood. A., Secondary, that relating to the formation of the organized tissues of the body.
  • Associated (as-o' '-se-a-ted) [associatus, united]. Joined. A. Movements, coincident or con- sensual movements of muscles other than the leading one, and which, by habit or unity of purpose, are involuntarily connected with its action: both eyeballs move alike in reading, though one be a blind eye. Move- ment of the normal arm will sometimes produce slight motion of the opposite para- lyzed arm. Uniformity of innervation is usually the cause of these movements. A. Paralysis, A. Spasm, a common paralysis or spasm of associated muscles.
  • Assuetude (as'-we-tud). Habituation to dis- turbing influences; the condition of the organism in which it has acquired such tol- erance for a drug or poison that the effect it once had is lost.
  • Assurin (as'-u-rin), C 4B H 94 N 2 P 2 9 . A name given by Thudichum to a complex substance occurring in brain tissue.
  • Astasia (ah-sta' -se-ah) [a, priv.; axaacc, stand- ing]. Motor incoordination for standing. A. -abasia, a symptom consisting in inability to stand or walk in a normal manner. The person affected seems to collapse when attempting to walk.
  • Asteatosis (as-te-at-o'-sis) [a, priv.; oxkap, tallow; tborjf, fulness], i. A deficiency or absence of the sebaceous secretion. 2. Any skin disease (as xeroderma) characterized by scantiness or lack of the sebaceous secretion. A. cutis, a condition of diminished sebace- ous secretion, as the result of which the skin becomes dry, scaly, and often fissured.
  • Aster (as'-ter) [L., "a star"]. The stellate form assumed by the mitome of the nucleus when undergoing karyokinesis.
  • Astereognosis (ah-ste-re-og-no'-sis) [a, priv.; oxzpeoc, solid; yvcbacc, knowledge]. Inability to recognize objects by the sense of touch, due to lesion in the central parietal lobule. Syn., Stereoagnosis. Cf., Aphasia, Tactile.
  • Asterion (as-te' -re-on) [aster]. A point on the skull corresponding to the junction of the occipital, parietal, and temporal bones.
  • Asternal (ah-ster' -not) [a, priv.; axkpvov, the breast-bone]. Not connected with the ster- num. A. Ribs, the five lower pairs, because not joined directly to the sternum.
  • Asternia (ah-ster 1 '-ne-ah) [see Asternal]. Ab- sence of the sternum.
  • Asteroid (as'-ter-oid) [aster; eldoc, likeness]. 1. Stellate. 2. See Astrocyte.
  • Asthenia (ah-sthen-e'-ah or ah-sthe' '-ne-ah) [a, priv.; ad hoc, strength]. Absence of strength; adynamia. Syn., Lipopsychia.
  • Asthenic (ah-sthen' -ik) [see Asthenia]. Char- acterized by asthenia.
  • Asthenogenia, Asthenogenesis (ah-sthen-o-je' '- ne-ah, ah-sthen-o-jen' -es-is) [asthenia ; yevvav, to produce]. The production of asthenia.
  • Asthenometer (ah-sthen-om' -et-er) [asthenia; phpov, a measure]. An instrument for de- tecting and measuring asthenia; especially, a device for measuring muscular asthenopia.
  • Asthenopia (ah-sthen-o' -pe-ah) [asthenia; tb, eye]. Weakness of the ocular mus- cles or of visual power, due to errors of refraction, heterophoria, overuse, anemia, etc. A., Accommodative, that due to hyperopia, astigmatism, or a combination of the two, producing strain of the ciliary muscle. A., Muscular, that due to weakness, -incoordination (heterophoria), or strain of the external ocular muscles. A., Nervous, A., Retinal, a rare variety, caused by retinal hyperesthesia, anesthesia, or other abnor- mity, or by general nervous affections.
  • Asthenopic (ah-sthen-o p' -ik) [see Asthenopia]. Characterized by asthenopia.
  • Asthma (az'-mah) [&adp.a, panting]. A par- oxysmal affection of the bronchial tubes char- acterized by dyspnea, cough, and a feeling of constriction and suffocation. The disease is probably a neurosis, and is due to hyperemia and swelling of the bronchial mucous mem- brane, with a peculiar secretion of a mucin- like substance. The attacks may be caused by direct irritation of the bronchial mucous membrane or by indirect or reflex irritation, as from the nose, the stomach, the uterus. When dependent upon disease of the heart, the kidneys, stomach, thymus, etc., it has been designated cardiac, renal, peptic, thymic, etc. A., Arthritic. 1. That due to gout. 2. Angina pectoris. A., Bronchial. Same as Asthma. A., Cardiac, paroxysmal dyspnea due to heart disease. A., Cheyne- Stokes', dyspnea due to pulmonary conges- tion in an advanced stage of chronic myo- carditis. A. convulsivum. Synonym of Asthma. A. Crystals, acicular crys- tals (Charcot-Leyden crystals) contained in the sputum of asthmatic patients. They are generally associated with eosinophil cells. A. cultrariorum. See Fibroid Phthi- sis. A. dyspepticum, asthma due to nervous reflexes through the vagus. A., Fuller's, A. fullorum, a pulmonary affec- tion due to inhaling particles of wool and dust in the manufacture of cloth. A., Grinders'. See Fibroid Phthisis. A., Hay-. See Hay-fever. A., Heberden's, angina pectoris. A., Intrinsic, that due tp direct irritation of the lungs. A., Kopp's, spasm of the glottis. A., Marine. See Beriberi. A., Miller's. See Laryngis- mus stridulus. A., Miner's. See An- thracosis. A. nervosum. Synonym of Asthma. A., Organic, asthma of cardiac origin. A. -paper, niter-paper. A., Para- lytic Bronchial, a rare form attributed to a relaxed condition of the bronchioles. A., Pneumobulbar, See's term for a form attributed to pulmonary irritation trans- mitted to the bronchioles by reflexes through the vagus. A. purulentum, that due to an abscess in the respiratory passages. A., Renal, a paroxysmal dyspnea sometimes ASTHMATIC 111 ASYLUM occurring in the course of Bright's disease. A., Spasmodic. See Asthma. A., Thymic. Synonym of Laryngismus stridulus. A., Wichmann's. Same as A., Kopp's. A., Willis' Convulsive, asthma with sudden onset, attributed to an affection of the inter- costal nerves.
  • Asthmatic (az-mat'-ik) [see Asthma]. Relat- ing to or affected with asthma.
  • Asthmatorthopnea, Asthmorthopnea (az- mat-or-thop' -ne-ah, az-mor-thop' -ne-ah) [asth- ma; orthopnea]. Orthopnea due to asthma or respiratory obstruction located in the chest.
  • Astigmatic (ah-stig -mat' ' -ik) [astigmatism]. Pertaining to or affected with astigmatism.
  • Astigmatism (ah-stig' -mat-izm) [a, priv.; GTiy/xa, a point, because rays of light from a point are not brought to a point by the re- fractive media of the eye]. That condition of the eye in which rays of light from a point do not converge to a point on the retina. It is usually due to inequality of curvature of the different meridians of the cornea (corneal astigmatism), but may be caused by imperfec- tions of the lens (lenticular astigmatism), un- equal contraction of the ciliary muscle, or may • perhaps be due to retinal imperfection. It may be acquired or congenital, and may com- plicate hyperopia or myopia, producing either simple hyperopic astigmatism, in which one principal meridian is emmetropic, the other ©" H Hf-U*«W«" Diagram Illustrating the Formation of Astigmatic Images. The figures below give the images corresponding to the positions of the perpendicular lines above. The verti- cal rays are brought to a focus anterior to the horizontal. V = vertical rays; H = horizontal. hyperopic, or compound hyperopic astigmatism, in which both meridians are hyperopic, but one more so than the other. Complicating myopia we may in the same way have simple myopic or compound myopic astigmatism. In mixed astigmatism one principal meridian is myopic, the other hyperopic. Regular astig- matism is when the two principal meridians are at right angles to each other; irregular astigmatism when different parts of a meridian have different refracting powers.
  • Astigmatometer (ah-stig-mat-om' -et-er) [astig- matism; fikvpov, a measure]. An instru- ment for measuring the degree of astig- matism.
  • Astigmia (ah-stig' -me-ah). See Astigmatism.
  • Astigmometry (ah-stig-mom' -et-re) . The meas- urement of astigmatism.
  • Astomia (ah-sto' -me-ah) [a, priv.; oxdp.a, a mouth]. The condition of having no mouth.
  • Astragalectomy (as-trag-al-ek'-to-me) [astrag- alus; Ikto/jlt), excision]. Excision of the as- tragalus.
  • Astragaloscaphoid (as-trag-al-o-skaf'-oid) . Relating to the astragalus and the scaphoid bone.
  • Astragalo tibial (as-trag-al-o-tib'-e-al). Relat- ing to the astragalus and the tibia.
  • Astragalus (as-trag' -al-us) [daxpayaXoc, a die; the analogous bones of the sheep were used by the ancients as dice], i. The ankle- bone, upon which the tibia rests. 2. A genus of leguminous plants from some varie- ties of which gum tragacanth is derived. A. mollissimus is the loco-plant. The active prin- ciple of this plant has mydriatic properties. Unof.
  • Astraphobia, Astrapaphobia (as-trah-fo'-be-ah, as -trap -a) -0' -be-ah) [doxpanrj, lightning; fj/.u, to speak]. Lack of coordination in speech.
  • Ataxospasmodic (at-aks-o-spas-mod'-ik). Af- fected with choreic ataxia or relating to it.
  • Ataxy (at-aks'-e). See Ataxia.
  • Atelectasis (at-el-ek'-tas-is) [d-£Xr t c, imperfect; eKxaacc, expansion]. Imperfect expansion or collapse of the air -vesicles of the lung. It may be present at birth, or may be acquired from diseases of the bronchi or lungs. A., Absorption, acquired atelectasis in which the air has been removed by absorption from within, resulting from the plugging of the bronchial tubes.
  • Atelectatic (at-el-ek-tat'-ik) [see Atelectasis], Relating to or characterized by atelectasis.
  • Ateleiosis (at-el-i-o' -sis) [dzetelojecc, not arriv- ing at perfection]. A disease first described by Schaaffhausen, of Bonn (1868), charac- ATELIA 113 ATMIOMETER terized by abrupt onset, the absence of any perceptible cause, conspicuous infantilism with retention of unimpaired intelligence, and marked tardiness in development of the sex- ual system. Cf. Progeria.
  • Atelia (at-e' -le-ah) [drkkeca, imperfection]. Im- perfect development. The word is com- pounded with others to designate the part affected, as atelocardia, etc., imperfect de- velopment of the heart, etc.
  • Atelo- (at-el-o-). A prefix signifying imperfect development.
  • Atelocardia (at-el-o -kar' -de -ah) [atelo-; mpdca, heart]. An imperfect or undeveloped state of the heart.
  • Atelocephalous (at-el-o-sef'-al-us) [atelo-; KefaXr], head]. Having the skull or head more or less incomplete.
  • Atelocheilia (al-el-o-ki' -le-ah) [atelo-; x £C ^°C, lip]. Defective development of a lip.
  • Atelocheiria (at-el-o - ki'- re - ah) [atelo-; X^'ip, hand]. Defective development of the hand.
  • Ateloencephalia (at-el-o -en- sef - a'- le - ah) [atelo-; eynkcjiaXoc, brain]. Incomplete devel- opment of the brain.
  • Ateloglossia (at-el-o-glos' -e-ah) [atelo-; yXibooa, tongue]. Congenital defect in the tongue.
  • Atelognathia (at-el-o g-na' -the-ah) [atelo-; ■fvadog, jaw]. Imperfect development of a jaw, especially of the lower jaw.
  • Atelomyelia (at-el-o-mi-e' -le-ah) [atelo-; pozlbc, marrow]. Congenital defect of the spinal cord.
  • Atelopodia (at-el-o-po' -de-ah) [atelo-; nobc, foot]. Defective development of the foot.
  • Ateloprosopia (at-el-o-pro-so' -pe-ah) [atelo-; Trpdaconov, face]. Incomplete facial develop- ment.
  • Atelorachidia (at-el-o-rak-id'-e-ah) [atelo-; pd%cc, spine]. Imperfect development of the spinal column, as in spina bifida.
  • Atelostomia (at-el-o-sto' -me-ah) [atelo-; axbpa, mouth]. Incomplete development of the mouth,.
  • Athermanous (ah-ther' -man-us) . Impervious to radiant heat.
  • Athermosystaltic (ah-ther -mo-sist-aV -till) [a, priv.; dip/XT), heat; ouoxaXxcuoc, drawing to- gether]. Applied to muscles which do not contract under the influence of heat.
  • Atheroma (ath-er-o'-mah) [ddrjpr], gruel; bpa, tumor]. 1. A sebaceous cyst containing a cheesy material. Syn., Acne sebacea mollus- cum; Sebaceous cyst; Steatoma. 2. The fatty degeneration of the walls of the arteries in arteriosclerosis; by common usage the word is also applied to the whole process of ar- teriosclerosis. Arterial atheroma is also termed atherosis. A., Capillary, the forma- tion of fatty granules in the walls of the capillaries.
  • Atheromasia (ath-er-o-ma' -ze-ah) [see Ather- oma]. Atheromatous degeneration; the con- dition of atheroma, Atheromatous (ath-er-o' -mat-us) [see Ather- oma]. Characterized by or affected with atheroma. A. Abscess. See Abscess, Athero- matous. A. Ulcer, an ulcer formed by the abscess breaking through the intima.
  • Atherosis (ath-er-o' -sis) [dd-qp-q, gruel]. A synonym of Atheroma (2).
  • Athetoid (ath'-et-oid) [athetosis]. Pertaining to or affected with athetosis. A. Spasm, a spasm in which the affected member per- forms athetoid movements.
  • Athetosis (ath-et-o'-sis) [adexoc, unfixed; change- able]. A condition most frequently occurring in children, and characterized by continual slow change of position of the fingers and toes. It is usually due to a lesion of the brain. It is also called "posthemiplegic chorea," from its occurrence after hemiplegia. A., Double Congenital. See Paraplegia, Infantile Spasmodic. Athlete's Heart [ddXe'cv, to contend with]. A slight incompetency of the aortic valves, a condition sometimes found in athletes.
  • Athrepsia (ah-threps'-e-ah) [a, priv.; xpkfocv, to nourish]. Malnutrition.
  • Athymia (ah-thi' '-me-ah) [a, priv.; dupoc, spirit]. 1. Despondency. 2. Loss of con- sciousness. 3. Insanity.
  • Athyrea, Athyria (ah-thi' -re-ah) [a, priv.; thyroid]. The condition arising from ab- sence of the thyroid gland or suppression of its function. Syn., Myxedema. Cf. Thyreo- privus.
  • Athyreosis (ah-thi-re-o'-sis). Atrophy "or ab- sence of the thyroid gland and the patho- logic condition consequent upon elimination of its function.
  • Athyroidea (ah-thi-roid'-e-ah). Absence of the thyroid gland.
  • Athyroidemia (ah-thi-roid-e' -me-ah) . Davel's name for myxedema.
  • Atlas (at'-las) [axXac, able]. The first of the cervical vertebras. It articulates with the occipital bone of the skull and with the axis.
  • Atloaxoid (at-lo-aks'-oid). Relating to the bones termed the atlas and the axis.
  • Atlodymus (at-lod' -im-us) [dxXac, able; d'cdu- fioc, double]. A monstrosity with two heads on one neck and a single body.
  • Atmiatry (at-mi'-at-re) [drp.cc, vapor; laxpeca, medical treatment]. Treatment of diseases of the lungs or mucous membranes by in- halation, fumigation, or by directing a cur- rent of vapor or gas upon the part.
  • Atmic (at' -mik) [dxpic, vapor]. Relating to, due to, or consisting of vapor.
  • Atmidalbumin (at-mid-al' -bu-min) . A sub- stance standing between the albuminates and the albumoses, obtained by Neumeister at the same time with atmidalbumose.
  • Atmidalbumose (at-mid-al' -bu-moz) . Neu- meister's name for a body obtained by the action of superheated steam on fibrin.
  • Atmiometer (at-mi-om'-et-er). A closed cab* ATMO- 114 ATRETOLEMIA inet with apparatus for treating diseases by means of atmiatry.
  • Atmo- (at-mo-) [dxp.dc, vapor; breath]. A pre- fix meaning vapor or breath.
  • Atmocausia, Atmocausis (at-mo-kaw' 'se-ah, -sis) [atmo-; muotc, a burning]. Therapeutic cauterization with steam by means of an atmocautery.
  • Atmocautery (at-mo -kaw'-ter-e). A double- channeled intrauterine catheter provided with fenestras in both tubes.
  • Atmograph (at' -mo - graf) [atmo-; ypafecv, to record]. A form of self-registering res- pirometer.
  • Atmolysis (at-mol'-is-is) [atmo-; Xuocc, loosing]. A method of separating the ingredients of mixed gases or vapors by means of their dif- ferent diffusibility through a porous substance.
  • Atmometer, Atmidometer (at-mom' -et-er, at- mid-om' -et-er) [atmo-; pkxpov, a measure]. An instrument for measuring the amount of water exhaled by evaporation from a given surface in a given time, in order to determine the humidity of the atmosphere.
  • Atmosphere (at' -mos-fer) [atmo-; o(f>alpa, a sphere], i. The air; the mixture of gases surrounding the earth to the height of about 200 miles. 2. The pressure exerted by the earth's atmosphere at the level of the sea; it is about 15 pounds to the square inch, or 1 kilogram to the square centimeter. 3. In chemistry, any special gaseous medium encircling a body. 4. The climatic state of a locality.
  • Atmospheric (at-mos-fer'-ik) [see Atmosphere]. Pertaining to the atmosphere. A. Mois- ture, the vapor of water mingled with the atmosphere. It varies in quantity accord- ing to the temperature. A. Tension, the pressure of the air per square inch on the surface of a body. Normally, at the sea-level, it is about 15 pounds per square inch, or equal to that of a column of mercury about 30 inches in height. It decreases about Yo inch or ^ pound per square inch for every 90 feet of altitude. Above 10,000 feet the rarity of the atmosphere is usually noticeable in quickened breathing and pulse-rate.
  • Atmospherization (at - mos - fer - iz - a'- shun) . The conversion of venous into arterial blood by the absorption of oxygen. Cf . Dearte- rtalization.
  • Atmotherapy (al-mo-ther'-ap-e) [atmo-; depa- nz'ca, therapy]. A name given by Pitres to the treatment of certain tics by methodic reduction of respiration.
  • Atocia (at-o' -se-ah) [axonoc, barren]. Sterility of the female.
  • Atom (at'-om) [d, priv.; xipvscv, to cut]. The ultimate unit of an element; that part of a substance incapable of further division, or the smallest part capable of entering into the for- mation of a chemic compound, or uniting with another to form a molecule — which last is the smallest quantity of a substance that can exist free or uncombined.
  • Atomic (at-om'-ik) [see Atom). Pertaining to atoms. A. Heat, the specific heat of an atom of a chemic element as compared with that of an atom of hydrogen. A. Theory, the theory of Dalton that all matter is composed of atoms, the weight of each atom differing for the different elements. A. Valence, the saturating power of the atom of an element as compared with an atom of hydrogen. Syn., Equivalence. A. Weight, the weight of an atom of an element as com- pared with the weight of an atom of hydrogen.
  • Atomicity (at-om-is' -it-e) [see Atom]. Chemic valence; quantivalence.
  • Atomization (at - om -iz-a' - shun) [see Atom]. The mechanic process of breaking up a liquid into fine spray.
  • Atomizer (at' -om-i-zer) [see Atom]. An in- strument for transforming a liquid into a spray.
  • Atonic (at - on'- ik) [atony]. Relating to or characterized by atony.
  • Atony (at'-o-ne) [dxov'ca, want of tone]. Want of power, especially of muscular power.
  • Atoxogen (ah-toks'-o-jen) [d, priv.; xo^ckov, poison; ytvvdv, to produce]. A' defensive substance resembling the enzyms and chem- ically allied to toxins and antitoxins prepared from the adrenals and spleen of the horse.
  • Atrabiliary (at-rah-biV -e-a-re) [atra, black; bilis, bile]. Pertaining to black bile. A. Capsules, an old name for the suprarenal capsules.
  • Atrabilin (at-rah-bil'-in). A preparation of suprarenal capsule; it is used in eye diseases.
  • Atrachelia (ah-trak-e' -le-ah) [d, priv.; xpaxykoc, the neck]. Absence or exceeding shortness of the neck.
  • Atrachelocephalus (ah-trak-el-o-sef -al-us) [dx- paxyXoc, without a neck; tcefaXr], the head]. 1. Affected with atrachelia. 2. A monster with no neck or an abnormally short one.
  • Atractenchyma (ah-trakt-en' -ki-mah) [axpanxoc, a spindle; ifX £CV > to P our m ]- A tissue con- sisting of spindle-cells.
  • Atremia (ah-tre'-me-ah) [d, priv.; xpkpecv, to tremble]. 1. An absence of tremor. 2. In- ability to walk, stand, or sit without general discomfort and paresthesia of the head and back, all movements being readily executed in the recumbent posture. Syn., NefteVs disease.
  • Atresia (ah-tre' -ze-ah) [d, priv.; xpfjocc, per- foration]. Imperforation of a normal open- ing or canal, as of the anus, vagina, meatus auditorius, pupil, etc.
  • Atresic (ah-tre'-zik) [see Atresia]. Characterized by atresia.
  • Atreto- (ah-tre-to-) [axpyxoc, imperforate]. A prefix meaning imperforate.
  • Atretocephalus (ah-tret-o-sef -al-us) [atreto-; Ke'ca, atrophy], i. Diminution in the size of a tissue, organ, or part, the result of degeneration of the cells or a decrease in the size of the cells. 2. To become atrophied. A., Accidental, that of a part from compression or cutting off its blood-supply. A., Acute Yellow. See Icterus gravis. A., Angibromic, de- crease in the size of the lumen of the ali- mentary canal. A., Brown, a form of atrophy in which the normal pigment of the organ is retained, and in which there is also fre- quently the addition of new pigment. It oc- curs most frequently in the heart, muscles, and liver, and is caused by chronic con- gestion. Syn., Pigmented atrophy. Atrophia cachochymica, that due to indigestible food. A., Cardiac, atrophy of the heart following senile changes, or occurring in cachectic con- ditions, or as a result of pressure exerted by mediastinal tumors, etc. Syn., Atrophia cordis. A., Chronic Spinal Muscular. See A., Progressive Muscular. A., Concentric, that proceeding from without inward and tend- ing to lessen the capacity of a hollow organ. A., Correlated, an atrophy of certain por- tions of the body following the removal or destruction of other portions. Thus, ampu- tation of an arm will be followed by an atrophy of the scapula; of a leg, by atrophy of the corresponding os innominatum. A. , Cyan- otic (of the liver), atrophy of the parenchyma of the hepatic lobules due to stasis in the venous circulation, causing dilation and congestion of the central veins and adjacent capillaries. A., Degenerative, that due to degeneration of the cells. A., Eccentric, that proceeding from within toward the peri- phery. A., Granular, a form observed in the liver and kidneys, causing diminution in size and attended with excess in forma- tion of connective tissue, with copious supply of granular matter. A., Granuloproteic, that due to replacement of proper cell-struc- ture with fine granular masses. A., Gray, a degenerative change in the optic disc in which the latter assumes a grayish color. A., Halisteretic, atrophy of bone manifested only by gradual thinning of the lamellas of the spongy tissue. A., Idiopathic Muscu- lar, muscular wasting, beginning in various groups of muscles, usually progressive in character, and dependent on primary changes in the muscles themselves. There is a strong hereditary predisposition to the disease. A., Inanition, emaciation from diarrhea. Syn., Atrophia inanatorum. A., Individual, Char- cot's name for atrophy of individual muscles in different parts, the proximate muscles not being affected. A., Infantile, tabes mesen- terica (q. v.). Syn., Atrophia infantum; Atro- phia mesenterica. A., Muscular, atrophy affecting muscles; it may be hereditary or acquired, idiopathic, myelopathic, myopathic, neuropathic, primary, secondary, simple, or progressive. A. of the Nails, onychatrophia. Syn., Atrophia unguis. A., Necrobiotic, A., Numeric, atrophy of a part with destruction of some of its elements. Atrophia nervea, atrophy of the nerves. Atrophia nervosa, gradual emaciation, with loss of appetite, due to unwholesome and depressing environment. A., Pigmentary, A., Pigmented, a form of atrophy so called from a deposit of pigment (yellow or yellowish-brown) in the atrophied cells. Atrophia pilorum propria, atrophy of the hair, either symptomatic or idiopathic in origin. A., Progressive Facial, a condition characterized by progressive wasting of the skin of the face. Syn., Atrophia nova facialis. A., Progressive Muscular, a chronic disease characterized by progres- sive wasting of individual muscles or physiologic groups of muscles, and by an associated and proportional amount of par- alysis. It is due to a degeneration and atrophy of the multipolar cells in the an- terior gray horns of the cord, with consec- ATROPIN 116 ATTENDANT utive degeneration of the anterior nerve- roots and muscles. The right hand is usu- ally the part .first attacked, and takes on a peculiar claw-like form (main-en- gr iff e). The disease is most frequent in males of adult life, and follows excessive muscular exer- tion. Syn., Chronic anterior poliomyelitis; Wast- ing palsy. A., Progressive Nervous, Jac- coud's name for atrophy of the spinal nerve- roots due to pressure from a deposit of fibrous substance on the spinal arachnoid. A., Pro- gressive Unilateral Facial, a disease charac- terized by progressive wasting of the skin, connective tissue, fat, bone, and more rarely the muscles of one side of the face. It is most common in females; its course is slow and generally progressive. A., Qualitative, de- generation. A., Quantitative. See A., Sim- ple. A., Red, a form of atrophy due to chronic congestion, as seen in the liver in mitral and tricuspid valvular lesions. A., Scle- rotic, a name for connective tissue found at times deposited in the heart-substance after myocarditis. A., Senile, the physiologic atro- phy of advanced life. It affects the lungs, the sexual and other organs. A., Senile, of the Skin, an atrophy of the skin usually associated with general signs of senile degeneration. Syn., Atrophia cutis senilis; Senile atropho- derma. A., Serous, atrophy associated with an infiltration of fluid into the atrophic tissues. A., Simple, that due to a decrease in the size of individual cells. A., Simple Brown, a condition of the heart in which the muscle- fibers retain their striated appearance, but the muscle-cells are small and contain yellow granules of pigment. A. of the Skin, atrophy characterized by diminution or dis- appearance of certain of the elements of the skin: especially seen in advanced age. The skin becomes thin, loose* wrinkled, and discolored. Syn., Atrophia cutis; Atropho- derma. A,, Sympathetic, atrophy of the second member of a pair of organs, following that of the first. A., Trophoneurotic, that dependent upon abnormity of the nervous supply of an organ or tissue, best illustrated in muscular atrophy from disease of the an- terior horns of the spinal cord. Atrophia verminosa, emaciation due to intestinal worms. A., White, nerve atrophy, leaving only white connective tissue.
  • Atropin, Atropina (at'-ro-pin, at-ro-pi' -nah) ["ArpoKoc, one of the Fates who cut the thread of life], C 17 H ?3 N0 3 . The atropinaoi the V. S.P. is a crystalline alkaloid derived from Atropa belladonna. It is a mydriatic, antispasmodic, and anodyne; in small doses a cardiac, respira- tory, and spinal stimulant; in large doses a par- alyzant of the cardiac and respiratory centers, the spinal cord, motor nerves, and involuntary and voluntary muscles. It lessens all the se- cretions except the urine. In full doses it pro- duces dryness of the throat, flushing of the face, dilation of the pupils, a rise of tem- perature, and sometimes an erythematous rash. It is extensively used in ophthalmic practice to dilate the pupil, to paralyze accom- modation, and also in various corneal, iritic, and other ocular diseases. Its therapeutic use in general medicine is also manifold; e. g., in inflammatory affections and the pain of cere- bral and spinal hyperemia, atonic constipa- tion, cardiac failure, hypersecretions, especially of the sweat, to relieve local spasms, as in intestinal and biliary colic, in asthma, whoop- ing-cough, etc., and as a physiologic an- tagonist in opium -poisoning. A. Borate, (C 17 H 23 N0 3 ) 2 B 4 7 , is used in ophthalmic prac- tice. A. Hydrobromate, C 17 H 23 N0 3 HBr, white crystals, soluble in water and in alcohol. It is used as is atropin. A. Hydro chlorate, C 17 H 23 N0 3 HC1, white crystals, soluble in water and alcohol, slightly in ether. Used in the same manner as atropin. Dose x^o~ e 1 ^ gr. (0.0006-0.001 Gm.). A. Hydroio- date, C 17 H 23 NO . HI0 3 , is employed in ophthalmic practice in 0.5 to 1.5 % solution. A., Lamellas of (lamella atropince, B. P.), each contains 5 J 00 gr. (0.000013 Gm.) atropin. A. Oleate(oleatum atropince, U. S. P.), a 2% solution of atropin in oleic acid; it is a mydriatic, sedative, and anodyne, and is used as an inunction in cases in which remedies cannot be administered by the mouth. A. Salicylate, C 17 H 23 N0 3 C 7 H 6 2 , a colloidal mass, used as is atropin. A. Santonate, a compound of atropin and santonic acid, recommended as a mydriatic. A. San- toninate, C 17 H 23 O 3 C 15 H 20 O 4 , is used in oph- thalmic practice. A. Stearate, C ]7 H 23 N0 3 C 17 - H 35 CO . OH, fine white needles, greasy to the touch, melting at 120 C, beginning to de- compose at 170 C, and containing 50.43 % of atropin. It is soluble in ether and in alcohol. Applied in 1 : 500 oily solution as a substitute for oil of belladonna or oil of hyoscyamus. A. Sulfate (atropines sulphas, U. S. P.), the most frequently used preparation of atropin, is a white powder, of bitter taste and neutral reaction, and is soluble in water. Dose T - - g 1 ^ gr. (0.00036-0.008 Gm). A.
  • Sulfate, Solution of (liquor atropince sul- phatis, B. P.). Dose 1-6 min. (0.065-0.4 Cc). A. Tartrate, (C 17 H 23 N0 3 ) 2 C 4 H 6 6 , is used as is atropin.
  • Atropinize (at'-ro-pin-iz) [atropin]. To bring under the influence of, or to treat with, atropin.
  • Atroscin (at'-ros-in), C 17 H 21 N0 4 . An alkaloid isomeric with hyoscin, obtained from Scopolia carniolica. It has a higher rotatory power than hyoscin, and is from 2 to 4 times stronger in mydriatic action. Syn., Atrosia.
  • Attar (at'-ar) [Ar., 'itr, perfume]. A general name for any of the volatile oils. A. of Rose, oil of rose. The volatile oil distilled from the fresh flowers of the Damascene rose. It comes mainly from eastern Rumelia, and is generally adulterated with other volatile oils. It is used as a perfume.
  • Attendant (at-en' -dani) [attendere, to attend]. A nonprofessional attache of an asylum or hos- pital.
  • ATTENUANT 117 AULA Attenuant (at-en'-u-ant) [attenuare, to make thin], i. A medicine or agent increasing the fluidity or thinness of the blood or other secre- tion. 2. Lessening the effect of an agent.
  • Attenuating (at-en' -u-a-ting) [see Attenuant]. Making thin.
  • Attenuation (at-cn-u-a! -shun) [see Attenuant]. The act of making thin; a thinning, narrow- ing, or reduction of the strength or size of a substance, especially the weakening of the pathogenic virulence of microorganisms by successive cultivation, by exposure to light, air, heat, or other agency, or by passing through certain animals, so that they may be used as a vaccine to confer immunity from future at- tacks of the disease. A., Sanderson's Meth- od of, the passing of virus through the system of another animal (e. g., the guinea-pig, in anthrax) so that it becomes modified in viru- lency.
  • Attic (at'-ik) ['Attckoc, Attic]. Part of the tympanic cavity situated above the atrium. A. Disease, chronic suppurative inflammation of the attic of the tympanum.
  • Atticoantrotomy (at-ik-o-an-trof -o-me) [attic; antrum; xe^vecv, to cut]. The opening of the attic and mastoid process.
  • Atticomastoid (at-ik-o-mas f -toid) . Relating to the attic and the mastoid.
  • Atticotomy (at-ik-of -om-e) [attic; rkuvetv, to cut]. Surgical incision of the attic.
  • Attitude (at'-e-tud) [aptitudo, aptitude]. See Posture. A., Crucifixion, in hysteroepi- lepsy, a rigid state of the body, the arms stretched out at right angles. A., Frozen, a peculiar stiffness of the gait characteristic of disease of the spinal cord, especially of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A., Passion- ate, the assumption of a dramatic or theatric expression, a position assumed by some hys- teric patients.
  • Attollens (at-ol'-enz) [attollere, to rise up]. Raising. A. auris, a muscle raising the external ear.
  • Attraction (at-rak'-shun) [attrahere, to draw to]. The tendency of one particle of matter to approach another; affinity. As existing between masses, it is termed gravitation, while molecular attraction or cohesion ex- presses the force aggregating molecules. A., Capillary, the force that causes liquids to rise in fine tubes or between two closely approxi- mated surfaces, or on the sides of the contain- ing vessel. A., Chemic, the attraction of affinity, relates to the attraction of atoms of one element to those of others, resulting in chemic compounds. A., Electric, the ten- dency of bodies toward each other when charged with opposite electricities. A., Mag- netic, the influence of a magnet upon certain metallic substances, chiefly iron.
  • Attrahens (at' -ra-lienz) [L., "drawing"]. Drawing forward, as attrahens aurem, a mus- cle drawing the ear forward and upward.
  • Attrition (at-rish' -un) [atterere, to rub against]. Rubbing or friction.
  • Atypic, Atypical (ah-tip'-ik, -al) [a, priv.; zu-koc, a type]. Irregular; not conformable to the type. A. Fever, an intermittent fever with irregularity of the paroxysm. Aubert's Phenomenon. An optic illusion by which, when the head is inclined to one side, a vertical line is made to appear oblique to- ward the opposite side.
  • Audiometer (aw-de-om' -et-er) [audire, to hear; [ikxpov, a measure]. An instrument for measuring the acuteness of hearing.
  • Audiphone (aw'-dif-on) [audire, to hear; (fxovq, a sound]. An instrument for improving the power of hearing by conveying sounds through the bones of the head to the labyrinth.
  • Audition (aw-dish'-un) [audire, to hear]. The act of hearing. Syn., Acoesis; Acousia; Acu- sis. A. coloree, color-hearing, a peculiar association between the auditory and optic nerves, by which a certain sound or musical note will give rise to a subjective sensation of color, the same note in the same person being always associated with the same color. Syn., Chromatic audition. A. contre,the perception by one ear of the vibrations of a tuning-fork placed on the mastoid process on the other side.
  • Auditory (aw' -dit-o-re) [see Audition]. Per- taining to the act or the organs of hearing. A. After-sensations, the sensations of sounds continuing or occurring after the cessation of the stimulus. A. Amnesia. See Mind- deafness. A. Area, the cerebral center for hearing, probably located in the temporo- sphenoid lobe. A. Aura, an auditory sensa- tion preceding an attack of epilepsy. A.
  • Center. Same as A. Area. A. Eminence, the prominent part of the floor of the fourth ventricle, lying between the inferior and su- perior fovea. A. Hairs, the processes of the crista acustica. A. Meatus (external and internal), the external and internal canals or openings of the ear. A. Nerve, the eighth cranial nerve, supplying the internal ear; formerly the porlio mollis of the seventh pair of cranial nerves. A. Ossicles, the chain of small bones of the middle ear. A. Pit, the depression in the epiblast on both sides of the embryonic after-brain, destined to form the labyrinth of the ear. A. Vertigo, dizzi- ness due to pathologic conditions of the ear. See Meniere's Disease. Auenbrugger's Sign. Bulging of the epigastric region in cases of extensive pericardial effusion. Auerbach's Ganglions. The ganglionic nodes in Auerbach's plexus. A.'s Plexus, plexus myentericus, a nerve-plexus found between the circular and longitudinal muscular coats of the stomach and intestine, and consisting of a network of pale nerve -fibers, at the nodal points of which minute ganglions exist. Aufrecht's Sign. Short and feeble breathing heard just above the jugular fossa on placing the stethoscope over the trachea; it is noted in tracheal stenosis.
  • Augnathus (aw-gna f -thus) [ay, besides; yyadoc, the jaw]. A monster with two lower jaws.
  • Aula (aw'-lah) [aoXrj, a hall or open court]. The AURA 118 AURIST common mesal cavity of the cerebrum, it being also the anterior portion of the third ventricle.
  • Aura (aw' -rah) [aupa, a breath]. A breath of wind; a soft vapor. The phenomenon pre- ceding an attack of epilepsy. It may be mo- tor, sensory, vasomotor, secretory, or psychic. It is also applied to the symptom preceding an attack of any disease or paroxysm, as the aura hysterica, aura vertiginosa, etc. A,, Epigastric, a localized epileptic aura.
  • Aurade, Auradin (aw'-rad, aw'-rad-in). A fatty body obtained from oil of orange-flowers. It crystallizes in tasteless, pearly, odorless scales, melting at 13 1° F.; soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol. Syn., Neroli camphor.
  • Aural (aw'-ral) [auris, the ear]. 1. Relating to the ear or to hearing. 2. [aura.] Relating to the air or to an aura. A. Vertigo. See Meniere's Disease.
  • Auramin (aw' -ram-in) [aurum, gold; amin]. Yellow pyoktanin, a yellow anilin color used to some extent as an antiseptic.
  • Aurantia (aw-ran 1 '-she-ah) [aurantium]. 1. An orange coal-tar dye; an ammonium salt of hexa- nitrodiphenylamin. 2. An orange or oranges.
  • Aurantium (aw-ran' -she-um) [L. ; gen., aurantii]. Orange. The fruit of Citrus vulgaris and C.
  • Aurantii amari, Tinctura (U. S. P.), bitter orange-peel, 20; dilute alcohol, q. s. ad 100. Dose 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc). Aurantii corticis, Oleum (U. S. P.), the volatile oil expressed from the rind of the orange; it is aromatic and a mild tonic, but is used mainly as a flavor. Dose 1-5 drops. Aurantii dulcis cortex (U. S. P.), sweet orange-peel. Au- rantii dulcis, Tinctura (U. S. P.), sweet orange-peel, 20; dilute alcohol, q. s. ad 100. Dose 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc). Aurantii, Elixir, oil of orange-peel, 1; sugar, 100; alcohol and water, q. s. ad 300. Aurantii riorum, Aqua (U. S. P.), stronger orange-flower water and distilled water, of each, 1 volume. Aurantii riorum fortior, Aqua (U. S. P.), water satu- rated with the volatile oil of fresh orange- flowers. Aurantii riorum, Oleum, oil of ne- roli, a volatile oil distilled from fresh orange- flowers. Dose 1-5 drops. Aurantii norum, Syrupus (U. S. P.), sugar, 85; orange-flower water, sufficient to make 100 parts. A com- mon flavoring agent. Aurantii, Infusum (B.
  • P.). Dose 1-2 oz. (30-60 Cc). Aurantii, Infusum, Compositum (B. P.). Dose 1-2 oz. (30-60 Cc). Aurantii, Spiritus, oil of orange-peel, 5; deodorized alcohol, 95. Dose according to quantity of alcohol desired. Au- rantii, Spiritus, Compo situs (U. S. P.), oil of orange-peel, 20; oil of lemon, 5; oil of cori- ander, 2; oil of anise, 5; deodorized alcohol, sufficient to make 100 parts. Aurantii, Syr- upus (U. S. P.), tincture of sweet orange-peel, 5; citric acid, 0.5; magnesium carbonate, 1; sugar, 82; water sufficient to make 100 parts.
  • Aureola (aw-re'-o-lah). See Areola (1).
  • Aureolin (aw-re'-o-lin) [aurum, gold]. A yellow pigment obtained by heating paratoluidin with sulfur and treating with fuming sulfuric acid. Syn., Carnotin; Polychromin; Primulin yellow; Sid fin; Thiochromogen.
  • Auric (aw'-rik) [aurum, gold]. Pertaining to aurum or gold. A. Acid. See Acid, Auric.
  • Auricle (aw'-rik-l) [auricula, the ear]. 1. The expanded portion or pinna of the ear. 2. One of the upper chambers of the heart receiv- ing the blood from the lungs (left auricle) or from the general circulation (right auricle). 3. An ear-shaped appendage. 4. A kind of ear -trumpet. A., Cervical, congenital car- tilaginous remains of the neck, arising about the middle of the sternomastoid as symmetric bodies, occurring in man occasionally and almost constantly present in the goat.
  • Auricoammonic (aw-rik-o-am-on'-ik). Con- taining gold and ammonium.
  • Auricobarytic (aw-rik-o-bar-it'-ik). Contain- ing gold and barium.
  • Auricular (aw-rik'-u-lar) [see Auricle]. 1. Relating to the auricle of the ear. 2. Per- taining to the auricles of the heart, as auricu- lar appendix. 3. Relating to the auricular nerve, arteries, veins, etc. A. Finger, the little finger. A. Point, the central point of the external auricular meatus.
  • Auricularis (aw-rik-u-la'-ris) [see Auricle], 1. Auricular. 2. The extensor minimi digiti. See under Muscle. A. magnus, a branch of the cervical plexus of nerves.
  • Auriculo cranial (aw-rik-u-lo-kra'-ne-al). Per- taining to both the auricle and the cranium.
  • Auriculotemporal (aw -rik-u-lo - tem'-po -rat) » [auricle; tempus, the temple]. Relating to the auricle and to the temporal re- gion. A. Nerve, a branch of the inferior maxillary, supplying superficial parts about the auricle and temple.
  • Auriculoventricular (aw-rik-u-lo-ven-trik'-u- lar) [auricle; ventricidus, the ventricle]. Relating to an auricle and a ventricle of the heart. A. Opening, the opening between the auricles and the ventricles of the heart.
  • Auriginous (aw-rij'-in-ous). 1. Having the color of gold. 2. Relating to jaundice.
  • Aurinasal (aw-re-na'-sal) [auris; nasus, nose]. Pertaining to the ear and the nose.
  • Auripuncture (aw'-re-punk-chur) [auris; punc- ture]. Puncture of the membrana tympani.
  • Auris (aw'-ris) [L.]. The ear.
  • Auriscope (aw'-ris-kop) [auris; okotzuv, to ex- amine]. An instrument for examining the ear, and especially the eustachian passage; an otoscope.
  • Aurist (aw'-rist) [auris]. A specialist in dis- eases of the ear.
  • Aurum (aw' -rum) [L.; gen., auri]. Gold. Au = 196.7; quantivalence in. A brilliant yel- low metal, having a specific gravity of 19.3. It is soluble in a mixture of nitric and hydro- chloric acids. A. bromidum, AuBr 3 , used in epilepsy and migraine. Dose ^&-$ g 1 "- (0.003-0.01 Gm.). A. chloridum, goldchlo- rid. Dose £(, - $* g 1 "- (0.001-0.002 Gm.).
  • Auscult, Auscultate (aws-kulf, aws' -kul-tat) [auscultare, to listen to]. To perform or prac- tise auscultation; to examine by ausculta- tion.
  • Auscultation (aws-kul-ta' -shun) [see Aus- cult]. A method of investigation of the functions and conditions of the respiratory, circulatory, digestive, and other organs by the sounds they themselves give out or that are elicited by percussion. It is called immediate, when the ear is directly applied to the part, and mediate, if practised by the aid of the stetho- scope. Obstetric auscultation is practised in pregnancy to detect or study the fetal heart- sounds or the placental murmur. A. -tube, in otology, an instrument for listening to the forced passage of air through the ear of an- other.
  • Auscultatory (aws-kuV '-ta-to-re) [see Ausctdt]. Relating to auscultation. A. Percussion, the practice of listening with the stethoscope to the sounds produced by percussing a part.
  • Autechoscope (aw-tek'-o-skop) [auxoc, self; 7?£oc, sound; oKoize'tv, to inspect]. A device for enabling a person to listen to sounds pro- duced within his own body.
  • Autecious, Autcecious (aw-te' '-sluis) [auxoc, self; oIkoc, dwelling]. Applied to parasitic fungi that pass through all the stages of their existence in the same host.
  • Autemesia (aw-tem-e' -zhe-ah) [auxoc, self; ifielv, to vomit]. Vomiting without manifest cause.* Auto- (aw-to-) [auxoc, self]. A prefix meaning self, of itself.
  • Autoaudible (aw-to-awd'-i-U) [auto-; audire, to hear]. Applied to cardiac sounds audible to the patient.
  • Autoblast (aw'-to-blast) [auto-; fiXaoxoc, a. germ]. An independent bioblast.
  • Autochthon (aw-tok'-thon) [auxoydojv, sprung from the land]. An aboriginal inhabitant.
  • Autochthonous (aw-tok'-thon-us) [see Autoch- thon]. Aboriginal; formed (as, e. g., a clot) in the place where it is found. Autocmesis(aw'-to-sin-e'-sis). See Autokinesis.
  • Autoclave (aw' -to-kldv) [auto-; clavis, a key]. 1. Self -fastening; closing itself. 2. An appa- ratus for sterilizing objects by steam-heat at high pressure.
  • Autoconduction (aw-to-kon-duk'-shun) [auto-; conduction]. A term used in electrotherapy for a method of using high-frequency cur- rents, by having the patient or part to be acted upon placed inside of the solenoid, with- out any direct connection with any part of the circuit.
  • Autocystoplasty (aw -to -sis' ' -to-plas-te) [auto-; Kuoxcc, bladder; xXaooecv, to form]. Plas- tic surgery of the bladder with grafts from the patient's body.
  • Autocytotoxins (aw-to-si-to-toks'-ins) [auto-; cytotoxin]. Cytotoxins produced in the body of the individual by abnormal retention and absorption of the products of degenerated and dead cells.
  • Autodidact (aw r -to-di-dakt) [auto-; dcda/cxdc, taught]. One who is self-taught in his profession.
  • Autodigestion (aw-to-di-jes' -chun) [aido-; digere, to digest]. Digestion of an organ by its own secretion.
  • Autogenesis (aw-to-jen'-es-is) [auto-; ykv- eotc, production}. Spontaneous generation; self -production.
  • Autogenetic (aw-to-jen-ef -ik) [see Autogen- esis]. Produced within the organism.
  • Autogenous (aw-to]' -en-us) [see Autogenesis]. 1. Pertaining to diseases or conditions self- produced within the body and not derived from external sources; applied to poisons generated in the body by its inherent pro- cesses. 2. Having a distinct center of devel- opment, as parts of bones. A. Hemor- rhage, hemorrhage due to causes residing within the body; not traumatic.
  • Autogony (aw-tog'-o-ne) [auxoyovoc, self-pro- duced]. The rise of the simplest protoplasmic substance in a formative fluid.
  • Autographism (aw'-to-graf-izm) [auto-; fpacf)- ecv, to write]. Dermographia. See Urticaria factitia.
  • Autohypnotism (aw-to-hip' -not-izm) [auto-; u-voc, sleep]. Mental stupor induced by dwell- ing intensely upon some all-absorbing thought.
  • Auto immunization (aw-to-im-u-ni-za' -shun) [aido-; immunization]. Immunization obtained by natural processes at work within the body.
  • Autoinfection (aw-to-in-fek'-shun) [auto-; in- fection]. Infection by virus originating within the body or transferred from one part of the body to another.
  • Autoinfusion (aw-to-in-fu'-shun) [auto-; in- fundere, to pour in]. Compulsion of the blood to the heart by bandaging the extrem- ities, compression of the abdominal aorta, etc.
  • Autoinoculable (aw-to -in-ok f -u-la-bl) [auto-; inoculare, to implant]. Capable of being in- oculated upon the person already infected. Chancroid is autoinoculable.
  • Autoinoculation (aw-to-in-ok-u-td'-shun) [see Autoinoculable]. Inoculation in one part of the body by virus present in another part; self-inoculation.
  • Autointoxication (aw-to-in-toks-ik-a' -shun) AUTOISOLYSIN 120 AUTOTOXIN [auto-; xo^cnbv, a poison]. Poisoning by faulty metabolic products elaborated with- in the body; autoinfection. A., Endo- genous, that due to the action of excessive unneutralized or modified discharges from the cells of any tissue acting upon the other tissues without previous discharge from the body; or that due to the action of products of decomposition and necrosis of any tissue acting in a similar manner; or that due to microendoparasites or macroendoparasites. A., Exogenous, that due to the action of poisons entering the system from without, through the skin, the digestion, the respiratory or genitourinary tract, as by the absorption of retained excreta, or of decomposition- and fermentation-products developed in the external secretions through the action of those secretions. A., Indirect, that caused by the absorption of retained excrements.
  • Autoisolysin (aw-to-is-oV -is-in) [auto-; 'hoc, equal; Xuacc, a loosing]. A serum which dissolves the corpuscles of the individual from which it was obtained and also those of another individual of the same species.
  • Autokinesis (aw -to -kins' -sis) [auto-; tdvt]ctc, movement]. Voluntary movement.
  • Autokinetic (aw-to-kin-ef -ik) [see Autokinesis]. Pertaining to, or of the nature of, auto- kinesis.
  • Autolysin (aw!-to-li-sin) [auto-; Xuocg, a loosing]. A lysin capable of dissolving the red blood-corpuscles of the animal in the serum of which it circulates.
  • Autolysis (aw-tol'-is-is) [see Autolysin]. i. Self-digestion of inflammatory exudates and necrotic material within the living body. 2. The chemic splitting-up of the tissue of an organ by the action of an enzym peculiar to it; described by Mathes as occurring in the placenta. 3. The hemolytic action of the blood-serum of an animal upon its own corpuscles.
  • Automatic (aw -to -mat' -ik) [auxopiaxc^ecv, to act spontaneously]. Performed without the in- fluence of the will.
  • Automatism (aw-tom' -at-izm) [see Automatic]. The performance of acts without apparent volition, as seen in certain somnambulists and in some hysteric and epileptic patients. A., Epileptic. See Automatism.
  • Automaton (aw-tom' -at-on) [auxoptaxoc, spon- taneous]. One who acts in an involuntary or mechanic manner.
  • Autonomous (aw -ton' -om -us) [auto-; vbjioc, law]. Self -ruled; independent.
  • Autonomy (aw -ton' -0 -me) [see Autonomous]. Independence.
  • Autopepsia (aw-to-pep' -se-ah) [auto-; xbzxecv, to digest]. Autodigestion.
  • Autophagia (aw-to-fa' -je-ah) [auto-; fyayftv, to eat]. Self -consumption; emaciation.
  • Autophobia (aw -to -fo' -be -ah) [auto-; cj>6fioc, fear]. A morbid dread of one's self or of solitude.
  • Autophonous (aw-to}' -on-us) [auto-; (j>ojvq, voice]. Having the character of autoph- ony.
  • Autophony (aw-to}' -o-ne) [see Autophonous]. 1. The auscultation of the physician's own voice through the patient's chest. 2. The condition in which one's own voice appears changed. It may be due to chronic inflam- mation of the ear or to other causes.
  • Autophthalmoscopy (aw-to f-thal-mos'-ko-pe) [auto-; 6(pdaX/x6c, the eye; okotze'iv, to see]. Examination of one's own eye with the oph- thalmoscope.
  • Autoplasty (aw'-to-plas-te) [auto-; Tilaoazcv, to form]. A method of repairing the effects of a wound or lesion involving loss of tissue by grafting or implanting fresh parts taken from other portions of the patient's body.
  • Autopsy (aw'-top-se) [auto-; oipcc, a see- ing]. The postmortem examination.
  • Autopsy chorrhythmia (aw-to-si-kor-rith' -me- an) [auto-; (pu^T), mind; pudp.dc, rhythm]. A morbid rhythmic activity of the brain; it is a symptom of grave insanity.
  • Autoscope (aw'-to-skop) [auto-; okotzcIv, to see]. An instrument arranged for the exam- ination of one's own organs by one's self.
  • Autoscopy (aw-tos' -ko-pe) [see Autoscope]. The examination of one's own organs by means of an autoscope.
  • Autosite (aw'-to-slt) [auto-; o'cxoc, food]. 1. A monster capable of an independent ex- istence after birth. 2. That member of a double fetal monstrosity that nourishes itself by its own organs and also the other member, which is called the parasite.
  • Autositic (aw -to -sit' -ik) [see Autosite]. Of the nature of an autosite.
  • Autosterilization (aw-to-ster-il-iz-a'-shun) [au- to-; sterilization]. Sterilization effected by the normal fluids of the body.
  • Autostethoscope (aw-to-steth' -o-skop) [auto-; oxfjdoc, the breast; anone'iv, to examine]. A stethoscope so arranged that by it one may listen to his own chest-sounds.
  • Autosuggestion (aw-to-sug-jes' -chun) [auto-; suggestio, an intimation]. A peculiar men- tal condition," often developing after acci- dents, especially railway accidents; it is inti- mately associated with the hypnotic state. In both of these conditions the mental spontan- eity, the will, or the judgment is more or less suppressed or obscured, and suggestions be- come easy. Thus the slightest traumatic action directed to any member may become the occasion of a paralysis, of a contracture, or of an arthralgia. Syn., Traumatic sug- gestion.
  • Autotherapy (aw-to-iher' -a-pe) [auto-; Oepa- Tieca, treatment]. The spontaneous or self- cure of a disease.
  • Autotoxemia (aw-to-toks-e' -me-ah) [auto-; to$(kov, a poison; alpa, blood]. Toxe- mia from poisons derived from the organism itself.
  • Autotoxin (aw-to-toks' -in) [auto-; xo^cubv, a poison]. Any poisonous product of tissue- metamorphosis.
  • AUTOTRANSFUSION 121 AXILLARY Autotransfusion (aw-to-trans-fu' -zhun) [auto-; transfusio, a pouring-out or forth]. The transfer of the blood to the brain and other central organs by elevating the hips and legs and by the use of elastic bandages compressing the limbs.
  • Autotyphization (aw-to-ti-fiz-a' -shun) [auto-; typhoid]. The production of a condition resembling typhoid fever from faulty elimina- tion of waste-material.
  • Autovaccination (aw-to-vaks-in-a' 'shun) [auto-; vaccinare, to vaccinate]. The reinsertion of fresh vaccine lymph upon the same person from whom it is taken. Autumn Catarrh. Synonym of Hay-fever, since it occurs in August and the fall of the year.
  • Autumnal (aw-tum' -nal) [autumn]. Pertaining to the fall of the year. A. Fever. Synonym of Typhoid fever.
  • Auxanography (awks-an-og' '-ra-fe) . A method devised by Beyerinck for ascertaining the nu- trient mediums suitable for a growing microbe plate cultures of poor mediums (e.g., 10% gelatin or 2 % agar in distilled water) are stip- pled with drops of solutions the nutrient prop- erties of which are to be tested. The species of microbe under examination will then de- velop strong colonies only on those spots where the requisite pabulum is present.
  • Auxanometer (awks-an-om' -et-er) [au^avetv, to grow; fxhpov, a measure]. An instrument used in biologic study for measuring the growth of young organisms.
  • Auxiliary (awks-iV -e-a-re) [auxilium]. r. Aid- ing. 2. An adjuvant. Auxiliaries of Res- piration, those muscles brought into action in difficult respiration.
  • Auxilium (awks-iV -e-um) [L., "help"]. A wheeled vehicle or ambulance with couch and mattresses, for use in the service of field military hospitals.
  • Auxometer (awks-om' -et-er) [au^ecv, to grow; l±kxpov, a measure]. 1. A device for estimat- ing the magnifying power of lenses. 2. See Auxanometer. 3. A dynamometer. Syn., Auxemeter; Auxenometer; Auxesimeter ; Aux- iometer; Auzometer. Ava-kava [ah-vah-kah' -vah) . See Kava-kava. Avalanche Theory. Pfliiger's theory that nerve-energy gathers intensity as it passes to- ward the muscles.
  • Avalvular (ah-vaV -vu-lar) [a, priv.; valvula, ■ a valve]. Lacking valves.
  • Avascular (ah-vas' '-ku-lar) [a, priv.; vas, a ves- sel]. Without blood; not possessing blood- vessels. Avellis* Symptom-complex. Paralysis of one-half of the soft palate, associated with a recurrent paralysis on the same side.
  • Avena (av-e'-nah) [L.]. A genus of plants. Oats. Avenae farina, oatmeal. A. sativa, the embryo of the seed of the common oat- plant. It contains starch, gluten, a ferment called diastase, and a small amount of alkaline phosphates, and is a nutritious food. Dose of the concentrated tincture or fiuidextract 10 min.-2 dr. (0.65-8.0 Cc). The pericarp con- tains an alkaloid possessed of slight narcotic powers. Unof.
  • Avenin (av-e'-nin) [avena]. 1. A precipi- tate made from a tincture of Avena sativa, or the oat. It is a nerve -stimulant and tonic. Unof. 2. A nitrogenous principle obtained from the oat, and nearly identical with legu- min; the gluten-casein of oats.
  • Avenious, Avenous (ah-ve'-ne-us, ah-ve' -nus) [a, priv.; vena, vein]. Lacking veins or nerves.
  • Avenolith (av-en' -o-lith) [avena; X'cdoc, stone]. An intestinal calculus formed around a grain of oat.
  • Aversion (av-ur' -shun) [avertere, to turn aside]. 1. A turning aside, as in the displacement of an organ or in metastasis. 2. Nausea. Avogadro's Law. Equal volumes of all gases and vapors, at like temperature and pressure, contain an equal number of molecules.
  • Avulsio, Avulsion (av-id'-se-o, -shun) [avellere, to tear away]. A tearing or wrenching away of a part, as a polyp, a limb, etc. A. bulbi, Avulsion of the Bulb, separation of the pu- pil from its attachments in consequence of complete or almost complete rupture of the tendons of the optic muscles and nerves.
  • Axanthopsia (ah-zan-thop'-se-ah) [a, priv.; £avdoc, yellow; bipcc, vision]. Yellow-blind- ness.
  • Axenf eld's Test for Albumin in Urine. Acidulate with formic acid and add, drop by drop, a 0.1% solution of gold chlorid, and warm. If albumin is present, the solution be- comes red, then purplish, and on the addition of more gold chlorid, blue. The blue color is also produced by glucose, starch, tyrosin, uric acid, urea, leucin, etc., but the red color is characteristic of albumin.
  • Axial (aks'-e-al) [axis]. Pertaining to or sit- uated in an axis. A. Current, the column of red corpuscles which, by reason of the weight of the cells, occupies the center or axis of the blood-stream. A. Hyperopia. See Hyperopia, Axial. A. Stream. See A. Current.
  • Axilemma (aks-il-em'-ah) [axis; Aifi/Jia, husk; skin]. An elastic sheath composed of neuro- keratin, inclosing the axis-cylinder of medul- lated nerve -fibers.
  • Axilla (aks-il'-ah) [L.]. The armpit.
  • Axillary (aks' -il-a-re) [axilla]. Pertaining to the axilla. A. Artery, the continuation of the subclavian artery, extending from the lower border of the first rib to the insertion of the pectoralis major muscle, where it becomes the brachial. See under Artery. A. Glands, the lymphatic glands in the axilla. A. Plexus, the brachial plexus, formed by the last three cervical and the first dorsal nerves. A. Space, the irregular conic space of the axilla. A. Vein, a continuation of the bra- chial vein, corresponding with the artery and terminating in the subclavian vein.
  • AXIOPLASM 122 AZO-DYES Axioplasm (aks' ' -e-o-plazm) [axis; nXaafia, a thing molded]. Waldeyer's term for the delicate stroma of reticular substance holding together the fine fibrils of the axis-cylinders. Syn., Neuroplasm.
  • Axis (aks' -is) [L., "axletree"]. i. An imag- inary line passing through the center of a body. 2. The second cervical vertebra. 3. A short artery which breaks up into several branches, e. g., thyroid axis, celiac axis. See under Ar- tery. A.,Basicranial, in craniometry, a line drawn from the basion to the middle of the anterior border of the cerebral surface of the sphenoid bone. A., Basifacial, in crani- ometry, a line drawn from the anterior border of the cerebral surface of the sphenoid to the alveolar point. A., Binauricular, in crani- ometry, the imaginary line joining the two auricular points. A., Brain, the isthmus. A., Cerebrospinal, the central nervous system. A. -cord. See Primitive Streak. A. -corpuscle. See Corpuscle, Axile. A., Craniofacial, in comparative anatomy the bones making the floor of the cranial cavity. A. -cylinder, the conducting or essential part of a nerve. Syn., Axis-cylinder of Purkinje. A.-cylin- der Process, that one of the protoplas- mic processes of a nerve-cell which be- comes an axis-cylinder. A., Electric, a line connecting the two poles of an electric body. A., Frontal (of the eye), an imaginary line running through the eyeball from right to left, and corresponding with the movements of elevation and depression of the eyeball. A., Hemal, the aorta. A., Magnetic, a line con- necting the two poles of a magnet. A., Optic. 1. The line from the center of the cornea to the macula lutea. 2. An imaginary line pass- ing from the center of the eye-piece of a micro- scope through the body, objective, stage, and substage, to the mirror. A., Pelvic, an imag- inary line passing through all the median ante- roposterior diameters of the pelvic canal at their centers. A., Sagittal (of the eye), an imaginary line running through the eyeball from before backward, and coinciding with the line of vision. A. -traction, traction on the fetus in the axis of the pelvis. A.- traction Forceps, a forceps for performing axis-traction. A. uteri. 1. The long diam- eter of the uterus. 2. A line imagined to pass transversely through the uterus near its junc- tion with the cervix, on which it is said to turn in retroversion. A., Visual, the line from the object through the nodal point to the macula.
  • Axite (aks'-lt) [axis]. Gowers' name for the terminal filaments of the axis-cylinder.
  • Axo- (aks-o-) [axis]. A prefix meaning axis.
  • Axodendrite (aks-o-den' -drlt) [axo-; devdpov, a tree]. Lenhossek's term for a nonmedullated, axopetally conducting side fibril on the axons, as distinguished from a cytodendrite or one of the true medullated, cellulifugal collaterals.
  • Axoid (aks r -oid) (axo-, stdoc, likeness]. 1. Shaped like a pivot. 2. Relating to the second cervical vertebra.
  • Axon, Axone (aks'-on) [axis]. 1. The body- axis. 2. An unbranched nerve-cell pro- cess of the second order. 3. The cerebro- spinal axis. 4. Kolliker's term for neurite.
  • Axoneuron (aks-o -nu' -r on) [axo-; veupov, nerve]. A neuron the cell-body (nerve-cell) of which lies in the interior of the brain or the spinal cord. The axoneurons are classified as rhizoneurons and the endaxoneurons.
  • Axonometer (aks-o-nom' '-et-er) [axo-; jikrpov, a measure]. 1. An instrument used for locat- ing the axis of astigmatism. 2. An apparatus for determining the axis of a cylinder.
  • Axungia (aks-un' -je-ah) [L.]. Fat; lard; adeps. Axungiae lunae, a variety of calcium carbonate. Axungiae vitri, salt of glass; a scum forming on the surface of molten glass. It is applied as a desiccative and detergent.
  • Ayapana, Ayapano. The South American name for the leaves of the herb Eupatorium triplinerve, of tropical America. It is stimu- lant, diaphoretic, and tonic, and is used in infusion externally for wounds and abscesses, internally for gastric disorders, and is recom- mended as a substitute for tea, coffee, and cocoa.
  • Azalein (az-a f -le-in). Same as Rosanilin.
  • Azedarach (az-ed'-ar-ak) [Pers., azad, free; dirakht, a tree]. Pride of China, the bark of Melia azedarach, an Asiatic tree naturalized in the southern United States. It occurs in curved pieces or quills, having a sweetish taste. A decoction, ^ oz. to 1 pint, is used as an anthelmintic against the roundworm. Dose §-1 oz. (15-30 Cc). Dose of the flu' extract 1 dr. (4 Gm.) ; of the tincture, 1 to 2 dr. (2-8 Cc). Unof.
  • Azerin (az'-er-in) [a, priv.; $r)poc, dry]. A fer- j ment analogous to ptyalin and found in the digestive secretions of Drosera, Nepenthes, and probably all other insectivorous plants.
  • Azoamyly (ah-zo-am! -il-e) [a, priv.; £tiov, ani- mal; ap.uXov, starch]. The inability of the cell (hepatic) to store up the normal amount of glycogen.
  • Azobenzene (az-o-ben 1 '-zen) [azote, nitrogen; benzene], C 12 H 10 N 2 . A compound formed by the action of sodium amalgam upon the alco- holic solution of nitrobenzene. It forms orange-red, rhombic crystals, readily soluble in alcohol and ether, but sparingly soluble in water. It melts at 68° and distils at 293 .
  • Azobenzoid (az-o-ben' -zo-id) f An amorphous white powder derived from oil of bitter almonds by action of ammonia.
  • Azo-compounds. In chemistry, compounds intermediate between the nitro-compounds and the amido-compounds, and made from the former by partial reduction, or from the latter by partial oxidation.
  • Azo-dyes. A well-defined group of the coal- tar colors, all containing the diatomic group — N = N — , bound on either side to a benzene radicle. They may be prepared by reduction of the nitro-compounds in alkaline solutions, or by acting on diazo-compounds with phe- nols or amins of the aromatic series. The azo- dyes are the amido-derivatives of simple azo- AZOIC

B

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

C

  • Canthotomy (kan-thof -o-me) [canthus; to/xtj, a cutting]. Surgical division of a can- thus.
  • Canthus (kan'-thus) [KavOog, canthus]. The angle formed by the junction of the eye- lids.
  • Canula (kan'-u-lah). See Cannula.
  • Caoutchouc (koo'-chook) [S. A.]. Rubber. The chief substance contained in the milky juice that exudes upon incision of a num- ber of tropical trees belonging to the natural orders Euphorbiacece, Artocarpacece, and Apo- cynacecE. The juice is a vegetable emul- sion, the caoutchouc being suspended in it in the form of minute transparent globules. When pure, caoutchouc is nearly white, soft, elastic, and glutinous; it swells up in water without dissolving ; the best solvents are carbon disulfid and chloroform. It melts at about 150 C. and decomposes at 200 C.
  • Cap (kap) [AS., cappe]. 1. See Tegmentum. 2. The tissue covering the conic end of a lymph -follicle. C, Enamel, the concave enamel-organ covering the top of the growing tooth -papilla. C, Nuclear, a collection of chromophilic substance on one side of the nucleus of a cell.
  • Capacity (kap-as'-it-e) [capacitas, capacity]. 1. The power of holding or containing; mental or physical ability. 2. Cubic extent. C, Testamentary, a legal term signifying the degree of mental ability requisite for making a valid will. C, Vital, the total amount of air that can be expelled by jhe most forcible expiration after the deepest inspiration.
  • Capillaraneurysm (kap-il-ar-an' -u-rizm) [cap- illus; aveupuopta, a widening]. Excessive cap- illarectasia.
  • Capillarectasia (kap-il-ar-ek-ta'-ze-ah) [capil- lus; enraocc, a stretching -out]. Dilation of the capillaries.
  • Capillarity (kap-il-ar'-it-e) [capillary]. 1. Cap- illary attraction; the force that causes fluids to rise in fine tubes or bores. 2. The con- dition of being capillary.
  • Capillary (kap'-il-a-re) [capillus]. 1. Hair- like; relating to a hair, to a hair -like fila- ment, or to a tube with a hair-like bore. Intercellular secretory capillary. From a Section of the Pancreas of Adult Man. —(Stohr.) 2. A minute blood-vessel connecting the smallest ramifications of the arteries with CAPILLITIUM 239 CAPSICUM those of the veins. C. Attraction. See Cap- illarity. C. Bronchitis. See Bronchitis, Capillary. C. Fissure, C. Fracture, a linear fracture, without displacement. Cap- illaries, Meigs', the branching capillaries . discovered by A. V. Meigs between the mus- cular fibers of the human heart. C. Nevus. See Nevus (2). C. Pulse, pulsation of the capillaries sometimes seen in aortic regurgita- tion. C. Vessels, the capillaries.
  • Capillitium (kap-il-ish' -e-um) [L.]. The hair of the head, or the portion of the scalp thus covered.
  • Capistration (kap-is-tra'-shun). See Phimosis; also Trismus.
  • Capistrum (kap-is'-trum) [L., "a muzzle or halter"; pi., capistra]. 1. A bandage for the head or lower jaw. Syn., Capelina. 2. Trismus.
  • Capital (kap'-it-al) [caput]. 1. Pertaining to the head, or to the summit of a body or object. 2. Of great importance, as a capital operation in surgery.
  • Capitatum (kap -it-a' -turn). The large bone of the carpus, the os magnum.
  • Capitellum (kap -it-el' -um) [dim. of caput]. The rounded, external surface of the lower end of the humerus.
  • Capitium (kap-e'-she-um) [L.]. A bandage for the head; it may be triangular or four- cornered. C. magnum, C. quadrangulare, C. quadratum, a four-cornered head band- age. C. minus, C. triangulare, a three- cornered head bandage.
  • Capitones (kap' -it-on-ez) [L.]. Fetuses with heads too large for unassisted delivery.
  • Capitulum (kap-if '-u-lum) [L., "a small head"]. A little head. C. of Santorini, a small elevation on the apex of the arytenoid cartilage, corresponding in position to the posterior extremity of the vocal band.
  • Capnomor (kap' '-no-mor) [nanvoc, smoke; (io"cpa, a part], C 20 H 22 O 2 . A transparent, colorless, oily fluid, a constituent of smoke obtained from the heavy oil of tar. It dissolves caoutchouc.
  • Capparis (kap'-ar-is) [L., "the caper-bush"]. A genus of shrubs including the caper-bush, C. spinosa. Its flower-buds (capers) are pickled or made into sauce. The bark of the root and the flowers are official remedies in some countries. It is diuretic, cathartic, depurative, stimulant. C. aphylla, a shrub of India, is esteemed in the treatment of boils and affections of the joints. C. cori- acea is a native of Peru; the fruit is anti- epileptic and antihysteric. The root-bark of C. jamaicensis, of South America, is rube- facient, the root diuretic, the leaves and flowers antispasmodic.

Capranica's Reaction for Bile-pigments. Add to the solution chloroform containing some bromin, and shake; it becomes first green, blue-violet, yellowish red, and finally colorless. If the green or blue solution is shaken with HC1, the color is destroyed by the acid. C.'s Reaction for Guanin. 1.

A warm solution of guanin hydrochlorid with a cold saturated solution of picric acid gives a yellow precipitate occurring as silky needles. 2. Add to a guanin solution a concentrated solution of potassium ferri- cyanid: a yellowish-brown prismatic pre- cipitate is formed. 3. On the addition of a concentrated solution of potassium chromate to guanin solutions an orange-red crystalline precipitate is formed. It is very insoluble in water.

  • Caprate (kap' -rat). A salt of capric acid.
  • Capric (kap'-rik) [capra, a goat]. Relating or belonging to, or having the odor of, a goat. C. Acid. See Acid, Capric.
  • Caprin (kap'-rin) [see Capric]. An oily and flavoring constituent of butter; glycerol caprate.
  • Caprizant (kap f -ri-zant) [see Capric]. Leap- ing; of irregular motion, applied to the pulse.
  • Caproate (kap'-ro-at). A salt of normal caproic acid.
  • Caproic (kap-ro'-ik). See Capric. C. Acid. See Acid, Caproic. C. Anhydrid, C 12 H 22 3 , a neutral oily liquid.
  • Caproin (kap'-ro-in). A fat, resembling caprin, found in goat's butter.
  • Caprone (kap' -r on) [see Capric], C n H 22 0. Caproic ketone; a clear, volatile oil found in butter, and forming the larger part of the oil of rue.
  • Caproyl (kap'-ro-il). 1. C 6 H n O. A hypo- thetic radicle. Syn., radicle. Syn., Hexyl.
  • Caproylamin (kap-ro-W -am-in) [caproyl; amin], C 6 H 15 N. Hexylamin. A ptomain formed in the putrefaction of yeast.
  • Capsicin (kap'-sis-in). 1. C 9 H 14 2 . The ac- tive principle of Cayenne j>epper, found in the pericarp and placenta of Capsicum }as- tigiatum, and soluble in alcohol, ether, ben- zene, and fixed oils. It is a thick, yellowish- red substance, and its vapors are intensely acrid. Dose Yff"J gr. (0.006-0.016 Gm.). 2. A volatile alkaloid from capsicum, occur- ring as an oily liquid devoid of pungency.
  • Capsicol (kap'-sik-ol) [capsicum; oleum, oil]. A red oil obtainable from the oleoresin of capsicum.
  • Capsicum (kap'-sik-um) [capsa, a. box]. Cayenne pepper. The fruit of C. jastigiatum, native to tropical Africa and America. Its odor and hot taste are due to a volatile oil, capsicin, C 9 H 14 2 , which is initant to the skin and mucous membranes. Internally it is a stomachic, tonic, diuretic, and aphrodisiac. It is useful in atonic dyspepsia, flatulent- colic, and intermittent fever. C. annuum is the common red pepper of the garden. C, Fluidextract of (fluidextr actum capsici, U. S. P.). Dose 5 min.-i dr. (0.3-4.0 Cc). CAPSITIS 240 CAPUT C. Liniment, i in 10, for chest affections, rheumatism, etc. C, Oleoresin of (oleo- resina capsici, U. S. P.). Dose gr. (0.03 Gm.). C. Plaster (emplastrum capsici, U. S. P.), prepared from the oleoresin and adhesive plaster. C, Tincture of (tinctura capsici, U. S. P.), contains 10 % of capsicum. Dose 5-30 min. (0.3-2.0 Cc).
  • Capsitis (kap-si'-tis). Same as Capsulitis.
  • Capsotomy (hap -sot' -o -me). See Capsulotomy.
  • Capsula (kap r -su-lah) [L., "a small box"], i. The interna] capsule of the brain; it is the thick layer of fibers between the caudatum and thalamus mesad and the lenticula laterad; it is continuous with the crura caudad, and its expansion is called the corona. 2. See Capsule.
  • Capsular (kap' -su-lar) [capsule]. Pertaining to a capsule. C. Cataract, an opacity of the capsule of the crystalline lens. C. Hemi- plegia, a hemiplegia due to a lesion in the internal capsule.
  • Capsulation (kap-su-la' -shun) [capsule]. The act or process of inclosing in capsules.
  • Capsule (kap'-siil) [dim. of capsa, a chest]. A receptacle or bag. In pharmacy, a small, spheroid shell composed of glycerol and gelatin, divided so that the parts fit together like a box and cover. It is used for the administration of nauseous medicines. C, Acoustic. See C, Auditory. C, Adipose. See C. of the Kidney. C, Aqueous, C. of the Aqueous Humor, Descemet's mem- brane. C, Articular. See Ligament, Capsular. C, Atrabiliary. See C, Supra- renal. C, Auditory, the primitive auditory organ, formed by the invagination of the nervous stratum of the epiblast. See also 'Vesicle, Auditory. C, Bonnet's, the pos- terior portion of the sheath of the eyeball. C, Bowman's, the covering of the tuft of vessels of a renal glomerule. It is the be- ginning of the uriniferous tubule. C, Bow- man-Muller's. See C, Bowman's. C, Brain. See Capsula (1). C, Cartilage, C. of a Cartilage-cell, the lining of cartilage-cavi- ties containing the cartilage-cells. C, Crys- talline. See C. of the Lens. C, External, a layer of white nerve -fibers forming part of the external boundary of the lenticular nucleus. C, Fibrous. See Ligament, Cap- sular. C. of Glisson. See Glisson's Capsule. C.S, Glutoid, gelatin capsules treated with formaldehyd. C., Hemorrhoidal, a metal, capsule-shaped device for applying Vienna paste to a hemorrhoid. C, Hyaloid. See Membran.a limitans. C, Internal, a layer of nerve-fibers on the outer side of the optic thalamus and caudate nucleus, which it sep- arates from the lenticular nucleus, and con- taining the continuation upward of the crus cerebri. C. of the Kidney, the fat-contain- ing connective tissue encircling the kidney. C. of the Lens, a transparent, structureless membrane inclosing the lens of the eye. C, Malpighian, the commencement of the uriniferous tubules. See C, Bowman's. C. Muller's. See C, Bowman's. C, Nasal, the embryonic cartilage which becomes the nose. C. of a Nerve-cell, that portion of the neurilemma which covers a ganglion-cell. C. , Optic, the embryonic structure forming the sclera. C.,Periotic, the structure surround- ing the internal ear. C, Renal. See C, Suprarenal. C.s, Seminal, expansions of the vasa deferentia near the seminal vesicles; applied by some authorities to the seminal vesicles. Syn., Capsulares seminales. C.S, Sense, the cartilaginous or bony cavities con- taining the organs of sense. C, Suprarenal, the ductless, glandular, body at the apex of each kidney. C, Suprarenal Accessory, an additional capsule attaining the size of a pea and sometimes attached 'to the suprarenal capsule by connective tissue. C, Synovial. See Membrane, Synovial. C. of Tenon, the tunica vaginalis of the eye.
  • Capsulitis (kap-su-li'-tis) [capsule; tree;, in- flammation]. Inflammation of the capsule of the lens or of the fibrous capsule of the eyeball.
  • Capsulolenticular (kap-su-lo-len-tik' -u-lar) [capsule; lenticula, a lentil]. Relating to the lens and to its capsule.
  • Capsulotome (kap' -su-lo -torn). 1. See Cysto- tome. 2. An instrument used by Buller in capsulotomy to steady the capsule; it consists of two fine needles fixed parallel to each other in a handle.
  • Capsulotomy (kap -su- lot'- o - me) [capsule ; xkfiVBCv, to cut]. The operation of rupturing the capsule of the crystalline lens in cata- ract-operations.
  • Captation (kap -ta' -shun) [captare, to desire]. The first or opening stage of the hypnotic trance.
  • Captol (kap'-tol). A product of the condensa- tion of tannin and chloral; it is used in to 2 % solution as an antiseborrheal agent and lotion for the hair. Syn., Tannochloral.

Capuron's Cardinal Points. Four fixed points of the pelvic inlet, the two iliopectineal eminences anteriorly, and the two sacroiliac joints posteriorly.

  • Caput (kap'-ut) [L.; pi., capita]. The head; also the chief part or beginning of an organ. Syn., Caput nuclei caudati. C. breve, the transversus pedis muscle. C. caecum coli, the cecum. C. caudati, the base of the corpus striatum. C. coli, the head of the colon. C. cordis, the base of the heart. C. cornu posterioris. Same as C. gelatinosum. C. gallinaginis. See Verumontanum. C. gelat- inosum, the name given to the translucent gray matter covering the dorsomesal periph- ery of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. It is a peculiar, striated substance composed of numerous closely crowded cellular ele- ments, in part connective-tissue cells, in part nerve-cells. C. medullae, C. medullas ob- longatae, Bartholin's name for the cerebrum as distinguished from the oblongata. Capita medullas oblongata^, the thalami. C, me- dusae, the peculiar plexus of veins surround- CARAMEL 241" CARBON ing the umbilicus in periportal cirrhosis of the liver. It represents collateral paths for the return of the venous blood from the abdominal viscera. C. obstipum. Synonym of Wry-neck. C. quadratum, the rectangular head of rickets, flattened upon the top and at the sides, with projecting occiput and prominent frontal bosses. C. succedaneum, a tumor composed of a serosanguineous in- filtration of the connective tissue situated upon the presenting part of the fetus. C. tali, the head of the astragalus. C. testis, the epididymis. C. transversum. The same as C. breve.
  • Caramel, (kar' '-am-el) [Fr., " burnt sugar"]. Cane-sugar deprived of two molecules of water. It is a viscid, brown-colored liquid.
  • Carapa (kar'-ap-ah) [caraipi, the Guiana name]. A genus of tropical meliaceous trees. C. guianensis has an antispasmodic and febrifuge bark, and its seeds afford carap-oil, a protective against insects and vermin. C. moluccensis is an East Indian tree; the bitter bark is used in diarrhea and the seeds in colic. The fruit and bark of C. procera, of the tropics of Asia and Africa, are antiperiodic; the oil from the seeds is anthel- mintic and expectorant.
  • Carapin (kar'-ap-in). An alkaloid from the bark of Carapa guianensis.
  • Carbamate (kar'-bam-dt). A salt of carbamic acid.
  • Carbamic (kar-bam'-ik). Obtained from car- bamid. C.Acid. See Acid, Carbamic.
  • Carbamid (kar' -bam-id) [carbo, a coal; amid], CH 4 N 2 0. Urea.
  • Carbamin (kar -bam' -in). See Acetonitril.
  • Carbid (kar' -bid). A compound formed by the direct union of carbon with some radicle or element.
  • Carbimids (kar'-bim-idz). Bodies isomeric with cyanates, but distinguished from true cyanates in that alkalis decompose them into carbon dioxid and amin. Syn., Carbonyl- amins.
  • Carbinol (kar'-bin-ol) [carbo]. Methyl-alcohol, CH3OH. Also a generic term for the alcohols formed by substituting hydrocar- bon radicles for the hydrogen in the methyl radicle of carbinol.
  • Carbo (kar' -bo) [L.]. A coal; charcoal. C. animalis (U. S. P.), animal charcoal; bone- black; it is used in pharmacy and in manu- facturing chemistry largely as a decolorizing agent and as a filter. C. animalis puri- ficatum (U. S. P.), purified animal charcoal. Dose 20 gr.-i dr. (1.3-4.0 Gm.). C. ligni (U. S. P.), wood-charcoal; an absorbent, dis- infectant, and deodorizer, used in poulticing wounds and dressing ulcers. It is used inter- nally in gastrointestinal irritation.
  • Carboformal (kar-bo-form' -at) . A combination of carbon and paraformaldehyd in the form of blocks (Gluh blocks) for purposes of i7 disinfection, the formaldehyd being liberated by the burning of the carbon.
  • Carbohemia (kar -bo-he' -me-ah) [carbo; al/xa, blood]. Imperfect oxidation of the blood.
  • Carbohydrate (kar -bo-hi' -drat) [carbo; odcop, water]. An organic substance containing 6 carbon atoms or some multiple of 6, and hydrogen and oxygen in the proportion in which they form water; that is, twice as many hydrogen as oxygen atoms. The carbohy- drates form a large class of organic com- pounds, and may be arranged into three groups: the glucoses (monoses); the disac- charids, or sugars; and the polysaccharids. The glucoses are the aldehyd derivatives or ketone derivatives of the hexahydric alcohols, into which they may be converted by the absorption of two hydrogen atoms. They are mostly crystalline substances, very soluble in water, but dissolving with difficulty in alcohol. They possess a sweet taste. The disaccharids and polysaccharids are ethereal anhydrids of the glucoses. They may all be converted into the glucoses by hydrolytic decomposition. The disaccharids are ether-like anhydrids of the hexoses.
  • Carbohydric (kar -bo-hi' -drik). Containing car- bon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
  • Carbolate (kar'-bol-dt). 1. A salt of phenol. 2. To impregnate with phenol.
  • Carbolfuchsin (kar-bol-jook'-sin) [carbo; fuch- sin]. A staining fluid consisting of go parts of a 5 % aqueous solution of phenol and 1 part of fuchsin dissolved in 10 parts of alcohol.
  • Carbolic (kar-bol'-ik) [carbo; oleum, oil]. Con- taining or derived from coal-tar oil. C. Acid. See Acid, Carbolic, and Phenol.
  • Carbolism (kar'-bol-izm) [see Carbolic]. Phe- nol poisoning; a diseased state induced by the misuse or maladministration of phenol. C, Cutaneous, dry gangrene due to the action of liquid phenol or to prolonged application of a solution of it upon the skin.
  • Carbolize (kar'-bol-iz) [see Carbolic], To im- pregnate with phenol.
  • Carbolmarasmus (kar-bol-mar-az'-mus) [car- bolic; fjto.paop.de, decay]. Chronic carbolism: a condition marked by vomiting, vertigo, head- ache, salivation, nephritis, and general ma- rasmus.
  • Carbolxylene (kar-bol-zi'-lcn). A clearing mixture composed of phenol, 1 part, and xylene, 3 parts; used for clearing micro- scopic sections which are to be mounted in Canada balsam or other resinous medium.
  • Carbon (kar'-bon) [carbo]. Charcoal. C = 12; quantivalence II, IV. A nonmetallic element occurring in the various forms of diamond graphite or "black lead," charcoal, and lamp- black. It is the central or characteristic element of organic compounds. C. Di- oxid, the acid, gaseous product, having the composition of C0 2 , commonly known as "carbonic -acid gas" or carbonic acid. It is a colorless gas, having a sp. gr. of 1.52, soluble in cold water, and possessing a pun- gent smell and an acid taste. Inhaled, it CARBONATE 242 CARCINOMA destroys animal life by asphyxiation. C. Disulfid (carbonei disulphidum, U. S. P.), carbon bisulfid, CS 2 , a colorless, trans- parent liquid, of offensive odor, highly inflammable, very poisonous. It is used as a solvent for caoutchouc and as a reagent. C. Monoxid, CO, carbonic oxid, a colorless, tasteless, and inodorous gas, one of the products of imperfect combustion. It is actively poisonous. C. Nitrid, CN, cyanogen. C. Oxid, CO, a colorless, inodorous gas, having neither acid nor alkaline properties, and very poisonous. The pale lavender flame seen over a coal fire burning without smoke is due to its combustion. Chemically it is produced by passing carbonic acid over red-hot pieces of charcoal contained in a tube of iron and porcelain, and by several other processes. C. Oxysulfid, a body, COS, formed by conducting sulfur- vapor and carbon monoxid through red-hot tubes; it is a color- less gas, with a faint and peculiar odor. It unites readily with air, forming an explosive mixture, and is soluble in an equal volume of water. It is present in the waters of some mineral springs. C. Tetrachlorid, CC1 4 , anesthetic, used in asthma by inha- lation.
  • Carbonate [carbon]. A salt of carbon di- oxid. C, Acid, a substitution-compound of carbonic acid in which there is replace- ment of but one of its hydrogen atoms with a base. C, Basic, a compound of a carbonate with the oxid of the same base. C, Hydric. See C, Acid. C, Hydrogen, i. Carbon dioxid. 2. Acid carbonate. C, Neutral, C, Normal, a substitution-compound of car- bonic acid in which a base replaces all its hydrogen.
  • Carbonated (kar'-bo-na-ted). i. Containing carbonic acid. 2. Changed into a carbonate.
  • Carbonemia (Jzar-bon-e' -me-ah) [carbo; alp.a, blood]. An accumulation of carbon dioxid in the blood.
  • Carbonic (kar-bon'-ik). Relating to, obtained from, or containing carbon. C. Acid. See Carbon Dioxid. C. Anhydrid, carbon dioxid. C. Snow, carbon dioxid in crystal form.
  • Carbonid (kar f -bon-id). 1. See Carbid. 2. A mineral which contains carbon. 3. An oxa- late freed from its hydrogen by heat.
  • Carbonization (kar -bon-iz-a' -shun) [carbon]. The process of decomposing organic sub- stances by heat without air, until the volatile products are driven off and the carbon re- mains.
  • Carbonometer (kar - bon - om'- et - er) [carbon; fikxpov, a measure]. An apparatus for in- dicating the degree to which the air of a room is vitiated by carbon dioxid.
  • Carbonometry (kar-bon-om'-et-re). The de- termination of the amount of carbon dioxid exhaled in the breath.
  • Carbonous (kar'-bon-us). Containing carbon. Carbonyl (kar' -bon-il) [carbon]. A hypothetic organic radicle having the formula OO.
  • Carbosapol (kar-bo-sa'-pol) [carbo; sapo, soap]. A clear disinfectant solution obtained by warming together phenol, 50 parts; yellow soda-soap, 25 parts; and soft potash-soap, 25 parts.
  • Carbothialdin (kar-bo-thi-aV -din), C 6 H 10 N 2 S 2 . White crystals obtained on evaporating carbon sulfid with an alcoholic solution of aldehyd ammonia. It is soluble in acids.
  • Carboxyhemoglobin (kar- boks -e- hem - o -glo'- bin) [carboxyl; hemoglobin]. The compound of carbon monoxid and hemoglobin formed when CO is present in the blood. The carbon monoxid displaces the oxygen and checks the respiratory function of the red corpuscles.
  • Carboxyl (kar-boks'-il) [carbo; o^uc, sharp]. 1. The group, CO . OH, characteristic of the organic acids. The hydrogen of this can be replaced by metals, forming salts. 2. Same as Carbonyl.
  • Carboy (kar'-boi) [Turk., karaboya]. A large bottle protected by wickerwork and a wooden box, used in the transportation of corrosive and other liquids.
  • Carbuncle (kar' -bung-kl) [carbo]. A hard, cir- cumscribed, deep-seated, painful suppurative inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue. It differs from a boil in being of greater size, having a flat top, and several points of sup- puration. It is erroneously called anthrax.

Carcassonne's Ligament. See Colles' Fascia.

Carceag. A disease of sheep described by Babes in Rumania; it is probably a form of trypanosomiasis.

  • Carcinelcosis (kar-sin-el-ko' '-sis) [napa'cvo^, a crab; 'iXncoocc, ulceration]. A cancerous ulcer. C. fungosa. See Cancer verrucosus.
  • Carcinoma (kar-sin-o'-mah) [KapKcvu>p.a; Kapucvoc, a crab; '6[xa, tumor]. Cancer. A malig- nant epithelial tumor composed of a connec- . tive-tissue stroma surrounding groups or nests of epithelial cells. Three varieties are generally described — the squamous, the cylindric, and the glandular. See Boas' Sign; de Morgan's Spots; Semon's Symptom; Spiegelberg's Sign. C, Acinous. See Cancer, Acinous. C., Adenoid, C. adenodes, C. adenoides. See Cancer, Adenoid. C. asbolicum. See C, Chimney-sweep's. C, Chimney-sweep's, epithelioma of the scrotum, occurring among chimney-sweepers, and supposed to be caused by the irritant action of soot. Syn., Soot cancer. C, Colloid, one in which the delicate connective-tissue stroma is filled with colloid matter, the result of a colloid degeneration of the epithelial cells. In some cases the degeneration is mucoid instead of colloid. It affects chiefly the ali- CARCINOMATOSIS 243 CARDIELCOSIS mentary canal, uterus, etc. C, Cylin- dric, one in which the cells tend to assume a cylindric or columnar shape. This shape is best seen in the cells nearest the periphery of the nests. C, Encephaloid, one of rapid growth, with a small amount of stroma, large alveoli, and greater amount of cells and blood-vessels. C, Fibrosomedullary, one containing about an equal portion of cells and stroma. C. fibrosum, C, Fibrous. See C.j Scirrhous. C, Glandular, a car- cinoma in which the cells are of the glandular or secreting type. C, Hyaline. See C, Colloid. C. nigrum. See Melanocarcinoma. C. psammosum, one in which stratified calcareous concretions differing from those found in psammomas have replaced the epithelial elements. C, Reticulated, one which has undergone fatty metamorphosis and exhibits its stroma more distinctly. C. sarcomatodes, C, Sarcomatous, an adeno- carcinoma which has undergone sarcomatous degeneration of the connective tissue. C, Scirrhous, a form which occurs most com- monly in the breast; it has a stout, fibril- lated stroma, closely packed with large nu- cleated cells. Syn., Hard carcinoma. C. scroti, C. scroti asbolicum. See C, Chim- ney-sweep's. C, Squamous, one derived from squamous epithelium; the cells are cuboid in shape. C, Villous. See Papilloma.
  • Carcinomatosis (kar-sin-o-mat-o'-sis). The pathologic condition giving rise to carcinomas.
  • Carcinomatous (kar-sin-o' -mat-us) [carcin- oma]. Relating to or affected with carcin- oma.
  • Carcinosis (kar-sin-o' -sis) [carcinoma]. i. A carcinomatous cachexia; a tendency to the development of malignant disease. 2. A form of carcinoma, usually fatal, beginning generally in the uterus or the stomach and spreading to the peritoneum. C, Acute, rapidly fatal carcinosis. C, Miliary, one in which there are many secondary nodules the size of miliary tubercles. C, Miliary, Acute, the rapid formation of minute can- cerous nodules, either primary or secondary, .within an internal organ or upon its surface.
  • Cardamom, Cardamomum (kr'-^w-om, kar- dam-o' '-mum)[L..]. The fruit of Elettaria car- damomum, cultivated in Malabar. Its proper- ties are due to a volatile oil, C 10 H 16 . It is an aromatic, carminative stomachic, used as an ingredient of several "bitters." When com- bined with purgatives it is useful to prevent griping. C, Infusion of. Dose 2 oz. (64 Cc). C, Tincture of (tinctura cardamomi, U. S. P.), 20% strength. Dose \-2 dr. (2-8 Cc). C., Tincture of, Compound (tinctura cardamomi composita, U. S. P.), cardamom, Cardiac Cycle. The inner circle shows the events that occur in the heart; the outer circle shows the relations of the sounds and silences to the events. 20; cinnamon, 20; caraway, 10; cochineal, 5; glycerol, 60; dilute alcohol, q. s. ad 1000 parts. Dose \-2 dr. (2-8 Cc).

Cardarelli's Symptom. See Oliver's Symp- tom.

  • Cardia (kar'-de-ah). The heart. C. of the Stomach, the esophageal orifice of the stom- ach.
  • Cardiac (kar'-de-ak) [cardia]. 1. Pertain- ing to the heart or to the cardia of the stomach. 2. A drug acting especially on the heart. C. Cycle, the period included be- tween the beginning of one heart-beat and the beginning of another. C. Dropsy, a drop- sical effusion due to heart disease with loss of compensation. C. Ganglions, gan- glions lying in the grooves and sub- stance of the heart — t h e principal ones are Remak's and Bidder's, the first on the sur- face of the sinus venosus, and the latter (2) at the auriculo ventricu- lar groove. C. Impulse, the ele- vation caused by the movement of the heart, usually seen in the fifth left intercostal space. C. Murmur. See Murmur, Cardiac. C. Orifice (of the stomach), the esophageal orifice. C. Passion. See Cardialgia. C. Plexus. See Plexus, Cardiac. C. Rhythm, the term given to the normal regularity in the force and volume of the individual heart-beats.
  • Cardialgia (kar-de-al'-je-ah) [cardia; aXyoc, pain]. Pain in the region of the heart, usually due to gaseous distention of the stomach; heartburn. Syn., Morbus cardia- cus; Morsus stomachi; Morsus ventriculi. C. icterica, heartburn with jaundice. C. inflammatoria, gastritis. C. sputatoria, pyrosis.
  • Cardianesthesia (kar -de -an-es - the' - ze - ah) [cardia; dvacodrja'ca, want of feeling]. A condition of the heart marked by lack of sensation.
  • Cardianeurysma (kar-de-an-u-riz'-mah) [cardia; dveupuo/xa, a widening]. Aneurysm of the heart.
  • Cardiant (kar' -de -ant) [cardia]. 1. Affecting the heart. 2. A remedy that affects the heart.
  • Cardiaortic (kar-de-ah-or'-tik). Relating to the heart and the aorta.
  • Cardiasthenia (kar-de-as-the' -ne-ah) [cardia; dodiveca, weakness]. A peculiar weakness of the heart due to neurasthenic condi- tions.
  • Cardielcosis (kar -de-el -ko' -sis) [cardia; ZXkojo'.c, ulceration]. Ulceration of the heart, CARDIETHMOLIPOSIS 244 CARDIOTROPHE Cardiethmoliposis (kar-de-eth -mo-lip -o' -sis) [cardia; Tjfyioc, a sieve; X'cnoc, fat]. A deposit of fat in the connective tissue of the heart.
  • Cardinal (kar' -din-al) [cardo, a hinge]. Im- portant; preeminent. C. -flower, a common name for several species of Lobelia, chiefly Lobelia cardinalis. C. Points of Capuron. See Capuron' s Cardinal Points. C. Veins, the venous trunks which, in the embryonic stage, form the primitive jugular veins.
  • Cardine (kar' -den). A fluid preparation of sheep-hearts digested in glycerol and boric acid, used subcutaneously as a heart- tonic and diuretic. Dose 50 min.-i^ dr. (3-5 Cc).
  • Cardio- (kar-de-o-) [cardia]. A prefix meaning relating to the heart.
  • Cardioaccelerator (kar-de -o-ak-sel' -er-a- tor). Hastening the action of the heart. C. Center. See Center, Cardioaccelerator .
  • Cardioarterial (kar-de-o-ar-te f -re-al). Pertain- ing to the heart and the arteries.
  • Cardiocele (kar' -de -o -set) [cardio-; ktjXt), hernia]. Hernia of the heart. C. abdominalis, hernial protrusion of the heart into the abdomen.
  • Cardiocentesis (kar-de-o-sen-te'-sis) [cardio-; nkvT'qotc', puncture]. Puncture of one of the chambers of the heart to relieve engorgement.
  • Cardiodynia (kar-de-o-din'-e-ah) [cardio-; oduvr), pain]. Pain in or about the heart.
  • Cardiogram (kar' -de-o -gram) [cardio-; ypa/x/ia, a writing]. The tracing of the cardiac im- pulse made by the cardiograph.
  • Cardiograph (kar'-de-o-graf) [cardia; ypafetv, to write]. An instrument for registering graphically the modifications of the pulsa- tions of the heart.
  • Cardiographer (kar-de-og'-ra-fer) [see Cardio- graph]. An authority upon diseases of the heart.
  • Cardioid (kar'-de-oid) [cardio-; eldog, likeness]. Like a heart.
  • Cardioinhibitory (kar-de-o-in-hib' -it-o-re) [car- dio-; inhibere, to restrain]. Inhibiting or diminishing the heart's action. The cardio- inhibitory fibers pass to the heart through the pneumogastric nerves.
  • -Cardiokinetic (kar-de-o-kin-et'-ik) [cardio-; tctveev, to move]. 1. Exciting the heart- action. 2. An agent which excites the action of the heart.
  • Cardiology (kar-de-ol'-o-je) [cardio-; Xoyog, discourse]. The anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the heart.

CaTdiomala.cia.(kar-de-o-mal-a'-she-ah)[cardio-; HcXelv, to love]. Parasitic upon fruit.

  • Carposid (kar f -po-sid). A crystalline glucosid from Carica papaya.
  • Carpozyma (kar-po-zi'-mah) [Kaprcbc, fruit; Cp\n), ferment]. A genus of microorganisms producing fermentation.
  • Carpus (kar'-pus) [L.]. The eight bones collec- tively forming the wrist.

Carrion's Disease. Verruga peruviana; Pe- ruvian wart.

Car-sickness. The symptoms of sea-sickness produced by journeying in railway cars.

Carswell's Grapes. Pulmonary tubercles when they occur in a racemose distribution at the extremities of several adjacent bronchioles. CARTHAGENA BARK 247 CARUNCLE Carthagena Bark. Cinchona from Car- thagena.

  • Cartilage (Jzar'-iil-aj) [cartilago, gristle]. Gristle; a white, semiopaque, nonvascular connective tissue composed of a matrix con- taining nucleated cells which He in cavities or lacunas of the matrix. When boiled, cartilage yields a substance called chondrin. C, Annular, i. Any ring-shaped cartilage. 2. The cricoid cartilage. C, Anonymous, the cricoid cartilage. C, Aortic, the second costal cartilage on the right side. C, Arthro- dic, C, Arthrodial. See C, Articular. C, Articular, that lining the articular sur- faces of bones. C, Asternal, the costal cartilages which are detached from the sternum. C.-bone. i. See Ossein. 2. See C, Calcified. C.s, Brecht's, the ossa suprasternalia, two small cartilaginous or bony nodules near each sternoclavicular joint, above the sternum. They are regarded as the rudiments of the episternal bone that is well developed in some animals. C, Bronchial, plates of cartilage, in some instances very minute, found in the bronchial tubes. C, Calcified, that in which a cal- careous deposit is contained in the matrix. Syn., Cartilage-bone; Crusted cartilage; Prim- ary bone. C, Cellular. See C, Parenchy- matous. C, Ciliary. See C, Palpebral. C, Corniculate. See C. of Santorini. C, Costal, that occupying the interval between the true ribs and the sternum or adjacent cartilages. C.s, Cuneiform. See C.s of Wrisberg. C, Dentinal. See Ossein. C, Diarthrodial. See C, Articidar. C, Embryonal. See C, Parenchymatous. C, Ensiform, the third piece of the sternum. Syn., Xiphoid appendix; Xiphoid cartilage. C.s, Epactal, small cartilaginous nodules on the upper edge of the alar cartilages of the nose. C, Epiphyseal. See C, Intermediary (2). C, Fetal. See C, Temporary. C, Fi- bro-. See Fibrocartilage. C., Float- ing. See Arthrolith. C, Huschke's. See Jacobson's Cartilage. C, Hyaline, is dis- tinguished by a granular or homogeneous matrix. C, Innominate, the cricoid carti- lage. C.s, Interarticular, fiat fibrocartilages situated between the articulating surfaces of some of the joints. Syn., Interarticular fibro- cartilages. C, Interarytenoid, an incon- stant cartilage found between the arytenoid cartilages. C.s, Interhemal, nodules of cartilage which aid in the formation of the hemal arch of a vertebra. C. , Intermediary. 1. Cartilage-bone in process of transforma- tion into true bone. 2. That interposed between the epiphysis and diaphysis of a bone. C.s, Interneural, nodules of cartilage which aid in the formation of the neural arch of a vertebra. C.s, Intervertebral. See In- tervertebral Discs. C, Investing. See C, Articular. C, Jacobson's. See Jacobson's Cartilage. C, Luschka's. See Luschka's Cartilage. C, Luschka's Subpharyngeal. See under Luschka. C, Meckel's, the axis of the first branchial arch (mandibular arch) of the fetus. It disappears during the fifth or sixth month, with the exception of its posterior (tympanic) portion, which becomes the incus, malleus, and folian process. A vestige of this cartilage (pinnal cartilage) is occasionally found in tumors of the parotid gland. C.s, Morgagni's. See C.s of Wris- berg. C, Palpebral, the connective tissue forming the framework of the eyelids. C, Parenchymatous, that in which cells form the main part of the tissue. C.s, Pyramidal, the arytenoid cartilages. C.s, Quadrate, several small cartilages passing out from the alar cartilages in the exter- nal part of the nostril. C, Reticular, a peculiar cartilage found in the auricle of the ear, the epiglottis, and eustach- ian tubes. Its peculiarity consists in a network of yellow elastic fibers pervading the matrix in all directions. C, Retiform. See C, Reticular. C. of Santorini, a nodule at the apex of each arytenoid cartilage — the corniculum laryngis. C, Seller's, a small cartilaginous rod attached to the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage. It is more fully developed in the female than in the male. C.s, Semilunar, two interarticu- lating cartilages of the knee. C, Sesa- moid. See Sesamoid Bone. C, Sesa- moid (of the Larynx), Luschka's carti- lage. C.s, Sesamoid (of the Nose). See C.s, Epactal. C.s, Sigmoid. See C.s, Semilunar. C, Synarthrodial, that of any fixed or slightly movable articulation. C, Tarsal. See C., Palpebral. C, Temporary, that which is ultimately replaced by bone. C, Tubal, a rolled triangular cartilage running from the osseous part of the eus- tachian tube to the pharynx. C. of Weit- brecht, the interarticular fibrocartilage that exists in the acromioclavicular articulation. C.s of Wrisberg, the cuneiform cartilages, one on each side of the fold of membrane stretching from the arytenoid cartilage to the epiglottis. C, Xiphoid. See C, Ensi- form. C, Yellow. See C, Reticular.
  • Cartilaginous (kar-til-af -in-us) [cartilage]. Made up of or resembling cartilage.
  • Cartilago (kar-til-a'-go) [L.]. See Cartilage. C. triticea, a small oblong cartilaginous nodule often found in the lateral thyrohyoid ligament.
  • Carum (ka'-rum) [napov, caraway]. Caraway. It is official in the U. S. P. in the form of the dried fruit of C. carvi, indigenous to Europe, and an allied species native to the Pacific coast of America. Its odor and taste are due to a volatile oil. It is used chiefly as a flavor. C. petroselinum, parsley, is diuretic and sedative. Carui, Aqua (B. P.), caraway water. Dose 1-2 oz. (30-60 Cc). Carui, Infusum, 2 dr. to 1 pint. Dose ^-2 oz. (15-60 Cc). Unof. Cari, Oleum (U. S. P.), oil of caraway. Dose 1-5 min. (0.06-0.3 Cc).
  • Caruncle (kar'-ung-kl) [caruncula]. A small, fleshy growth. C., Lacrimal, one upon the CARUNCULA 248 CASCARIN conjunctiva near the inner canthus. C, Ure- thral, a small, bright -red growth situated on the posterior lip of the meatus urinarius : a fre- quent condition in women. The caruncle varies in size from a hempseed to a filbert; it is very painful, especially during micturition and coitus, and bleeds readily.
  • Caruncula (kar-ung' '-ku-lah) [dim. of caro, flesh; pi., caruncula]. A caruncle. In the plural, the nymphas. C. innominata, the lacrimal gland. C. major, a caruncle marking the common orifice of the com- mon bile-duct and the pancreatic duct. C. mammillaris. i. The olfactory tub- ercle, between the roots of the olfactory nerves. 2. The enlarged ends of the galac- tophorous ducts in the nipple. C. minor, one in the duodenum in the center of which a supplementary pancreatic duct occasionally opens. C. morgagnii, the middle lobe of the prostate. Carunculae myrtiformes, the pro- jections of membrane near the orifice of the vagina, thought to be the remains of the hy- men after its rupture. Carunculae papil- lares. See Papilla, Renal. C. salivalis. See C. sublingualis. C. sublingualis, one mark- ing the orifice of Wharton's duct. Syn., Papilla salivalis inferior. C. urethrae. See Caruncle, Urethral.

Cams' Curve. The longitudinal axis of the pelvic canal, which forms a curved line, having the symphysis pubis as its center.

  • Carvacrol (karv'-ak-rol) [Ital., c'arvi, caraway; anpog, sharp], C 10 H 13 . OH. A liquid body occurring in the oil of certain varieties of satureja. Syn., Cymic phenol; Cymophenol; Metaisocy mo phenol; Oxyzymol. C. Iodid, C 10 H 13 OI, a brown powder, slightly soluble in alcohol, readily soluble in olive-oil, ether, and chloroform, melting at oo° C; it is used as a substitute for iodoform. Syn., Iodocrol.
  • Carya (kar'-e-ah) [napua, the walnut-tree]. Hickory; a genus of trees of the order Jug- landacece, indigenous to North America. C. tomentqsa yields a crystalline principle, caryin, believed to be identical with querci- trin. The leaves of most of the species are aromatic and astringent and the bark bitter and astringent. The inner bark is used in dyspepsia and intermittent fever.
  • Caryin (kar'-e-in). See under Carya.
  • Caryocinetic (kar-e-o-sin-ef-ik). 1. See Karyo- kinetic. 2. Ameboid.
  • Caryophyllin (kar-e-o-fil'-in) [caryophyllus], C 10 H 16 O or C 20 H 32 O 2 . The neutral crystal- line principle of cloves. Caryophyllus (kar-e-o-fil' -us) [napuov, a nut; oX- Xov, a leaf]. Clove. The unexpanded flowers of Eugenia aromatica, distinguished by their pungent, spicy taste. Its properties are due to a volatile oil, which is antiseptic, stimulant, and irritant. It also contains a crystalline body, eugenin, C 10 H 12 O 2 , and a camphor, caryophyllin, C 10 H 16 O. It is useful as a stomachic and to prevent "griping" when combined with purgatives. Caryophylli, Infusum (B. P.), a strength of 1 to 40 is recommended. Dose 1-2 oz. (30-60 Cc). Caryophylli, Oleum (U. S. P.), oil of cloves, contains an acid and a phenol compound. Dose 1-4 min. (0.06-0.24 Cc). It is used also by microscopists to clarify preparations and tissues for mounting.
  • Casanthrol (kas-an'-throl). ' A mixture of casein ointment with a coal-tar product; it is used as a varnish in skin diseases.
  • Casca-bark (kas'-kah). Sassy-bark; ordeal- bark. The bark of Erythrophlceum guineense, a tree native to Africa. Its properties are due to an alkaloid. It is valuable in inter- mittent fevers and as a heart-tonic; in over- doses it produces nausea and vomiting. Erythrophlein, the active alkaloid, is a local anesthetic. Dose of the aqueous ex- tract 1 gr. (0.065 Gm.); of the fluidextract 5-15 min. (0.3-0.9 Cc); of the tincture (25% strength) 10 min. (0.6 Cc).
  • Cascara (kas-kar'-ah)'. Spanish for "bark." C. amarga, Honduras bark. The bark of a tree native in Mexico, much used as an alterative tonic in syphilis and skin affec- tions. C. Cordial, a trade preparation. Dose 15 min.-2 dr. (1-8 Cc). C. sagrada (rhamnus purshiana, U.'S. P.), the bark of Rhamnus purshiana, or California buckthorn. Its properties are due to a volatile oil. It is useful in chronic constipation. Syn., Chittem bark; Sacred bark. C. sagrada, Ex- tract of (extr actum rhamni purshiance, U. S. P.). Dose \-\ dr. (2-4 Cc). C. sagrada, Fluidextract of (fluidextr actum rhamni pur- shiance, U. S. P.). Dose 15 min. (1 Cc). C. sagrada, Fluidextract of, Aromatic (fluid- extractum rhamni purshiance aromaticum, U. S. P.). Dose 15 min. (1 Cc).
  • Cascarilla (kas-kar-il'-ah) [Sp., dim. of casca, bark]. The bark of Croton eluteria, native to the Bahama Islands, an aromatic bitter, increasing the natural secretions of the di- gestive organs. Unof . Cascarillae, Infusum (B. P.). Dose 1-2 oz. (30-60 Cc). Cascar- illae, Tinctura (B. P.). Dose J-2 dr. (2-8 Cc).
  • Cascarillin (kas-kar-il'-in) [cascarilla], C 6 H 9 2 . The active principle of cascarilla; a white, crystalline, bitter substance, scarcely soluble in water.
  • Cascarin (kas'-kar-in), C 24 H 10 O ]0 . A substance isolated by Leprince from the bark of Rham- nus purshiana (cascara sagrada), and be- lieved by him to contain the active tonic and laxative principles of that bark; it occurs CASEARIA 249 CASTANEA in granular masses or prisms. Dose 1^-3 gr. (0.099-0.198 Gm.). According to Phip- son, this is identical with rhamnotoxin.
  • Casearia (kas-e-a'-re-ah) [J. Casearius, Dutch botanist]. A genus of tropical trees of the order Samydacece. C. esculenta is a native of the Asian tropics and Australia; its bitter roots are said to be a valuable remedy in hepatic torpor. C. ovata, the anavingah of the Malays, is a large tree, bitter in all its parts. The fruit is diuretic. C. tomentosa is a tree of India; the bitter leaves are used by the natives in medicated baths and the fruit is diuretic.
  • Casease (ka'-se-az). An enzym which digests casein, found by Duclaux and produced by bacteria, notably Tyrothrix tenuis.
  • Caseate (ka'-ze-at). 1. A lactate. 2. To undergo cheesy degeneration.
  • Caseation (ka-ze-a r -shun) [casein]. The pre- cipitation of casein during the coagulation of milk. Also a form of degeneration in which the structure is converted into a soft, cheese- like substance.
  • Caseiform (ka'-ze-if-orm). Resembling cheese or casein.
  • Casein (ka'-ze-in) [caseum, cheese]. A de- rived albumin, the chief proteid of milk, precipitated by acids and by rennet. It is closely allied to alkali-albumin, but contains more nitrogen and a large amount of phos- phorus. It constitutes most of the curd of milk. Syn., Caseum; Lacterin. C. Dys- pepton, an insoluble, semigelatinous sub- stance, separated in the first stages of gastric digestion. C, Gluten. See C, Vegetable. C. -mercury, a compound of casein and mercury bichlorid, soluble in water with a trace of ammonia added; it is antiseptic. C. Ointment, an ointment-base consisting of casein, 14 parts; potassium hydroxid and sodium hydroxid, each, 0.43 part; glycerol, 7 parts; vaselin, 21 parts; borax, 1 part; water, 56 or 57 parts. C. -peptone, a light- brown, soluble powder used as a nutrient. C. Saccharid, a compound of dry casein, part; cane-sugar, 9 parts, and sodium bicarbonate enough to render it slightly alkaline. It is useful in preparing emulsions of oils, balsams, terpenes, resins, or gum- resins. C. of the Saliva, ptyalin. C- sodium, a compound of casein and sodium hydroxid, used as a nutrient. C, Vegetable, a nitrogenous substance resembling the casein of milk; two varieties have been described — legumin, in peas, beans, etc., and conglutin, in hops and almonds.
  • Caseoiodin (ka-ze-o-i 1 '-o-din) . A compound of casein and iodin (S or 9 %) forming a white powder, soluble in dilute hot alcohol and in hot alkalis. It is used in myxedema.
  • Caseous (ka'-ze-us) [caseum]. Having the nature or consistence of cheese.
  • Casimiroa (kas-im-ir-o' -ah) [after Casimiro Gomez]. A genus of plants belonging to the order Rutacece. C. edulis is the zapote bianco of Mexico; the edible fruit is anthelmintic; the bitter bark with the leaves and seeds are incinerated and used medicinally. Cassareep, Cassaripe (kas'-a-rep) [South Amer- ican name]. The concentrated juice of the cassava, the root of Jatropha manihot, made innocuous by boiling; it is a condiment, and as an ointment (10%) is recommended in the treatment of purulent conjunctivitis, corneal ulcers, and other diseases of the eye. Cassava (kas-a'-vah) [Sp., casabe]. 1. The manioc plant (Jatropha manihot and other species of Jatroph a). 2. Tapioca. Casser's (Casserius') Fontanel. The fontanel formed by the temporal, occipital, and parietal bones. C.'s Muscle, ligament- ous fibers attached to the malleus and form- erly described as the laxator tympani minor muscle. C.'s Perforating Nerve, the ex- ternal cutaneous nerve of the arm. Casserian (kas-e'-re-an). See Gasserian. Cassia (cash'-e-ah) [naala, a perfume]. 1. A genus of leguminous plants, several species of which afford senna. 2. An old name, still used commercially, for the coarser varieties of cinnamon. See Cinnamon. C. alata, the ringworm -shrub, is a widely diffused tropical shrub. The juice of the leaves mixed with lime- juice is used in the treatment of ringworm, and the wood and bark are alterant. C. bear- eana is a species of East Africa. A decoction of the root is highly recommended in black- water fever, and the powdered bark is applied as a dressing to ulcers. C. marilandica, of North America, produces the leaves called American senna, which are less active as a cathartic than the true senna. C.-bark, cas- sia-lignea. SeeCinnatnon. C. -buds, the im- mature fruit of Chinese cinnamon; used chiefly as a spice. C, Oil of, a variety of oil of cin- namon, used in pharmacy and in perfumery. C, Purging (cassia fistula, U. S. P.), the dried fruit of a tree growing in tropical re- gions. The pulp (cassia^ put pa, B. P.) is a mild laxative. Dose 1-2 dr. (4-8 Gm.). Cast (kast)[ ME., casten, to throw]. 1. A mass of fibrous or plastic material that has taken the form of some cavity in which it has been molded. From their source, casts may be classified as bronchial, intestinal, nasal, esophageal, renal, tracheal, urethral, vaginal, etc. Of these, the renal casts, by reason of their significance in diseases of the kidney, are the most important. Classed according to their constitution, casts are epithelial, fatty, fibrinous, granular, hyaline, mucous, sanguineous, waxy, etc. See Tube-casts. 2. Strabismus. C.s, Kulz's, very short, generally hyaline, but sometimes granular, casts, occurring at the onset and during the course of diabetic coma, disappearing with the coma, and considered by Kiilz as diagnostic of impending coma. C.s, Tubular Exudation (of the intestine), a pathogno- monic symptom of mucous colitis. Castanea (kas-ta'-ne-ah) [L.]. Chestnut. The leaves of C. vesca. They contain tannic and gallic acids and other principles the CASTELLINO'S SIGN 250 CATAPLASM value of which is not known. They are used in infusion or decoction as a remedy for whooping-cough. Dose of the fluidexiract 5-60 min. (0.3-3.8 Cc).

Castellino's sign]]. See Oliver's Symptom.

  • Castor (kas'-tor). See Castoreum. C.-bean, C.-oil. See under Ricinus. C. -xylene, a mixture composed of castor-oil, 1 part, and xylene, 3 parts, used for clearing or clarify- ing the collodion or celloidin of objects embedded in collodion.
  • Castoreum (kas-to' -re-um) [naozcop, the beaver]. The dried preputial follicles and their secretion, obtained from the beaver, Castor fiber. It is a reddish-brown substance with a strong odor. It is antispasmodic and stimulant, its action resembling that of musk. Dose of the tincture J-i dr. (2-4 Cc).
  • Castration (kas-tra f -shun) [castrare, to cut]. Orchidectomy; the excision of one or both testicles. C, Female, removal of the ova- ries; oophorectomy; spaying.
  • Castrensis (kas-tren' -sis) [castra, a camp]. 1. Relating to camps. 2. Camp-fever or dysen- tery due to unsanitary living in camps.
  • Casualty (kaz f -u-al-te) [casus, chance]. An accidental injury; a wound, or loss of life, accidentally incurred; an injury in a battle.
  • Casuarina (kas-u-ar-e 1 '-nah) [casuarius, the cas- sowary, from the resemblance of the stems to the heavy feathers of this bird]. A genus of plants of the order Casuarinacea. The tonic and styptic bark of C. equisetifolia, of Malaya, is used in the treatment of beriberi. C. Montana is a native of Malaya; the bark is used in beriberi; the leaves in colic; the seeds in a salve in the treatment of head- ache.
  • Casuistics (kaz-u-is'-tiks) [casus, a case]. The study of individual pathologic cases as a means of arriving at the general history of a disease.
  • Casumen (kas f -u-men). A proprietary dietetic said to contain 93 % of proteid.

Cata-. For words thus beginning and not found under C see Kata-.

  • Catabasial (kat-ah-ba' -se-al) [/card, down; basion]. Applied to skulls having the basion lower than the opisthion.
  • Catabasis (kat-ab' -as -is) [mrapaotc, a descent]. The decline of a disease.
  • Cataclasis (kat-ak' -las-is) [Kara, down; nXaoecv, to break]. A fracture.
  • Catacleisis (kat-ak-W -sis) [Karaidecocc, a lock- ing]. Closure of the eyelids by adhesion or by spasm.
  • Cataclysm (kaf '-ak-lizm) [KaraKXuo/xoc, a del- uge]. 1. An effusion. 2. A sudden shock.
  • Catalase (kat'-al-az). See Milk-catalase. Catalepsy (kaf -al-ep-se) [Kara, down; Xaft- P&vecv, to seize]. A condition of morbid sleep, associated with a loss of voluntary motion and a peculiar plastic rigidity of the muscles, by reason of which they take any position in which they are placed and pre- serve it for an indefinite time. The condi- tion is associated with hysteria, with forms of insanity, and is a stage of the hypnotic sleep. C.j Local, that affecting a single organ or group of muscles.
  • Cataleptic (kat-al-ep'-tik) [see Catalepsy]. 1. Relating to, affected with, or of the nature of, catalepsy. 2. A person affected with cata- lepsy.
  • Cataleptiform (kat-al-ep'-tif-orm) [catalepsy; forma, form]. Resembling catalepsy.
  • Cataleptize (kat-al-ep'-tlz). To reduce to a state of catalepsy.
  • Cataleptoid (kat-al-ep' -toid) [catalepsy; eldoc, likeness]. Like catalepsy. C. State, a condition due to neuromuscular excitability and differing from true catalepsy in that the limbs must be held in fixed attitudes for a few seconds before they maintain themselves and friction causes them to become limp.
  • Cataleptolethargic (kat-al-ep-to-leth-ar' '-jik) . Having the nature of catalepsy and lethargy.
  • Catamenia (kat-am-e' -ne-ah) [Kara, concerning, according to; firjv, month]. The recurrent monthly discharge of blood during sexual life from the genital canal of the female.
  • Catamenial (kat-am-e 1 '-ne-al) [catamenia]. Per- taining to the catamenia.
  • Cataphonics (kat-ah-fon'-iks) [Kara, after; cfxbvr), sound]. That branch of physics treating of reflected sounds.
  • Cataphoresis (kat-af-or-e'-sis) [Kara, down; (fikpecv, to carry]. The introduction of drugs into the system through the skin by means of ointments or solutions applied by the electrode of a battery. C, Anemic, the application of cataphoresis upon a part from which the blood-supply has previously been cut off by an Esmarch bandage or a rubber ring. C, Static, a method of intro- ducing into the body gaseous medicaments that have been inclosed within a bell-jar or tube into which enters a brush electrode con- nected with the positive pole of an influence machine.
  • Cataplasis (kat-ap'-las-is) [Kara, down; itlaatc, formation]. 1. The stage of decline in the individual life. 2. The application of a plaster or coating.
  • Cataplasm, Cataplasma (kat'-ap-lazm, kat-ap- laz'-mah) [naranXaa p.a, a poultice]. A poultice (q. v.). Cataplasma carbonis (B. P.), a poultice made of wood-charcoal, 1; bread- crumb, 1; linseed-meal, 3; boiling water, 20 parts. Cataplasma fermenti (B. P.), a mixture of beer, yeast, wheat-flour, water at ioo° F. It is a stimulant and antiseptic for indolent ulcers. Cataplasma kaolini (U. S. P.), a mixture of kaolin, boric acid, CATARACT 251 CATARRH thymol, methyl salicylate, oil of peppermint, and glycerol. Cataract (kat'-ar-akt) [Karappanz-qg, a water- fall]. Partial or complete opacity of the crystalline lens or its capsule. C, Adherent, opacity of the lens, due to disturbed nutrition, in which it is attached by exudates to the adjacent parts, as in cyclitis. C, Arido- siliquose, an overripe cataract with a dry, wrinkled capsule. C, Capsular, cataract due to opacity of the capsule. „C, Capsulo- lenticular, one involving both the capsule and the lens. C, Chalky. See C, Arido- siliquose. C, Cholesterin, one containing what are apparently crystals of choles- terin. C, Concussion, a soft cataract due to an explosion or some other con- cussion. C, Cortical, one due to loss of transparency of the outer layers of the lens. C, Cystic. See C, Morgagnian. C, Diabetic, a form associated with diabetes. C. -discission, an operation preliminary to absorption, or . extraction by suction, con- sisting in rupturing the capsule, so that the aqueous humor gains access to the lens. C- extraction, removal of the cataractous lens by surgical operation. C, Fibrinous, a false cataract consisting of an effusion of plastic lymph on the capsule and into the field of vision. C, Fibroid, a false cataract consisting of an opacity in the axis of the visual rays though not in the lens. C, Fluid, the breaking-up of an opaque lens into a milky fluid. C, Green, a name given to a grayish-green reflex seen in glau- coma; it is also seen when the pupil is dilated and the mediums are not completely trans- parent. C, Grumous, a spurious cataract from hemorrhage into the cornea or into the vitreous. C, Gypseous, an overripe cataract presenting a white appearance from having undergone degeneration. C, Hard. See C., Senile. C, Hyaloid, a spurious cataract attributed to opacity of the anterior part of the vitreous. C, Immature, one in which only a part of the lens-substance is catar- actous. C., Incipient, forked linear opacities in the equatorial region of the lens seen in middle-aged persons and sometimes remaining unchanged for years. Syn., Arcus senilis lends; Gerontoxon lentis. C, Interstitial. See C. t Lenticular. C, Lacteal. See C, Fluid. C, Lamellar, one due to opacity of certain layers between the cortex and nucleus, the remaining layers being trans- parent. C, Lenticular, one occurring in the lens proper. C, Lymph, C, Lymphatic. See C, Morgagnian. C, Mature, one in which the whole lens-substance is cataractous. C, Membranous, a fibrinous deposit from the iris upon the capsule, which becomes opaque. C., Mixed, one which ultimately affects the whole lens, but begins as a cortical opacity in sharply demarcated streaks or tri- angular patches. C, Morgagnian, one in which an overripe cataract shrinks and leaves a nucleus floating in the dissolved outer layers. C, Myelin, one containing a semitrans- parent, yellowish, friable substance. C, Nuclear, one of moderate extent beginning in the nucleus. C, Pigmented, C, Pig- mentous, a spurious cataract due to an injury by which the pigment from the pos- terior surface of the iris has been detached, forming a tree-like appearance. C, Polar < (anterior or posterior), a form in which the opacity is confined to one pole of the lens. C, Pseudomembranous, a condition marked by white spots on the lens due to iritis. C. , Pupil- lary, congenital closure of the pupil. C, Pyramidal, one in which the opacity is at the anterior pole and is conoid, the apex extending forward. C, Recurrent Capsular, C, Sec- ondary, capsular cataract appearing after the extraction of the lens. C, Ripe. See C, Mature. C, Senile, the cataract of old per- sons, the most frequent form, and that under- stood when not specified as congenital, juve- nile, traumatic, soft, etc. C, Siliculose, C, Siliquose. See C, Aridosiliqnose. C, Soft, a form occurring especially in the young; the lens -matter is of soft consistence and milky appearance. C, Spontaneous, one not dependent upon some other lesion or disease. C, Stony, one that has undergone degeneration and become of stony hardness. C.j Tremulous, C, Vacillating, one asso- ciated with laceration of the zonule of Zinn, causing trembling of the iris and of the cataract on movement of the eyeball. C, True, lenticular cataract. C, Unripe. See C, Immature. C, Zonular. See C, Lamellar.
  • Cataractous (kal-ar-ak'-tus) [cataract]. Of the nature of or affected with cataract.
  • Catarrh (kat-ahr') [Ka-appslv, to flow down]. Inflammation of a mucous membrane. The term is also applied to certain inflam- mations of the tubules of the kidney and the air-vesicles of the lung. C, Alveolar, a condition occurring in bronchopneumonia in which the alveoli of the lungs contain a 'granular liquid exudate holding modified epithelial cells and blood-corpuscles. C, Atrophic Nasal, chronic nasal catarrh resulting in dryness and atrophy of the membrane. C, Dry, bronchitis in which there are frequent, severe attacks of cough- ing, with pain and but little expectoration. C, Epidemic. See Influenza. C., Gastric, gastritis. C, Hemorrhagic, bronchial ca- tarrh attended with a superficial extravasation of blood into the mucous tissue. C, Infec- tious, that caused by pathogenic microor- ganisms either by direct invasion or by the effect of toxins generated by them. C, In- testinal, enteritis. C, Intoxication, that caused by chemic poison — (a) introduced with the ingesta; (b) developed from the ingesta through putrefaction; (c) that developed from the blood. C, Laennec's. i. See C, Dry. 2.SeeC.,Pituitous. C, Membranous Nasal, a form of nasal catarrh marked by the formation of a thick pseudomembrane. C, Mycotic, that caused by a fungus. C, Nasal, CATARRHAL 252 CATNIP coryza. C, Papillary, catarrh of the renal papillas. C, Pituitous (of Laennec), chronic serous bronchorrhea attended with copious secretion discharged by severe parox- ysms of coughing. C, Pulmonary, bron- chitis. C, Rarefying Dry (of the naso- pharynx), a state of malnutrition marked by pale, dry mucosa and at times the occur- rence of varicose veins in the pharyngeal wall and about the orifices of the eustachian tubes. C, Rose-, hay -fever. C, Russian, influenza. C, Serous, that marked by secre- tion consisting chiefly of a serous fluid. C, Suffocative. Synonym of Capillary bronchi- tis. C, Summer-, hay-fever. C, Uterine, endometritis. C, Vasomotor, hay-fever. C, Venereal. Synonym of Gonorrhea. C . , Vesi- cal, cystitis.
  • Catarrhal (kat-ahr'-al) [catarrh]. Of the nature of, affected with, or relating to catarrh. C. Fever. Synonym of Influenza. C. Inflam- mation, an inflammation of an archiblastic surface, characterized by proliferation and desquamation of the epithelium.
  • Catavertebral (kat-ah-ver 1 '-te-bral) [Kara, down; vertebral]. Located on the side of a centrum of a vertebra next to the blood-vessels.
  • Catechin (kat'-e-chin) [catechu], C 21 H 20 O 9 + 5H 2 0. Catechinic acid, the active principle of catechu. It crystallizes in shining needles of a snow-white, silky appearance.
  • Catechol (kaf '-e-chol) . See Pyrocatechin. C. Dimethylate, C. Dimethyl-ether. See Veratrol. C. Monomethylate, C. Mono- methyl-ether. See Guaiacol.
  • Catechu (kat'-e-choo) [E. Ind.]. An extract prepared from the wood of Acacia catechu, a native of the East Indies. It contains 50% of tannic acid, and hence is a powerful astringent. It is used in the diarrhea' of children and as a gargle and mouth-wash. Dose of the powdered extract 10 gr.— \ dr. (0.65-2.0 Gm.). Unof. The catechu of the Pharmacopeia of 1890 has been replaced by gambir (q.v.). C, Infusum (B. P.). Dose ■i-i£ oz. (30-45 Cc). C, Pulvis, Composi- tus (B. P.), contains catechu, kino, and rha- tany. Dose 20-40 gr. (1.3-2.6 Gm.).
  • Catenating (kat'-en-a-ting) [catenare, to chain together]. Connecting; linking; e. g., catena- ting ague, ague associated with another disease.
  • Catgut (kat'-gut). The intestine of various ani- mals, particularly the sheep, treated to make ligatures. C, Carbolized, catgut rendered aseptic by soaking in a solution of phenol. C, Chromicized, gut treated with chromium tri- oxid. C. -plate, an appliance for uniting intes- tinal edges in intestinal anastomosis. It is made of a solid catgut sheet, is thin, large, and flat, and resembles the Senn decalcified bone-plates. Catharsis (kath-ar' -sis) [nadacpecv, to purge]. Purgation.
  • Cathartate (kath-ar' -tat) . A salt of cathartic acid.
  • Cathartic (kath-ar' -tik) [see Catharsis]. 1. Pur- gative. 2. A medicine used to produce evacu- ations of the bowels; a purgative. C. Acid. See Senna. C. Pill, Compound. See under Compound.
  • Cathartogenin (kath-ar -to]' -en-in). A yellow- brown subst.ance obtained from cathartic acid by decomposition with hydrochloric acid. Syn., Cathar to genie acid.
  • Cat-head (kat'-hed). A term applied by Rosch to certain skulls the bones of which are too thin, the form rotund, with the occiput markedly projecting, while all prominences and muscular impressions are inconspicuous. Cf. Apple Head.

Cathelineau's sign]]. See Gilles de la Tou- rette's Sign under Tourette.

  • Catheter (kath'-et-er) [Kaderrjp, a thing put down]. A hollow tube for introduction into a cavity through a narrow canal. C, Boze- man's, a double-current uterine catheter. C, Eustachian, an instrument for examin- ing, distending, or making applications to the eustachian tube. C. Fever, systemic disturbance with fever, following the intro- duction of a catheter into the urethra. C, Gouley's, a solid curved, steel instrument, grooved on its inferior aspect, for passing over a guide, through a stricture, into the bladder. C.-life, continuous dependence upon the catheter for evacuation of the blad- der. C, Lung, a soft -rubber tube that may be passed down the trachea. C, Schrotter's, instruments of hard rubber and of varying caliber, somewhat triangular on section, used for the dilation of laryngeal strictures. C, Self -retaining, one that will hold itself within the bladder without other appliances to assist it.
  • Cathypnosis (kath-ip' '-no-sis) [koOutzvojocc, a falling asleep]. Synonym of African leth- argy.
  • Cation (kat'-e-on). See Kation.

Cativi, Cativia [Carib for manihot-root]. A skin disease of Central America said to be caused by an animal parasite, and resembling in its lesions grated manihot-root.

  • Catlin, Catling (kat'-lin, kat'-ling) [dim. of cat]. A long, pointed, two-edged knife used in amputation.
  • Catnip (kat'-nip) [corruption of catmint]. The leaves and tops of the herb Nepeta cataria, a stimulant and tonic; a popular remedy for chlorosis, hysteria, etc. Dose of fluid- extract 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc). CATOPTRIC TEST 253 CAUTERY Catoptric Test. The diagnosis of cataract by means of the reflection of images from the cornea and lens-capsules.
  • Catoptrics (kat-op'-triks) [nazonzpov, a mirror]. The laws of the reflection of light.
  • Catramin (kaf -ram-in). A turpentine ob- tained from Tsuga canadensis and other conifers. It is recommended as a stimulant, diuretic, and expectorant in chronic respira- tory troubles, and is used in tuberculosis and lupus subcutaneously and as an em- brocation.

Cat's-purr. A peculiar purring bruit heard on auscultation, due to a defect of the mitral valve. Syn., Fremissement cataire.

Cattle-plague. See Rinderpest.

Cauda \]ww'-dah) [L.]. i. A tail. 2. The part of a muscle forming its insertion. C. cere- belli, the vermiform process. C. epididy- midis, the inferior part of the epididymis. C. equina, a term applied collectively to the roots of the sacral and coccygeal nerves, from their resemblance to a horse's tail. C. medullas (of Bartholin), a collective term for the oblongata and spinal cord. C. striati, the narrow posterior portion of the caudate nucleus.

  • Caudad (haw'-dad) [cauda; ad, to]. Toward the tail or cauda; opposed to cephalad; in man, downward.
  • Caudal (kaw'-dal) [cauda]. Pertaining to a cauda or tail.
  • Caudate (kaw'-dat) [cauda]. Having or re- sembling a tail. C. Lobe of Liver, a small lobe of the liver. C. Nucleus, the intra- ventricular portion of the corpus striatum.
  • Caudation (kaw-da'-shun) [cauda]. 1. The condition of being furnished with a tail. 2. Elongation of the clitoris.
  • Caudatum (kaw-dat'-um). See Corpus stri- atum: Caudex (kaw'-deks) [L., "a tree-stem"]. 1. In biology, applied to the scaly, unbranching trunk of a palm-tree or tree-fern. 2. The main portion of the brain-stem, the fibers running from the spinal cord to the hemi- spheres of the - brain. C. dorsalis. 1. The spinal cord. 2. The oblongata. C. en- cephali, the cerebral peduncle. C. en- cephali communis, the oblongata and crus cerebri. C. encephali pontilis, the pons. C. medullaris, the cerebral peduncle.
  • Caudiferous (kaw-dif'-er-us) [cauda; ferre, to bear]. Having a tail or tail-like appendage.
  • Caul (kawl) [ME., calle, a hood]. 1. A por- tion or all of the fetal membranes covering the head and carried out in advance of it in labor. 2. The great omentum.

Cauliflower Excrescence. A tumor with an irregular surface resembling the cauliflower.

  • Caulophyllum (haw - lo - fil f - urn) [muXoc, stalk; (fiOXXov, leaf]. Blue cohosh; "squaw- root": the rhizome and rootlets of C. thal- ictroides, growing in Canada and the north- ern United States. It contains a glucosid, saponin, and two resins, one of which is caulophyllin. It produces intermittent con- tractions of the gravid uterus, and possesses diuretic, emmenagog, and antispasmodic powers. There are no official preparations. Dose of the powdered drug 5-20 gr. (0.32— 1.3 Gm.); of caidophyllin 2-5 gr. (0.13- 0.32 Gm.).
  • Cauloplegia (haw -lo-ple' -je-ah) [kcluXoc, a stalk; TzXrjyri, a stroke]. Paralysis affecting the penis.
  • Caulosterin (kaw-los'-ter-in) [nauXog, a stalk; ozepioc, solid], C 26 H 44 0. An aromatic com- pound occurring in the root and stem of seedlings of the yellow lupine which have grown in the dark. It is levorotary, forming lustrous plates which melt at i58°-i59° C.
  • Causalgia (kaw-zaV -je-ah) [nauooc, a burning; aXyoc, pain]. The burning pain that is some- times present in injuries of the nerves.
  • Caustic (kaws'-tik) [caustictim, caustic]. 1. Very irritant; burning; capable of destroying tissue. 2. A substance that destroys tissue. C. Alkali, a pure alkaline hydrate or oxid. C, Lunar (argenti nitras fusus, U. S. P.), sil- ver nitrate. C., Metallic, one containing a metal or a metallic salt. C, Mitigated {argenti nitras mitigatus, U. S. P.), silver ni- trate made less active by fusion with potas- sium nitrate or argentic chlorid. C, Per- petual, fused silver nitrate. C. Potash, po- tassium hydroxid. C. Soda, sodium hydroxid.
  • Cauterant (kaw'-ter-ant) [/iauzfjp, a burner]. 1. Caustic; escharotic. 2. A caustic sub- stance.
  • Cauterization (haw -ter-iz-a' -shun) [see Cau- tery]. The application of a cautery; the effect of such an application. C, Dis- tant, that performed by holding the cautery at some distance from the surface to be cauterized. C, Galvanochemic (Apostoli's), the destruction of the mucosa by means of electrolytic action. C, In- herent, deep cauterization by means of the actual cautery. C, Neapolitan, deep cauter- ization through an incision. C, Objective. See C, Distant. C. by Points, C, Punc- tate, deep cauterization with a pointed cautery. C., Slow, that performed with moxa. C, Subcutaneous, deep cauteriza- tion by injection of caustics or by inclosing the cautery in a tube so as not to affect the superficial parts. C, Tubular, Tripier's operation of charring the walls of an opening made into a cyst by means of an instrument connected with the negative pole of a battery.
  • Cauterize (kaw'-ter-lz) [see Cautery]. To sear or burn with a cautery or a caustic.
  • Cautery (haw'-ter-e) [nauzTjpwv, a branding- iron]. A metal instrument heated by the electric current or in a flame, used to destroy tissue or for producing co'unterirritation. Syn., Inustorium. C, Actual, the white-hot iron. C, Button-, an iron heated in hot CAVA 254 CELIA heated by electricity. C, Nummular, a cautery iron fitted with a coin-shaped disc. C, Paquelin's, a hollow platinum point kept at a uniform temperature by a current of benzene vapor; a thermocautery. C, Potential, C, Virtual, the application of caustic substances. C, Solar, a lens for concentrating the rays of the sun upon a part to be cauterized. C, Steam. See At- mocausis. C, Thermo-. See Thermocau- tery.

Cava ika'-vali) [L.]. i. A vena cava. 2. Any external cavity or hollow of the body.

  • Caval (ka'-vat) [cava]. Relating to a vena cava.
  • Cavalry-bone (kav'-al-re-bon). A bony de- posit in the adductor muscles of the thigh.
  • Cavascope (kav' -a-sko p) [cava; aaoTie'cv, to view]. An apparatus for illuminating a cav- ity.
  • Cavern (kav'-ern) [caver na, a hollow]. A cavity in the lung due to necrosis of the parenchyma; also the cavity of a dilated bronchus. C, Brand, one due to gangrenous destruction of a circumscribed segment of the lung parenchyma.
  • Cavernitis (kav-er-ni'-tis). Inflammation of the corpora cavernosa.
  • Cavernoma (kav-em-o' -mah) [cavern; b/xa, a tumor]. A cavernous tumor; a cavernous angioma.
  • Cavernous (kav'-er-nus) [cavern]. Having hollow spaces. C. Bodies, the corpora cavernosa of the penis. C. Breathing, the breath-sounds heard over a pulmonary cavity. C. Groove, the carotid groove. C. Plexus. See Plexus, Cavernous. C. Sinus, a venous sinus situated at the side of the body of the sphenoid. C. Tissue, erectile tissue. C. Tumor, a cavernous angioma.
  • Cavitary (kav'-it-a-re) [cavitarius, hollow]. Hollow; having or forming cavities.

Cavite Fever. See Fever, Cavite.

  • Cavity (kav'-it-e) [cavum]. A hollow. See under Abdominal, Amniotic, Cotyloid, Glen- oid, and Serous. Cavities, Cerebral, the ventricles of the brain. C., Cranial, the hollow of the skull. C, Epiploic, the omentum. C, Oral, that of the mouth. Syn., Cavum oris; Spatium oris. C, Pleural, the closed space of the pleura included between its parietal and visceral layers. C, Pleuroperitoneal, the celom or body-cavity. C, Preperitoneal. See Retzius' Space. C, Sigmoid, one of two depressions on the head of the ulna for articulation with the radius and humerus.

Cavum ika'-vum) [L.]. A cavity.

  • Cayaponin (ka-ap 1 '-o-nin) [Cayaponia, Brazil- ian name]. An alkaloid extracted from Cayaponia globosa, a cucurbitaceous plant of Brazil. It is said to purge without griping. Dose 1 gr. (0.06 Gm.).

Cazenave's Lupus. Lupus erythematosus. C.'s Vitiligo. See Celsus' Area, Cc, C.C. Abbreviations of cubic centimeter.

Cd. Symbol for cadmium.

Ce. Symbol for cerium.

  • Ceanothin (se-an-o' -thin) . 1. A brown powder obtained from Ceanothus americanus. It is purgative and alterative, and is used in syphilis, dysentery, and sore thro'at. Dose 1-2 gr. (0.065-0.13 Gm.). 2. An alkaloid isolated from Ceanothus americanus; slightly soluble in alcohol and ether.
  • Cearin (se'-ar-in). An ointment-base con- sisting of carnauba wax, 1 part; paraffin, 3 parts, melted together and mixed with 4 times its weight of liquid petrolatum.
  • Cebocephalus (se-bo-sej'-al-us) [nfiftoc, a mon- key; KS(f)a^7), head]. A variety of single autositic monsters of the species Cycloceph- alus, in which there is entire absence of the nose, with, however, two orbital cavities and two eyes, the region between the eyes being narrow and perfectly flat.
  • Cebur (se'-bur). See Balsam, Tagulaway.
  • Cecal (se'-kal) [cecum]. Pertaining to the cecum.
  • Cecectomy (se-sek 1 '-lom-e) [cecum; to/hjj, a cutting]. Excision of part of the cecum.
  • Cecitis (se-si'-tis) [cecum; exec, inflammation]. Inflammation of the cecum.
  • Cecocele (se'-ko-sel) [cecum; ktjXt], hernia] A hernia into the cecum. Syn., Typhlocele.
  • Cecostomy (se-kos'-to-me) [cecum; aro/ia, a mouth]. The formation of an artificial anus in the cecum.
  • Cecum (se'-kum) [ccecus, blind]. The large blind pouch or culdesac in which the large intestine begins.
  • Cedar (se f -dar) [cedrus, cedar]. One of the genus of coniferous trees, Cedrus. C.-oil, a transparent oil obtained from Juniperus virginiana, and used as a clearing agent in histology and for oil-immersion lenses.
  • Celandin (sel r -an-din) . See Chelidonium.
  • Celastrin (se-las'-trin). 1. Mosso's name for a poisonous alkaloid obtained from the leaves of Catha edulis; it resembles caffein physiologically, though more energetic and differing essentially from it. Syn., Kathin. 2. A bitter principle found by Dragendorff in the leaves of Celastrus serratus. 3. A substance forming minute white crystals found by Wayne in Celastrus scandens.
  • Celastrus (sel-as'-trus) [KJjXaarpoc, an evergreen tree]. A genus of trees and shrubs, nearly allied to Euonymus. C. paniculatus is a climbing shrub of India; the oil from the seeds (oleum nigrum) is a powerful stimu- lant and diaphoretic in gout and fever. C. scandens, of North America, is cathartic, diuretic, and alterative. C. serratus is a native of Abyssinia; the leaves, add-add, are used in malaria; they contain tannin, a bitter principle, celastrin, and a volatile oil.
  • Celia (se f -le-ah) [nodca, belly]. 1. The belly; the stomach. 2. A ventricle of the brain. CELIAC 255 CELL Celiac (se'-le-ak) [celia]. Abdominal; pertain- ing to the belly. C. Artery. Same as C. Axis. C. Axis, a branch of the abdominal aorta; it divides into the gas- tric, hepatic, and splenic arteries. See under Artery. C. Ganglion. See Gang- lion, Semilunar. C. Plexus, a sympathetic nerve-plexus situated about the origin of the celiac axis.
  • Celiacomesenteric (se-le-ak-o-mez-en-ter' -ik) . Relating to the celiac and mesenteric regions.
  • Celialgia (se-le-aV -je-ah) [celia; dXjoc, pain]. Pain in the abdomen.
  • Celianeurysm (se-le-an' -u-rizm) [celia; aveupuo- p.a, a widening]. An abdominal aneu- rysm.
  • Celiectasia (se-le-ek-ta'-ze-ah) [celia; 'inxaocc, a stretching-out]. Abnormal distention of the abdominal cavity.
  • Celiectomy (se-le-ek' -to-me) [celia; inxofirj, a cutting]. Excision of an abdominal organ.
  • Celiemia (se-le-e' -me-ah) [celia; alp.a, blood]. Hyperemia of the abdominal viscera.
  • Celiitis, Coeliitis (se-le-i' -tis) [celia; exec, in- flammation]. Inflammation of the abdom- inal organs.
  • Celiogastrotomy (se -le - o - gas - trot'- o - me) [celia; -faoTTip, stomach; xop.r), cutting]. The opening of the stomach through abdominal incision.
  • Celiohysterectomy (se-le-o-his-ter-ek f -to-me) [celia; uoxipa, womb; inxopLTj, a cutting out], i. Excision of the uterus through an abdom- inal cut. 2. Porro-cesarean section.
  • Celiomyitis, Cceliomyitis (se-le-o-mi-i f -tis) [celia; fiuc, muscle; exec, inflammation]. In- flammation of the muscles of the abdomen.
  • Celioscope (se f -le-o-skop) [ko'cXoc, a hollow; oKonelv, to examine]. An apparatus for illuminating and inspecting body-cavities.
  • Celioscopy, Ccelioscopy (se-le-os'-ko-pe). Kil- ling's method of examining the peritoneal cavity by filling it with sterile filtered air through a hollow needle, plunging a trocar through the distended abdominal wall, and passing through the trocar a cystoscope by means of which the adjacent peritoneal surface may be inspected.
  • Celiotomy (se-le-of -o-me) [celia; xo/jltj, a cut- ting]. Surgical opening of the abdominal cavity.
  • Cell (set) [celia, a small, hollow cavity], i. A granular mass of protoplasm containing a nucleus. The typical adult cell consists of protoplasm or cell-contents, a nucleus, and, within the latter, one or more nucleoli. The cell may or may not have a cell-wall. The protoplasm consists of two parts — the spongio plasm and the hyaloplasm. The nucleus is made up of a nuclear membrane, nuclear fibrils (chromatin), and nuclear matrix (achromatin). The nucleolus is a highly re- fracting body the function of which is not known. 2. A galvanic element or single member of a galvanic battery without the connecting wire between the metals. C, Acidophil, one which attracts acid dyes. Syn., Oxyphil cell. C.s, Adelomorphous, epithelial cells composing the chief part of the lining of the glands of the stomach, particularly the pyloric region. They are supposed to secrete pepsinogen. Syn,, Cen- tral cell; Peptic cell. C, Adventitial. 1. A branched cell peculiar to the perithelium. 2. A stellate cell of the membrana propria of glands. C, Air-. See Air-cell. C.s, Amacrine, spongioblasts of the inner nuclear layer of the retina; they lack long processes, though sometimes axis-cylinder processes are given off which may extend into the nerve- fiber layer. The bodies of these cells are often partly in the inner molecular layer. C, Ameboid, a cell capable of changing its form and of moving about like an ameba. C, Apolar, a nerve-cell without processes. C, Beaker-. See C, Goblet-. C, Binary Nerve-, two pyriform nerve-cells contained in a single sheath and each provided at its pointed end with a single nerve-fiber; these radiate in opposite directions. C, Bone-. See Osteoblast. C, Brush-. See C. of Deilers. C.s, Calcigerous. 1. Cells con- taining earthy salts found in dentin. 2. Mid- ler and Henle's name for the lacunas of bone and their canaliculi. C. -capsule, a thick or unusually strong cell-wall. C.s, Centro- acinar, C.s, Centroacinous, little cellular masses found by Robert Langerhans in the interstitial connective tissue of the pancreas. Syn., Langerhans' islets; Renaufs follicular points. C, Chromatophore, a cavity directly beneath the epidermis containing pigment and changing its shape and color by means of attached radiating muscular bands. C, Ciliated, one provided with cilia. C, Cleavage, a segmentation-cell. C, Col- umnar, one of the elongated cells forming columnar epithelium. C.s, Commissural. Same as C., Heteromeral. C. -cones, the cancer-nests of a squamous epithelioma — so called from their conic shape. C, Con- stant, the galvanic element of a constant battery. C. of Corti, any one of the hair- cells on the outer surface of the organ of Corti. C. -cover, the cuticular layer. C, Cover-. See C, Tegmental. C.,Cylindric, a variety of epithelial cell shaped like a minia- ture cylinder. C, Cytochrome, a nerve-cell having a cell-body very small in proportion to its nucleus. C, Daughter-, a cell originat- ing from the division of the protoplasm of a mother-cell. C.s, Decidual, a proliferation of young connective-tissue cells above the uterine glands taking place after the ovum is impregnated. C. of Deiters, one of the cells with fine processes resting on the basilar CELL 256 CELL membrane of the cochlea, beneath the air- cells; also a neuroglia cell. C.s, Delomor- phous, Rollet's name for granular cells which stain deeply, occurring next the basement-membrane in the glands of the stomach in the cardiac region. They are supposed to secrete acid. C.s, Demilune, granular protoplasmic cells found in mucous glands, lying between the mucous cells and the basement-membrane. Syn., Cells of Gianuzzi. C, Dentin, C, Dentinal, i. An odontoblast. 2. One of the lacunas in dentin similar to those in bone. 3. One of the bodies forming the matrix in dentin. C- doctrine, the theory that the cell is the unit of organic structure, and that cell-formation is the essential process of life and its phenom- ena. C, Elementary, an embryonic cell; also a leukocyte. C, Embryo, C, Em- bryonic, one arising from the division of the ovum. Syn., Elementary cell; Forma- tive cell; Primary cell; Primitive cell; Pri- mordial cell. C.s, Embryoplastic, cells originating from the mesoblast and becom- ing stellate or fusiform; they comprise the fixed connective-tissue corpuscles in developing connective tissue. Syn., Fibroplastic bodies or cells. C.s, Endothelial, flat cells found on the inner surface of vessels and spaces that do not communicate directly with the external air. C, Epidermic, C, Epithelial. See Epithelium. C, Epithelioid, one of the flattened cells forming an epithelial or endothelial covering in forms of membranous connective tissue. C.S, Ethmoid, the cellular cavities of the lateral masses of the eth- moid bone. Syn., Ethmoid sinuses. C, External Ciliated. See C. of Corti. C, Fiber-, a cell elongated into a fiber. C, Fibrillated. 1. See Heidenhain's Rods. 2. One of the fibrillated cells lining the interlobular ducts of the salivary glands. C. -fission, cell-division. C.s, Follicular. 1. Those of which the membrana granulosa is composed. 2. See Sertoli's Columns. C.S, Foule's, large cells containing one or more nuclei as large as or larger than a red blood-corpuscle, with regular or irregular outline; they have been supposed to be diagnostic of malignant ovarian cysts. C, Fusiform, a spindle-cell. C, Ganglion-, a large nerve-cell, especially that found in the spinal ganglions. C., Giant-, large multi- nuclear cells occurring in tuberculosis and other infectious granulomas, in bone, in giant-cell tumors, etc. C. of Gianuzzi. See C.s, Demilune. C.s, Glia-, neu- roglia. C. -globulins, Halliburton's name for forms of globulin that occur in lymph- corpuscles and can be extracted from them by solutions of sodium chlorid. C, Goblet-, an epithelial cell that has been bulged out like a goblet by the presence of mucin. C.S, Golgi's, nerve-cells with very short processes found in the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord. C., Grove, a two-fluid battery cell, the fluids being dilute sulfuric and nitric acids and the metals immersed in them respec- tively zinc and platinum. C . , Hecateromeric , C, Hecatomeral, a nerve-cell of the cinerea of the spinal cord whose processes divide into two, one going to each side of the cord. C, Heckle, a prickle-cell. C.s, Heiden- hain's. 1. See C.s, Delomorphous. 2. See C.s, Adelomorphous. C, Heteromeral, C, Heteromeric, a nerve-ceil in the cinerea of the spinal cord, the axons of which pass through one of the commissures and enter the white matter of the other side of the cord. Syn., Commissural cell. C, Histogenetic Wandering, a migratory con- nective-tissue cell or glandular cell; a wan- dering cell that is not a leukocyte. C.s, Horn-, C.s, Horny, those comprising the stratum corneum of the epidermis; they are homogeneous cells containing keratin, and are modified to form nails, hoofs, hair, etc. C.s, Imbricated, those overlapping like roof- tiles. C. -islets, the centers of most active growth in young cellular tissues. They contain the stores of nutriment that are gradually dissolved and digested. C.s, v. Kolliker's. 1. Little cells of the seminiferous tubules which are transformed into spermato- zoa. 2. See Myeloplax. C.s, v. Kolliker's Tract-, ganglion-cells the axons of which pass as longitudinal fibers into the white columns of the spinal cord. C.s, Liver-, nucleated polyhedral or spheroid cells con- taining granules of glycogen and pigment and more or less fat, forming the glandular substance of the liver. C, Locomotive, one endowed with power of movement, especially a ciliated cell. C, Lymphoid, a small, round, connective-tissue cell containing a relatively large nucleus. C.s, Mast-, leukocytes containing coarse basophile gran- ules. They are occasionally present in the peripheral circulation as the result of certain pathologic influences, but are totally foreign to the normal blood of man. They are commonly found in the splenomedullary type of leukemia. The granules of the mast-cell show an intense affinity for basic anilin dyes, toward which they react metachro- matically. In view of their distinctive behavior toward selective stains for mucin, Harris suggests for the mast-cell the term mucinoblast. C.s, Medullary. 1. Marrow-cells. 2. The' ameboid cells of cartilage-bone. C, Mother-, a cell that divides its protoplasm and gives each part a new cell-wall. C, Motor, a nerve-cell generating impulses. C, Mucin-, C, Mucous, C, Mucus-, a cell which secretes mucus, particularly a kind of salivary cell secreting mucus, but no albumin. C- multiplication, cytogenesis, a name given to the process of reproduction of cells. It may be direct, as when a cell constricts and cuts off a part of itself, or indirect, when the division is preceded by the cycle of nuclear changes known as karyokinesis. C.s, Muscle-, a general term for cells the CELL 257 CELL substance of which is contractile. C, Myeloid, i. See Myeloplax. 2. Applied, from its resemblance to a cell of the red marrow of bone, to one of the oval multi- nuclear cells of myeloid tumors. C, Naked, one unprovided with a cell-wall. C. -nests, a collection of epithelial cells closely packed together and surrounded by a connective- tissue stroma. Cell-nests are found in car- cinomas. C, Neuroglia, one of the cells of the neuroglia; flat, round cells, especially numerous about blood-vessels and the pia mater. C, Neutrophil. See C, Acidophil. C, Nuclear, a nucleated dendritic nerve- cell. C, Nucleated, a cell containing one or more nuclei. Syn., Karyota. C.s, Oxyntic. See C.s, Delomorphous. C, Oxyphil. See C. , A cidophil. C.s, Palatine , the cells formed by the junction of the palatine and ethmoid bones. C.s, Plasma-. 1. (Of Unna.) Cubic or rhombic cells, the protoplasm of which stains deeply with methylene-blue, while the nucleus, which has usually an eccentric situation, is readily decolorized (by creasote or styrone). They are probably derived from lymphocytes, and play an important part in inflammatory reactions, especially in granulomatous processes. 2. (Of Waldeyer.) Nucleated cells of varying size and shape, with voluminous, coarsely granular protoplasm, found in connective tissue, especially about the blood-vessels. C. -plate. 1. The equatorial plate in which division of the nucleus occurs during karyo- kinesis. 2. (Of Strasburger.) The equato- rial thickening of the spindle -fibers from which the septum arises during the mitosis of plant-cells. C. -plate, Subendothelial, a small granular cell of unknown function occurring in the intima of blood-vessels. C, Porous. 1. One containing an opening in the side. 2. A porous jar containing one of the liquids of a galvanic battery. C, Prickle-. See Prickle-cell. C, Primary.

1. An embryonic cell. 2. Any undifferen- tiated cell. C, Protective. See C, Teg- mental. C.s, Pseudoplasma, cells found in normal human spleen and differing from plasma-cells in that they are larger, and possess twisted nuclei which do not present the characteristic chromatin arrange- ment. They appear to be a variety of large mononuclear leukocyte, the protoplasm of which has become basophilic. C.s, Ran- vier's, connective -tissue corpuscles occurring in tendon. C, Roof. 1. See C, Tegmental.

2. One found on the convexity formed by the junction of the two rows of arches in the organ of Corti. C, Salivary, one of those forming the lining of the alveoli of the salivary glands. C.,' Sarcogenic, an embryonic cell which develops into a mus- cular fiber. C, Segmentation. See Blaslo- mere. C.s, Sense-, C.s, Sensory, those adapted for the reception and transmission of sensory impressions. C.s, Sensory Epi- thelial, modified epithelial cells in an organ of sense connected with the fibrils of the nerves of that organ. C, Sensory Nerve-, a nerve-cell the axis-cylinder process of which is supposed to be continued as a sensory nerve. C, Septate, one with a septum across its lumen. C, Serous Fat-, a fat- cell occurring in emaciated individuals, in which the fat is reduced to a few small globules and in its place there is a pale protoplasm mixed with a mucoid fluid; the cell is no longer spheric. C, Simple, one which has not undergone differentiation. C, Sister-, one formed simultaneously with another in the division of a mother-cell. C, Sorby Tubercular, for spectroscopic examination of blood. It is a narrow-lumen glass receptacle made of barometer tubing, both ends of which are accurately ground to parallel surfaces, one end being cemented to a small polished glass plate. C- spaces. See Canals of Recklinghausen. C, Spider-. See C. of De iters. C, Spindle-, a cell having a fusiform shape. C, Spiral Fiber-, a motor cell of the heart, having a spiral fiber coiled around a larger straight one. These separate, after a short distance, proceeding in different directions. The cell constantly disengages the excitation which the spiral fiber transmits to the heart-muscle. Syn., Beale's cell; Spiral fiber ganglion-cell. C.s, Splanchnic, those of the splanchnic layer of the mesoderm. C.s, Squamous, a variety of epithelial cells found on the surface of the skin and certain mucous membranes and. characterized by their scale-like flatness. C. -stations, cells in the sympathetic gan- glion around which the nerve -fibers arborize. C., Sterile, one occurring in a reproductive organ, but not participating in reproductive processes. C.s, Stilling's, groups of multi- polar cells near the gray commissure in the posterior cornua of the cervical and lumbar spinal cord. They correspond to Clarke's vesicular column. C.s, Stroma, those form- ing the mass of an organ. C, Swarm, a naked ciliated cell. C., Sympathetic, a nerve-cell of the sympathetic nervous system as distinguished from one of the cerebrospinal system. C, Tapetal, C, Tapetum, one which forms or aids others in forming an investment over an organ. C, Tegmental, one covering and protecting another cell of special function, as, e. g., those forming the outer layer of the taste-buds. Syn., Cover-cell. C, Twin, a single cell resulting from the fusion of two cells. C, Two- fluid, a galvanic element in which two fluids are used. C, Vasofactive, C, Vasoforma- tive, a cell that anastomoses with other similar cells so as to form blood-vessels. C.s, Vortex, Meyer's term for cortex cells which show a peculiar whorl-like and very regular arrangement of the chromophilic material. C.-wall, the membrane surround- ing a cell. C, Wandering, a leukocyte. C, Whip-, a cell furnished with flagella. C, Zinc-carbon, a galvanic cell in which zinc CELLOIDIN 258 CENTER and carbon are the two elements employed. C, Zinc-copper, a galvanic cell in which zinc and copper are the elements employed.

  • Celloidin (sel-oid' -in) [cell; eldoc, form]. A concentrated form of collodion for use in embedding objects for histologic purposes.
  • Cellular (sel'-u-lar) [cell]. Relating to or com- posed of cells. C. Pathology. See Pathol- ogy, Cellular.
  • Cellule (sel'-ul) [cellula, a small cell]. A small cell.
  • Cellulic (sel'-u-lik). Relating to cells; derived from cell-walls by action of acids or alkalis.
  • Cellulicidal (sel-u-lis' -id-al) [cellule; ccedere, to kill]. Destructive to cells.
  • Cellulifugal (sel-u-li}' -u-gal) [cellule; fugere,^ to flee]. Pertaining to the transmission of im- pulses from a nerve-cell.
  • Cellulipetal (sel-u-lip f -e-tal) [cellule; petere, to seek]. Relating to the transmission of im- pulses toward a nerve -cell.
  • Cellulitis (sel-u-li' -tis) [cellule; exec, inflam- mation]. A diffuse inflammation of cellular tissue. Syn., Ethmyphytis. C, Ischiorec- tal, inflammation of the cellular tissue lying below the anal levator muscle or anal fascia. C, Pelvic. See Parametritis. C, Pneu- mococcous, that due to the invasion of pneu- mococci.
  • Celluloadipose (sel-u-lo-ad'-ip-oz). Relating to loose connective tissue containing fat-cells.
  • Cellulocutaneous (sel-u-lo-ku-ta' -ne-us) [cel- lule; cutis, skin]. Relating to cellular tissue and the skin.
  • Cellulosa (sel-u-lo'-sah) [L.]. A cellular coat. C. chorioideae, the external layer of the choroid coat of the eye.
  • Cellulose (sel'-u-los) [cellule], C^H^Ok,. Wood- fiber; lignose, the principal ingredient of the cell-membranes of all plants. It is a white, amorphous mass, insoluble in most of the usual solvents. C, Reagent for. See Schultze, Schweitzer.
  • Cellulosity (sel-u-los'-e-te). The condition of being cellular.
  • Celom, Celoma (se'-lom, se-lo'-maK) [KoiAcofia, a cavity]. The embryonic body -cavity.
  • Celosis (se-lo'-sis) [ko'cXoc, hollow]. The formation of any cavity. C, Endocytic, the formation of a cavity within a cell. C, Paracytic, the formation of a cavity between cells.
  • Celosoma (se-lo-so'-mah) [ko'cXoc, hollow: oajfia, the body]. A species of single autositic mon- sters characterized by more or less extensive body-cleft, with eventration, associated with various anomalies of the extremities, of the genitourinary apparatus, of the intestinal tract, and even of the whole trunk.
  • Celotomy (se-lot'-o-me) [ktjXtj, hernia; revive cv, to cut]. The operation for strangulated hernia by incision of the stricture.
  • Cement (sem'-ent) [ccementum, a rough stone]. i. Any plastic material capable of becoming hard and of binding together the objects that are contiguous to it. 2. Filling-material for the teeth; the crusta petrosa of the teeth. C.-substance, the substance holding together the endothelial cells of the intima of blood- vessels.
  • Cementation (sem-en-ta' -shun) [cement]. 1. A process of causing a chemic change in a substance by surrounding it with the powder of other substances and exposing the whole to red heat in a closed vessel for a length of time. 2. In biology, the con- crescence of hyphae.
  • Cementum (se-ment'-um). A layer of bone developed by ossification of the dental fol- licle over the root of the tooth. It differs from ordinary bone by the greater number of Sharpey's fibers in it. Its development begins on the milk-teeth during the fifth month.
  • Cenadelphus, Ccenadelphus (sen-a-del' -}us) [kocvoc, common; ddeX^oc, a brother]. A double monster with the halves equally de- veloped or having one or more vital organs in common.
  • Centaurea (sen-taw' -re-ah) [nhzaupoc, centaur]. A genus of composite-flowered herbs. See Carduus.
  • Centaury (sen' -taw-re) [centaurea]. A popular name for various plants of the genera Cen- taurea, Erythrcea, Sabbatia, Chlora, etc., especially Erythrcea centaurium, which is used as a simple, bitter tonic. Dose ^-1 dr. (2-4 Cc.) in decoction several times a day. Unof.
  • Center (sen'-ter) [centrum, the center]. 1. The middle point of any surface or of a body. 2. The ganglion or plexus whence issue the nerves controlling a function. C, Accel- erating, a center in the medulla sending accelerating fibers to the heart. These leave the cord through the branches of communica- tion of the lower cervical and upper six dorsal nerves, passing thence into the sympathetic. C, Anovesical, one in the spinal cord near the point of origin of the third and fourth sacral nerves. Incontinence of urine and feces is due to paralysis of this center. C, Arm, the cortical center controlling the movement of the arm, supposed to be in the cortex occupying the middle third of the anterior and posterior central gyri as well as the base of the superior and middle frontal gyri. C, Articulate Language, the speech- coordinating center, which is supposed to CENTER 259 CENTER include Broca's gyrus, the anterior gyri of the insula, the intervening cortical area, the supramarginal gyrus, the first temporal gyrus, and the angular gyrus. C, Auditory, a center in the first temporosphenoid con- volution upon each side. C, Broca's. See C, Speech. C, Cardiac, i. One in the lower cervical and upper dorsal portions of the spinal cord which controls the move- ments of the heart. 2. That portion of the oblongata embracing" the cardioaccelerator and cardioinhibitory centers. C, Cardio- accelerator, that of the spinal cord which through the cardiac nerves and plexus sends impulses to the heart, causing it to beat more rapidly. These impulses are not con- stantly emitted, as are the inhibitory im- pulses which travel by the pneumogastric. C, Cardioinhibitory, in the medulla, efferent impulses being carried by the vagus. C, Cerebral Inspiratory, one said to exist in the thalamus, which by direct stimulation causes deeper and more rapid inspirations. C, Cerebrospinal, the cere- brospinal axis. C, Ciliospinal, connected with the dilation of the pupil; it is in the lower cervical part of the cord, and extends downward from the first to the third dorsal. C, Color, a center for perception of colors, said to be situated in the occipital cortex anterior to the apical region. C, Convulsional, a hypothetic center said to lie in the floor of the fourth ventricle. C, Coordinating, the cerebellum, the ganglions at the base of the brain, and in some degree the cinerea of the spinal cord, are regarded as controlling coordination. C, Cortical, the parts of the cerebral cortex concerned in motor, sensory, and psychic functions. C, Coughing, in the medulla, above the inspi- ratory center. C, Deglutition. See C., Swallowing. C, Deputy, a secondary gan- glion-cell in the spinal cord; also a nucleus of one of the cranial nerves. C, Diabetic, in the posterior part of the anterior half of the floor of the fourth ventricle, in the median line. C, Erection. See C, Genitourinary. C, Excitomotor, the sensitive centers of the brain considered as one; these are the crura, the pons, the oblongata, the deeper parts of the cerebellum, and the corpora quadrigemina. C.s, Facial Movement, one in the ascending frontal gyrus and one in the angular gyrus. C, Genitourinary, one in the lumbar portion of the spinal cord, but controlled from the medulla, controlling erection of the penis and emis- sion of semen. C, Glycogenic, the diabetic center. C, Half -vision, one in the apex of the occipital lobe, receiving im- pressions from corresponding halves of the two retinas. C, Head and Neck Move- ment, one in the posterior end of the second frontal gyrus and in the corresponding part of the first frontal gyrus. C, Heat-regu- lating, C, Temperature, the center for the control of body-temperature. See C, Ther- motaxic. C, Higher Visual, one regarded as lying in the angular gyrus, in which there is effected a combination of the impressions received from the half-vision centers, making a complete image. C, Hitzig's, a center in the supramarginal gyrus which is supposed to govern the voluntary movements of the eyeballs. C.s of Inhibition, C.s, Inhibitory. See C.s 0} Moderation. C., Inspiratory. 1. A reflex center in the oblongata forming part of the respiratory center. 2. See C, Cerebral Inspiratory. 3. A reflex center in the postgeminum. C, Intracardiac, three small nerve-ganglions connected with the cardiac plexus, to which is due the automatic beating of the heart after separation from the body. C, Kinesthetic, one in the third left frontal convolution presiding over the motor element in speech. C, Laryngeal Cortical, one in the posterior end of the inferior frontal gyrus. C, Leg, one in the upper portion of the ascending frontal con- volution. C. for Mastication and Suck- ing, one in the medulla. C, Median (of Luys) . See Nucleus of Luys. C . , Medullary. 1. The interior white matter of the cerebral hemispheres. 2. See C, Neural. C.s of Moderation, C.s, Moderator, nervous cen- ters in the spinal cord and the cerebral peduncle which restrain, generally by reflex action, various functions of the body. C, Motor, a nervous center controlling motion. C, Musculotonic, that which is continually discharging impulses which keep the muscular system in a condition of slight contraction. It is regarded by some as a special center of the cord, but it is questionable whether this condition is attributable to any special center rather than to the action of all those cells whose function it is to send out motor impulses. C, Nerve-, C, Ner- vous, any group of nerve -cells acting in unison for the performance of some func- tion. C, Neural, in the embryo, that part of the epiblast ultimately developing into the brain and spinal cord. C, Nutrition. See C, Trophic. C, Olfactory, probably in the hippocampal region of the temporal lobe. C, Opisthotic, the center of ossifica- tion of petrous bone. Huxley's name for the part of the periotic cartilage surrounding the fenestra rotunda and the cochlea. C. of Ossification, the place in bones at which ossification begins. C, Parenchymatous Nerve-, Korner's name for a nerve-cell existing in the substance of an organ and controlling its action. C, Parturition, in the spinal cord, at the level of the first and second lumbar vertebras. C, Peristaltic, one in the oblongata controlling peristalsis. C, Phonation. See C, Laryngeal Cortical. C, Psychomotor, that portion of the cortex from which motor impulses originate. C, Psychosmic, the olfactory center. C, Reflex, any nerve-cell or group of cells in the brain, cord, or ganglionic system which receives an impression through centripetal CENTERING 260 CENTRODORSAL nerve-fibers and transforms it into an impulse which is transmitted through centrifugal nerve-fibers. C, Respiratory, in the me- dulla, between the nuclei of the vagus and accessorius. C. for Secretion of Saliva, on the floor of the fourth ventricle. C, Setschenow's, a hypothetic reflex-inhibitory center in the brain; in the frog it is located in the optic lobes. C, Sneezing, in the medulla. C, Spasm, in the medulla, at its junction with the pons. C, Speech, in the third left frontal convolution in right-handed people; probably the island of Reil has some influence also. C, Sudoral. See C, Sweat. C, Supreme, Spitzka's name for the cortical centers of the brain as a whole. C, Swal- lowing, on the floor of the fourth ventricle. C, Sweat, the dominating center is in the medulla, with subordinate centers in the spinal cord. C, Tactile, one for the sense of touch, located by Ferrier in the hippo- campus and the gyrus hippocampus. C, Thermal Cortical, one discovered in the cerebral cortex of the dog, stimulation of which caused a change in the temperature of the opposite limbs. C, Thermoexcito-, C, Thermogenic, i. A hypothetic center of the cord concerned in the changes in body -temperature. 2. The mesial portion of the striatum and the parts directly beneath it. C, Thermotaxic, six heat-regulating cerebral centers; of the four principal centers, one is located in the caudatum, one in the subjacent cinerea, one in the cinerea surround- ing the most anterior portion of the third ventricle, and one at the anterior inner extremity of the thalamus. C, Trophic, a nerve-center regulating nutrition. C, Upper, for Dilator pupillae, in the medulla. C.s, Vascular, C.s, Vasoconstrictor, centers in the cord controlling the contractility of the smaller blood-vessels. C, Vasodilator, in the medulla. C, Vasomotor, in the me- dulla. C, Visual, in the occipital lobe, especially in the cuneus. C, Vomiting, an area in the oblongata concerned in the reflex act of vomiting; stimulation of the terminal filaments of the vagi excites its action. C, Winking, the reflex center con- cerned in winking, situated in the oblongata. C.s, Word-. 1. One in the left superior temporosphenoid gyrus controlling the per- ception of words heard. 2. A center in the posterior part of the left parietal lobe and one in the second left frontal gyrus gov- erning the perception of printed or written words.
  • Centering (sen'-ter-ing) [center]. In micro- scopy, the arrangement of an object or an accessory so that its center coincides with the optic axis of the microscope. In optics, having the pupil and the optic center of the refracting lens in the same axis.
  • Centesimal (sen-tes' -im-al) [centum, a hundred]. In the proportion of 1 to 100.
  • Centesis (sen-te' -sis) [nevT-qocc, a pricking]. Puncture; perforation. Centi- (sen-ti-) [centum]. A prefix meaning one hundred.
  • Centifidous (sen-tif -id-us) [centi-; findere, to split]. Cleft into many or 100 parts.
  • Centigrade (sen'-te-grdd) [centi-; gradus, sl step]. Having 100 divisions or degrees. Abbreviation, C. C. Thermometer, a ther- mometer with zero as the freezing-point and ioo° as the boiling-point of water. See under Thermometer.
  • Centigram (sen' -te -gram) [centi-; ypdufxa, a small weight]. The hundredth part of a gram, equal to 0.154328 grain troy.
  • Centiliter (sen' -til-e-ter) [centi-; X'apa, a pound]. The hundredth part of a liter, equal to 0.6102 of a cubic inch.
  • Centimeter (sen' -tim-e-ter) [centi-; fxkxpov, a measure]. The hundredth part of a meter, equal to 0.3937 ( or about -f) of an inch.
  • Centinormal (sen-te-nor'-mal) [centi-; norma, normal]. The t ^q °f the normal; applied to a solution the t ^q of the strength of a normal solution.
  • Centrad (sen' -trad) [centrum; ad, to]. Toward the center, or toward the median line.
  • Central (sen'-tral) [centrum]. Relating to the center; passing through the center. C. Artery, an artery in the optic nerve and retina; it passes to the optic papilla and then divides. See under Artery. C. Ganglions, the corpora striata and optic thalami. C. Liga- ment, the terminal filum of the spinal cord. C. Lobe, the island of Reil.
  • Centrality (sen-tral'-it-e). Applied to the con- dition of nervous phenomena originating in the central nervous system and not in the peripheral nerves.
  • Centric (sen'-trik) [centrum]. Relating to a center, especially to a nerve-center.
  • Centrifugal (sen-lrif -u-gal) [centrum; fugere, to flee]. Receding from the center to the periphery. C. Machine, one by which tubes of liquid are rapidly revolved for the pur- pose of driving particles floating in the liquid to the distal ends of the tubes.
  • Centrifugalization (sen-trif-u-gal-iz-a' -shun) [see Centrifugal]. The use of a centrifuge.
  • Centrifuge (sen' -trif-uf) [see Centrifugal]. A centrifugal machine; an apparatus for separ- ating substances by centrifugal force.
  • Centriole (sen' -tre-ol) [centrum]. Boveri's term for a minute body, central horn, contained within the centrosome; in some cases it is not distinguishable from the latter.
  • Centripetal (sen-trip' -et-al) [centrum; petere, to seek]. Traveling toward the center from - the periphery.
  • Centro- (sen-tro-) [centrum]. A prefix meaning central.
  • Centrodesmus (sen-tro-des'-mus) [centro-; deofioc, a band]. Heidenhain's term for the band primarily connecting the centrosomes and giving rise to the central spindle.
  • Centrodorsal (sen-tro-dor' -sal) . Pertaining to the central dorsal region. CENTROLECITHAL 261 CEPHALOPAGUS Centrolecithal (sen-tro-les' -ith-al) [centro-; U/aOof, yolk]. In embryology, having the food-yolk located centrally.
  • Centrosome (scn'-tro-som) [centro-; aoj/xa, body]. i. A highly refractive body lying in the protoplasm of the ovum and other cells, and taking an active part in cell- division. Syn., Pole-capsule. 2. An or- gan of the cell, usually diminutive, lying within the nucleus or near by in the cytoreticulum. It is regarded as the espe- cial organ of cell-division, and in this sense as the dynamic center of the cell. Syn., Attraction-particle; Daughter -periplast; Polar corpuscle. C.s, Quadrille of, the conjuga- tion of paternal with maternal centrosomes, based upon the view that each germ -cell con- tributes a centrosome that divides into two daughter-centrosomes. Syn., Quadrille of centers.
  • Centrostaltic (sen-tro-stal f -tik) [centro-; oxalate, constriction]. Relating to the action of ner- vous force in a spinal center. C. Motion, the motion of nervous force in the spinal center.
  • Centrum (sen'-trum) [L.]. 1. The center or middle 'part; the body of a vertebra, exclu- sive of the bases of the neural arches. 2. A spine; a pointed projection. C. cinereum, the gray commissure of the spinal cord. C. commune, the solar plexus. C. geminum, the capsula. C. ovale majus, the large mass of white matter appearing when either of the cerebral hemispheres is cut down to the level of the corpus callosum. C. ovale minus, the white matter appearing when the upper part of a hemisphere of the brain is removed. C. ovale vieussenii, the cen- tral white matter seen on making a section of the brain at the level of the upper surface of the callosum. Syn., Centrum medullar e; Centrum ovale majus ct minus; Centrum semiovale vieussenii; Centrum ovale 0} Vicq d'Azyr; Medulla; Tegmentum ventriculorum. C. rubrum. See Nucleus tegmenta.
  • Cephalad (sef'-al-ad) [cephal-; ad, to]. Toward the head.
  • Cephalalgia (sef-al-aV-je-ah) [cephal-; aXyoc, pain]. Headache.
  • Cephalanthus (scf-al-an'-thus) [cephal-; avQog, a flower]. . A genus of rubiaceous plants. C. occidentalis is the button-bush or crane- willow of North America; its bitter bark is laxative and tonic and is used in periodic fevers and paralysis. The bark contains ccphalin, cephaletin, and a toxic principle cephalanthin, which, according to Mohrberg, causes destruction of the red blood-cor- puscles, vomiting, convulsions, and paralysis. Cephaledema, Cephalcedema (sef-al-e-de'- mah) [cephal-; oede'ev, to swell]. Edema of the head; cerebral edema.
  • Cephalhematocele (sef-al-hem-af -o-seT) [ceph- al-; hematocele]. A hematocele situated beneath the scalp, and communicating with a dural sinus. C., Stromeyer's, subperi- osteal cephalhematoma, communicating with veins and becoming tensely filled during strong expiratory efforts.
  • Cephalhematoma (sef - al - hem -at-o' - mah) [cephal-; hematoma]. 1. A collection of blood beneath the pericranium, forming a tumor-like swelling. 2. Caput succedaneum. C, External, an effusion between the pericranium and the skull. C, Internal, an effusion between the dura and the skull.
  • Cephalic (sef-aV-ik) [Kecfyali), head]. 1. Per- taining to the head. 2. Any remedy for headache. C. Index. See Index, Cephalic. C. Version. See Version, Cephalic.
  • Cephalitis (sef-al-i'-tis). See Encephalitis. C. aegyptiaca, an epidemic form of encephalitis occurring in Egypt during the hot winds of early summer. C. littriana, inflammation of the epiphyses. C. meningica, meningitis. C. nervosa, pertussis.
  • Cephalo- (sef-al-o-). A prefix denoting relating to the head.
  • Cephalodynia (sef-al-o-din'-e-ah) [cephalo-; douvrj, pain]. Rheumatism affecting the oc- cipitofrontalis muscle, the pain being chiefly experienced in the forehead or occiput, and at times involving the eyeballs.
  • Cephalogaster (sef-al-o-gas'-ter) [cephalo-; yaazrjp, stomach]. The anterior division of the enteric canal, as in certain parasitic worms, where it is continued into a second division, the typhlosole.
  • Cephalohemometer (sef-al-o-hcm-om' -et-er) [cephalo-; al/ia, blood; uirpov, a measure]. An instrument for noting changes in the intra- cranial blood-pressure.
  • Cephalology (sef-al-ol'-o-je) [cephalo-; Xbyog, science]. The science of cranial measure- ments and indications.
  • Cephalomelus (sef-al-om'-el-us) [cephalo-; fiiAoc, a part]. A form of double monster in which there is a supernumerary limb at- tached to the head.
  • Cephalomenia (sef-al-o-mc'-ne-ah) [cephalo-; firjv, a month]. Vicarious menstruation through the nose.
  • Cephalometer (sef-al-om' -et-er) [cephalo-; ptirpov, a measure]. An instrument for meas- uring the head.
  • Cephalomyitis (sef-al-o-mi-i f -tis) [cephalo-; fide, a muscle; tuc, inflammation]. Inflam- mation of the muscles of the head.
  • Cephalonia (sef-al-o' -ne-ah) [Ke(f>aXr), head]. Macrocephaly with hypertrophy of the brain.
  • Cephalopagus (sef-al-op'-ag-us) [cephalo-; Kayetc, joined]. A double monstrosity having the heads united at the top. CEPHALOPHARYNGEUS 262 CEREBRIN Cephalopharyngeus (sef-al-o-far-in'-je-us). i. Relating to the head and pharynx. 2. See under Muscle.
  • Cephaloplegia (sef-al-o-ple f -je-ah) [cephalo-; 7tXr)fT), a stroke]. Paralysis of the muscles about the head and face.
  • Cephaloscopy (sef-al-os' -ko-pe) [cephalo-; onoTielv, to examine]. 1. Auscultation of the head. 2. Examination of the head with a view to ascertaining the condition of the mental faculties.
  • Cephalothoracopagus (sef-al-o-tho-rak-op'-ag- us) [cephalo-; dd>pa£, thorax; nafecc, joined]. A double-headed monster with united thoraxes and necks. These monsters are divided by Veit into prosopothoracopagus and synce- phalus.
  • Cephalotomy (sef-al-ot'-o-me) [cephalo-; to/it), section]. The opening or division of the head of the fetus to facilitate labor.
  • Cephalotribe (se}' -al-o-trlb) [cephalo-; rpcfiscv, to crush]. An instrument for crushing the fetal head.
  • Cephalotridymus (sef-al-o-trid' -im-us) [ceph- alo-; rptdu/xoc, triple]. A three-headed mon- ster.
  • Cephalotripsy (sef ' -al-o-trip-se) [cephalo-; rp~c(!)cc, a crushing]. The operation of crush- ing the fetal head when delivery is other- wise impossible.
  • Cephalotrypesis (sef-al-o-tri-pe'-sis) [cephalo-; Tpun-qocc;, a boring]. A trephining of the skull.
  • Ceptor (sep'-tor) [capere, to take]. A term suggested by Ehrlich in place of intermediary body. According to the manner of action he distinguishes uniceptors and amboceptors.
  • Cera (se'-rah) [L.]. Wax. A mixture of cero- tic acid, cerolein, and myricin, gathered by the honey-bee from the pollen of flowers and the leaves of plants. C. alba (U. S. P.), white wax, prepared by bleaching yellow wax. It is valuable as an ingredient of cerates and ointments. C. flava (U. S. P.), yellow wax: it possesses an agreeable balsamic odor, and is soluble in ether, in hot alcohol, and in chloroform.
  • Cerasin (ser'-as-in) [cerasus, a cherry-tree]. 1. An ingredient of the gum of cherry-, peach-, and plum-trees, apparently identical with bassorin. 2. A crude precipitate from tinc- ture of choke-cherry.
  • Cerate (se'-rat) [cera]. In pharmacy, an unc- tuous preparation consisting of wax mixed with oils, fatty substances, or resins, and of such a consistence that at ordinary tempera- tures it can be readily spread upon linen or muslin, and yet is so firm that it will not melt or run when applied to the skin. C, Camphor. See Camphor Cerate. C, Cantharides. See Cantharides Cer- ate. C.,- Goulard's. See Goulard's Cerate. C. of Lead Subacetate. See Goulard's Cerate. C, Rosin. See Rosin Cerate. C, Rosin, Compound. See Rosin Cerate, Compound. C, Touch, a lubricant used in vaginal inspection, consisting of sper- maceti, white wax, and caustic soda, each, 1 part; olive-oil, 16 parts. Syn., Ceratum pro- tactu.

Cerated [se'-ra-ted) [cera]. Coated with wax.

  • Ceratonia (ser-at-o' -ne-ah) [Ksparcovm]. 1. A genus of leguminous trees. 2. The fruit of C. siliqua, the carob-tree, a native of the regions about the Mediterranean. The falcate, fleshy pods, called carob-pods, sugar- pods, and St. John's bread, are demul- cent and pectoral and contain carobin, caro- bone, and carobic acid. They are used as food and form the chief constituent of much of the patented food for cattle. The seeds are used as a substitute for coffee.
  • Cercomonad (ser-kom'-o-nad). A member of the genus Cercomonas.
  • Cercomonas (ser-kom'-o-nas) [nkpnoc;, tail; fiovac, monad]. A genus of flagellate infu- sorians. C. intestinalis, a protozoon, occa- sionally found in the fecal discharges of pa- tients suffering with typhoid fever, chronic diarrhea, or cholera. Its pathologic signifi- cance has not yet been ascertained.
  • Cerea flexibilitas (se'-re-ah fleks-ib-il'-il-as). That condition of muscular tension in the insane in which the limbs may be molded into any position.
  • Cereal (se'-re-al) [Ceres, the goddess of agri- culture]. 1. Relating to edible grains. 2. Any edible grain.

Cerealin [se-re'-al-in). An enzym converting starch into glucose, isolated from brain- extract.

  • Cerebellar (ser-e-bel'-ar) [cerebrum]. Relating to the cerebellum. C. Tonsil. See Amygdala (2).
  • Cerebellifugal (ser-e-bel-i]' -u-gal) [cerebrum; fugere, to flee]. Tending from the cerebrum.
  • Cerebellipetal (ser-e-bel-ip'-e-tal) [cerebrum; petere, to seek]. Tending toward the cere- brum.
  • Cerebellum (ser-e-bel f -um) [dim. of cerebrum]. The inferior part of the brain lying below the cerebrum and above the pons and me- dulla. It consists of two lateral lobes and a middle lobe.
  • Cerebral (ser'-e-bral) [cerebrum]. Relating to the cerebrum. C. Fornix. See Fornix, Cere- bral. C. Gyri, the convolutions of the brain. C. Index. See Index, Cerebral. C. Pneumo- nia. See Pneumonia, Cerebral. C. Ves- icles, the embryonic vesicles from which the brain is developed.
  • Cerebrasthenia (ser-e-bras-the' '-ne-ah) [cere- brum; asthenia]. Cerebral asthenia; cere- bral neurasthenia.
  • Cerebration (ser-e-bra'-shun) [cerebrum]. Men- tal activity. C, Unconscious, mental activ- ity of which the subject is not conscious.
  • Cerebrin (ser' -e-brin) [cerebrum]. 1. C^Hgg- N0 3 . A nitrogenous glucosid obtained from brain-tissue, nerves, and pus-corpuscles. CEREBRITIS 263 CERUSE It is a light, colorless, exceedingly hygro- scopic powder. 2. A preparation from the gray matter of the brain of sheep and calves, made with equal parts of glycerol and 0.5 % of phenol solution. It has been used in chorea. Dose 5-10 min. (0.3-0.6 Cc). Syn., Cerebrin-alpha; Cerebrinin. 3. A proprietary antineuralgic elixir, said to contain anal- gesin, ether, caffein, and cocain.
  • Cerebritis (ser-e-bri'-tis) [cerebrum; tree, in- flammation]. Inflammation of the proper substance of the cerebrum. C, Local, soft- ening of the brain.
  • Cerebro- (se-re-bro-) [cerebrum]. A prefix denot- ing relating to the cerebrum.
  • Cerebrocardiac (ser-e-bro-kar' '-de-ak) [cerebro-; napd'ca, the heart]. Applied to diseases charac- terized by both cerebral and cardiac symptoms.
  • Cerebroid (ser'-e-broid) [cerebro-; eWoc, like- ness]. Resembling brain-substance.
  • Cerebrology (ser-e-brol'-o-je) [cerebro-; Xoyoc, science]. The science of the brain; enceph- alology.
  • Cerebromalacia (ser-e-bro-mal-a'-se-ah) [cere- bro-; ualaKia, softness]. Softening of the brain tissue.
  • Cerebrometer (ser-e-brom' -et-er) [cerebro- ; jxkxpov, a measure]. An instrument for re- cording cerebral impulses.
  • Cerebroolein (ser-e-bro-o f -le-in). A compound of olein and lecithin forming a yellow oil; it is obtained from brain tissue.
  • Cerebropathy (ser-e-brop'-a-the) [cerebro-; nadoc-, illness]. 1. A train of symptoms following overwork, and approaching the character of insanity. 2. Cerebral disease in general. C, Psychic, mental disease resulting from primary lesion of the brain or spinal cord, but presenting distinct symp- toms of its own.
  • Cerebropontile (ser-e-bro-pon'-tiT). Relating to the cerebrum and pons.
  • Cerebroscopy (ser-e-bros'-ko-pe) [cerebro-; oKone'cv, to inspect]. 1. Bouchut's term for ophthalmoscopy employed by neurologists. 2. Encephaloscopy.
  • Cerebrose (ser'-e-bros) [cerebrum], C 6 H 12 2 . A crystallized sugar isomeric with glucose, oc- curring in brain tissue.
  • Cerebrosid (ser'-e-bro-sid) [cerebrum]. One of a class of substances occurring in brain tissue, containing cerebrose, just as glucosids contain glucose.
  • Cerebrospinal (ser-e-bro-spi'-nal) [cerebro- ; spina, the spine]. Pertaining to the brain and spinal cord. C. Axis. See Axis, Cerebrospinal. C. Fluid, the fluid between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater. C. Meningitis. See Fever, Cerebrospinal. C. System, the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
  • Cerebrosuria (ser-e-bro-su' -re-ah). The pres- ence of cerebrose in the urine ; cerebral diabetes.
  • Cerebrum (ser f -e-brum) [L.]. The chief portion of the brain, occupying the whole upper part of the cranium, and consisting of the right and left hemispheres. C. abdom- inale, the solar plexus. C. exsiccatum, the dried and powdered gray substance of the brain of calves; one part represents five parts of the fresh organ. Dose 30-60 gr. (2-4 Gm.) a day. C. posterius, the cere- bellum.
  • Cerecloth (ser'-Moth) [cera]. Cloth impreg- nated with wax and rendered antiseptic; used as a dressing for wounds.
  • Cereus (se'-re-us) [L., "a wax candle"]. A genus of cactaceous plants. C. grandi- florus. See Cactus grandiflorus.
  • Cerevisin (ser-e-vis'-in). Dried yeast used internally in furunculosis (dose 1 teaspoonful before each meal) and for application in leukorrhea and gonorrheal vaginitis (15-30 gr. (1-2 Gm.) in suppository of cacao-butter).
  • Ceric (se'-rili) [cera]. 1. Relating to wax. 2. Containing cerium as a quadrivalent radicle.
  • Cerin (se'-rin) [cera]. 1. An ether of cer- otic acid; one of the substances found in wax. 2. (Of Chevreul.) A crystalline pre- cipitate from an aqueous extract of cork by action of hot alcohol.
  • Cerite (se'-rit). A Swedish mineral formerly called the heavy stone of Bastnas, from which cerium is obtained.
  • Cerium (se'-re-um) [named from the planet Ceres]. Ce = 140; quantivalence 11, IV. One of the rarer metals. It forms two series of salts (cerous and ceric salts) corresponding to the two oxids. See Elements, Table of Chemic. C. Nitrate. 1. Ce 2 (N0 3 ) 6 . i 2 H 2 0, white crys- tals, soluble in water; an antiseptic used in solutions of 1 : 1000. Syn., Cerous nitrate. 2. Ce(NO s ) 4 , a reddish -yellow mass of crys- tals, soluble in water and alcohol. It is used as a nerve-tonic in irritable dyspepsia and chronic vomiting. Dose. 1-3 gr. (0.065-0.2 Gm.). Syn., Ceric nitrate. C. Oxalate (cerii oxalas, U. S. P.), Ce 2 (C 2 4 ) 3 . qH 2 0, a white, granular powder, insoluble in water or alcohol, but soluble in hydrochloric acid. It is useful in the vomiting of pregnancy. Dose 1-10 gr. (0.065-0.65 Gm.) in pill. C. Valer- ianate, has been used in the same class of cases as the oxalate. Dose igr. (0.1 Gm.).
  • Ceroceric (se-ro-se'-rik). Containing cerium both as a trivalent and as a quadrivalent radicle.
  • Ceroma (se-ro'-mali) [cera; ofia, a tumor]. A cystic tumor the tissue of which has under- gone fatty degeneration.
  • Cerotate (se'-ro-tdt). A salt of cerotic acid.
  • Cerotic (se-ro'-tik). Derived from wax. C. Acid. See Acid, Cerotic.
  • Cerous (se'-rus). Containing cerium as a trivalent radicle.
  • Cerumen (ser-u f -men) [cera]. The wax of the ear.
  • Ceruminosis (ser-u-min-o'-sis). An excessive secretion of cerumen.
  • Ceruminous (ser-u'-min-us) [cera]. Pertain- ing to cerumen.
  • Ceruse (se f -rus) [L., cerussa]. 1. White lead: CERUSSA 264 CHALCITIS basic carbonate and hydrate of lead. 2. A white face-powder. C., Antimony, white oxid of antimony; also antimonic acid.
  • Cervical (ser r -vik-al) [cervix, the neck]. * Pertaining to the neck or to the cervix uteri. C. Carcinoma, carcinoma of the neck of the uterus. C. Endometritis. See Endocervicitis . C. Pregnancy, a rare con- dition in which, from atrophy of the decidual membranes, the impregnated ovum is not properly held in place, and, dropping, lodges in the cervical canal, where it develops until the uterus expels it.
  • Cervicalis (ser-vik-a'-lis) [cervix]. 1. Cervical. 2. A cervical artery, muscle, nerve, or vein.
  • Cervicispinal (ser-vis-e-spi'-naT). Relating to the neck and spinal cord.
  • Cervicitis (ser-vis-i'-tis) [cervix ; cxcg, inflam- mation]. Inflammation of the cervix uteri.
  • Cervicoauricular (ser - vik -o -aw - rik'-u-lar). Relating to the back of the neck and the outer ear.
  • Cervicohumeral (ser-vik-o-hu'-mer-al). Re- lating to the neck and the upper arm.
  • Cervicomuscular (ser-vik-o-mus'-ku-lar). Re- lating to the muscles of the neck.
  • Cervicosca$u\ax (ser -vik-o-skap'-u-lar). 1. Re- lating to the back of the neck and the scapula. 2. The transverse artery or vein of the neck.
  • Cervi co vesical (ser-vik-o-ves'-ik-al). Pertain- ing to the bladder and the cervix uteri.
  • Cervimeter (ser-vim'-et-er) [cervix; fierpov, a measure]. An instrument for measuring the cervix uteri.
  • Cervisia (ser-vis'-e-ah) [L.]. Ale or beer. Cervisise fermentum, beer-yeast. The ferment obtained in brewing beer, and pro- duced by Saccharomyces cerevisim.
  • Cervix (ser'-viks) [L.]. A constricted portion or neck. C. obstipa, C. rigida, wry-neck. C. uteri, the neck of the uterus. C. vesicae, the neck of the bladder.

Cesarean Section [from Ccesar, the Roman consul, whose delivery is said to have been effected in this way]. Extraction of the fetus through an incision made in the abdomen. C. Section, Postmortem, extraction of the child after the mother's death.

  • Cesium (se'-ze-um) [L., "bluish-gray"], Cs = 132.6; quantivalence I. A rare alkaline metal resembling potassium in physical and chemic properties. C. and Ammonium Bromid, CsBr . 3NH 4 C1, a sedative used in epilepsy. Dose 15-45 gr. (1-3 Gm.); maxi- mum dose 90 gr. (6 Gm.). C. Bitartrate, Cs- HC 4 H 4 6 , used in nervous heart-palpitation. Dose 3-5 gr. (0.18-0.3 Gm.). C. Bromid, is a good sedative, but its cost is very great. C. Carbonate, Cs 2 C0 3 ; used in epilepsy. C. Chlorid, lowers the pulse-rate and raises arterial pressure. Dose 2-5 gr. (0.13-0.32 Gm.). C. Hydrate, C. Hydroxid, CsOH, is used in epilepsy. C. and Rubidium and Ammonium Bromid, CsBr . RbBr . 6(NH 4 Br), a nervine. Dose 15-45 gr. (1-3 Gm.) once or twice daily; maximum dose 90 gr. (6 Gm.). C. Sulfate, Cs 2 S0 4 , used as an antiepileptic.
  • Cestode, Cestoid (ses r -tdd, ses'-toid) [nearSc, a girdle; ecdof, likeness]. Shaped like a gir- dle or ribbon; applied to worms, of which Tcenia is a type.
  • Cetacea (se-ta'-se-ah) [ktjtoc', a whale]. An order of mammals living in the sea, as the whale, dolphin, etc.
  • Cetaceum (se-ta' '-se-um) [see Cetacea]. Sperm- aceti. A fatty substance somewhat resem- bling paraffin in its physical properties. It is obtained from the head of the sperm-whale, Physeter macrocephalus. It is soluble in ether, in chloroform, and in boiling alcohol, and is employed as an emollient. Cetacei, Ceratum, contains spermaceti, 10; white wax, 35; olive-oil, 55 parts. Unof. Cetacei, Unguentum (B. P.), contains spermaceti, white wax, almond-oil, and benzoin.
  • Cetin (se'-Hn) [see Cetacea], C 32 H 64 2 . The chief constituent of commercial purified sperma- ceti. It is a fatty, crystalline substance, soluble in alcohol and ether, insoluble in water, melting at 49 C, and volatilizing at 360 C. Syn., Cetinum.
  • Cetraria (se-tra' -re-ah) [ccetra, a short Spanish shield]. 1. A genus of lichens. 2. Iceland moss — a lichen, C. islandica, found in Iceland and other northern countries. It contains a form of starch, lichenin, that gelatinizes when boiled with water. It is a feebly tonic demulcent, sometimes used in pulmonary affections. Cetrariae, Decoctum (B. P.), contains 5 % of the lichen. Dose 2-4 oz. (60- 120 Cc).

Ceylon Sickness. Beriberi.

  • Ceyssatite (ses'-a-tlt) [Ceyssat, a village of Puy-de-D6me, France]. A fossil earth from the village of Ceyssat, France, composed almost entirely of pure silica. It is used as an absorbent dusting-powder.

Chabert's Disease. Sympathetic anthrax; black-leg.

Chagres Fever. See Fever, Chagres.

  • Chalaza (kal-a'-zah) [chalazion]. One of the twisted cords binding the yolk-bag of an egg to the lining membrane of the shell; or that part of a seed where its coats unite with each other and the nucleus.
  • Chalazia (kal-a'-ze-ah) [chalazion]. 1. The socalled hailstone sputa. 2. A chalazion.
  • Chalazion (kal-a'-ze-on) [xala^tov, a small hailstone]. A tumor of the eyelid from retained secretion of the meibomian glands; a mei- bomian cyst. • Syn., Porosis palpebrce. C. terreum, one in which there is degeneration of the contents and change to calcium car- bonate and cholesterin. Syn., Lithiasis pal- pebralis.
  • Chalcitis (kal-si f -tis) [xaXnoc, anything made of metal]. A severe inflammation of the eyes, marked at first by excessive lacrimation and sensitiveness to light, resulting in blurred vision and continued flow of mucus. It is due to rubbing the eyes after the hands CHALCOSIS 265 CHARCOT'S ARTERY have been used on brass, as is done by trolley-car conductors and workmen. Syn., Brassy eye; Chalkitis.
  • Chalcosis (kal-ko'-sis) [jod/cof, copper]. A de- posit of copper particles in the tissues.
  • Chalicosis (kal-ik-o' -sis) [x&Xitzi gravel]. A disease of the lungs caused by the inhalation of dust or sand.
  • Chalinoplasty (kal-in-o-plas' -te) [xahvbc, a bridle or rein; nAaooeiv, to form]. An opera- tion to form a new frenum of the tongue.
  • Chalk (chawk) [calx, limestone]. Carbonate of lime. See Calcium. C. -stone, gout-stone — a deposit beneath the skin in gouty patients.
  • Chalybeate (ka-lib' -e-at) [^aXu^, steel]. i. Containing iron. 2. Having the color or taste of iron. 3. A substance or medicine con- taining iron.
  • Chamaelirium (kam-e-lir' -e-um) [xafxa'c, on the earth; Xz'tptov, a lily]. A genus of plants of the order Liliacccc. The rhizome of C. luteum, devil' s-bit, of the United States and Canada, is a uterine tonic, anthelmintic, diu- retic, and febrifuge. Dose of aqueous infusion (1 oz. to 1 pint) a wineglassful.
  • Chamber (cham'-ber) [camera, a chamber]. A cavity or space. C., Anterior (of the eye), the space between the cornea and the iris. C, Aqueous (of the eye), the space between the cornea and lens. C, Posterior (of the eye), the space between the iris and the lens. The chambers of the eye contain the aqueous humor. C, Resonance, a resonant chamber attached to a tuning-fork for acoustic investi- gation.
  • Chameleon-phenomenon (kam-e'-le-on -fen - om'-e-non). A peculiar reaction shown by Bacillus pyocyaneus; when grown on agar, a light-green color is imparted to the medium, which after 48 hours turns very dark green. On potato a yellowish-brown growth is formed, which turns green when the super- ficial portion is removed by scraping, but it soon resumes its brown color.
  • Champacol (sham' -pa-kol) [champaka, Benga- lese name]. A camphor, C 17 H 30 O, from the wood of the champak-trce, Michelia champaca. Syn., Champaca camphor.
  • Champagne (sham-pan) [Fr.]. An efferves- cent wine useful as a remedy for nausea and vomiting.
  • Chancre (shang-ker) [Fr.]. A term formerly used indiscriminately for any primary vene- real ulcer, but now generally applied to the initial lesion of syphilis (q. v.). C, Arsenical, ulceration resembling a syphilitic chancre, but due to arsenic. C, Hard, C, Hunterian, C, Indurated, C, Infecting, C, Non- suppurating, C, True, the ulcer of venereal origin, which is followed by constitutional syphilis. C, Nonincubatory, C, Non- infecting, C, Simple, C, Soft, a conta- gious, suppurating, nonsyphilitic venereal ul- cer, properly called chancroid. C, Sahara, the Aleppo boil.
  • Chancroid (shang f -kroid) [chancre; eldoc, form]. A local, infective process, trans- mitted by sexual intercourse, and character- ized by ulceration, local glandular involve- ment, and often suppuration. It has been variously termed the soft, nonindurated, simple, or nonsyphilitic chancre. See Chan- cre. C, Phagedenic, chancroid with a tendency to slough. C, Serpiginous, phagedenic chancroid that spreads superfi- cially in curved lines.
  • Chancrous (shang'-krus). Of the nature of a chancre.
  • Change (chdfij) [cambiare, to change]. The word is colloquially used for either the establishment or the cessation of the men- strual function. C. of Life, the menopause.
  • Channel (chan'-cl) [ME., chanel). See Canal. C.s, Intercellular. 1. Irregular canals of communication between the intercellular spaces interposed between pricklc-cells, and thought to be connected with the lymph - capillaries. 2. Tiny canals between gland- cells. C.s, Intracellular, the minute canals which connect vacuoles in the cell-body of liver-cells with the biliary canaliculi or inter- cellular channels. C, Lymphatic, C, Plas- matic. See Canal of Recklinghausen and Canal, Serous.
  • ChantreuiPs Method (shang-treeV). In pel- vimetry, a method of ascertaining the distance between the tuberosities of the ischiums (ir cm.) in estimating the size of the pelvic outlet. The two thumbs are placed upon the tuberosities, while an assistant measures the distance between them.

Chap [ME., chappen, to cleave]. A slight or superficial fissure of the skin, usually upon the lips, hands, or nipples.

  • Chappa (chap f -ah). The name among the Popo people in the colony of Lagos for a disease believed to be neither tuberculous nor syphilitic, marked by severe initial pains in muscles and joints, followed by swelling and the formation of round multiple nodules the size of a pigeon's egg; without forming abscesses these are exposed by ulceration of the skin. The disease finally attacks the bones.
  • Charbon (shar'-bon) [Fr., "charcoal"]. An- thrax (q. v.).
  • Charcoal (char f -kol) [ME., charren, to turn; col, coal]. Coal made by subjecting wood to a process of smothered combustion. See under Carbo.
  • Charcot's Artery (shar-ko'). The "artery of cerebral hemorrhage," one of the len- ticulostriate arteries that passes through the outer part of the putamen. C.'s Cirrhosis. See Hanot's Disease. C.'s Crystals. See Cry 'stals, Charcot' s. C.'s Disease. 1. Amyo- trophic lateral sclerosis. 2. Arthropathy of tabes dorsalis. 3. Multiple cerebrospinal sclerosis. C.'s Fever, a septic fever occur- ring in cases of jaundice due to impacted gall-stones. C.'s Gait, the gait of Friedreich's ataxia. C.'s Joint. See C.'s Disease (2). C.'s Method. See Hypnotism. C.'s Pain, hysteric pain in the ovarian region. C.'s CHARCOT-GUINON'S DISEASE 266 CHELIDONIN Posterior Root-zone. See Burdach's Column. C.'s Sensory Crossway, the pos- terior third of the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Syn., Carrejour sensiti}. C.'s Sign, in facial paralysis the eyebrow is raised; in facial contracture it is lowered. Syn., Signe du sourcil. C.'s Syndrome, intermittent claudication, an affection con- nected with arteriosclerosis of the lower ex- tremities. C.'s Zones, the hysterogenic zones.

Charcot-Marie's Symptom. See Marie's Symptom. C.-M.'s Type of Progressive Muscular Atrophy, the neurotic type of pro- gressive muscular atrophy ; progressive neural muscular atrophy, commencing in the muscles of the feet and the peroneal group. C- M.-Tooth's Type of Progressive Muscular Atrophy. See C.-M.'s Type of Progressive Muscular Atrophy.

Charcot-Neumann's Crystals. See Crystal, Charcot -Neumann's.

Charcot-Robin's Crystals. See Crystals, Char- cot-Robin's.

Charcot-Vigouroux's sign]]. See Vigouroux's Sign.

  • Chariot (char' -e-ot) . The movable coil of an induction apparatus.
  • Charlatan (shar' -lat-an) [Ital., ciarlatano, a quack]. A quack; a pretender to medical skill; an advertising doctor.

Charles' Law]]. See Law, Charles'.

  • Charleyhorse (char'-le-hors). Stiffness of the right arm and leg in baseball players.
  • Charpie (shar'-pe) [car per e, to pluck]. Picked or shredded lint; linen shreds for dressing wounds.
  • Charta (kar'-tah) [xaptyc, paper]. A paper. In pharmacy, a strip of paper the fibers of which are impregnated with a medicinal sub- stance. Also a wrapper for holding pow- ders. C. cantharidis, C. epispastica, blis- tering-paper. C. emporetica, porous or bib- ulous paper. C. exploratoria, test-paper. C. sinapis (U. S. P.), mustard-paper.
  • Chartula (kart'-u-lah) [dim. of charta]. A little paper, especially a paper containing a single dose of a medicinal powder.

Chassaignac's Axillary Muscle. A noncon- stant muscular bundle that extends across the axillary hollow from the lower border of the latissimus dorsi to the lower border of the pectoralis minor or to the brachial fascia. C.'s Tubercle, the carotid tubercle on the trans- verse process of the sixth cervical vertebra.

  • Chaulmugra Oil (chawl-moog' -rah) [E. Ind.]. A fixed oil expressed from the seeds of Gyno- cardia odorata, a tree native to the East In- dies. It is soluble in alcohol, and its proper- ties are due to gynocardic acid. It is used in leprosy, in scaly eczema, psoriasis, and syphilitic skin affections. For external use, i part of the acid to 24 of petroleum. In- ternally, 5-10 min. (0.32-0.65 Cc.) of the oil or §-3 gr. (0.032-0.2 Gm.) of the acid, in capsules.
  • Chaussier's Areola (sho-se-ar') . The areola of inflammatory induration of a malignant pustule. C.'s Line, the raphe of the corpus callosum.
  • Chautard's Test for Acetone (sho-tar'(r)). Allow sulfurous acid to pass through a solution of 0.25 Gm. of fuchsin in 500 Cc. of water until the solution becomes yellow. On the addition of a portion of this to the liquid to be tested for acetone it will assume a violet color if acetone is present.

Cheadle-Barlow's Disease. See Barlow's Dis- ease.

  • Check (chek) [OF., eschec, from Pers. shah, a king]. A sudden stop. C. -experiment. See Control Experiment. C. -ligament. See Ligament, Check-.
  • Checkerberry (chek'-er-ber-e) . A popular name for Gaultheria procumbens.
  • Cheek (chek) [AS., cedce]. The side of the face; it is composed of fat, areolar tissue, muscles, etc.
  • Cheese (chez) [AS., cese]. A food prepared from the casein of skimmed or unskimmed milk.
  • Cheesy (chcz'-e) [cheese]. Of the nature of cheese. C. Degeneration, C. Necrosis, caseous degeneration or caseation; the con- version of the tissues into a substance resembling cheese. C. Tubercle, a tubercle that has undergone cheesy necrosis.
  • Cheil-, Cheilo- (kil-, ki-lo-). For words thus beginning see Chil- or Chilo-.
  • Cheiranthin (ki-ran' -thin) . A glucosid from the leaves and seeds of Cheiranthus cheiri, with action similar to that of digitalis.
  • Cheiro- (ki-ro-). For words thus beginning see Chiro-.
  • Chekan, Cheken (chek' -en) [Chilian]. 1. The leaves of Eugenia cheken, a South American shrub. It is diuretic and expectorant and • similar in action to eucalyptus. It is used in chronic pharyngitis, laryngitis, etc. Dose of the fluidextract §-1 dr. (2-4 Cc). Unof. 2. The crude resin obtained from Cannabis indica.
  • Chelate (ke'-ldt) [xy^V, a claw]. 1. Claw- shaped. 2. Having claw-shaped appendages or processes.
  • Chelen (ke-len'). Ethyl chlorid.
  • Chelerythrin (kel-er'-ith-rin), C 19 H 17 N0 4 . A poisonous alkaloid obtained from Chelidon- ium.
  • Chelidonin (kel-id' -o-nin) [chelidonium], C 19 - H 17 N 3 3 + H 2 0, or C 10 H 17 NO 4 . A crystalline alkaloid of celandin (Chelidonium majus). C. Phosphate, a white, crystalline powder, CHELIDONISM 267 CHEYNE-STOKES' ASTHMA soluble in water; it is used as an analgesic. C. Sulfate, (C 20 H 19 NO 6 ) 2 H 2 SO 4 , a white, crystalline substance, soluble in water; it is a narcotic like morphin, but less toxic. Dose i§-3 gr. (0.1-0.2 Gm.) Chelidonism (kel-id 1 '-on-izm) . Poisoning by Chelidonium majus; it is marked by inflam- mation of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract and hematuria. It is due to the action of chelerythrin.
  • Chelidonium (kel-id-o' -ne-um) [^ekidoviov, cel- andin]. Celandin. The leaves and stems of C. majus, with properties due to a number of alkaloids and acids. It is a drastic cath- artic and externally an irritant, and has been used in jaundice, whooping-cough, and catar- rhal pneumonia. Dose of the plant 10-30 gr. (0.65-2.0 Gm.); of the juice 5-20 min. (0.32-1.3 Cc). Unof.
  • Chelidoxanthin (kel-id-o-zan'-tkin) [chelid- onium]. One of the bitter, crystalline con- stituents of celandin.
  • Chemic, Chemical (kem'-ik, kem'-ik-al) [chem- istry]. Of or pertaining to chemistry.
  • Chemicity (kem-is' -it-e) . The state of having chemic properties.
  • Chemicocautery (kem-ik-o-kaw'-ter-e). Cau- terization by means of chemic agents.
  • Chemistry (kern' -is-tre) [j-qpieca, chemistry]. The science of the molecular and atomic structure of bodies. C, Actinic, C, Ac- tino-, that treating of decomposition of light. C, Analytic, that concerned in the determi- nation of the constituents and decomposi- tion-products of substances; also in the esti- mation of the relative proportion of their ele- ' ments and the number and interrelation of the atoms contained in a molecule. C, Ani- mal, that dealing with animal substances. C, Atomic, that concerned in the structure of molecules, the relations of their contained atoms, and the laws governing their com- bination. C, Electro-. See Electrochemistry . C, Empiric, C, Experimental. 1. The sum of chemic knowledge established by experi- ments. 2. The carrying on of experiments for determining chemic laws and knowledge. C, Forensic, that concerned in legal investi- gations. C.,Galvano-. See Galvanochemis- try. C, Pneumatic, the chemistry of vapors and gases. C, Stcechiometric. See C, Atomic. C, Synthetic, that which deals with the building-up of compounds from their elements.
  • Chemosis (ke-mo r -sis) [xi)p.coocc, a gaping]. Swelling of the conjunctiva.
  • Chemosmosis (kem-os-mo' -sis) [chemistry; (baiiog, an impulse]. Chemic action resulting from osmosis.
  • Chemotactic (kem-o-tak'-tik) [chemotaxis]. Per- taining or relating to chemotaxis. Chemotaxis (kem-o-taks' -is) [chemistry; raa- gscv, to order, arrange]. The property of cellular attraction and repulsion. It is dis- played by the proteid constituents of the protoplasm of various species of bacteria, as well as by proteids from a great variety of sources. The qualifications positive and negative are added according as the phenom- enon is one of attraction or repulsion.
  • Chemotic (ke-mot'-ik) [chemosis]. Pertaining to or marked by chemosis.
  • Chemotropism (kem-ot'-ro-pizm) [chemistry; rponrj, a turning]. The destruction of bac- teria by phagocytes; the victory of the phagocytes over bacteria, or of bacteria over phagocytes. In biology, the attraction of leukocytes by certain chemic substances held in solution in the blood. Cf. Chemotaxis.
  • Chenopodium (ken-o-po' -de-um) [#r)v, a goose; Tzodcov, a little foot]. American wormseed; the fruit of C. ambrosioides, or anthelminticum, a plant native to the United States, with properties due to a volatile oil, which is the only preparation used. It is an efficient an- thelmintic against the roundworm. C, Oil of (oleum chenopodii, U. S. P.). Dose 5-15 min. (0.32-1.0 Cc).

Cherchewsky's Disease. Nervous ileus. An affection, closely simulating intestinal obstruc- tion, that has been observed in neurasthenia.

  • Cherry (cher'-e) [Kepaaoc, cherry-tree]. The bark of the common cherry, Prunus serotina, a mild bitter and tonic containing tannin. Dose of fluidextract §-1 dr. (2-4 Cc). Trunin, a concentrated extract; dose 1-3 gr. (0.065-0.2 Gm.). See also Choke-cherry and Prunus virginiana. C. -laurel, the European evergreen cherry, Prunus laurocerasus. Water distilled from its leaves is used in the same way as dilute hydrocyanic acid. Dose 30 min.-i dr. (2-4 Cc). C, Wild. See Prunus.

Chest. See Thorax. C, Alar, C, Paral- ytic, C, Phthisical, C, Pterygoid, a nar- row thorax having a winged appearance from abnormal projection of the wings of the scapula. C, Barrel-, a peculiar formation of the chest observed in cases of long-stand- ing emphysema of the lungs; it is round, like a barrel, and in respiration is lifted ver- tically instead of being expanded laterally. C, Emphysematous. See C, Barrel-.

Chestnut. See Castanea.

Cheyne's Nystagmus. See Cheyne-Stokes' Nystagmus. C.'s Symptom. See Cheyne- Stokes' Respiration.

Cheyne-Stokes' Asthma. Dyspnea due to pulmonary congestion in an advanced stage of chronic myocarditis. C.-S.'s Nystagmus, a variety of nystagmus in which the oscil- lations of the eyeball have a rhythmic varia- tion similar to the rhythm of Cheyne-Stokes' respiration. C.-S.'s Respiration, arhyth- mic breathing of a periodic type occurring in certain grave affections of the central ner- vous system, heart, and lungs, and in intoxi- cations. CHIASM 268 CHINOPYRIN Chiasm, Chiasma (ki'-azm, ki-az'-mah) [xc&- £ecv, to make a cross, as an X ]• i. The optic commissure. 2. A crossing. C, Camper's. See Camper's Chiasm.

  • Chiasmal (ki-'az-mal). Pertaining to the optic chiasm.
  • Chicken (chik'-en) [AS., cicen]. The domestic fowl. C. -breast, an abnormally prominent condition of the sternum and of the sternal region; pigeon-breast; it is seen in rachitic persons, etc. C. Cholera. See Cholera, Chicken. C.-fat Clot, a clot of blood, yellow- ish in color, consisting largely of fibrin, and containing but few red cells. C.-pox. See Varicella.

Chicle. See Balata.

  • Chicory (chik'-or-e) [ac^opa, chicory]. Cichor- ium intybus, a composite plant of Europe and Asia, naturalized and growing in the United States. Its ground root is used to adulterate coffee.
  • Chielin (ki'-el-in). A thick, nontoxic, brown, viscous substance isolated from the bulb of the tulip. It is recommended in eczema and in skin diseases in veterinary practice.

Chiene's Lines. Imaginary lines designed to aid in localizing the cerebral centers in ope- rations upon the brain.

  • Chilblain (chil'-blan) [AS., cele, cold; blegen, a boil]. A congestion and swelling of the skin, due to cold, and attended with severe itching or burning; vesicles and bullas may form, and these may lead to ulceration. Syn., Erythema pernio; Pernio.

Childbed. The popular term for the puer- peral state. C. Fever, puerperal fever.

Childbirth. Parturition.

Child-crowing. The crowing sound of the respiration that characterizes laryngismus stridulus.

Chili Saltpeter. Sodium nitrate.

  • Chill (chil) [AS., cele, chilliness]. A sensation of cold accompanied by shivering, usually appearing shortly after exposure to cold or wet. It is frequently the initial symptom of acute disorders, as pneumonia, etc. It is a prominent symptom of various forms of malarial fever.

Chills and Fever. A popular term for inter- mittent fever.

  • Chilo- (ki-lo-) [xslXof, lip]. A prefix meaning relating to the lips.
  • Chiloschisis (ki-lo s f -kis -is) [chilo-; o^'cotc, a splitting]. Harelip. C. complicata, harelip attended with fissure of the palate or of the alveolar arch. Chilostomatoplasty, Cheilostomatoplasty (ki-lo-stom' -at-o-plas-te) [chilo-; ordfia, mouth; TzXaooecv, to form], Chiloplasty including re- storation of the mouth.
  • Chimaphila (ki-maf -il-ah) [xe~c;ia, winter; !- Xoc, loving]. Pipsissewa; prince's-pine; the leaves of C. umbellata, an evergreen found in the United States, an astringent tonic and excellent diuretic. The bruised leaves are used as a rubefacient. It is valuable in dropsy, in renal disease, and in affections of the urinary passages. C, Decoction of (decoctum chimaphila, B. P.). Dose 1-3 oz. (30-00 Cc). C, Fluidextract of (fluid- extr actum chimaphilce, U. S. P.). Dose A-2 dr. (2-8 Cc).

Chimney-sweep's Cancer. See Carcinoma, Chimney-sweep' s.

  • Chimogene (ki'-mo-jen) "[%£c/4(bv, cold winter weather; yevvdv, to produce]. A highly volatile liquid proposed by Vanderweyde as a substitute for rhigolene, ether, etc., producing cold in local anesthesia.

Chin [AS.," cin\ The mentum; the lower part of the face, at or near the symphysis of the lower jaw. C.-jerk, C.-reflex. See Jaw-jerk and under Reflex.

  • China (kin' -ah or ke'-nah). Same as Cinchona.
  • Chinaphthol (kin-aj'-thol). A yellow, bitter, insoluble powder, used as an intestinal anti- septic. Dose 7I-75 gr. (0.5-5.0 Gm.) daily. Syn., Quinin betanaphthol-a-monosulfate.
  • Chinoform (kin' -o- form). A compound of for- maldehyd with cinchotannin. Syn., Quinoform.
  • Chinoidin, Chinoidinum (kin-oi'-din, kin-oi- di'-num) [Sp., china]. Quinoidin. A mix- ture of amorphous alkaloids obtained in the manufacture of quinin. It has the thera- peutic properties of quinin. Dose 1-20 gr. (0.065-1.3 Gm.). C, Animal, a substance giving, like quinin, a blue fluorescence in solutions of dilute acids, first obtained by Bence-Jones from the liver, but found in all the organs and tissues of the body,' espe- cially in the nerves. C. Borate, yellowish scales, soluble in water and alcohol, used as is chinoidin. Dose 8-15 gr. (0.5-1.0 Gm.). C. Citrate, reddish scales, soluble in water and alcohol. Dose 5—25 gr. (0.32-1.6 Gm.). C. Tannate, a yellow or brown powder, slightly soluble in alcohol; antipyretic, astringent, and tonic. Dose 2—12 gr. (0.13-0.8 Gm.). In veterinary practice it is given in hog-cholera in 24 gr. (1.5 Gm.) doses 3 times daily.
  • Chinol (kin'-ol). Quinolin monohypochlorite, C 9 H 6 N . CIO, a white, crystalline, odorless powder, with a pungent taste; soluble in alcohol, almost insoluble in cold or hot water. It is antipyretic and analgesic. Dose 3-5 gr. (0.19-0.32 Gm.).
  • Chinon (kin' -on). See Quinon.
  • Chinopyrin (kin-o-pi'-rin). See Quinopyrin. CHINORAL 269 CHLORALACETOPHENONOXIM Chinoral (kin'-or-al). An oily, bitter liquid containing quinin and chloral; antiseptic and hypnotic. Dose 1-15 gr. (0.06-1.0 Gm.). Syn., Quinochloral.
  • Chionablepsia (ki-on-ab-lep' -se-ah) [xctov, snow; d^ke^ca, without sight]. Loss of sensibility of the retina resulting from the exposure of the eyes to reflection of the sunlight upon snow; snow-blindness.
  • Chirata, Chiretta (ke-ra'-tah, ke-re'-tah) [Hind., chirdetd, a species of gentian]. The dried plant of Swertia chirayita. It resembles gentian in its therapeutic properties, and is an excellent tonic. It does not contain tannin. Dose of the powdered plant 15-30 gr. (1-2 Gm.) C, Fluidextract of (fluidexlr -actum chiratce, U.S. P.). Dose 15-30 min. (1-2 Cc). C, Infusion of (infusum chiratce, B. P.). Dose 2 oz. (64 Cc). C, Tincture of (tinc- tura chiratce, B. P.) (10% strength). Dose „ £-2 dr. (2-8 Cc).
  • Chirokinesthetic, Cheirokinesthetic (ki-ro- kin-es-thet' '-ik) [chiro-; kinesthetic]. Relating to the subjective perception of the motions of the hand, particularly in writing.
  • Chirol (ki'-rol). A solution of resins and fatty oils in a mixture of ethers and alcohols, used as a protective varnish for the hands in surgery.
  • Chiromegaly (ki-ro-meg'-al-e) [chiro-; iisyakr), large]. Enlargement of one, two, or three extremities, in whole or in part, but not of akromegalic nature. Syn., Pscudoakromegaly.
  • Chirometer,Cheirometer (ki-rom'-et-er) [chiro-; {xkxpov, a measure]. Osiander's instrument for measuring a distance on the finger or hand in manual pelvimetry.
  • Chiropodist (ki-ro p f -o-dist) [chiro-; nobg, foot]. A surgeon or person who professionally treats diseases of the hands and feet, especially corns, bunions, etc.
  • Chirotheca, Cheirotheca (ki-ro-the'-ka) [chiro-; drjKT), case]. A long, narrow roller bandage for wrapping the fingers. C. compieta, one for all the fingers of a hand. C. incompleta, one for a single finger only.
  • Chirurgeon (ki-rur'-jon) [xecpoupyoc, a sur- geon]. A surgeon.
  • Chirurgia (ki - rur' - je - ah) [see Chirurgeon]. Surgery.
  • Chitin (ki'-tin) [xcrcov, a tunic], C 15 H 26 N 2 O 10 . A colorless skeletin; the animal analog of the cellulose of plants.
  • Chitinous (ki'-tin-us). Resembling chitin. C. Degeneration, amyloid degeneration. Chitonitis (ki-ton-i'-tis) [%cTtuv, a tunic; exec, inflammation]. Inflammation of any invest- ing membrane.
  • Chloasma (klo-az'-mah) [ykoa^ztv, to be pale green]. A deposit of pigment in the skin, occurring in patches of various sizes and shapes, and of a yellow, brown, or black color. Syn., Discolor ations; Melanoderma; Melasma. C.hepaticum, liver-spots; a form following dyspepsia and popularly associated with hepatic disturbance. C. phthisicorum, the brown patches upon the skin of the fore- head or upper portions of the cheeks in tuberculous patients. C. uterinum, chiefly located on the forehead, temples, cheeks, nipples, and median line of abdomen. They are marked during pregnancy, and often during menstruation.
  • Chloracetization (klo-ras-et-iz-a'-shun). The production of local anesthesia by chloroform and glacial acetic acid.
  • Chloracetyl (klor-as'-et-il). 1. C 2 C1 2 . A radi- cle formed from acetyl by the replacement of hydrogen with chlorin. 2. Acetyl chlorid.
  • Chloral (klo'-ral) [chlorin; aldehyd], C 2 Cl 3 HO. A pungent, colorless, mobile liquid. The name is often misapplied to chloral hydrate. Syn., Acetochloral ; Trichlorated or Trichlor- acetic aldehyd. C, Anhydroglyco-, chloral- ose. C, Anhydrous, chloral as distinguished from chloral hydrate. C. Antipyrin. See Hypnal. C, Butyl- (butyl -chloral hydras, B. P.), croton-chloral, C 4 H 5 C1 3 +0H 2 0, a solid occurring in crystalline scales, resem- bling chloral hydrate, but made with butyl, C 4 H 9 , as a base, instead of ethyl, C 2 H-. Its properties are similar to those of chloral, but are much feebler. Dose 5-20 gr. (0.32-1.3 Gm.) in syrup. C. -caff ein, the residue upon evaporation of a concentrated aqueous or al- coholic solution of chloral hydrate 7.8 parts and caffein 10 parts; hypnotic, sedative, and analgesic. Injection, 3-6 gr. (0.2-0.4 Gm.) 2 or 3 times daily. C. Hydrate (chlor- alum hydratum, U.S. P.), a colorless, crystal- line solid having the composition C 2 HC1 3 - (HO) 2 ; the hydrate of chloral. It is a power- ful hypnotic, antispasmodic, and depressant to the cerebral, medullary, and spinal centers, and to a limited extent is an anesthetic. It is serviceable in fevers accompanied by cerebral excitement, in chorea, convulsions, and in delirium tremens, but should be used with great caution. Dose 5-20 gr. (0.32-1.3 Gm.). C, Syrup of (B. P.). Dose J-2 dr. (2-8 Cc). C. Ure thane. See Uralium.
  • Chloralacetaldoxim (klo-ral-as-et-al-doks'-im), C 4 H NO 2 Cl 3 . A white, crystalline powder, soluble in alcohol and ether, melting at 74 C. It is hypnotic.
  • Chloralacetophenonoxim (klo-ral-as-ef-o-fe- non-oks'-im), C 6 H 5 . CH 3 C. A substance forming colorless prisms, soluble in alcohol CHLORALACETOXIM 270 CHLORIN and ether, melting at 8i° C. It is used in tetanus and epilepsy.
  • Chloralacetoxim (klo-ral-as-et-oks'-im), C 4 H 8 - N0 2 C1 3 . A white, crystalline powder, soluble in alcohol and ether, and melting at 72 ° C. It is hypnotic.
  • Chloralbacid (klo-ral-bas'-id). A compound of chlorin and albumin. It is used as a tonic in gastric disorders. Dose 7J-15 gr. (0.5-1.0 Gm.). C. Sodium, a compound of chloralb- / acid and sodium; it is used in gastric and / intestinal affections. Dose 15-30 gr. (1-2 Gm.) before meals.
  • Chloralbenzaldoxim (klo-ral-ben-zal-doks'-im), C 9 H 8 N0 2 C1 3 . A white, crystalline powder, soluble in alcohol and ether, melting at 62 ° C. It is hypnotic and antiseptic.
  • Chloralcamphoroxim (klo - ral - kam - for - oks'-im), C 12 H 18 N0 2 C1 3 . A white, crystalline powder, soluble in alcohol and ether, melt- ing at 98 C. It is hypnotic, stimulant, and antiseptic.
  • Chloralformamid (klo-ral-form'-am-id). A crystalline solid (chloralformamidum, U. S. P.), C 3 H 4 C1 3 N0 2 . Used as a hypnotic. Dose 30-45 gr. (2-3 Gm.). • Chloralic (klo-ral'-ik). Relating to chloral.
  • Chloralimid (klo-ral' -im-id) [chloral; imid], CC1 3 . CH . NH. A hypnotic allied to chloral, soluble in alcohol. The dose is the same as that of chloral hydrate.
  • Chloralin (klo'-ral-in). An antiseptic fluid containing monochlorphenol and bichlor- phenol. It is used in 2 to 3 % solution; as a gargle, in 0.5 to 1 % solution.
  • Chloralism (klo'-ral-izm) [chloral]. 1. Chloral- poisoning, the morbid state caused by the injudicious use of chloral. 2. The habit of using chloral.
  • Chloralization (klo - ral -iz- a' -shun). 1. See Chloralism. 2. Anesthesia by means of hydra ted chloral.
  • Chloralose (klo' -ral-ds) [chloral; glucose], C 8 H n Cl 3 . O e . Anhydroglyco-chloral; a pro- duct of the action of anhydrous chloral upon glucose. It is used as a hypnotic. Dose 3-14 gr. (0.2-0.9 Gm.).
  • Chloraloxims (klo-ral-oks'-ims). A series of chemic compounds the physiologic activities of which are claimed to be due to their split- ting up in the system into chloral hydrate and their respective oxims. See Chloral- acetoxim, Chloralbenzaldoxim, etc.
  • Chloraloxylose (klo-ral-o-zi' '-loz) [chloral; xylose]. A combination of hydrated chloral and xylose. A convulsivant.
  • Chloralum (klo'-ral-um). Crude aluminium chlorid mixed with various sodium and calcium salts; a disinfectant.
  • Chloramid (klo' -ram-id) . Same as Chloralamid.
  • Chloranodyne (klor-an'-o-din) [chlorin; ano- dyne]. A proprietary remedy, introduced as an improvement on chlorodyne. It contains morphin hydrochlorid, tincture of cannabis indica, chloroform, dilute hydrocyanic acid, and aromatics. Dose for an adult 15 min. (1 Cc).
  • Chlorargentate (klor-ar'-j en-tat). A combina- tion of silver chlorid with the chlorid of some other radicle or element.
  • Chlorarsenous (klor-ar-se'-nus). Arsenous and also containing chlorin.
  • Chlorate (klo' -rat) [chlorin]. A salt of chloric acid.
  • Chlorated (klo'-ra-ted). Containing, combined with, or charged with chlorin.
  • Chlorazol (klo'-raz-ol). A highly toxic, oily liquid, obtained from albumin, glutin, or dried muscle by action of strong nitric and hydrochloric acids.
  • Chlorbromid (kldr-bro'-mid). A combination of a radicle with chlorin and bromin.
  • Chlorcamphor (klor -kam' -for). A name for several compounds of chlorin and camphor.
  • Chlorepatitis (klor-ep-at-i'-tis) [chlorin; hepa- titis]. Chronic hepatitis combined with chlo- rosis.
  • Chlorephidrosis (klor -ef -id-ro' -sis) \chlorin; i(f>cdpoocg, perspiration]. A condition charac- terized by greenish perspiration.
  • Chlorethylene (klor-eth'-il-en). A substance formed from ethylene by replacement of one or more atoms of hydrogen with chlorin. C. Chlorid, C. Dichlorid, C 2 H 3 C1 3 , an oil with odor like that of ethene chlorid, boiling at 115 C; employed as an anesthetic.
  • Chlorethylidene (klor-eth' -il-id-en). A chlorin substitution-compound of ethylidene. C. Chlorid, C. Dichlorid, C 2 H 4 C1 2 , a liquid used as an anesthetic. Syn., Chlorinated ethyl chlorid; Mono chlorethylidene dichlorid.
  • Chloretone (klor'-et-on). See Acetone Chloro- form.
  • Chlorhydria (klor-hi'-dre-ah). An excess of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
  • Chlorhydric (klor-hi'-drik). Composed of chlorin and hydrogen; hydrochloric.
  • Chloric (klo'-rik) [chlorin]. Pertaining to or containing chlorin. C. Acid. See Acid, Chloric. C. Ether. 1. See Ethyl Chlorid. 2. See Chloroform, Spirit of.
  • Chlorid (klo'-rid) [chlorin]. A binary com- pound, one of the elements of which is chlorin. C, Methyl-. See under Anesthetic, Local.
  • Chlorin (klo'-rin) [x^ojpog, green]. Chlorum. CI = 35.5; quantivalence I. A greenish- yellow gas, prepared by decomposing sodium chlorid, NaCl. It is highly irritative to the skin and mucous membranes, producing spas- modic closure of the glottis. It is a valuable disinfectant. The liquor calcis chloridi (B. P.) contains 1 pound of the salt to a gallon of water. Chlorid of lime (calx chlorinata, JJ '. S. P.), a hypochlorite of calcium, contains free chlorin and is a valuable disinfectant. Dose, internally, 3-6 gr. (0.2-0.4 Gm.). C.- hunger, the condition of the body when CHLORINATED 271 CHLOROPHYL chlorin (usually in the form of common salt) is lacking. Among the immediate results of this deficiency are indigestion and albuminuria. C. -vapor (B. P.), used for inhalation. C. -water (liquor chlori composi- tus, U. S. P.), contains 4% of the gas in solution. It is a good antiseptic wash. Dose internally 10-30 min. (0.65-2.0 Cc).
  • Chlorinated (klo' - rin - a - led). Containing chlorin or combined with it.
  • Chloriodoform (klo-ri-o' -do-form), CHC1 2 I. A yellow oil obtained from chloroform by replacement of one atom of chlorin by an atom of iodin; it boils at 131 C. and does not solidify.
  • Chloriodolipol (klo-ri-o-do-lip'-ol). A com- bination of creasote and chlorinated phenols, a disinfectant and antiseptic; in surgery, 2 to 3 % solution is employed; for inhalation in diseases of the air-passages, 5 % solution.
  • Chloroalbumin (klo-ro-al f -bu-min). A deriva- tive of peptone, protogen, or albumoses by action of chlorin.
  • Chlorobrom (klo'-ro-brom) [chlorin; bromin]. A solution each ounce of which contains 30 grains of chloralamid and of potassium bromid. It is hypnotic and useful in sea-sickness.
  • Chlorobromhydrin (klo-ro-brom-hi f -drin). A substance formed from glycerol by replace- ment of two molecules of hydroxy! with one atom of chlorin and one of bromin. Syn., Allyl chlorobromhydrin.
  • Chlorodyne (klo'-ro-din) [chlorin; dduvq, pain]. An English proprietary remedy sup- posed to contain chloroform, ether, morphin, cannabis indica, hydrocyanic acid, and cap- sicum. It is anodyne and narcotic. Dose 10-30 min. (0.65-2.0 Cc).
  • Chloroform (klo'-ro-form) [L., chloroformum]. Methyl trichlorid, CHC1 3 . A heavy, color- less liquid obtained by the action of chlorin- ated lime on methyl-alcohol. The commercial article, chloroformum vcnale, contains 2 % of impurities. Administered internally in large doses, chloroform produces narcosis and violent gastroenteritis. In small doses it is antispasmodic and carminative. Chloro- form has an agreeable odor and a sweetish taste. It sohdines in the cold, boils at 62 C, and has a specific gravity at 15 C. of 1.502. Externally it is much employed as an ingre- dient of rubefacient and anodyne hniments. Mixed with a large percentage of air and inhaled, it is one of the most valuable of gen- eral anesthetics, but occasionally (1 : 3000) causes death by cardiac paralysis. See under Anesthetic. Deep injections of chloroform in the vicinity of the sciatic nerve have been recommended in sciatica. Syn., Chloroform- ium; Chloroformyl. C, Alcoholized, a mix- ture of chloroform and alcohol. C, Am- moniated, equal parts of ammonia in alcohol and chloroform; antipyretic and anodyne. C.jAnschutz's, (C 6 H 4 < C o)4 . 2CHCI3, a crystalline substance which liberates pure chloroform on application of gentle heat. Syn., Salicylid chloroform. C, Emulsion of (emul- sum chloroformi, U. S. P.), chloroform, 4; ex- pressed oil of almond, 6; tragacanth, 1.5; water sufficient to make 100 parts. C, Gela- tinized, equal parts of chloroform and white of egg shaken together. C. Liniment (lini- mentum chloroformi, U. S. P.), chloroform, 300 Cc; soap liniment, 700 Cc. C. and Morphin, Tincture of (B. P.), a substitute for chlorodyne. Each dose of 10 min. (0.65 Cc.) contains chloroform, ij min.; ether, J min. alcohol, 1^ min.; morphin acid, I min.; oil of peppermint, ^V m in.; fluidextract of licorice, 1^ min.; treacle and syrup q. s. C, Pictet's, chloroform obtained in a pure state by crystallizing at a low temperature. C, Spirit of (spiritus chloroformi, U. S. P.), pure chloroform, 10; alcohol, 90 parts. Dose 10 min.-i dr. (0.65- 4.0 Cc). C, Tincture of, Compound {tinctura chloroformi composita, B. P.), chloro- form, 2; alcohol, 8; compound tincture of cardamom, 10. Dose 20 min.-i dr. (1.3- 4.0 Cc). C. -water (aqua chloroformi, U. S. P., B. P.). Dose 2 oz. (15-60 Cc).
  • Chloroformin (klo-ro-form'-in). A poison extracted by Auclair from tubercle bacilli. Syn., Chloroformobacillin.
  • Chloroformism (klo f -ro-form-izm) [chloroform], 1. The use of chloroform to excess for its narcotic effect. 2. The symptoms produced by this use of the drug.
  • Chloroformization (klo-ro-form-i-za'-shun). 1. The act of administering chloroform as an anesthetic. 2. The anesthetic results from the inhalation of chloroform.
  • Chlorol (klo r -roV). A solution of sodium chlorid, mercury bichlorid, and hydrochloric acid, each, 1 part, and 3^ of copper sulfate in 100 parts of water; it is disinfectant and antiseptic.
  • Chlorolin (klo'-ro-lin). A solution said to consist mainly of the chlorphenols; recom- mended as a disinfectant and as an antiseptic wash in 2 to 3 % solution.
  • Chloroma (klo-ro'-mali) [yXcupoc, green; o;xa, a tumor]. "Green cancer"; a rare va- riety of sarcoma, of a greenish tint, usually seated upon the periosteum of the bones of the head.
  • Chlorophan (klo r -ro-fan) [%Xcop6f, green; q^ahecv, show]. A yellowish-green chromophan. See Chromophan.
  • Chlorophthisis (klo-ro-ti f -sis). Pulmonary tu- berculosis associated with chlorosis.
  • Chlorophyl (klo'-ro-fil) [ylwpbc, green; uXXov leaf]. The green coloring-matter of plants. It decomposes carbon dioxid, setting free oxy- gen and forming new organic compounds. This decomposition takes place only or chiefly in the presence of sunlight. The chlorophyl is contained in certain parts of the protoplasm of the plant. It is the sub- stance by the agency of which carbohydrates are formed in green plants. CHLOROPIA 272 CHOLECYSTITIS Chloropia, Chloropsia (klo-ro'-pe-ah, klo-rop'- se-ah) [xAcopoc, green; orj, a seam]. Suture of the gall-blad- der, especially suture to the abdominal wall.
  • Cholecystectomy (kol-e-sist-os' -to-me) [chole- cyst; azo/ia, mouth]. The establishment of an opening into the gall-bladder.
  • Cholecystotomy (kol-e-sist-ot' -o-me) [cholecyst; TS}it>etv, to cut]. Incision of the gall-bladder to remove gall-stones, etc.
  • Choledocholithiasis (kol-e-dok-o-lith-i' -as-is) [choledochus; lithiasis]. The formation of a cal- culus in the common bile-duct.
  • Choledocholithotomy (kol-e-dok-o-lith-ot f -o- me) [choledochus; lithotomy]. The incision of the common bile-duct for the removal of gall-stones.
  • Choledochotomy (kol-ed-o- kot'- o - me) [chole- dochus; rofxrj, section]. An incision into the - common bile-duct.

Choledochus ikol-ed' -o-kus) [xoXrj, bile; de^eo- dac, to receive]. Receiving or holding bile. C, Ductus communis, the common excre- tory duct of the liver and gall-bladder.

  • Choleglobin (kol-e-glo' -bin) [x°^V, bile; globin]. Latschenberger's name for the antecedent of bile-pigment, resulting, in his estimation, from the decomposition of the coloring-mat- ter of blood.
  • Choleic (kol-e'-ik) [^oAtj, bile]. Pertaining to the bile.
  • Cholelithiasis (kol-e-lith-i' '-as-is) [xoXtj, bile; lithiasis]. The presence of, or a condition associated with, calculi in the gall-bladder or in a gall-duct.
  • Cholelithotomy (kol-e-lith-ot'-o-me) [chole- lithiasis; rifivecv, to cut]. An incision for the removal of gall-stones.
  • Cholelithotripsy (kol-e-lith-ot-rip' -se) [chole- lithiasis; xp"c bile]. 1. A name given to a number of acute dis- eases characterized mainly by large discharges of fluid material from the bowels, vomit- ing, and collapse. 2. A synonym of Asiatic cholera. C, Asiatic, C, Algid, an acute, specific, highly malignant disease, exist- ing in India and the tropics of Asia during the entire year, and occasionally spreading as an epidemic over large areas. It is char- acterized by vomiting, alvine discharges re- sembling flocculent rice-water, severe cramps, and collapse. The -rate of mortality varies from"" 10 to 66 %, the average being over 50 %. The cause is the comma bacillus of Koch, which is always found in the rice-water dis- charges. The germs commonly gain entrance into the system by means of the drinking- water. C. asphyctica, Asiatic cholera marked by early collapse and speedy death. C, Barbel. See under Barbel. C., Bil- ious, a form of the disease attended with ex- cessive discharge of bile. C.-blue. See under Pigment. C. -cells, C. -corpuscles, fungi found in dejecta of cholera patients. C . , Chicken, a very fatal epidemic disease of fowls, marked by tumefaction of the lymphatic glands, with inflammation and ulceration of the digestive organs. C, English. See C. morbus. C, Epidetnic. Synonym of Asiatic cholera. C. -fever. 1. Cholera- typhoid. 2. Intermittent cholera. C, Hog, an infec- tious disease attacking swine and aharac- terized by- a patchy redness of the skin, with inflammation and ulceration of the bowels, enlargement of the abdominal glands, and congestion of the lungs. C. infantum, the "summer complaint" of infants and young children; an acute disease occurring in warm weather, and characterized by pftin, vomiting, purgation, fever, and prostration. The disease is supposed to be caused by the bacillus of Shiga, and is favored by the prolonged action of heat, together with errors in diet and hygiene. It is most common among the poor and in hand-fed babes. The disease is of short dura- tion, death frequently ensuing in from 3 to 5 days. C, Intermittent, a form of simple cholera sometimes accompanying the onset of tertian fevers. C, Malignant, Asiatic chol- era. C. morbus, an acute catarrhal inflam- mation of the mucous membrane of the stom- . ach and intestine, with pain, purging, vomit- ing, spasmodic contractions of the muscles, etc. It is a disease of the heated term and is very similar to Asiatic cholera in its symp- tomatology. C. nostras. Same as C. morbus. C. orientalis, Asiatic cholera. C.-red. See under Pigment. C. sicca, a term applied to those cases of Asiatic cholera in which rice- water liquid is found in the intestine after CHOLERAIC 274 CHONDROGEN death, though none had been voided during life. C. suppressa. See C. sicca. C- typhoid, a soporific condition resembling ty- phus, lasting from 2 to 7 days, and attributed to uremia resulting from acute nephritis. It frequently follows Asiatic cholera.
  • Choleraic (kol-er-a'-ik) [cholera]. Pertaining to or resembling cholera. C. Diarrhea, diarrhea characterized by a profuse, ex- hausting discharge of watery material.
  • Cholerase (kol'-er-dz). The special bacterio- lytic enzym of the cholera vibrio. Cf. Pyocyanase and Ty phase.
  • Choleric (kol'-er-ik). 1. Having abundant bile. 2. Applied to a temperament easily excited to anger. 3. Choleraic.
  • Cholerine (kol-er-en') [dim. of cholera]. A mild form of Asiatic cholera, or the initial stage of a more severe form.
  • Cholero typhus (kol-er-o-ti'-fus). 1. See Chol- era-typhoid. 2. The most malignant type of Asiatic cholera.
  • Cholesteatoma (kol-es-te-at-o f -mah) [choles- terin; bp.a, tumor]. A teratoid tumor con- taining plates of cholesterin, epithelial cells, hair, and other dermal structures, and occur- ring most frequently in the brain.
  • Cholestegnosis (kol-e-steg-no' -sis) [xoXjj, bile; azkyvcoocg, a making close]. Thickening of the bile.
  • Cholesteremia, Cholesterinemia (kol-es-ter- e'-me-ah, kol-es-ter-in-e' '-me-ah) [cholesterin; aljia, blood]. The morbid state resulting from the retention of cholesterin in the blood. The condition is probably due to the reten- tion of the bile-acids.
  • Cholesterilins (kol-es-ter' -il-ins) . Hydrocar- bons formed from cholesterin by action of con- centrated sulfuric acid, and supposed to stand in close relationship to the terpene group.
  • Cholesterin (kol-es'-ter-in) (joXr^, bile; oriap, fat], C 26 H 44 or C 25 H 42 0. A monatomic alcohol, a constituent of bile, gall-stones, nervous tissue, egg-yolk, and blood, and some- times found in foci of fatty degeneration. It is a glistening, white, crystalline substance, soapy to the touch, crystallizing in fine needles and rhombic plates. It is insoluble in water, soluble in hot alcohol, ether, or chloroform. It is held in solution in the bile by the bile-salts; it is levorotatory. The power of immunizing against and neutralizing snake-venom is attributed to it. C.,. Tests for. See Liebermann-Burchard, Obermueller, Sal- kowski, Schiff, Schultze.
  • Choletelin (kol-e? '-el-in) [cholin; rrjXoc, com- pletion], C 16 H 18 N 2 6 . An amorphous, solu- ble, yellow pigment derived from biliru- bin. It is the final product of the oxidation of bile-pigments. It is readily soluble in alkalis, alcohol, and chloroform.
  • Choletherapy (kol-e-ther' '-ap-e) [cholin; 'therapy]. The remedial use of bile. Choleuria (kol-e-u'-re-ah) [xoXi), bile; o&pov, urine]. The presence of bile in the urine.
  • Cholic (kol'-ik) [xoXtj, bile]. Pertaining to the bile. C. Acid. See Acid, Cholic.
  • Cholicele (kol'-is-el) [%oXij, bile; ktjXt], a tumor]. A tumor of the gall-bladder, due to accumula- tion of bile.
  • Cholin (kol'-in) [xoXr), bile], C 5 H 15 N0 2 . A sub- stance found among the products of the de- composition of hog's bile and ox bile. It is also found in the extracts of the suprare- nals, and is a product of the decomposition of lecithin.
  • Choloidinic Acid (kol-oi-din'-ik), C 24 H 38 4 . A decomposition-product of cholic acid.
  • Chololith (koV -o-litK) [xoXrj, bile; Xcdoe, stone]. A gall-stone.
  • Cholosis (kol-o'-sis) [xoXtj, bile]. 1 . Any disease caused by or associated with a perversion of the biliary secretion. 2. Lameness. C. americana, yellow fever.
  • Chondral (kon'-dral) [chondrus]. Cartilagin- ous; relating to or composed of cartilage.
  • Chondrification (kon-drif -ik-a' -shun) [chon- drus; facer e, to make]. The process of being converted into cartilage.
  • Chondrin (kon'-drin) [chondrus]. A substance obtained from the matrix of hyaline cartilage by boiling. It resembles gelatin in general properties, but differs from it in not being precipitated by tannic acid. C. Balls, -a substance found in cartilage and composed of chondromucoid and chondroitic acid.
  • Chondritis (kon-dri' -tis) [chondro-; tttf, in- flammation]. Inflammation of a cartilage.
  • Chondro- (kon-dro-) [chondrus]. A prefix mean- ing relating to cartilage.
  • Chondroblast (kon' -dro-blasf) [chondro-; [IXao- rof, germ]. A cell of developing cartilage.

Chondrocele ikon' -dro-seT) [chondro-; K-qX-q, a tumor]. A sarcocele containing masses resem- bling cartilage.

  • Chondrocoracoid (kon-dro-kor'-ak-oid). Re- lating to a costal cartilage and to the coracoid process of the scapula.
  • Chondro costal (kon-dro-kos'-tal) [chondro-; costa, a rib]. Relating to the ribs and their cartilages.
  • Chondro cranium (kon-dro-kra'-ne-um) [chon- dro-; cranium]. The cartilaginous cranium, as of the embryo.
  • Chondrocrasis (kon-dro-kra f -sis) [chondro-; update, a mixing]. The diseased state of the cartilages accompanying leprosy.
  • Chondro dendron (kon-dro-den'-dron) [chondro-; dkvdpov, a tree]. A genus of South American menispermaceous climbing plants. C. glaber- rimum and C. iomentosum are among the plants that furnish pareira .
  • Chondrodialysis (kon-dro-di-al f -is-is) [chon- dro-; dialysis]. The decomposition of cartilage.
  • Chondroepiphysis (kon-dro-ep-if'-is-is) [chon- dro-; epiphysis]. A cartilage which later develops into a bony epiphysis.
  • Chondrogen (kon'-dro-jen) [chondro-; yevvdv, to beget]. A substance forming a part of the tissue of imperfectly developed cartilage. CHONDROMA 275 CHOREA Chondroma (kon-dro'-mah) [chondro-; o/ia, tumor]. A cartilaginous tumor. Chondroma of Hand. — (Moullin.) Chondromalacia (kon - dro - mal - a' - se - ah) [chondro-; [xaXaKia, softening]. Softening of a cartilage. C. auris. Same as Hem- atoma auris.
  • Chondromucoid (kon-dro-mu'-koid). A mucin found in cartilage. Cf. Osseomucoid; Tendo- mucoid.
  • Chondromyoma (kon-dro-mi-o'-mah) [chon- dro-; myoma]. A neoplasm presenting the characteristics of both chondroma and myoma.
  • Chondrophyma (kon-dro-fi'-mah) [chondro-; up.a, a growth]. i. A tumor of a cartilage.

2. A neoplasm with cartilaginous elements.

3. See Chondrophyte.

  • Chondro phyte (kon' -dro -fit) [chondro-; urov, a plant]. A fungous neoplasm springing from a cartilage.
  • Chondroporosis (kon-dro-por-o'-sis) [chon- dro-; nopoc, a passage]. The thinning of cartilage by the formation of spaces, occur- ring during the process of ossification.
  • Chondrosarcoma (kon-dro-sar-ko'-mah) [chon- dro-; sarcoma]. A tumor composed of car- tilaginous and sarcomatous tissue.
  • Chondrosis (kon-dro'-sis) [chondrus]. 1. For- mation of cartilage. 2. A cartilaginous tumor.
  • Chondrosternal (kon-dro-ster'-nal). Pertain- ing to the sternum and costal cartilages.
  • Chondrotome (kon'-dro-tom) [chondro-; rkjivecv, to cut]. An instrument for cutting cartilage.
  • Chondro tomy (kon-drot'-o-me) [see Chondro- tome]. The division of a cartilage.
  • Chondroxiphoid (kon-dro-zi'-foid) . Pertaining to the costal cartilages and the ensiform cartil- age. Chondrus (kon'-drus) [%6i>dpoc, a grain; car- tilage]. 1. Irish moss. The substance of the algae C. crispus and C. mammillosus. These yield, on boiling with water, a soluble colloid consisting mainly of mucilage. This is demulcent and somewhat nutrient. Dose indefinite. 2. A cartilage; the ensiform car- tilage.
  • Chopart's Amputation (sho-par(r) ). An amputation of the foot consisting of a disar- ticulation through the tarsal bones, leaving only the os calcis and the astragalus. C.'s Joint, the mediotarsal articulation; the line of articulation which separates the astragalus and os calcis from the remaining tarsal bones.
  • Chorda (kor'-dah) [L.]. A cord, tendon, or nerve-filament. Chordae arteriarum umbil- icalium, the lateral ligaments of the blad- der. C. dorsalis. See Notochord. C. spermatica, the spermatic cord. C. ten- dinea, any one of the tendinous strings con- necting the papillary muscles of the heart with the auriculoventricular valves. C. tym- pani. See under Nerve. C. venae umbili- calis, the round ligament of the liver. C. vocalis, a vocal band.
  • Chordee (kor-de') [chorda]. A painful curved erection of the penis with concavity down- ward. The corpus spongiosum being infil- trated from urethral inflammation, does not fill with blood during erection, and so acts like a bow-string.
  • Chorditis (kor-di' -tis) [chorda; czcc, inflamma- tion]. Inflammation of a vocal band. C. nodosa, inflammatory growths occurring on the free edge of the vocal cord at the junc- tion of the anterior and middle third. Syn., Singers' nodes.
  • Chorea (ko-re'-ah) [^opeca, dancing].

Vitus' dance. A functional nervous disorder, usually occurring in youth, characterized by irregular and involuntary action of the mus- cles of the extremities, face, etc., with gen- eral muscular weakness. Frequently a mi- tral systolic murmur is heard, often hemic, but in a large proportion of cases due to en- docarditis, and there seems to be a close re- lation between the two diseases. Rheumatism often coexists. Chorea may be caused by a number of conditions, among which are fright and reflex irritation. It affects girls about three times as frequently as boys. Occasion- ally a form of chorea is seen in the adult, and may become a serious complication of pregnancy, resulting in the death of both fetus and mother. When it occurs late in life, it generally resists treatment. Syn., Chorea anglorum; Chorea sancti viti; Epilepsia saltatoris; St. John's dance. C, Bilateral, that due to cerebral lesions causing de- velopment of choreic symptoms on both sides of the body. C, Buttonmaker's, a form of chorea occurring in persons em- ployed in making buttons. C, Cardiac, a See St. CHOREA 276 CHORION form marked by palpitation and other car- diac disorders. C, Chronic Progressive, Hoffmann's name for Huntington's chorea. C, Congenital. Synonym of Birth-palsy . C. cordis. See C, Cardiac. C. -corpuscles (Elischer), peculiar cells found in the brain in cases of chorea and regarded as pathog- nomonic; they have, however, been found in the brains of those who have never had the disease. C, Dancing, hysteric chorea marked by rhythmic dancing movements . C . - demonomania, epidemic chorea. C, Dia- phragmatic, spasm of the diaphragm. C. dimidiata, hemichorea. C, Electric. See Dubini's Disease. C, Epidemic. See Choro- niania. C, Essential, that occurring inde- pendently and not as a symptom of some other disease. C, Facial, convulsive tic. C, False. See C, Symptomatic. C, Gen- eral, a form of chorea in which all or almost all of the voluntary muscles are subject to irregular contractions. C. gravidarum, in- tractable chorea occurring during pregnancy, toward its close sometimes aggravated and attended with fever. C. gravis, severe and dangerous cases of chorea. C, Habit-. See Habit-spasm. C, Hammering, a form marked by coordinated rhythmic spasm in consequence of which persistent hammering with the fist upon some object will be in- dulged in. C, Hereditary. See C, Hunt- ingdon's. C, Huntingdon's, a hereditary affection of adult or middle life, characterized by irregular movements, disturbance of speech, and gradual dementia. C, Hysteric. See C. major. C, Imaginative, choromania. C, Imitative, choreic movements developed in children from association with choreic subjects. C, Infantile. See C. minor. C. insaniens, maniacal chorea; a grave form of chorea usually seen in women, and as- sociated with mania, and generally ending fatally. It may develop during pregnancy. C. laryngea, C., Laryngeal, C. laryngis. i. A condition attended with clonic spasm of the laryngeal muscles and marked by in- ability to sustain coordinate action. 2. A condition marked by spasmodic motions of some of the muscles of expiration, causing a cry. C, Limp, West's name for a sequel of motor paralysis in children marked by very slight choreic movements. C. major, a form of hysteria in which there are con- tinual regular oscillatory movements. C, Maniacal. See C. insaniens. C, Meta- paralytic, C, Methemiplegic. See C, Postparalytic. C, Methodic. See C. major. C, Mimetic. See C, Imitative. C. minor, simple chorea. C. mollis. See Hemi- plegia, Choreic. C, Morvan's, fibrillary con- tractions of the muscles of the calves and posterior portion of the thighs, often ex- tending to the trunk and upper extrem- ities, but leaving the face and neck in- tact. Syn., Choree fibrillaire de Morvan. C. neuralgica, convulsive tic. C. nu- tans, that attended with nodding motions. C. oculi, choreic movements of the eyes due to cerebral lesions. C. pandemica. See Dubini's Disease. C, Paralytic (Gowers). See Hemiplegia, Choreic. C, Partial, im- perfect choreic movements associated with contractures, due to cerebral lesion. C, Posthemiplegic, C, Postparalytic, a form of involuntary movement seen in patients after an attack of hemiplegia. C, Prehemi- plegic, C, Prohemiplegic, choreic spasms of the hands or feet forerunning hemiplegia. C. procursiva. Synonym of Paralysis agi- tans. C, School-made, chorea resulting from overstimulation of children at school. C, Secondary. See C, Symptomatic. C. semilateralis, hemichorea. C. senilis. 1. Paralysis agitans. 2. The trembling inci- dent to age. C, Sydenham's, chorea minor; infectious chorea. C, Symptomatic, that dependent upon some organic disease. C, Unilateral. See Hemichorea.

  • Choreic (ko-re'-ik) [chorea]. Relating to, of the nature of, or affected with chorea.
  • Choreiform (ko-re'-if-orm) [chorea; forma, form]. Resembling chorea.
  • Choriocapillaris (ko-re-o-kap-il-a'-ris) [chor- ion; capillus, a hair]. The network of capillaries over the inner portion of the choroid coat of the eye.
  • Chorioepithelioma (ko-re-o-ep-e-the-le-o' -mah). See Deciduoma. C. benignum, degenerated relics of fetal epithelium or epiblast in the maternal tissues. C. malignum, March- and's (1895) name for an epithelioma due to malignant degeneration of fetal epiblast left in the maternal tissues. Syn., Deciduoma malignum; Sarcoma ■ deciduo cellular e; Syncy- tioma malignum.
  • Chorioma (ko-re-o' -mah) [chorion; op.a, tumor]. A neoplasm developed from the chorion.
  • Chorion (ko'-re-on) [ibptov, skin; fetal mem- brane]. The outermost of the fetal membranes, formed from the vitelline membrane, the false amnion, and the allantois. The chorion lies between the amnion and the deciduas (reflexa and vera). C, Cystic Degenera- tion of, a myxoma of the chorion, producing the socalled "hydatid mole." It is charac- terized by rapid increase in the size of the uterus, hemorrhage, often profuse, beginning during the second month of pregnancy, and the discharge of small cysts, whitish in ap- pearance, surrounded by bloody clots. These cysts vary in size from a pin-head to *a filbert. C. frondosum, C, Shaggy, the part covered by villi. It helps to form the placenta. C. CHORIONIC 277 CHROMIDROSIS laeve, the mefnbranous portion of the cho- rion.
  • Chorionic (ko-re-on'-ik) [chorion]. Relating to the chorion.
  • Chorionin (ko-re-on' '-in) . A name given by Bronchacourt (1902) to a preparation made from sheep's placenta by submitting it to pressure without heat. The juice thus ex- pressed is made palatable with syrup after being sterilized with ammonium fluorid; em- ployed as a galactagog.
  • Choroid (ko'-roid) (chorion; eldoc 1 , likeness]. 1. The vascular tunic of the eye, continuous with the iris in front, and lying between the sclerotic and the retina. 2. Pertaining to the choroid; choroidal. C. Plexus, a vascular plexus in the ventricles of the brain. C. Tubercle, a diagnostic sign of tubercu- lous meningitis found by ophthalmoscopic investigation.
  • Choroideremia (ko-roid-er-e 1 '-me-ah) [choroid; iprj/iia, desolation]. Absence of the choroid.
  • Choroiditis (ko-roid-i'-tis) [choroid; trig, in- flammation]. Inflammation of the choroid coat of the eye. It may be anterior, the foci of exudation being at the periphery of the choroid; or central, the exudate being in the region of the macula lutea; diffuse or disseminated, characterized by numerous round or irregular spots scattered over the fundus; exudative or nonsuppurative, when there are isolated foci of inflammation scat- tered over the choroid; metastatic, when due to embolism; and suppurative, when proceed- ing to suppuration. C, Areolar, C. areo- laris, that in which the first foci occur near the fovea and extend toward the periphery in constantly increasing distances. C. gut- tata senilis. See Tay's Choroiditis. C. serosa. Synonym of Glaucoma.
  • Choroidocyclitis (ko-roid-o -si-Mi' -tis) [choroid; kukXoc, a circle; czcc, inflammation]. Inflam- mation of the choroid and of the ciliary body.
  • Choroidoiritis (ko-roid-o-i-ri'-tis) [choroid; iritis]. Inflammation of the choroid and the iris.
  • Choroidoretinitis (ko-roid-o-rel-in-i'-tis) [cho- roid; retinitis]. Choroiditis associated with retinitis. C, Ametropic, that caused by ametropia.
  • Choromania (ko-ro-ma' '-ne-ah) [%d>poc, a dance; fxavia, madness]. A nervous disorder charac- terized by dancing or other rhythmic move- ments; epidemic chorea; dancing mania.
  • Choronosologia, Choronosology (ko-ro-no- sol-o'-je-ah, ko-ro-no-sol' -o-je) [%(bpoc, a region; voaoc, a disease ; koyoc, science]. The science of the geographic distribution of diseases or of endemic diseases of some region.

Christian Science. An alleged system of therapy; a form of faith -cure; Eddyism.

  • Chroatol (kro f -at-ol) , C 10 H 16 . 2HI. A greenish- yellow, crystalline substance obtained by action of turpentine on iodin; used in powder or ointment in treatment of skin diseases. Syn., Terpiniodohydrate.

Chroma-, Chromato- [ipti>p.a, color]. Prefixes meaning colored.

  • Chromate (kro'-mdt) [xp cc, vision]. Color-blindness.
  • Chromatic (kro-mat'-ik) [xpa>p.a, color]. Relating to or 'possessing color. C. Aber- ration. See Aberration, Chromatic. C. Aud- ition, luminous sensations aroused by sound.
  • Chromatin (kro'-mat-in) [see Chromatic]. The portion of the protoplasm of a cell that takes the stain, forming a delicate reticular network or plexus of fibrils permeating the achromatin of a cell. Syn., Karyomitome.
  • Chromatogenous (kro - mat - oj'- en - us) [chro- mato-; yevvav, to beget]. Producing color.
  • Chromatolysis (kro-mat-ol'-is-is) [chromato-; Xuocc, a loosing]. Flemming's term for the breaking-down of the nucleus at the death of the cell. Syn., Karyolysis.
  • Chromatophore (kro-mat'-o-for) [chromato-; 4>6poc, bearing]. Any colored cell-plastid.
  • Chromatoplasm (kro-maf '-o-plazm) [chromato-; r.Xaap.a, anything formed]. The substance of the chromatoplasts as distinguished from the other cell-substances, karyoplasm, cytoplasm, metaplasm, paraplasm, etc.

Chromatopsia ikro-mat-op' -se-ah) [chromato-; oiia, color]. Cr = 52.2; quantivalence 11 and iv. One of the elements of the iron group. The various salts of chromium, especially the derivatives of chromium trioxid, Cr0 3 , are much used in the manufacture of pigments and as a caustic. All are poisonous. C. and Potassium Sulfate. See Chrome-alum. C. Sesquioxid, Cr 2 3 , a green pigment occurring in nature as chrome-ochre; it can be prepared artificially. C. Trioxid. See Acid, Chromic.

  • Chromo- (kro-mo-) [xpcXog, loving]. Readily stained; easily ab- sorbing color.
  • Chromophobic (kro - mo - }o' - bik) [chromo-; (f>6j3oc, fear]. Not stainable; not readily ab- sorbing color. Cf. Chromophilous.
  • Chromophoric, Chromophorous (kro-mo f'-or- ik, kro-moj'-or-us). Applied to chromogenic bacteria in which the pigment is stored in the cell-protoplasm of the organism.
  • Chromophose (kro'-mo-fos) [chromo-; a\6c, navel]. A varicose condition of the navel.
  • Cirsotomy (sir-sot' -o-me) [cirsoid; xep.vecv, to cut]. Excision of a varix.

Cis-. A prefix proposed by Baeyer to designate relative asymmetry in unsaturated carbon compounds.

  • Cistern (sis' -tern) [cistema, a vessel; receptacle]. i. A reservoir. 2. Any dilation of the space between the pia and arachnoid. C. of Pecquet, the receptaculum chyli. C, Sem- inal, the posterior cul'desac of the vagina. Syn., Receptaculum seminis.
  • Citrate (sit' -rat) [citric acid]. Any salt of citric acid.
  • Citric (sit'-rik) [citrus]. Pertaining to or de- rived from lemons or citrons. C. Acid. See Acid, Citric.
  • Citrine (sit'-rin) [citrus]. Yellow; of a lemon- color. C. Ointment (unguentum hydrargyri nitratis, U. S. P.), a preparation consisting of mercury dissolved in nitric acid and mixed with some fatty substance. It is made by adding 7 parts of nitric acid to 76 parts of warmed lard oil, and then mixing it with 7 parts of mercury dissolved in 10 parts of nitric acid.
  • Citrol (sit'-rol). Silver citrate.
  • Citrophen (sit' -ro -fen), C 3 H 4 OH — CONH — OC 2 H 5 C 6 H 4 . Paraphenetidin citrate. It is antipyretic and antineuralgic. Dose 3-15 gr. (0.2-1.0 Gm.).
  • Citrullin (sit-ruV -in) . A resinoid from Citrul- lus colocynthis. It is a cathartic exten- sively used in veterinary practice. Syn., Amorphous colocynthidin; Colocynthidin.
  • Citrullus (sit-ruV -lus) [L.]. A genus of the Cucurbitacece, comprising but two species, indi- genous to tropical Asia and southern Africa. C. colocynthis, the bitter cucumber or gourd, furnishes colocynth.
  • Citrurea (sit-ru'-re-ah). A combination of citric acid, urea, and lithium.
  • Citrus (sit'-rus) [L.]. A genus of aurantiaceous trees. See Aurantium, Bergamot, Lime, Limo.

Civinini's Spine. A small spine on the outer border of the external pterygoid plate, giving attachment to the pterygospinous ligament.

  • Cladosporium cancerogenes (klad-o-spo'-re- um kan-ser-oj'-en-ez). A fungus said to be the cause of carcinoma. Syn., Canceromyces.
  • Cladothrix (klad' -o-thriks) [nXadog, branch; dp!$, a hair]. A genus of bacteria having long, apparently branching filaments.
  • Clamp (klamp) [Ger., Klampe]. An instrument for compressing the parts in surgical opera- tions to prevent hemorrhage, etc.
  • Clap (klap) [OF., clapoir, a venereal sore]. 'Gonorrhea. C. -threads, slimy threads con- sisting of mucus and pus-cells in the urine of gonorrheal patients.

Clapton's Line. Greenish discoloration of the gums and teeth, especially the incisors, in chronic copper-poisoning.

Clapton-Havers' Glands. See Havers' 1 Glands.

  • Claret (klar'-et) [clarus, clear]. A light wine of a red color.
  • Clarify (klar'-if-i) [clarus; facere, to make]. To free a liquid or solution from insoluble substances; to make clear.

Clark's Sign. A tympanitic sound over the hepatic region in tympanites due to perforative peritoneal inflammation.

Clarke's Corroding Ulcer. Progressive ulcer of the cervix uteri. C.'s Tongue, the hard, fissured, and nodular tongue of syphil- itic glossitis sclerosa. C.'s Vesicular Col- umn. See Column of Clarke.

  • Clasmatocyte (Has -mat' -o -sit) [idaoua, frag- ment; kuzoc, cell]. A form of very large connective-tissue corpuscles that tend to break up into granules or pieces. CLASP 284 CLEIDO- Clasp (klasp) [ME., claspen, to grasp firmly]. C.-knife Rigidity, a spastic condition of a limb, as a result of which extension is com- pleted with a "spring," as in a knife-blade. It is met in the cerebral palsies of children.
  • Clastic (klas f -tik) [nXaoToc, broken]. Breaking up into fragments; causing division.
  • Clathrocystis (klath-ro-sis'-tis) [nXijdpa, a trellis; Kuaxcg , pouch]. A genus of microor- ganisms with round or oval cells, forming zoogleae in the form of circular layers.
  • Claudication (Maw -dik-a' -shun) [claudicare, to limp], i. Lameness. 2. An obstruction. C„, Charcot's Intermittent, C, Inter- mittent, intermittent paresthesia of the legs attended with pain, tremor, and ex- cessive perspiration due to arteriosclerosis; a condition first noted by French writers in apparently healthy horses and afterward observed in, man. Syn., Angina cruris; Angiosclerotic paroxysmal myasthenia; Inter- mittent lameness; Intermittent limping. C, Spontaneous, the lameness that occurs as an early symptom of coxarthrocace in children.

Claudius' Cells. Polyhedral or conoid cells lining the outer angle of the scala media of the cochlea. C.'s Fossa, the ovarian fossa, a triangular space containing the ovary; it is bounded anteriorly by the round ligament, above by the external iliac vein, and below by the ureter.

  • Claustrophilia (Maws-tro-fil' -e-ah) [claustrum; cXe~cv, to love]. A morbid dread of open places; it is noted in neurasthenia.
  • Claustrophobia (Maws-tro-fo' -be-ah) [claustrum; (fidftof, fear]. Morbid distress at being in a room or confined space.
  • Claustrum (Haws' -tr um) [L., "a barrier"]. A layer of gray matter in the cerebrum to the outer side of the lenticular nucleus.
  • Clava (kla'-vah) [L., "a club" ]. An enlarge- ment of the funiculus gracilis.
  • Clavate (Mav'-dt) [clava]. Club-shaped or be- coming gradually thicker toward one end.
  • Claviceps (klav'-is-eps) [clava; caput, head]. A genus of fungi. C. purpurea, the fungus producing the ergot of rye.
  • Clavicle (Mav'-ik-l) [clavicula; clavus, a key]. The collar-bone. C. -crutch, Cole's device for supporting a broken clavicle; it is so furnished with pads and adjustments as to render bandaging unnecessary.
  • Clavicotomy (Mav-ik-ot' -o-me) [clavicle; tojxtj, a cutting]. Surgical section of the clavicle.
  • Clavicula (Mav-ik'-u-lah). The clavicle. C. capitis, the projection formed by the ptery- goid and entopterygoid bones on the pleur- apophysis of the hemal arch of the nasal vertebra.
  • Clavicular (kla-vik' -u-lar) [clavicle]. Relating to the clavicle.
  • Clavipes (Mav'-e-pez) [clava; pes, a foot]. Having club-shaped feet.
  • Clavis uteri (Ma' -vis u'-ter-i). Womb-key; an electrotherapeutic intrauterine device, de- signed for the application of electricity in certain pathologic conditions of the uterus and adnexa.
  • Clavus (kla'-vus) [L., " a nail; a wart; a corn"]. Corn; a hyperplasia of the horny layer of the epidermis, in which there is an ingrowth as well as an outgrowth of horny substance, forming circumscribed epidermal thickenings, chiefly about the toes. Corns may be hard or soft, the latter being situated between the toes, where they are softened by maceration. Both forms are due to pressure and friction. C. hystericus, a pain in the head, as if a nail were being driven in.

Claw-foot. A form of talipes due to depression of the heads of the metatarsal bones, with forced extension of the first phalanges and flexion of the last; it is a result of paralysis of the interossei and lumbricales muscles and of those inserted into the sesamoid bone of the great toe.

Claw-hand. A condition of the hand character- ized by overextension of the first pha- langes and extreme flexion of the others. The condition is a result of atrophy of the interosseous muscles, with contraction of the tendons of the common extensor and long flexor. Syn., Main-en- griffe.

Clearing Agent. A substance used in micro- scopy to render tissues transparent and suit- able for mounting.

  • Cleavage (Me'-vaj) [AS., cleofan, to split asunder]. 1. The linear clefts in the skin indicating the general direction of the fibers. They govern to a certain extent the arrange- ment of the lesions in skin diseases. The lines of cleavage run, for the most part, obliquely to the axis of the trunk, sloping from the spine downward and forward; in the limbs they are mostly transverse to their longitudinal axis. 2. A mode of cell-division. C, Egg-. See Segmentation. C. -nucleus, the nucleus which in the fertilized egg results from the union of the male and female nuclei.

Cleemann's Sign, C.'s Test. In fracture of the femur with shortening there is a wrinkle above the ligamentum patellae, which disap- pears when the shortening is corrected by extension.

  • Cleft (kleft) [Icel., kluft, a cleft]. Divided. A fissure. C, Branchial. See C, Visceral. C.-hand, a congenital deformity in which some finger or fingers are widely separated from the others. C. Palate, a congenital fissure of the palate. C. Sternum, con- genital fissure of the sternum. C, Visceral, the four slit-like openings on each side in the cervical region in the fetus, sometimes called the branchial openings. The slits close (in the human fetus), except the upper, from which are developed the auditory meatus, tympanic cavity, and eustachian tube.
  • Cleidarthritis (kli-dar-thri'-tis) [xvU-Zf, clavicle ; arthritis]. Inflammation of the sternocla- vicular articulation.
  • Cleido- (kli-do-) [nXe'cc, clavicle]. A pre- fix meaning pertaining to the clavicle. CLEIDOCOSTAL 285 CLONIC Cleidocostal (kli-do-kos'-tal). Pertaining to the ribs and the clavicle.
  • Cleidooccipital (kli-do-ok-sip' -it-al) Relating to the clavicle and occiput. C. Muscle. See under Muscle.
  • Cleidotomy (kli-dot f -o-me) [cleido-; xep.ve.cv, to cut]. The operation of dividing the clavicles in cases of difficult labor due to the broad shoulders of the child.

Clergyman's Sore Throat. A chronic hy- pertrophic form of pharyngitis, with more or less enlargement of the tonsils and lymph- follicles of the posterior wall, due to exces- sive or improper use of the voice.

Clerk-Maxwell's Experiment. On looking through a chrome-alum solution an oval pur- plish spot, due to the pigment of the macula lutea, is seen.

  • Clerodendron (kler-o-den' -dron) [kXtjpoc, a lot; divopov, tree]. A genus of tropical shrubs and trees of the order Verbenacece. C. in- fortunatum is a species indigenous to India and Malaya; it is used as a substitute for chirata; the juice of the leaves is a tonic, febrifuge, and vermifuge. C. nerei- folium is a species found in Malaya; the root and leaves are antisyphilitic, tonic, and vulnerary; the root and fruit are used to stupefy fish. C. serratum is indige- nous to India; the root is tonic and stom- achic; the fruit, purgative and diuretic. The leaves and an insect larva found on the branches of C. trichotomnm are used as an ascaricide. C. villosum is a species indigenous to Malaya; the root is stomachic, the sap vermifugal.

Clevenger's Fissure. The inferior occipital fissure; a small fissure between the second and third occipital convolutions.

  • Climacteric (kli-mak'-ter-ik) [nXcpaKxrip, the round of a ladder]. A period of life at which the system was believed to undergo marked changes. These periods were thought to occur every seven years. The word is now gen- erally applied to the menopause. C. Age, puberty; also in women the time of cessa- tion of the catamenia. C. Epoch. Same as C. Age. C, Grand, the sixty-third year.
  • Climatology (kli-mat-oV -o-]e) [nkcpa, climate; Xoyoc, science]. The science of climate.
  • Clinic (klin'-ik) [kXcvckoc, pertaining to a bed]. i. Medical instruction given at the bedside, or in the presence of the patient whose symptoms are studied and whose treatment is considered. 2. A gathering of instructors, students, and patients for the study and treatment of disease.
  • Clinical (klin' -ik-al) [clinic]. Relating to bed- side treatment or to a clinic.
  • Clinicopathology (klin -ik -0 - path - ol'-o - je) [clinic; pathology}. Pathologic conditions as open to clinical observation.
  • Clino- (klin-o-) [icXiveev, to incline]. A prefix denoting inclination or declination.
  • Clinocephalus (klin-o -sef'-al- us) [clino-; «£(f)aXr), the head]. A variety of dolicho- cephalus occurring through synostosis of the sphenoparietal suture and resulting in a saddle-formed depression of the skull. Syn., Saddle-head.
  • Clinodiagonal (hlin-o-di-ag' -on-al) [clino-; diagonal]. Inclined and diagonal; obliquely transverse.
  • Clinoid (klin'-oid) \kXLvt), a bed; eldoc", like- ness]. Resembling a bed; applied to sundry bony structures of the body, as the clinoid processes. C. Processes. See under Process.
  • Clinology (klin-ol'-o-je) [clino-; Xoyoc, science]. 1. The science of the decline of animal life after it has reached the meridian. 2. The study of beds for the sick.
  • Clinometer (klin - om' - et - er) [clino-; phpov, a measure]. An apparatus to estimate the rotational capacity of the ocular muscles. C, Duane's, a device for estimating tor- sional deviations of the eye, and also used in the study of metamorphopsia.
  • Clinoscope (klin'-o-skop) [clino-; okotzsiv, to view]. An instrument for measuring the torsion of the eyes when gazing at a fixed object with the axes of vision presumably parallel.
  • Clinotechny (klin-o' -tek-ne) [kXcvi], a bed; Tiyyt), an art]. The art of making and pre- paring beds for the sick.
  • Cliseometer (klis-e-om' -et-er) [kX!o!c, inclina- tion; phpov, a measure]. An instrument for measuring the degree of inclination of the pelvic axis.
  • Clition (klit'-e-on) [kAct&c, a slope]. A cranio- metric point located in the middle of the ' anterior border of the clivus ossis.
  • Clitoridectomy (kli-tor-id-ek'-to-mc) [clitoris; £K7op.T), excision]. Excision of the clitoris.
  • Clitoris (kli'-tor-is) [nXec~opic r clitoris]. The homolog in the female of the penis, attached to the ischiopubic rami by two crura or branches, which meet in front of the pubic joint to form the body, or corpus. It pos- sesses erectility. C. Crises, paroxysms of sex- ual excitement in women suffering from tabes.
  • Clivus (kli'-vus) [L., "a slope"]. A slope. C. ossis, C. of Blumenbach, the slanting surface of the body of the sphenoid bone between the sella turcica and the basilar process of the occipital bone.
  • Cloaca (klo-a'-kah) [L., "a sewer"]. 1. In early fetal life, the common orifice of the in- testine and the allantois. 2. A fistulous tract in bone discharging pus from a sequestrum. C, Congenital, a malformation in which the rectum opens into the genitourinary tract. C, Urogenital, an abnormal common open- ing of the urethra and vagina due to a defec- tive urethrovaginal septum. C, Vesicorec- tovaginal, a common aperture of the blad- der, rectum, and vagina, due to deformity or trauma.
  • Clonic (klon'-ik) [clonus]. Applied to convul- sive and spasmodic conditions of muscles characterized by alternate contractions and relaxations. CLONOGRAPH 286 COAGULIN Clonograph (klon' -o-graf) [clonus; ypafacv, to write]. An apparatus for recording the spasmodic movements of the head, extrem- ities, lower jaw, and trunk, as well as the tendon-reflexes.
  • Clonus (klo'-nus) [kXovoc, commotion]. A series of movements characterized by alter- nate contractions and relaxations; a clonic spasm. Involuntary, reflex, irregular con- tractions of muscles when put suddenly upon the stretch. According to the part affected, the phenomenon is spoken of as ankle-, fool-, rectus-, or wrist-clonus, etc. See under Reflex.

Cloquet's Canal. See under Canal. C.'s Fascia, the crural septum. C.'s Ganglion, the nasopalatine ganglion. C.'s Hernia, sub- pubic hernia; a femoral hernia passing behind and internally to the femoral vessels and resting on the pectineus muscle. C.'s Ligament. See Hatter's Habenula.

  • Clostridium (klos-trid' '-e-um) [kXojottjp, a spin- dle]. A genus of bacteria differing from bacilli in the fact that their spores are formed in enlarged rods.
  • Closure (klo'-zhilr) [clausura, a closing]. The act of completing or closing an electric circuit.
  • Clot (klot) [AS., elate, a bur]. A peculiar solidification of the blood, such as takes place when it is shed. It is due to the formation of fibrin, which entangles the blood-corpuscles and, contracting, squeezes out the liquid portion of the blood.
  • Clownism (klown'-izm) [Icel., klunni, a boorish fellow]. That stage of hystero- epilepsy in which there is an emotional dis- play with a remarkable series of contortions.

Clubbed Fingers. Knobbed deformity of the finger-tips, with curvature of the nails over the finger-ends; seen in some cases of pul- monary and cardiac disease.

Club-foot. See Talipes. C, Heel, talipes calcaneus. C, Inward, talipes varus. C, Outward, talipes valgus.

Club-hand. A deformity of the hand similar to that of club-foot.

  • Clumping (klump' -ing) . See Agglutination (2). C. Serum. See under Serum.
  • Clupein (klu' '-pe-in) [clupea, a kind of small river-fish], C 30 H 57 N 17 O 6 + 4H 2 0. A protamin from the herring. Syn., Salmin.
  • Clusia (klu f -se-ah) [Charles de VEscluse (1526- 1609)]. A genus of plants of the order Guttifertz, many species of which yield a gum-resin called West Indian balsam. C. flava, of the West Indies, yields the milky sap used as a substitute for copaiba. C. insignis, of Brazil, yields a milky sap used as a salve. C. hilar iana, of the West Indies and South America, yields a gum used as a drastic and vulnerary; the fruit is edible and the astringent bark is employed in diarrhea.
  • Clysis (Mi' -sis) [kXu^iv, to cleanse]. The ad- ministration of an enema; the cleansing by means of an enema.
  • Clysma (kliz'-mah). See Clyster.
  • Clysmic (kliz'-mik). Relating to an enema; suitable for cleansing or washing.
  • Clyster (klis'-ter) [kXuott)P, an injection]. An enema. See Alimentation, Rectal. C, Meat- bouillon-wine- (Fleiner) : 80 Gm. of beef- tea and 40 Gm. of mild white wine. Inject 2 or 3 times a day at body-heat. C, Meat- pancreas- (Leube) : 150 Gm. good beef scraped and chopped fine; 80 Gm. fresh pancreas (cow or hog) free from fat; mix with 150 Gm. lukewarm water; inject from 50 to 100 Gm. at a time, by means of a simple funnel, and at blood-heat. C, Nutritive (Boas): warm 250 Gm. of milk, stir in 2 egg-yolks, 1 tea- spoonful of common salt, and 1 tablespoonful of wheat-starch, and afterward add 1 table- spoonful of red wine. If the mucous mem- brane is easily irritated, 4 or 5 drops of tinc- ture of opium may be added. C, Nutritive (Ewald) : wheaten starch, J teaspoonful, is boiled with a cup (100 Gm.) of a 20% solu- tion of grape-sugar, and 1 wineglass (150 Gm.) of red wine added. Then the solution is cooled to 35 C. and 2 or 3 eggs beaten smooth with 1 teaspoonful of cold water and a little salt are stirred in slowly. Inject at blood-heat. C, Nutritive (Jaccoud): bouillon, 250 Gm.; wine, 120 Gm.; yolks of 2 eggs; and peptone, 5 to 20 Gm. C, Nutritive (Rosenheim) : peptone, 4 to 8 Gm.; 2 eggs; glucose, 15 Gm., and sometimes, if desired, emulsions of cod-liver oil.

Cnemial ine'-me-aT) [Kvrjfirj, the leg]. Relating to the tibia or leg; crural.

  • Cnemoscoliosis (ne-mo-sko-le-o'-sis) [Kvfjfi-q, the leg; oKoXcog, curved]. Lateral curvature of the legs.
  • Coagulated (ko-ag r -u-la-ted) [coagulare, to curdle]. Clotted; curdled. C. Proteids, a class of proteids produced by heating solutions of egg-albumen or serum-albumin up to 70 C. or higher. At the body -temperature they are readily converted into peptones by the action of the gastric juice in an acid me- dium, or of pancreatic juice in an alkaline medium.
  • Coagulation (ko-ag-u-la'-shun) [coagulum]. The formation of a coagulum or clot, as in blood or in milk.
  • Coagulative (ko-ag'-u-la-tiv) [coagulum]. Causing or marked by coagulation. C. Ne- crosis. See Necrosis, Coagulative.
  • Coagulin (ko-ag' -u-lin) [coagulum]. A sub- stance endowed with capacity to precipitate certain albuminous bodies contained in the COAGULOMETER 287 COCAIN culture-fluid injected into an inoculated ani- mal.
  • Coagulometer (ho-ag-u-lom' -et-er) [coagulum; fihpov, a measure]. An apparatus for the determination of the rapidity of coagulation of the blood. C, Wright's, a cylinder sur- rounded by pockets for thermometer and coagulation-tubes.
  • Coagulum (ko-ag' -u-lum) [coagulare, to curdle]. A clot. The mass of fibrin, inclosing red and colorless corpuscles and serum, that forms from the blood after the latter has been drawn from the body. Also, the curd of milk and the insoluble form of albumin.
  • Coal-tar (kol'-tar). A by-product in the man- ufacture of illuminating gas; it is a black, viscid fluid, of a characteristic and dis- agreeable odor. The specific gravity ranges from i.io to i. 20. Its composition is ex- tremely complex, and its principal constitu- ents are separated, one from the other, by means of fractional distillation. Among the principal products manufactured from coal- tar are anthracene, benzol, naphtha, creasote, phenol, pitch, etc. From the basic oil of coal-tar are manufactured the anilin or coal- tar colors or dyes.
  • Coalescence (ko-al-es' '-ens) [coalescere, to grow together]. The union of two or more parts or things previously separate.
  • Coalescent (ko-al-es' -ent) . In a condition of coalescence.
  • Coalitus (ko-al-i'-tus) [L.]. Coalescent; coal- escence. C. artuum, adhesion of limbs to each other. See Ankylomele.

Coaptation iko-ap-ta' -shun) [con, together; aptare, to fit]. The proper union or adjust- ment of the ends of a fractured bone, the lips of a wound, etc.

  • Coarctate (ko-ark'-tat) [coarctare, to press to- gether]. Crowded together.
  • Coarctation (ko-ark-ta'-shun) [coarctate]. A compression of the walls of a vessel or canal, narrowing or closing the lumen; reduction of the normal or previous volume, as of the pulse; shriveling and consequent detachment, as of the retina. A stricture.
  • Coarse (kors) [ME., course]. Not fine; gross. C. Adjustment. See Adjustment, Coarse. C. Features of Disease, macroscopic organic lesions, such as swelling, hemorrhage, etc.
  • Coat (kot) [coitus, a tunic]. A cover or mem- brane covering a part or substance. C, Buffy, the upper fibrinous layer of the clot of coagulated blood, characterized by its pale color, due to absence of red corpuscles. C, Internal Elastic. See Henle's Fenestrated Membrane. C, Internal Fibrous. See C, Subepithelial. C, Middle, the tunica media. C, Subepithelial, the middle layer of the intima, composed of fusiform and stellate cells and finely granular substances with lon- gitudinal and transverse fibrils. Syn., In- nermost longitudinal fibrous coat; Inter- mediary layer; Internal fibrous coat; Striated layer of the internal coat. C, Uveal, the uvea. C, Vaginal. 1. The fibrous capsule of the eyeball. 2. See Tunica vaginalis.
  • Cobalt (ko'-bawlt) [kobold, a German mytho- logic goblin]. A tough, heavy metal having some of the general properties of iron. Its oxids have been employed in medicine, but are now very little used. See Elements, Table of Chemic. C. Nitrate, CO(N0 3 ) 2 + 6H 2 0. It is said to be a successful antidote in poisoning by hydrocyanic acid and potassium cyanid. C.and Potassium Nitrite, COK 3 (N0 2 ) 6 , co- balt yellow, a powder, ■ slightly soluble in water; antispasmodic and antidyspneic. Dose J-gr. (0.016-0.032 Gm.). Syn., Potassium cobaltonitrite. C. Salipyrin, a salicylate of cobalt and antipyrin.

Cobelli's Glands. See Glands, CobelWs.

  • Cobra (ko'-brah) [Port.].' A venomous snake of India, Naja tripudians. C.-lysin, Myers' term for the hemolytic poison of cobra venom. It is destroyed by heat and neutral- ized by antivenin. Cf. Cobra Nervine; Echidnase; Echidnotoxin. C. Nervine, one of the principles isolated by Myers from cobra venom. It is not decomposed by heat nor neutralized by antivenin.
  • Coca (ko'-kah). See Erythroxylon.
  • Cocaethylin (ko-kah-eth' '-il-in) , C 18 H 23 N0 4 . A white powder obtained from benzoylecgonin by action of ethyl iodid. It is soluble in alcohol and ether and almost insoluble in water; it is a local anesthetic, milder than cocain. Syn., Benzoylecgoninethylic ester; Elhylbenzoylecgonin; Homococain.
  • Cocain (ko'-kah-in or ko-kan') [S.A., coca], C 17 H 21 N0 4 . Cocain (cocaina, U. S. P.) is the chief alkaloid of Erythroxylon coca. It is at first stimulant and afterward narcotic, and resembles caffein in its action on the nerve-centers, and atropin in its effects on the respiratory and circulatory organs. Its long-continued use (cocai?i-habit) is fol- lowed by insomnia, decay of moral and in- tellectual power, emaciation, and death. It is a local anesthetic when applied to the sur- face of mucous membranes or given hypo- dermatically. Applied to the conjunctiva of the eye, it causes also dilation of the pupil and paralysis of the function of accommo- dation. Dose 2 gr. (0.008-0.13 Gm.). Syn., Methylbenzoylecgonin. C. Aluminium Citrate, a double salt consisting of three mole- cules of aluminium citrate and one of cocain; it is used as an astringent and as a local anes- thetic. C. Aluminium Sulfate, a compound of aluminium sulfate and cocain. It is used as is cocain aluminium citrate. C. Benzoate, C 17 H 21 N0 4 . C 7 H 6 2 , anodyne and anesthetic. C. Borate, a white, crystalline powder con- taining 68.7% of cocain. It is used in eye- douches and subcutaneous injections. C. Cantharidate, (C 17 H 21 NO 4 ),C 10 H 12 O 4 . It is used hypodermatically in tuberculosis; injec- tion, ^o~To gr- (0.0013-0.0016 Gm.) in 500 parts of chloroform -water. C. Carbolate, a crystalline mass containing 75 % of cocain; it is analgesic, anticatarrhal, and a local an- COCAINISM 288 COCHIN-LEG esthetic. Dose T V4 gr. (0.005-0.01 Gm.), once or twice daily in capsules. Injection, 16 min. (1 Cc.) of 1 : 1250 solution in dilute alcohol. Application, 1 to 3 % solution with 30% alcohol, 5% powder, or pure. C. Cerate, 1 : 30, for burns, etc. C. Chlorid. See C. Hydrochloride C. Citrate, used to stop toothache. C. Hydrobromate, C 17 H 21 - N0 4 HBr, small white crystals, soluble in water. It is used instead of cocain hydro- chlorid and the dosage is the same. C. Hydrochlorid (cocaines hydrochloridum, U. S. P.), C 17 H 21 N0 4 .HC1, most commonly used for local anesthesia in 2 to 8 % solution. Dose, internally, 2 gr. (0.008-0.13 Gm.). C. Hydrochlorid, Solution of (liquor cocaince hydrochloratis, B. P.). Dose 2-10 min. (0.13- 0.65 Cc). C.Hydroiodate, Ci 7 H 21 N0 4 . HI, a suggested substitute for cocain hydrochlorid in producing electroanesthesia. C. Lac- tate, C 17 H 21 N0 4 C 3 H 6 3 , a white liquid of the consistence of honey; it is used par- ticularly in tuberculous cysts of the bladder. Injection (into the bladder), x\ gr. (0.1 Gm.) dissolved in 5 parts each of lactic acid and distilled water. C. Lamellas (lamellce cocaince, B. P.), each contains T ^ gr. (0.00065 <&m.) of cocain hydrochlorid. C. Muriate. See C. Hydrochlorid. C. Nitrate, C 17 H 21 N0 4 . HNO . It is used in combination with silver nitrate in treatment of disorders of the genitourinary tract. Dose, as the hydro- chlorid; maximum dose f gr. (0.049 Gm.), single; 2\ gr. (0.146 Gm.) a day. C. Oleate (oleatum cocaince, U: S. P.), a 10% solution in oleic acid, for external use. C. Phenate, a topical application in ca- tarrhs and in rheumatism, used as a 5 to 10% alcoholic solution; also internally. Dose xV~i g r - (0.005-0.01 Gm.). C. Phthalate, contains 64.6% of the alkaloid. It is used hypodermatically instead of cocain hydro- chlorid. C. Saccharate, moist crystalline plates used in diseases of the throat; a 5 % so- lution corresponds to a 4 % solution of cocain hydrochlorid. C. Salicylate, C 17 H 21 N0 4 . - C 7 H 6 3 , is used in spasmodic asthma in the same manner as cocain hydrochlorid. C. Tartrate, (C 17 H 21 N0 4 ) 2 C 4 H 6 6 . Uses and dose same as of cocain hydrochlorid.
  • Cocainism (ko-ka f -in-izm) [cocain]. The cocain-habit. , Cocainization (ko-ka-in-iz-a' -shun) [cocain]. The bringing of the system or an organ under the influence of cocain. C, Endome- ningeal, C, Intraspinal, C, Spinal-canal, C, Spinal Subarachnoid, C, Subarach- noid. See Coming-Bier Method under Anesthetic.
  • Cocapyrin (ko-ka-pi' -rin) . A mixture of cocain, 1 part; antipyrin, 100 parts; used as an analgesic and antipyretic. Dose 3^ gr. (0.22 Gm.).
  • Coccaceae (kok-kas'-e-e) [see Coccus]. A group of schizomycetous fungi or bacteria, including as genera the Micrococcus, Sarcina, Ascococcus, and Leuconostoc, Coccidioides immitis pyogenes (kok-sid-e- oid'-ez im-i'-tis pi-oj'-en-ez). A patho- genic microorganism discovered by Ophuls and Moffitt (1900). It produces in human beings chronic suppurative processes or caseation.
  • Coccidiosis (kok-sid-i' -o-sis) [coccidium; vboog, disease]. The group of symptoms produced by the presence of coccidia in the body.
  • Coccidium (kok-sid' -e-um) [coccus; pi., coccidia]. A genus of protozoans, by some referred to as the socalled psorosperms. See Psoro- sperm. C. oviforme, has been found in intestinal epithelium and in the liver of man, and often in the liver of the rabbit. True coccidia are nonmotile cell-parasites. C. sarkolytus, the name given by Adamkie- wicz to the socalled parasite of carcinoma.
  • Coccineous (kok-sin' '-e-us) [coccinus, scarlet]. In color, pure carmin tinged with yellow.
  • Coccobacteria (kok-o-bak-te' '-re-ah) [coccus; fiaKTTjpcov, a little rod]. The rod-like or spheroid bacteria found in putrefying liquids, and called C. septica. See under Bacteria.
  • Coccogenous (kok-oj'-en-us) [coccus; jevvdv, to produce]^ Caused by the presence of pus- cocci.
  • Cocculus indicus (kok'-u-lus in'-dik-us). The dried fruit of Anamirta cocculus. It is an active narcotic poison. It is employed as a destroyer of vermin. See Picrotoxin.
  • Coccus (kok'-us) [kokkoc, a berry]. 1. A genus of insects including C. cacti, the cochineal insect. 2. A spheric bacterium — a micro- coccus.
  • Coccycephalus (kok-se-sef -al-us) [coccyx; K£(f)aXrj, the head]. 1. Having a beaked process for a head. 2. A monstrosity with such a head.
  • Coccydynia (kok-se-din'-e-ah). See Coccy- godynia.
  • Coccygeus (kok-sij f -e-us) [coccyx]. One of the pelvic muscles. See under Muscle.
  • Coccygodynia (kok-sig-o-din'-e-ah) [coccyx; oduvrj, pain]. Pain referred to the region of the coccyx; confined almost exclusively to women who have given birth to chil- dren.
  • Coccyx (kok'-siks) [kokku£, cuckoo (resembling the bill)]. The last bone of the spinal column, formed by the union of four rudimentary vertebras.
  • Cochineal (kotch' -in-el or kotch-in-el') [ME., cutchaneal]. The dried insects of a species of plant-lice, Coccus cacti, parasitic upon a cactus of Mexico and Central America. It contains a rich red coloring-matter, carmin, used mainly as a dyeing agent. It is thought to be valuable in whooping-cough. Dose \ gr. (0.02 Gm.).
  • Cochinilin (kotch-in-il f -in) . The same as Carminic acid.
  • Cochin-leg (ko'-chin). Synonym of Ele- phantiasis arabum, COCHLEA 289 COHNHEIM'S AREAS Cochlea (kok'-le-ah) [noyXoc, a conch-shell]. A cavity of the internal ear resembling a snail-shell. It describes z\ turns about a central pillar called the modiolus or colum- ella, forming the spiral canal, about \\ inches in length. See also Ear.
  • Cochlear, Cochleare (kok'-le-ar, kok-le-a' -re) [L.]. A spoon; a spoonful. C. magnum, a tablespoon. C. medium, a dessertspoon. C. minimum, a teaspoon.
  • Cochleariform (kok-le-ar' -e-form) [cochlear; forma, shape], i. Spoon-shaped. 2. [nS^^of, a conch-shell.] Having the shape of a snail- shell.
  • Cocinin (ko' 'sin-in) . A peculiar fatty principle, the chief constituent of cocoanut oil. Syn., Cocin; Cocostearin; Cocostearyl; Cocyl.

Cock's Peculiar Tumor. Extensive septic ulceration of the scalp, resembling an epi- thelioma and developed from a neglected sebaceous cyst.

  • Coco (ko f -ko). See Coko Disease.
  • Cocoa, Coco (ko'-ko). See Cacao and Theo- broma. C. -butter. See Cacao-butter.
  • Cod (kod) [ME.]. The Gadus morrhua, a fish furnishing cod-liver oil. C. -liver Oil, an oil derived from the liver of the Gadus morrhua, and ranging in color, according to the method of its preparation, from pale straw to dark brown; its specific gravity is 0.923 to 0.924 or even 0.930 at i5°C. See Morrhua.
  • Codeia (ko-de'-ah). See Codein.
  • Codein (ko'-de-in) [Koodeca, the poppy-head], C 18 H 21 N0 3 + H 2 0, codeina (U. S. P.). A white, crystalline alkaloid of opium re- sembling morphin in action, but being weaker. It is used in cough and in diabetes mellitus. Dose £-2 gr. (0.032-0.13 Gm.). Syn., Codeia; Methylmorphin. C. Acetate, C 18 H 21 N0 3 . C 2 H 4 2 , use and dose same as codein. C. Citrate, used as is codein. C. Hydrobromate, C 18 H 21 N0 3 . HBr + 2H 2 0, used as is codein. C. Hydro chlorate, C 18 - H 21 N0 3 . HC1 + 2H 2 0, use and dose same as codein. C. Hydroiodate, C 18 H 21 NO s . HI + H 2 0, use and dose same as codein. C. Nitrate, C 18 H 21 NO s . HNO s , use and dose same as codein. C. Phosphate (codeines phosphas, U. S. P.), soluble in water. It is similar to morphin in action, but less toxic. Dose, hypodermatically, \ gr. (0.032 Gm.). C. Salicylate, a white powder, soluble in water, used in rheumatism. C. Sulfate {codeince sulphas, U. S. P.), the sulfate of the alkaloid. Dose \-\ gr. (0.01-0.016 Gm.). C. Valerianate, an antispasmodic and sedative. Dose \ gr. (0.016 Gm.).
  • Coefficient (ko-ef-ish'-ent) [con, together; effi- cere, to produce]. A figure indicating the degree of physical or chemic alteration char- acteristic of a given substance under stated conditions. C, Baumann's. See under Baumann. C, Bouchard's. See under Bouchard. C, Haeser's. See Chrislison's Formula. C, Trapp's. See Trapp's For- mula. C, Yvon's. See under Yvon. 20 Cceliac (se'-le-ak). See Celiac.
  • Coelongate (ko-e-lon' -gat) [con, together; elon- gatus, elongated]. Of equal length.
  • Ccenurus (se-nur'-us) [kocvqc, common; oupd, tail]. The larva of Taenia ccenurus, producing the disease of sheep called staggers. C. cerebralis, a hydatid found mainly in the brain and spinal canal of the ox and sheep (mostly in young animals). Occasionally it has been discovered in the muscles of man. It is known to be the larva of the tape- worm, Taenia ccenurus.
  • Coercible (ko-ers' -ib-il) [coercerg, to curb]. Applied to gases which are capable of being liquefied.
  • Coercive (ko-ers'-iv). Capable of being ren- dered magnetic and continuing so.
  • Coetaneous ' (ko-et-a' -ne-us) [con, together; cetas, age]. Reaching maturity simultane- ously.
  • Coffea (kof'-e-ah). The coffee tree. C. ara- bica, the common coffee plant, is the original source of most of the coffee cultivation.
  • Coffee (kof'-e). See Coffea. C. -ground Vomit, the material ejected by emesis in gastric carcinoma and other conditions that give rise to a slow hemorrhage into the stomach. It consists of blood changed by the action of the gastric juice, and mixed with other contents of the stomach.
  • Coffeon (kof'-e-on). A product obtained by condensing the material volatilized when coffee is roasted. The pleasant flavor of coffee is due to it.
  • Cognac (kon-yak) [a district in France]. French brandy distilled from wines produced in the district of Cognac.

Cog-wheel Breathing, C. Respiration. A type of breathing characterized by a jerky, wavy inspiration.

  • Cohabitation (ko-hab-it-a' -shun) [con, together; habitare, to dwell]. 1. The living together of a man and woman, with or without legal marriage. 2. Sexual connection.

Cohen's Test for Albumin. To the acid solution of albumin add a solution of potas- sium bismuthic iodid and potassium iodid. The albumin and the alkaloids are precipi- tated.

  • Cohesion (ko-he r -zhun) [cohecrere, to stick together]. The force whereby molecules of matter adhere to one another; the attraction of aggregation.

Cohn's Law. The specific form of bacteria has a fixed, immutable basis. C.'s Stigmas, minute gaps in the interalveolar walls of the normal lung.

Cohnheim's Areas, C.'s Fields. Small poly- gonal fields visible on optic section of a sar- cous element prism. C.'s Frog. See Salt- frog. C.'s Terminal Arteries, terminal arteries without anastomoses. C.'s Theory, COHOSH 290 COLIBACILLOSIS a theory that all true tumors are due to faulty embryonal development. The em- bryonal cells do not undergo the normal changes, are displaced, or are superfluous. When the favorable conditions are presented later in life, they take on growth, with the formation of tumors of various kinds. See Cancer, Cohnheim's Theory of. C.'s Tumor- germs, small aberrant or heterotopic masses of embryonic tissue from which newgrowths may originate.

  • Cohosh (ko'-hosh) [Am. Ind.]. A name given to several medicinal plants. C, Black. See Cimicifuga. C, Red. See Actcea rubra. C, White. See Actcea alba.
  • Coil (koil) [colligere, to gather together]. A spiral formed by winding. C. -gland. See Sweat-gland. C, Induction-, rolls of wire used to produce an electric current by induc- tion. C, Letter's. See Letter's Tubes. C, Primary, the inner coil of an induction ap- paratus. C, Resistance-, a coil of wire of known electric resistance, used for estimat- ing resistance. C, Secondary, the* outer coil of an induction apparatus.
  • Coinosite (ko-in f -o-slt) [kocvoc, common; ocx- £~cv, to feed]. An animal parasite capable of separating itself from its host at will; a free commensal organism.
  • Coition (ko-ish' -un) . Same as Coitus.
  • Coitophobia (ko-it-o-fo f -be-ah) [coitus; 4>6ftoc, fear]. Morbid dread of coitus from disgust or dyspareunia.
  • Coitus (ko'-it-us) [coire, to come together]. The act of sexual connection; copulation.
  • Coko Disease (ko'-ko). A name applied in the Fiji Islands to a disease resembling fram- besia.
  • Colauxe (kol-awks' -e) [koXov, colon; au^f), in- crease]. Distention of the colon.
  • Colchicein (kol-chis-e' -in) [colchicum], C 17 H 21 - NO s + 2H 2 0. A crystalline decomposition- product of colchicin. It is used subcutane- ously in treatment of gout. Dose gV" 3V gr. (0.001-0.002 Gm.).
  • Colchicin (koV -chis-in) [colchicum], C 22 H 25 NO e , colchicina (U. S. P.). An alkaloid of colchi- cum; it is a pale, brownish-yellow, exceed- ingly bitter powder, freely soluble in water. It is a very active poison. Its dose is y$ gr. (0.0032 Gm.) hypodermatically. C. Sali- cylate. See Colchisal.
  • Colchicum (koV -chik-um) [koXxckov, colchicum]. Meadow-saffron. The corm and seed of C. autumnale, the properties of which are due to an alkaloid, colchicin. It is an emetic, diuretic, diaphoretic, and drastic cathartic. It is valuable in acute gout . and in some forms of rheumatism. Dose of the powdered corm (colchici cormus, U. S. P.) 2-8 gr. (0.13- 0.52 Gm.); of the powdered seeds (colchici semen, U. S. P.) 1-5 gr. (0.065-0.32 Gm.). C. Corm, Extract of (extr actum colchici cormi, U. S. P.). Dose 1 gr. (0.065 Gm -)- C., Ex- tract of, Acetic (extractum aceticum colchici, B. P.). Dose \-2 gr. (0.032-0.13 Gm.). C. Seed, Fluidextract of (fluidextr actum colchici seminis, U. S. P.). Dose 3 min. (0.2 Cc).
  • C. Seed, Tincture of (tinctura cplchici seminis, U. S. P.), 10% strength. Dose 10-30 min. (0.6-2.0 Cc). C. Seed, Wine of (vinum col- chici seminis, U. S. P.), 10 % in strength. Dose 10-30 min. (0.6-2.0 Cc).
  • Colchiflor (kol f -chi-flor). A remedy for gout prepared from a tincture made from the fresh flowers of Colchicum autumnale and powdered kola. It is said to be free from the drastic properties contained in prepara- tions from the bulb and seeds of colchicum.
  • Colchisal (koV -chis-al) . Colchicin salicylate. A yellow, amorphous powder, soluble in alcohol, ether, and water. It is used in gout and arthritis. Dose T ^ ¥ gr. (0.00065 Gm.).
  • Cold (kold) [AS., ceald]. 1. The compara- tive want of heat. 2. A term used popu- larly for coryza and catarrhal conditions of the respiratory tract. Cold is employed largely in various forms as a therapeutic agent, mainly for the purpose of lowering tempera- ture and allaying irritation and inflamma- tion. It may be used in the form of affusion, that is, the sudden application of a consid- erable volume of cold water to the body. Cold may be used as an anesthetic in baths (see Bath); in the form of compresses ap- plied over the affected part; in the form of irrigation, especially in the treatment of bruised and injured members; as a lotion, for the purpose of relieving local heat, pain, and swelling; as an injection, in the form of ice-water, into the vagina or rectum, for various conditions; and as the cold pack, which is a valuable means of reducing the body-temperature in cases of hyperpyrexia. Cold may be applied in the dry form by means of the ice-cap or bladder, an india- rubber bag filled with ice, snow, or a freezing mixture. C. Abscess. See Abscess, Cold. C- cream (unguentum aqua roses, U. S. P.), sper- maceti, 125 Gm.; white wax, 120 Gm.; ex- pressed oil of almond, 560 Gm.; stronger rose- water, 190 Gm., in which finely powdered so- dium borate 5 Gm. has been dissolved. When used as a vehicle for metallic salts the sodium borate should be omitted. Used for chapping of face and hands, abrasions, etc. C. Pack. See Pack, Cold. C, Rose-, hay-fever. C- sore, herpes labialis. C, St. Kilda's, C, Strangers', in the Hebrides, a form of influ- enza ascribed by the natives to the arrival of a ship and the presence of outsiders.
  • Colectomy (ko-lek'-to-me) [colon; hro/ir], cut- ting out]. Excision of a portion of the colon.

Coley's Fluid, C.'s Mixture. A combination of the toxins of Streptococcus erysipelatis and Bacillus prodigiosus; it has been used as a remedy for cancer in the early stage.

  • Colibacillosis (ko-le-bas-il-o' '-sis) . The morbid condition due to infection with Bacterium coli. COLIBACTERIURIA 291 COLLES' FASCIA Colibacteriuria (ko-le-bak-te-re-u' -re-ah). The presence in the urine of Bacterium coli.
  • Colic (kol'-ik) [colon]. i. Pertaining to the colon. 2. A severe griping pain in the bowels, due to spasm of the intestinal walls; also any severe spasmodic pain in the abdomen. C., Biliary, that due to the passage of a gall-stone through the gall- ducts. C, Crapulent, C, Crapulous, that due to excess in eating and drinking. C, Cystic, colicky pain in the urinary bladder. C, Devonshire. Synonym of C, Lead-. C, Hemorrhoidal, intense pain near the anus and sacrum preceding a discharge from the hemorrhoidal vessels. C, Hepatic, biliary colic. C, Herniary, the pain attend- ing hernia. C, Inflammatory, the intense pain attending colitis. C, Lead-, C, Sat- urnine, intestinal colic due to lead-poisoning. It is characterized by excruciating abdominal pain, a hard and retracted condition of the abdomen, slow pulse, and increased arterial tension. Syn., Colica pictonum; Painter's colic. C, Menstrual, the pain of men- struation. C, Metastatic, that due to metas- tasis of gout or to suppression of the menses or the hemorrhoidal flow. C, Renal, that due to the presence of a calculus in the ure- ter. C, Saburral, that resulting from over- eating. C, Senegal, lead-colic. C, Uter- ine, colicky pains experienced at the men- strual epochs, often coming on in paroxysms. C, Vermicular, i. Pain in the vermiform appendix, due to catarrhal inflammation re- sulting from stoppage of its outlet. 2. That due to intestinal worms. Syn., Verminous colic; Worm colic.
  • Colicystitis (ko-le-sist-i' '-tis) (colon; kuotcc, blad- der; exec, inflammation]. Cystitis dependent upon the pathogenic activity of the colon bacillus.
  • Colicystopyelitis (ko-le- sist -o-pi-e- W - tis) . Combined cystitis and pyelitis due to Bacillus coli communis.
  • Coliform (kol'-e-form) [colum, a sieve; forma, form]. Sieve-like.
  • Colitis (ko-li'-tis) [colon; cztc, inflammation]. Inflammation of the colon . C . , Croupous , C . , Desquamative, C, Diphtheric, C, Fol- licular, C, Membranous, C, Mucomem- branous, C, Plastic. See C, Mucous. C, Idiopathic Ulcerative, a specific affection due to microorganisms, beginning in and throughout its course, invariably limited to the colon. C, Mucous, a clinical combination of symptoms characterized by periodic abdominal pains associated generally with abnormities of the secretory and absorptive functions, and with the discharge of peculiarly formed mu- cous masses, sometimes resembling exact casts of the intestine. Syn., Chronic exudative enteritis; Chronic mucocolitis; Diarrhoea tubu- laris; Fibrinous diarrhea; Follicular-colonic dyspepsia; Follicular duodenal dyspepsia; Intestinal croup; Pellicular enteritis; Pseudo- membranous enteritis. C, Ulcerative. Syn- onym of Dysentery.
  • Collacin, Collastin (kol'-as-in, -tin). A sub- stance found abundant, by Unna, in colloid degeneration of the skin.
  • Collaform (kol'-a-}orm). A formaldehyd-gel- atin preparation intended as a vulnerary.
  • Collagen (kol'-aj-en) [noXXa, glue; yevvdv, to produce]. A substance existing in various tissues of the body, especially bone and car- tilage; it is converted into gelatin by boiling.
  • Collapse (kol-aps') [collabere, to fall together]. Extreme depression and prostration from failure of the circulation, as in cholera, shock, hemorrhage, etc. C. of Lung, return of a por- tion or the whole of a lung to its fetal or air- less condition from some mechanic hindrance to the entrance of air. It is characterized by dyspnea, with more or less cyanosis, and is mainly encountered in bronchopneumonia.
  • Collapsing (kol-aps 1 '-in g) [collapse]. Suddenly breaking down. C. Pulse. See Corrigan's Pulse.

Collar-bone. The clavicle.

  • Collateral (kol-al'-er-al) [con, together; lateralis, of the side]. 1. Accessory or secondary; not direct or immediate. 2. One of the first branches of an axis-cylinder of a nerve-cell passing at a right angle.

Collecting Tubes of the Kidney. A name given to the ducts discharging into the calices of the kidneys.

  • Collemia, Collaemia (kol-e' -me-ah) [nolla, glue; alfia, blood]. Haig's term for a condition of capillary obstruction which he attributes to a clogging of the capillaries by urates or col- loid deposits.

Colles' Fascia. The deep layer of the peri- neal fascia. It is attached to the base of the triangular ligament, to the anterior lips of the rami of the pubes and ischiums lat- erally, and anteriorly it is continuous with the dartos of the scrotum. C.'s Fracture, transverse fracture of the lower extremity of the radius, with displacement of the hand backward and outward. C.'s Law, the child of a syphilitic father will render its mother Colles' Fracture. — (Gould and Pyle's Cyclopedia.) immune against syphilis. In Colles' original words: "A new-born child affected with con- genital syphilis, even although it may have symptoms in the mouth, never causes ulcera- tion of the breasf which it sucks, if it be the mother who suckles it, though continuing capable of infecting a strange nurse." C.'s Ligament, the fibers which pass from the outer portion of Poupart's ligament behind COLLES-BEAUMES' LAW 292 COLOCYNTHIS the internal pillar of the abdominal ring and are inserted into the linea alba, where they interlace with those of the opposite side. C.'s Space, the space beneath the perineal fascia containing the ischiocavernosus, transversus perinei, and bulbocavernosus muscles, the bul- bous portion of the urethra, the posterior scro- tal (labial) vessels and nerves, and loose are- olar tissue.

Colles-Beaumes' Law]]. See Colics' Law.

  • Collidin (kol'-id-in) [noXXa, glue], C 8 H n N. A ptomain, isomeric but not identical with colli- din aldehyd. The ptomain was obtained from pancreas and gelatin allowed to putrefy together in water. C. Aldehyd. See Al- dehyd, Collidin.

Collier's Lung. Synonym of Anthracosis.

  • Colligamen (kol-ig'-a-men) [colligare, to bind], i. A ligament. 2. A name given to a variety of bandages prepared with glycerol and a glycerol-zinc paste.
  • Collin (kol'-in) [noXXa, glue]. Gelatin in soluble form.
  • Collinic (kol-in'-ik). Relating to or obtained from gelatin.
  • Collinsonia (kol-in-so' -ne-ah) [after Peter Col- linson, an English gentleman], A genus of labiate herbs. C. canadensis, .stoneroot, healall, is a coarse plant with a disagreeable smell; it has tonic, diuretic, and diaphoretic properties. Dose 15-60 gr. (1-4 Cc.) in decoction; of the fluidextract 10 min.-i dr. (0.65-4.0 Cc); of the tincture (1 : 10) £-2 dr. (2-8 Cc).
  • Colliquation (kol-ik-wa' -shun) [con, together; liquare, to melt]. The liquefaction or break- ing down of a tissue or organ.
  • Colliquative (kol-ik' -wa-tiv) [colliquation]. Profuse or excessive; marked by excessive fluid discharges. C. Diarrhea, a profuse watery diarrhea. C. Necrosis. See Necrosis, Liquej active. C. Sweat, a profuse clammy sweat.
  • Colliquef action (kol-ik -we -fak' -shun) [col- liquation]. A melting or fusing together Collocated (kol'-o-ka-ted) [collocare, to place]. Corresponding with in respect to location; applied especially to parts of the brain that are adjacent, one ectal and the other ental; e. g., the calcarine fissure and the calcar.
  • Collodion (kol-o'-de-on) [KoXXtbd-qc, glue-like]. Collodium (U. S. P.). A dressing for wounds made by dissolving guncotton in ether; it is used as a substitute for adhesive plaster. See Pyroxylin. C, Acetone, one prepared from guncotton, 5 parts; ether, 10 parts; alcohol, 10 parts; acetone, 20 parts; castor-oil, 6 parts. It is more elastic than ordinary flexible collodion. C, Cantharidal (collodium can- tharidatum, U. S. P.), a blistering solution of collodion and cantharides. C, Flexible (collodium flexile, U. S. P.), collodion with the addition of castor-oil and Canada balsam. C, Iodized, flexible collodion with the addi- tion of 5 % of iodin. It is used in chilblains. C, Iodoform, flexible collodion with 5 % of iodoform. C, Styptic (collodium stypticum, U. S. P.), a mixture of collodion with tannic acid, ether, and alcohol. Collodium (kol-o' -de-um) . See Collodion. Colloid (kol'-oid) [noXXa, glue]. 1. A non- dialyzable organic substance. See Dialysis.

2. A substance formed by colloid degenera- tion of epithelium. See Degeneration, Colloid.

3. Having the nature of glue. 4. In chemistry, amorphous and noncrystalline. C. Cancer. See Cancer, Colloid. C. Degeneration. See Degeneration, Colloid.

  • Colloidin (kol-oid' -in) [colloid], C 9 H 15 N0 6 . A jelly-like substance obtained from colloid tissue.
  • Colloma (kol-o' -mah) [noXXa, glue; ofia, a tumor]. A cystic tumor containing a gel- atiniform substance.
  • Collosin (kol'-o-sin) [noXXa, glue]. A skin- varnish made by the addition of camphor to acetone collodion.
  • Collum (kol'-um) [L.]. The neck; espe- cially the anterior part of the neck. C. dis- tortum. Synonym of Torticollis.
  • Collutory (koV -u-to-re) [colluere, to rinse]. A gargle or mouth -wash.
  • Collyrium (kol-ir' -e-um) [noXXuptov, an eye- salve]. A lotion for the eyes.
  • Coloboma (kol-o-bo'-mah) [noXofiouv, to muti- late]. A congenital fissure of the iris, choroid, or eyelids. C, Fuchs', a small crescentic defect of the choroid at the lower border of the optic disc. C. palpebral, C. palpebra- rum, a form of partial ablepharia consisting in a fissure of the eyelid— most frequently the upper lid. Syn., Blepharocolobdma.
  • Colocentesis (kol-o -sen-te' -sis) [colon; Kevzrjocc, puncture]. Surgical puncture of the colon.
  • Colocleisis (ko-lo-kW -sis) [colon; kXs'cocc, closure]. Occlusion of the colon.
  • Coloclyster (ko-lo-klis'-ter) [colon; clyster]. An enema in the colon.
  • Colocolostomy (ko-lo-kol-os'-to-me). The oper- ation of forming a connection between two portions of the colon.
  • Colocynth (kol'-o-sinth). Same as Colocynthis.
  • Colocynthidism (kol-o -sinth' -id-izm) [colocyn- this]. Poisoning from undue use of colocynth. A condition marked by violent inflammation of the digestive tract, watery and bloody stools, bilious vomiting, cramps in the calves of the legs, and collapse.
  • Colocynthin (kol-o -sin' -thin) [colocynthis]. The bitter principle of colocynth. See Colo- cynthis.
  • Colocynthis (kol-o -sin' -this) [koXokuvQ'cc, colo- cynth]. Colocynth. Bitter apple. The fruit of Citrullus colocynthis, from which the seeds and rind have been removed. Its properties are due to a bitter glucosid, colocynthin, CgsH^Oaa, the dose of which is ^Vi gr- (0.003-0.013 Gm.). It is a tonic and as- tringent purgative, and is used mainly as an ingredient of compound cathartic pills. Colocynthidis, Extractum (U. S. P.), alco- holic Dose §-2 gr. (0.032-0.13 Gm.). COLOENTERITIS 293 COLPOHYPERPLASIA Colocynthidis, Extractum, Compositum (U. S. P.), contains colocynth extract, 16; aloes, 50; cardamom, 6; resin of scammony, 14; soap, 14; alcohol, 10 parts. Dose 5-20 gr. (0.32-1.3 Gm.). Colocynthidis, Pilula, Composita (B. P.), contains colocynth, aloes, scammony, potassium sulfate, and oil of cloves. Dose 5-10 gr. (0.32-0.65 Gm.). Colocynthidis, Pilulse, et Hyoscyami (B. P.), pills of colocynth and henbane. Dose 5-10 gr. (0.32-0.65 Gm.).
  • Coloenteritis (ko-lo-en-ter-i'-tis) (colon; en- teritis]. Inflammation of the small and large intestine. See Enterocolitis.
  • Colon (ko'-lon) [koXov, the colon]. The part of the large intestine beginning at the cecum and terminating at the end of the sigmoid flexure. In the various parts of its course it is known as the ascending colon, the trans- verse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid flexure.
  • Colonometer (kol-on-om' -e-ter) [colony; pkxpov, a measure]. An apparatus for estimating the number of colonies of bacteria on a culture-plate.
  • Colonoscope (ko-lon'-o-skop) [colon; onoizelv, to view]. An instrument for examining the colon.
  • Colony (kol'-o-ne) [colonia, colony]. A collec- tion or assemblage, as of microorganisms in a culture.
  • Colopexia, Colopexy (ko-lo-peks'-e-ah, ko'-lo- pek-se) [colon; tz^cc, a fixing]. Suturing of the sigmoid flexure to the abdominal wall. .
  • Colopexotomy (ko-lo-peks-ot'-o-me) [colon; n^cc, a fixing; zipvsiv, to cut]. Incision into and fixation of the colon.
  • Colophony (kol'-o-fo-ne) [KoXocpcbv, a city of Ionia]. Rosin. The solid residue left on distilling off the volatile oil from crude turpentine. See Rosin.
  • Coloptosis (ko-lo-to'-sis) [colon; tztcoocc, a falling]. Descent or displacement of the colon.
  • Color (kul' -or) [L.]. 1. A visual sensation due to radiated or reflected light. 2. That quality of an object perceptible to sight alone. 3. A pigment. C. -analysis, Ehr- lich's method of identifying the various forms of leukocytes. It depends upon the distinctive manner in which the protoplasmic granules react toward the acid, basic, and socalled neutral solutions of the anilin dyes. Five varieties of granules are recognized and designated by the Greek letters, a, ft, y, d, e: (1) a-granules (eosinophil, oxyphil, or coarse oxyphil granules); (2) ft-granules (amphophil granules); (3) "{-granules (mast- cell or coarse basophil granules); (4) d-gran- ules (fine basophil granules); (5) s-granules (neutrophil or fine oxyphil granules). C- blindness. See Blindness, Color-. C. -gusta- tion. See Pseudogeusesthesia. C. -hearing, the excitation of the visual center for color through the auditory nerve. C. -sensation, the perception of color; it depends on the number of vibrations of the ether. Colorimeter (kol-or-im'-et-er) [color; pkxpov, a measure]. An instrument for determining the quantity of coloring-matter in a mixture, as in the blood.
  • Colorimetric (kol-or-im-et'-rik). Relating to methods of color -measuring.
  • Colostomy (ko-los'-to-me) [colon; o-opa, a mouth]. 1. The formation of an artificial anus by an opening into the colon. 2. Any surgical operation upon the colon that makes a permanent opening into it, whether internal or external.
  • Colostrum (kol-os'-trum) [L.]. The first milk from the mother's breasts after the birth of the child. It is laxative, and assists in the expulsion of the meconium. C. Cor- puscles, small microscopic bodies contained in the colostrum. They are the epithelial cells of the mammary glands, full of oil- globules. After about the third day these cells burst and set free the fat-globules be- fore they leave the gland, and in this way the true milk is formed.
  • Colotomy (ko-lot'-o-me) [colon; xkp.ve.tv, to cut]. Incision of the colon, abdominal, lateral, lum- bar, or iliac, according to the region of en- trance.
  • Colotyphoid (ko-lo-ti'-foid). Typhoid accom- panied with follicular ulceration of the colon and lesions in the small intestine.
  • Colpeurynter (kol-pu-rin'-ter) [koX-oc, vagina; eupuvscv, to widen]. An inflatable bag or sac used for dilating the vagina and the cervix.
  • Colpeurysis (kol-pu' -ris-is) [see Colpeurynter]. Dilation of the vagina, especially that effected by means of the colpeurynter.
  • Colpitis (kol-pi' -tis) [koX-oc, vagina; iTt£ y inflammation]. Inflammation of the vagina.
  • Colpo- (kol-po-) [koIt.oc, vagina]. A prefix denoting relation to the vagina.

Colpocele -(kol'-po-sel) [colpo-; ktjXtj, hernia]. Hernia of the vagina.

  • Colpoceliotomy (kol-po-se-le-ot'-o-me) [colpo-; celiotomy]. Vaginal celiotomy. C, Antero- lateral, Diihrssen's name for a new vaginal operative route into the abdomen. It con- sists in a combination of vaginal celiotomy with complete division of one broad ligament.
  • Colpocleisis (kol-po-kW -sis) [colpo-; nXelocc, a closure]. The surgical closure of the vagina.
  • Colpo cystoplasty (kol-po-sisf -o-plas-te) [col- po-; kugtcc, bladder; r.Xaooecv, to form]. Plastic surgery of the vagina and bladder.
  • Colpocystoureterocystotomy (kol-po-sist-o-u- re-ter-o-sist-ot' -o-me) [colpo-; koo-cc, bladder; ureter; cystotomy]. Exposure of the orifices of the ureter by incision of the walls of the bladder and vagina.
  • Colpodesmorrhaphy (kol -po - des - mor' - af-e) [colpo-; dcopoc, a fastening; pacfrrj, a seam]. Suturing of the vaginal sphincter.
  • Colpohyperplasia (kol -po-hl- per - pla'-ze-ah) [colpo-; hyperplasia]. Hyperplasia of the vagina. C. cystica, a form of degen- eration of the vaginal mucosa, occurring during pregnancy, and characterized by the formation of gas-cysts, due, according to Lin- COLPOHYSTERECTOMY 294 COMA denthal, to an organism which he calls Bacillus emphysematis vagina?. Syn., Colpitis vesicu- losa emphysematosa ; Emphysema vagina.
  • Colpohysterectomy (kol-po-his-ter-ek' -to-me) [colpo-; hysterectomy]. Removal of the uterus through the vagina.
  • Colpohysteropexy (kol - po - his' - ter-o-pek- se) [colpo-; hysteropexy]. Vaginal hysteropexy; supravaginal amputation of the cervix and anastomosis of the uterus and the vaginal mucosa. Syn., Hysteropexy vaginalis.
  • Colpomyomectomy (kol-po-mi-o-mek' '-to-me) [colpo-; myomectomy]. Myomectomy through the vagina.
  • Colpomyotomy (kol-po-mi-of -o-me) . m See Col- pomyomectomy.
  • Colpoperineorrhaphy (kol-po-per-in-e-or f -af-e) [colpo-; perineorrhaphy]. Repair of a perineal laceration by denuding and in part suturing the posterior wall of the vagina.
  • Colpoptosis (kol-po-to' -sis) [colpo-; izxcoat^, a falling]. Prolapse of the vaginal walls.
  • Colporrhaphy (kol-por' '-a-fe) [colpo-; paip- ecv, to bear]. A genus of shrubs and trees of the order Burseracece, found in Africa and the East Indies. C. africanum yields African bdellium. C. agallocha yields In- dian bdellium. C. myrrha yields myrrh. C. opobalsamum yields balsam of Mecca or of Gilead.
  • Commissura (kom-is-u'-rah). See Commis- sure. C. magna, the corpus callosum. C. magna cerebelli, the superior peduncles of the cerebellum. C. maxima, C. maxima cerebri, the corpus callosum.
  • Commissural (kom-is'-u-ral) [commissure]. Having the properties of a commissure; uniting symmetric parts, as commissural fibers of the brain.
  • Commissure (kom r -is-ur) [com, together; mit- tere, to send]. That which unites two parts. C, Anterior (of third ventricle), a rounded cord of white fibers placed in front of the anterior crura of the fornix. C, Arcuate, the posterior optic commissure. C, Gray (of spinal cord), the transverse band of gray mat- ter connecting the masses of gray matter of the two halves of the spinal cord. C, Gray, Anterior, nerve-fibers in the gray columns of the cord, which, crossing to the opposite side in front of the central canal, decussate in two directions, part of the fibers entering into the opposite cornu ventrale, part into the cornu dorsale. C, Gray, Posterior, that portion of the gray commissure of the spinal cord lying dorsad to the central canal. C, Gudden's Inferior, fibers of the optic tract which come from the internal geniculate body and cross in the posterior portion of the chiasm to the opposite tract. C, Horseshoe. See C, Wernekink's. C, Inferior. See C, Gudden's Inferior. C, Meynert's, a tract of nerve-fibers crossing from the tuber cin- ereum dorsally to the mesial half of the chiasm to the opposite side; it is probably connected with Luys' body. C, Middle, a band of soft gray matter connecting the optic thalami. C., Optic, the union and crossing of the two optic nerves in front of the tuber cinereum. C, Posterior (of third ventricle), a flattened white band con- necting the optic thalami posteriorly. C, Soft (of the brain). Same as C, Middle. C, Wernekink's, the decussating fibers of the middle cerebellar peduncle. Syn., Decus- satio tegmenti caudicis cerebri; Horseshoe commissure. C, White, Anterior (of spinal cord), a layer of fibers separating the posterior gray commissure from the bottom of the ante- rior median fissure. C, White, Posterior (of spinal cord), a band of fibers separating the gray commissure from the bottom of the posterior median fissure.
  • Commotio (kom-o'-she-o) [L.]. A commo- tion or shock. C. cerebri, concussion of the brain. C. retinae, concussion or paralysis of the retina from a blow on or near the eye. It is characterized by sudden blindness, but there is little or no ophthalmoscopic evidence of any lesion. The sight is usually regained, and its loss is supposedly due to disturbance of the retinal elements. C. spinalis, railway spine.
  • Communicans (kom-u' '-nik-ans) [L.]. i. Com- municating; 2. Alternating; connecting. C. noni. See under Nerve. C. willisii. See Artery, Communicating, Posterior.
  • Commutator (kom r -u-ta-tor) [commutare, to exchange]. An instrument for automatically interrupting or reversing the flow of an elec- tric current.

Compact Tissue. The external, hard part of bone.

Comparative Anatomy. See Anatomy, Com- parative.

  • Compatibility (kom-pat-ib-iV '-it-e) [Fr., com- patibilite]. Of medicines, the relation of one substance to another, so that they may be mixed without chemic change or loss of therapeutic power.
  • Compensating (kom r -pen-sa-ting) [see Com- pensation]. Making good a deficiency. C. COMPENSATION 296 CONCENTRIC Ocular. See under Ocular. C. Operation, in ophthalmology, tenotomy of the associated antagonist in cases of diplopia from paresis of one of the ocular muscles.
  • Compensation (kom-pen-sa' -shun) [compen- sare, to equalize]. The act of making good a deficiency; the state of counterbalancing a functional or structural defect.
  • Compensatory (kom-pen' 'sa-to-re) [see Com- pensation]. Making good a deficiency. Restoring the balance, after failure of one organ or part of an organ, by means of some other organ or part of an organ.
  • Complaint (kom-pldnt') [complangere, to la- ment]. A disease or ailment. C, Bowel-, diarrhea. C, Summer-, summer diarrhea.
  • Complement (kom'-ple-ment) [complere, to complete]. Ehrlich's term for one of the two substances of a hemolytic serum. It resembles in its constitution and action a toxin, and has a haptophore group which unites with the immune body and a zymotoxic complex which acts on the red blood-cells saturated with immune body in a manner partly toxic and partly fermentative. It can act on the red blood-corpuscles only in thte presence of the immune or intermediary body. Syn., Addi- ment; Alexin; Cytase.
  • Complemental, Complementary (kom-ple- ' men'-tal, kom-ple-men' -ta-re) [complement]. Supplying a deficiency. C. Air. See Air, Complemental. C. Colors, a term applied to any two colors which combined produce white light, as, e. g., blue and yellow.
  • Complemented (kom-ple-ment r -oid). That substance which results from the destruction of a complement (q. v.); it can go to form an anticomplement.
  • Complementophil (kom-ple-menf '-o-fil) . The haptophore group of the intermediary body by means of which it combines with the com- plement.
  • Complementophilic (kom-ple-ment-o-fil'-ik). Showing a special affinity for the complement.
  • Complexus (kom-pleks'-us) [L., "complex"]. The totality of symptoms, phenomena, or signs of a morbid condition. C. Muscle. See under Muscle. ■* Complication (kom-plik-a' '-shun) [complicare, to fold together]. A disease occurring in the course of some other disease and more or less dependent upon it.
  • Composite (kom-poz' -it) [compound]. Composed of distinct portions.
  • Compound (kom' '-pound or kom-pound f ) [com, together; ponere, to. put], i. To mix, as drugs. 2. A mixture composed of several parts. C, Addition, one formed from two other substafices by direct union. C, Binary, a substance composed of two elements or of an element and a compound behaving as an element. C. Cathartic Pills (pilulce cathar- tics composites, U. S. P.), pills of colocynth, mild mercurous chlorid, resin of jalap, gam- boge, and diluted alcohol. Dose 2 pills. C, Endothermic, one absorbing heat in its formation. C, Exothermic, one in which there is no elevation of temperature attending its formation. C, Explosive, an unstable organic product containing much oxygen and readily decomposing. C. Frac- ture. See Fracture, Compound. C, Quater- nary, a substance composed of four elements. C, Saturated, a chemic compound in which the combining capacities of all the elements are satisfied. C, Substitution, a compound formed from another body by replacement of one or more of its elements by another body or bodies. C, Ternary, a compound com- posed of three elements.
  • Compress (Jiom' -pres) [compressus, pressed together]. A folded cloth, wet or dry, ap- plied firmly to the part for relief of inflam- mation or to prevent hemorrhage. C, Electrothermic, an appliance consisting of flexible pillows and of thin wires isolated by asbestos and covered with canvas. This, when connected with a strong electric current, serves to supply a modified form of dry heat. C, Fenestrated, a compress with a hole for drainage. C, Graduated, a compress com- posed of folds of a gradually increasing size.
  • Compression (kom-presh f -un) [compress]. The state of being compressed. C. -atrophy, atrophy of a part from constant compression. C. -myelitis. See Myelitis, Compression-.
  • Compressor (kom-pres' -or) [compress]. 1. An instrument for compressing an artery, vein, etc. 2. A term applied to muscles having a compressing function. C. sacculi laryngis, the inferior arytenoepiglottideus •muscle. See under Muscle. C. urethrae. See under Muscle.
  • Conalbumin (kon-aV -bu-min) . A proteid body obtained by Osborne and Campbell from white of egg, and so designated "on account of its close relation in properties and com- position to ovalbumen." C H N S O 52.25$ 6.99$ 26.11$ 1.70$ 22.95$ Cf. Ovalbumen; Ovomucin; Ovomucoid.
  • Conarium (ko-na'-re-um) [Kcovapcov; dim. of Kcbvoc, a cone]. The pirleal gland.

Concato's Disease. Tuberculosis affecting suc- cessively various serous membranes, termi- nating usually in pulmonary tuberculosis.

  • Concave (kon-kdv') [com, together; cavus, hol- low]. Hollow; incurved, as the inner sur- face of a hollow sphere.
  • Concavoconvex (kon-ka-vo-kon-veks') . Having one surface concave, the other convex, the convexity exceeding the concavity. See Lens, Concavoconvex.
  • Conceive (kon-sev') [concipere, to take in]. To become pregnant.
  • Concentration (kon-sen-tra' '-shun) [com, to- gether; centrum, the center]. 1. The act of making denser, as of a mixture, by evapor- ating a part of the liquid. 2. Afflux toward a part.
  • Concentric (kon-sen'-trik). Arranged in an equidistant manner about a center. C. Hy- CONCEPTION 297 CONDYLE pertrophy of the Heart, increase in the muscular texture of the heart, the capacity of the cavities remaining unchanged.
  • Conception (kon-sep' -shun) [concipere, to con- ceive], i. The fecundation of the ovum by the spermatozoid. 2. The abstract men- tal idea of anything; the power or act of mentally conceiving. C, Imperative, a false idea that a person dwells upon and cannot expel from his mind, even when he knows it to be absurd. It dominates his actions and is a symptom of insanity.
  • Concha (kong'-kah) [Koyx^i a shell]. A shell. Applied to organs having some resemblance to a shell, as the naris, vulva, etc. C. auris, the hollow part of the external ear. C. inferior, the inferior turbinated bones. C. media, the middle turbinated bone. C, Morgagni's, the superior turbinated bone of the ethmoid. C. superior, the superior turbinated bone. Conchas turbinates, the turbinated bones.
  • Conchoscope (kong f -ko-skop) [concha; oKonelv, to inspect]. A speculum and mirror for inspecting the nasal cavity.
  • Conchotome (kong'-ko-tdm) [concha; to/ij?, a cutting]. An instrument for the surgical removal of the middle turbinated bone.
  • Concomitant (kon-kom 1 '-it-ant) [concomitari, to accompany]. Accompanying. C. Stra- bismus. See under Strabismus. C. Symp- toms, symptoms that are not in themselves essential to the course of a disease, but that may occur in association with the essential symptoms.
  • Concrescence (kon-kres'-ens) [com, together; crescere, to grow]. 1. See Concretion (3). 2. Held's term for the plunging of the terminal of one neuron deep into the cell-body of another. C. of Teeth, a growing together of the roots of two teeth after complete de- velopment.
  • Concretion (kon-kre' -shun) [see Concrescence]. 1. The solidification or condensation of a fluid substance. 2. A calculus. 3. A union of parts normally separate, as the fmgers.
  • Concussion (kon-kush' -un) [concussio, a. violent shock]. Shock; the state of being shaken; a severe shaking or jarring of a part; also, the morbid state resulting from such a jarring. C. of Brain, a condition produced by a fall or blow on the head, and marked by unconsciousness, feeble pulse, cold skin, pallor, at times the involuntary discharge of feces and urine; this is followed by partial stupor, vomiting, and headache, and eventually recovery. In severe cases inflammation of the brain or a condition of feeble-mindedness may follow. C. of Spi- nal Cord, a condition caused by severe shock of the spinal column, with or without appreciable lesion of the cord. It leads to functional disturbances analogous to railway spine.
  • Condensed (kon-densd') [condensare, to make thick]. Made compact; reduced to a denser form. C. Milk, milk that has had most of its watery elements evaporated. Condensed milk prepared with the addition of cane- sugar is a white or yellowish-white product of about the consistence of honey, and ranging in specific gravity from 1.25 to 1.4 1. It should be completely soluble in 4 or 5 times its bulk of water, without separation of any flocculent residue, and then possess the taste of fresh, sweetened milk. Con- densed milk prepared without the addition of cane-sugar is not boiled down to the same degree, and therefore remains liquid.
  • Condenser (kon-den 1 '-ser) . A lens or combina- tion of lenses used in microscopy for gathering and concentrating rays of light.
  • Conductibility (kon-dukt-i-biV -e-te) [see Con- ductor]. 1. Capacity for being conducted. 2. Conductivity; conducting power. C, Centrifugal, the power of carrying cen- trifugal impulses from the nervous centers to the periphery. C, Centripetal, the power of conducting centripetal impulses from the periphery to the nervous centers.
  • Conduction (kon-d.uk' -shun) [see Conductor], The passage or transfer of force or material from one part to another.
  • Conductor (kon-duk 1 '-tor) [conducere, to draw together]. 1. A body that transmits force- vibrations, such as those of heat or electricity. 2. A term applied to the electrodes and cords by which they are joined to the battery. 3. An instrument serving as a guide for the sur- geon's knife. 4. In physiology, any part of the nervous system that transmits impulses. C, Sonorous, a term applied to certain nerve-fibers which interlace with the auditory strias.
  • Condurangin (kon-du-ran' -gin) [condurango]. A mixture of glucosids from condu- rango bark, occurring as an amorphous yellow powder of an aromatic bitter taste, soluble in water, alcohol, and chloroform. It is used as a stomachic and astringent in gastric cancer and chronic dyspepsia. Dose tV~"4 g 1 "- (0-006-0.016 Gm.) 3 times daily.
  • Condurango Bark (kon-du-ran' -go) [Peruvian]. Bark of Gonolobus tetragonus or of Con- globus condurango; a remedy much used in South America as an alterative in syphilis. It was introduced into the United States as a remedy for carcinoma of the stomach, but yielded uncertain results. It is a stomachic tonic. Dose of the fluidextract i dr. (2-4 Cc); of the tincture 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc). Unof.

Condy's Fluid. One part of sodium or po- tassium permanganate dissolved in 500 parts of water; it is a useful disinfectant.

  • Condylarthrosi^ (kon-dil-ar -thro' -sis) [condyle; apdpov, a joint]. A form of diarthrosis wherein a condyle is set in a shallow and elliptic cavity and free and varied move- ment of the joint is possible; condylar articulation.
  • Condyle (kon'-dil) [novdoXoc, a knuckle]. Any rounded eminence such as occurs in the CONDYLECTOMY 298 CONGO RED joints of many of the bones, especially the femur, humerus, and lower jaw.
  • Condylectomy (kon-dil-ek' -to-me) [condyle; i/CTOfxr), excision]. Excision of a condyle.
  • Condylion (kon-diV '-e-on) [condyle]. In crani- ometry, the point at the lateral tip of the condyle of the jaw.
  • Condyloid (kon' -dil-oid) [condyle; ddoc, like- ness]. Resembling or pertaining to a con- dyle.
  • Condyloma (kon-dil-o' -mah) , [KovduAwna, a swelling]. A wart-like growth or tumor usually near the anus or pudendum. C. acuminatum, the pointed condyloma or wart of the genital organs, often of non- syphilitic origin. Syn., Acrothymion; Acro- thymiosis. C. endocysticum, C. endo- folliculare, C. porcelaneum, C. subcu- taneum. See Molluscum contagiosum. C. latum, the flat, broad, moist syphilid or mucous patch. Syn., Papida madidans. Cf. C. acuminatum. C, Syphilitic, C. syphiliticum. See C. latum. C., Thymic, condyloma that assumes the form of a papil- loma; so called from its resemblance to thyme-blossoms.
  • Condylosis (kon-dil-o' -sis). The formation of a condyloma.
  • Cone (kon, ko'-nus) [kcovoc, a cone]. i. A solid body having a circle for its base, and terminating in a point. 2. The mechanic element of the tooth-crown. 3. See Conus. C, Antipodal, in mitosis the cone of astral rays opposite the spindle-fibers. C.-bipolars, bipolar cells of the inner nuclear layer of the retina, connected with the cones of the retina externally and ramifying inter- nally in the middle of the molecular layer. C. -element, a cell of the sensory or nerve epithelium of the retina, consisting of a conic tapering external part, the cone proper, pro- longed into a nucleated enlargement from the farther side of which the cone-fiber passes inward to terminate by an expanded arboriza- tion in the outer molecular layer. C. -fiber, one of the fibers of the retinal cones. C- foot, one of the bulbous processes of the cone-granules of the retina. C. -gran- ules, those of the outer nuclear layer of the retina, connected with the cones of the ninth layer externally, and internally by a thick process which becomes bulbous (the cone-foot); they terminate in fine fibers in the outer molecular layer. Cf. Rod-granules. C. of Light, the triangular reflection from the normal tympanic membrane; also the bundle of light-rays entering the pupil and forming the retinal image. C., Retinal, one of the rod-like bodies which, with the asso- ciated rods, forms one of the outer layers of the retina, the socalled rod-and-cone layer.
  • Confection (kon-fek' '-shun) [confectio, a prepa- ration]. In pharmacy, a mass of sugar and water, or of honey, used as an excipient with a prescribed medicinal substance.

Confectioner's Disease. A disease of the finger-nails occurring in confectioners. The nail loses its polish and becomes black, and the periungual portion becomes loosened and raised.

  • Confertus (kon-fer' -tus) [conjercire, to press close together]. Pressed together, dense, crowded; applied to cutaneous eruptions.
  • Confinement (kon-fin' -ment) [com, together; finis, boundary; limit]. The condition of women during childbirth.
  • Confluent (kon' -fiu-ent) [confiuere, to flow to- gether]. Running together. ( The opposite of discrete. In anatomy, coalesced or blended ; applied to two or more bones originally separate, but subsequently formed into one.
  • Confrontation (kon- fron-ta' -shun) [conjrontari, to be contiguous to]. The examination of a person by whom a diseased person may have been infected as a means of diagnosing the disease in the latter.
  • Confusion (kon-fu f -zhun) [com, together; fundere, to pour]. Mixing; confounding. C. Colors, a set of colors so chosen that they cannot be distinguished by one who is color-blind. C. Letters, test-type letters, such as C, G, O, or F, P, T, liable to be mistaken for one another.
  • Congelation (kon-jel-a' -shun) [congelatio, a freezing]. 1. Freezing; frost-bite; intense cold or its effect on the animal economy or any organ or part. 2. The chilling or be- numbing effect of any freezing-mixture or application; mainly employed for its local anesthetic effect. 3. Coagulation.
  • Congenerous (kon-jen'-er-us) [congener, of the same race]. Of the same genus. C. Mus- cles, muscles producing one action.
  • Congenital (kon-jen' -it-al) [com, together; gigni, to be born]. Existing at birth.
  • Congestion (kon-jes'-chun) [congerere, to heap up]. An abnormal collection of blood in a part or organ. Congestion may be active or passive, atonic or inflammatory, functional or hypostatic. It is also named from the parts affected; the most important varieties of morbid congestion are the cerebral, spinal, pulmonary, hepatic, and renal. C, Pleuro- pulmonary, C, Pulmonary, Potain's Type of, congestion of the lungs marked by symptoms similar to those of pleurisy.
  • Congestive (kon-jes' -tiv) [congestion]. Marked by, due to, or of the nature of congestion.
  • Congius (kon-je'-us) [L.]. A Roman measure; a gallon.
  • Conglomerate (kon-glom'-er-at) [conglomerare, to heap up]. 1. Massed together; aggregated. 2. A mass of units without order. C. Glands, acinous glands.
  • Conglutin (kon-glu' -tin) [com, together; gluten, glue]. One of the proteids found in peas, beans, and other kinds of pulse.
  • Conglutination (kon-glu-tin-a r -shun) [conglu- tinare, to glue together]. The abnormal union of two contiguous surfaces or bodies, as of two fingers, or of the opposed surfaces of the pleural or pericardial sac.

Congo Red. A red coloring-matter which be- comes blue in the presence of free HC1. CONI VASCULOSI 299 CONQUINAMIN It is used in chemic investigation of the gastric juice. C. Root, the root of Psoralea melilotoides, a leguminous herb of the United States. It is an aromatic bitter tonic, rec- ommended in chronic diarrhea.

Coni vasculosi. A series of conic masses of tubules that together form the globus major of the epididymis.

  • Conic, Conical (kon'-ik, kon'-ik-al) [cone]. Cone-shaped. C. Cornea. See Kerato globus.
  • Coniin (ko-ni'-in). See Conin and Conium.
  • Coniism (ko-ni' -izm) [conium]. Poisoning by conium. It begins with paralysis of the legs, which extends to the arms and respiratory muscles, leading to unconsciousness and death.
  • Conin (ko'-nin) [conium], C S H 15 N. A liquid alkaloid which is the active principle of conium. Dose -^"tV gr. (0.001-0.006 Gm.). Unof. C, Animal. See Cadaverin. C. Hydrobromate, C 5 H 9 (C 3 H 7 ), recommended in spasmodic affections. Dose yo— V gr. (0.002-0.004 Gm.). All preparations are of uncertain strength. C. Hydrochlorid, C 8 H 17 NHC1, the principal salt of conin, is used as is conin hydrobromate.
  • Conium (ko-ne f -um) [kwvswv, hemlock]. Hem- lock. Both the leaves and the fruit are official in the B. P. The conium of the U. S. P. is the full-grown but unripe fruit of the spotted hemlock, C. maculatum. It contains three alkaloids and a volatile oil. Its properties are mainly due to the alkaloids conin, C 8 H 15 N, and methylconin, C 8 H 34 NCH 3 . It produces motor paralysis, without loss of sensation or of consciousness. Toxic doses cause death by paralysis of the organs of respiration. It is valuable in acute mania, delirium tremens, tetanus, blepharospasm, asthma, and whoop- ing-cough. Conii, Abstractum, made from conium, 200; dilute hydrochloric acid, 6; sugar of milk and alcohol, q. s. to make too parts of abstract. Dose §-3 gr. (0.032- 0.2 Gm.). Conii, Cataplasma (B. P.), made from the leaves; for external use. Conii, Fluid extractum (U. S. P.). Dose 1-2 min. (0.065-0.13 Cc). Conii, Pilula, Composita (B. P.), contains extract of hemlock and ipecac. Dose 5-10 gr. (0.32-0.65 Gm.). Conii, Suc- cus (B. P.), made from the leaves. Dose 30 min.-2 dr. (2-8 Cc). Conii, Tinctura, 15 % strength. Dose 10 min.-i dr. (0.65-4.0 Cc). Coniae, Vapor (B. P.), for inhala- tions.
  • Conjugal (kon'-ju-gal) [com, together; jugare, to yoke]. Pertaining to marriage; affecting both husband and wife. C. Diabetes, dia- betes affecting husband and wife together; this is said to be not infrequently observed.
  • Conjugate (kon'-ju-gat) [see Conjugal]. 1. Yoked or coupled. 2. The anteroposterior diameter of the brim of the pelvis, the plane of the brim being regarded as an ellipse. C, Anatomic. See Conjugate (2). C. Devia- tion. See Deviation, Conjugate. C. Diam- eter (of the pelvis). See Diameter, Pelvic. C, Obstetric, C, True, the minimum diam- eter of the pelvic inlet.
  • Conjunctiva (kon-junk-ti'-vah) [conjunctivus, connecting]. The mucous membrane cover- ing the anterior portion of the globe of the eye, reflected upon the lids and extending to their free edges. Its parts are called palpebral and bulbar or ocular. C, Bulbar, C, Ocular, that covering the anterior third of the eyeball, from the retrotarsal fold to the margin of the cornea. C, Palpebral, the conjunctiva of the eyelid.
  • Conjunctivitis (kon-junk-tiv-i' -tis) [conjunctiva; exec, inflammation]. Inflammation of the con- junctiva. Syn., Ophthalmia externa; Ophthal- mia mucosa. C, Catarrhal, C, Catarrhal, Acute, the most common form, usually mild, resulting from cold or irritation. See Ophthal- mia. C. catarrhalis aestiva. See Vernal Conjunctivitis. C, Contagious, Acute, that due to the presence of Bacterium cegypticum, Chester. See Trachoma. C, Croupous, a variety associated with the formation of a whitish -gray membrane that is easily removed. C, Diphtheric, a specific purulent inflamma- tion of the conjunctiva due to the Klebs-Lofner bacillus. C, Egyptian. See Trachoma. C, Follicular, a form characterized by numer- ous round, pinkish bodies found in the retrotar- sal fold. C, Gonorrheal, a severe form of purulent conjunctivitis caused by infec- tion with gonococci. C. granulosa. See Trachoma. C, Hemorrhagic. See Pink- eye. C, Hypertrophic, C. hypertro- phica, chronic catarrhal conjunctivitis at- tended with enlargement of the conjunctival papillas. C, Lacrimal, a form due to the presence of irritating secretion from the conducting part of the lacrimal apparatus. C, Lithiasis, irritation of the conjunctiva due to deposition of calcareous matter in the tissue of the palpebral conjunctiva. C, Parinaud's, a mucopurulent form marked by the presence of large granules which are sometimes pediculated. The condition is accompanied by chills, fever, and swelling of the preauricular, retromaxillary, and cer- vical glands, which sometimes suppurate. C, Phlyctenular, a form characterized by the presence on the ocular conjunctiva of small vesicles surrounded by a reddened zone. C, Purulent, conjunctivitis characterized by a thick, creamy discharge. C, Subacute, redness and thickening of the conjunctiva, largely confined to the conjunctiva of the lids and fornices, a scanty secretion of mucus, with some pus-corpuscles, due to the presence of a bacillus.

Connective Tissue. See Tissue, Connective.

  • Conoid, Conoidal (ko'-noid, ko-noi'-dal) [kojvoc, cone; eldoc, shape]. Of a conic shape. C. Ligament, the lower and inner part of the coracoclavicular ligament. C. Tubercle, the eminence on the inferior surface of the clavicle to which the conoid ligament is attached.
  • Conquinamin (hon-k-win'-a-min). An alkaloid of cuprea-bark. CONRADI'S LINE 300 CONTRACTION Conradi's Line. A line drawn from the base of the xiphoid process to the point of the apex-beat, marking, under normal conditions, the upper limit of percussion-dulness of the left .lobe of the liver.

Consanguinity ikon-san-gwin' -it-e) [com, to- gether; sanguinis, of blood]. The relation- ship arising from common parentage; blood- relationship.

Consciousness ikon' - shus - nes) [conscius, knowing]. The state of being aware of one's own existence, of one's own mental states, and of the impressions made upon one's senses; ability to take cognizance of sensa- tions. C, Double, that morbid condition in which there are two separate and alternating states of mental consciousness, in either one of which the events that have occurred in the other state are not remembered by the patient.

Consensual ikon-sen' -su-al) [consensus, agree- ment]. Excited reflexly by stimulation of another part, usually a fellow organ, as the consensual reaction of one pupil when the iris of the other eye is stimulated.

  • Conservation (kon-ser-va' '-shun) [conservare, to keep]. Preservation without loss. C. of Energy. See under Energy.
  • Consolidation (kon-sol-id-a' '-shun) [consolidare, to make firm]. The process of becoming firm or solid, as a lung in pneumonia.

Consonant, Consonating ikon' '-so-nant, kon- so-na' -ting) [com, together; sonar e, to sound]. Applied to pulmonary sounds heard on auscultation which sound in unison with some other sound.

  • Constant (kon'-stant) [constans, steady]. Fixed. C. Current, one that goes continu- ously in one direction.

Constipation ikon-stip-a' -shun) [constipare, to crush tightly together]. A condition in which the bowels are evacuated at long intervals or with difficulty.

Constitutio ikon-sti-tu'-she-o). See Constitution. C. lymphatica, Paltauf's term for a patho- logic condition marked by hyperplasia of the entire lymphatic system, including the thymus gland, and frequently by a hyperplasia of the vascular system, and, in females, of the genital organs.

  • Constitution (kon-stit-u' '-shun) [constituere, to dispose]. In chemistry, the atomic or molec- ular composition of a body. In pharmacy, the composition of a substance. In physiol- ogy, the general temperament and functional condition of the body.
  • Constitutional (kon-stit-u' -shun-al) . Pertain- ing to the state of the constitution. C. Diseases, such diseases as are inherent, owing to an abnormal structure of the body. Also, a condition in which the disease per- vades the whole system. General diseases, in contradistinction to local.
  • Constrictor (kon-strik' '-tor) [constringere, to bind together]. Any muscle that contracts or tightens any part of the body. See under Muscle. Consumption ikon-sump' -shun) [consumere, to consume or wear away]. A wasting away, especially a wasting disease like tuberculosis, particularly pulmonary tuberculosis or tuber- culosis of the bowels.
  • Contact (kon'-takt) [contactus, a touching]. A touching. C. -action, katalysis. C.-bed, a large open basin containing a layer of coke or cinders, for the purification of sewage by bringing it into contact with bacteria which set up rapid decomposition and des- truction of the organic matter. Cf. Septic Tank. C. -breaker, an instrument by means of which a galvanic circuit is broken. C- substance, a catalyst.
  • Contagion (kon-ta'-jun) [contingere, to touch], i. The process by which a specific disease is communicated from one person to another, either by direct contact or by means of an intermediate agent. 2. The specific germ or virus from which a communicable disease develops.
  • Contagious (kon-ta'-jus) [contagion]. Commun- icable or transmissible by contagion or by a specific contagium.
  • Contagium (kon-ta' -je-um) [L.]. Any virus or morbific matter by means of which a com- municable disease is transmitted from the sick to the well.
  • Contiguity (kon-tig-u' -it-e) [contingere]. Prox- imity. C, Amputation in the, one performed at a joint, without section of a bone.

Continence ikon' -ti-nens) [continere, to hold together]. Self-restraint, especially in regard to the sexual passion.

Continued ikon-tin' -ud) [continuare, to make continuous]. Persisted in. C. Fever, a fever that is long continued, without intermissions.

  • Continuity (kon-tin-u' -it-e) [com, together; tenere, to hold]. The state of being con- tinuous or uninterrupted. C, Amputation in the, amputation in which a bone is divided.
  • Contract (kon-trakf) [contrahere, to draw together]. 1. To draw the parts together; to shrink. 2. To acquire by contagion.
  • Contractility (kon-trak-tiV -it-e) [see Contract]. That property of certain tissues, especially muscle, of shortening upon the application of a stimulus. C, Faradic. See Galvano fara- dization. C, Galvanic. See Galvanocon- tractility. C, Idiomuscular, that peculiar to degenerated muscles. C, Neuromuscu- lar, normal contractility as distinguished from idiomuscular contractility.
  • Contraction (kon-trak' -shun) [see Contract]. Approximation of the elements of a tissue or organ, thus diminishing its volume or con- tents. C, Anodal Closing, C, Anodal Opening, the contraction taking place at the anode on closing or opening the circuit. C, Carpopedal, a variety of tetany oc- curring in infants, generally associated with dentition or seat-worms. There is a flexing of the fingers, toes, elbows, and knees CONTRACTOR 301 CONVECTION and a general tendency to convulsions. C, Clonic, alternate muscular contraction and relaxation. C, Closing, muscular con- traction produced at the instant that the electric current is closed. C, Dupuytren's, a contraction of the palmar fascia causing the fingers to fold into the palm. C, Dupuy- tren's, False, contraction of the palm and fingers due to injury of the palmar fascia. C, Front-tap, a phenomenon often observed in cases with exaggerated knee-jerk. When the foot is placed at a right angle to the leg and the muscles of the front of the leg are tapped, the foot is extended. See under Re- flex. C, Gowers'. See C, Front-tap. C, Hour-glass, a contraction of an organ, as the stomach or uterus, at the middle. >C, Kathodal Duration, one occurring at the kathode and continuing during the whole time of closure of the circuit. Syn., Kathodal- closure tetanus. C, Myoclonic, the con- vulsive spasmodic contraction of a muscle. C, Opening, the muscular contraction pro- duced by opening or breaking the circuit. C, Palmar, Dupuytren's contraction. C, Paradoxic, a phenomenon that consists in the contraction of a muscle, caused by the passive approximation of its extremities. C. -remainder, the stage of elastic after- vibration or residual contraction persisting in a muscle after withdrawal of the stimulus. C.-ring, the boundary-line between the upper and lower segments of the parturient uterus. C, Tonic. See Tonic Spasm. C, Vermicular, peristaltic contraction.
  • Contracture (kon - trak' - chur) [contraction]. Contraction; permanent shortening, as of a muscle; distortion or deformity due to the shortening of a muscle or of various muscles. C, Nurse's. See Nurse's Contracture. C, Thomsenean, that occurring in Thomsen's disease.
  • Contradolin (kon-trad'-ol-in). A compound of acetamid, salicylic acid, and phenol; analgesic. Dose 4-8 gr. (0.25-0.5 Gm.) hourly.

Contraindication ikon-trah-in-dik-a' -shuii) [contra, against; indicare, to point out]. That modifying condition in which a remedy or a method of treatment is forbidden.

  • Contralateral (kon-trah-laf '-er-al) [contra; latus, side]. Opposite; applied to a muscle acting in unison with another on the opposite side of the body.
  • Contre-coup (kon-tr-koo) [Ft.]. Counter- stroke. The transmission of a shock from the point struck to a point on the opposite side of the body or the part.
  • Control (kon-trdl') [contra; rotula, a roll]. A standard by which to check observations and insure the validity of their results. Colloquially, the term is sometimes used as a noun for control animal or control experiment. C. Animal, one used in a con- trol experiment. C. Experiment, an experi- ment carried out under normal or common circumstances or conditions, to serve as a standard whereby to test the variation or value of another experiment carried out under peculiar or abnormal circumstances.
  • Controller (kon-trdl' -er). An apparatus for regulating the electric current to the operation of small lamps, faradic coils, small motors, etc.
  • Contunding (kon-tund'-ing) [see Contusion]. Producing a contusion; bruising.
  • Contusion (kon-lu 1 '-zhun) [contundere, to bruise]. A bruise or injury inflicted without the integument being broken. C. -pneumo- nia, a form of pneumonia following trauma- tism.
  • Conus (ko'-nus) [kcuvoc, sl cone]. 1. A cone. 2 . A crescentic patch of atrophic choroid tissue near the optic papilla in myopia. C. arteri- osus, the cone-shaped eminence of the right ventricle of the heart, whence arises the pul- monary artery. C. cochleae, the modiolus. C. cordis, the ventricular part of the heart. C. corporis striati, the ventral extremity of the corpus striatum. Coni malpighii, C. tubulosi, the malpighian pyramids. C. medullaris, the cone-like termination of the spinal cord, continuous as the filum terminale. Coni retinas. See Cone, Retinal. C. termi- nalis. See C. medullaris. Coni testiculi. See Coni vasculosi. Coni vasculosi, a series of conic masses that together form the globus major of the epididymis.
  • Convalescence (kon-val-es'-ens) [convalescere, to become well]. A term applied to the restor- ation to health after disease.
  • Convallamaretin (kon-val-am-ar-e'-tin), C 2e - H 36 8 . A crystalline substance obtained by heating convallamarin with dilute sulfuric acid.
  • Convallamarin (kon-val-am' -ar-in) [conval- laria; amarus, bitter], C^H^O^. A glucosid derived from Convallaria majalis. It is soluble in water and is used as a cardiac stimulant. Dose f gr. (0.05 Gm.). Syn., Convallama- rinum.
  • Convallaretin (kon-val-ar-e'-lin), C 14 H 26 3 . A substance obtained from convallarin by pro- longed boiling in dilute acids.
  • Convallaria (kon - vol - a' - re - ah) [convallis, a valley]. A genus of liliaceous plants. C. majalis is the lily-of-the-valley. All parts of the plant are used in medicine. Its properties are due to convallarin, C 34 F± S2 O n , and con- vallamarin, C23H440J2, glucosids. It is a cathartic, diuretic, and cardiac stimulant. C, Extract of. Dose 2-10 gr. (0.13-0.65 Gm.) C, Fluidextract of (fluidextractum convallarice, U. S. P.). Dose 2-1 1 min. (0.13- 0.7 Cc). C, Infusion of, prepared with three times its weight of water. Dose J-2 oz. (15-60 Cc).
  • Convallarin (kon-vaV -ar-in) [convallaria], C^HggOn. A crystalline purgative glucosid derived from Convallaria majalis.
  • Convection (kon-vek' -shun) [convehere, to carry together]. A transmission or carrying, as of heat or electricity. C. -current, a current CONVERGENCE 302 COPAIBA of a liquid or gas heated to a temperature above that of the surrounding medium; it rises to the surface because of its lesser density, and thus the entire fluid or gas acquires the same temperature.
  • Convergence (kon-ver' -jens) [com, together; vergere, to incline]. Inclination or direction toward a common point, center, or focus, as of the axes of vision upon the near-point. C. -stimulus Adduction, the power of ad- duction of the eyes, provoked by fixation of the gaze upon an object placed at the near- point.
  • Convergent (kon-ver' '-jent) [see Convergence}. Tending to a common center. C. Strab- ismus. Sec Strabismus, Convergent.
  • Convex (kon-veks') [convexus, vaulted]. Hav- ing a surface approximating more or less a part of the surface of a sphere.
  • Convexity (kon-veks' -it-e) [see Convex]. A surface rounding outward; the quality of being convex.
  • Convexoconvex (kon-veks-o-kon-veks'). Hav- ing two convex surfaces; biconvex. See Lens, Biconvex.
  • Convolution (kon-vo-lu' -shun) [convolvere, to roll together]. A fold, twist, or coil of any organ, especially any one of the prominent convex parts of the brain, separated from each other by 1 depressions or sulci. C, An- gular, the posterior part of a convolution situated between the intraparietal fissure in front and above, and the horizontal limb of the sylvian fissure and the hinder part of the first part of the first temporal fissure below. The anterior part is called the supramarginal convolution. C.s, Annectant, small con- volutions which connect the occipital with the temporosphenoid and parietal lobes. C, Anterior Central, C, Ascending Frontal, the convolution in front of the fissure of Rolando. C, Ascending Parietal, the con- volution just behind the fissure of Rolando. C, Broca's, the inferior or third frontal convolution. C, Fornicate, a long con- volution on the mesial surface of the brain above the corpus callosum. C.s, Frontal, the convolutions of the frontal lobe. C, Hippo campal, the part of the fornicate con- volution that winds around the splenium of the corpus callosum. C.s, Insular, the small convolutions composing the island of Reil. C, Marginal, the mesial surface of the first frontal convolution. C.s, Occipital, the con- volutions making up the occipital lobe. C, Paracentral, a convolution on the mesial surface of the brain, representing the junction of the upper ends of the ascending frontal and ascending parietal convolutions. C.s, Parietal, the convolutions of the parietal lobe. C, Posterior Central. See C, As- cending Parietal. C, Supramarginal. See C, Angular. C.s, Temporal, the convolu- tions of the temporal lobe. C, Uncinate, the hook -like termination of the fornicate convolution.
  • Convolvulin (kon-vol' -vu-lin) [convolvere, to roll together], CgjH^Ojg. A glucosid derived from the roots of jalap (Convolvulus purga). It is a gummy mass, with active purgative properties.
  • Convulsant (kon-vuV '-sant) [see Convulsion]. A medicine that causes convulsions.
  • Convulsion (kon-vuV '-shun) [convellere, to con- vulse]. An involuntary general paroxysm of muscular contraction. It is either tonic (without relaxation) or clonic (having alter- nate contractions of opposite groups of mus- cles). C, Epileptiform, one characterized by total loss of consciousness. C, Hysteric, one due to hysteria; consciousness is only apparently lost. C, Local, one affecting one muscle, member, or part of a member. C, Mimetic, C, Mimic, a facial convulsion. C, Oscillating, C, Oscillatory, one in which the separate fiber-bundles of a muscle are affected successively and not simultane- ously. C, Suffocative, laryngismus stridu- lus. C, Tetanic, general tonic convulsions without loss of consciousness. C, Toxic, one due to the action of some toxic agent upon the nervous system. C, Uremic, one that occurs in kidney disease due to retention in the blood of matters that should be eliminated by the kidney.

Cooper's Disease. See Reclus' Disease. C.'s Fascia, i. The fascia trans versalis. 2. The cellular layer beneath the dartos. C.'s Hernia, encysted hernia of the tunica vaginalis. C.'s Irritable Breast, masto- dynia neuralgica; neuralgia of the breast. C.'s Irritable Testicle, neuralgia of the testis. C.'s Ligament, i. The lower, thick- ened portion of the fascia transversalis, which is attached to the spine of the pubis and the iliopectineal eminence. 2. Arciform, ligamentous fibers extending from the base of the olecranon to the coronoid process on the inner aspect of the elbow-joint. C.'s Suspensory Ligaments, the fibrous processes that connect the capsule of the convex surface of the mammary gland with the overlying skin.

  • Coordination (ko-or-din-a' '-shun) [com, to- gether; or dinar e, to regulate]. The har- monious activity and proper sequence of operation of those parts that cooperate in the performance of any function.
  • Coordinator (ko-or' -din-a-tor) [see Coordina- tion]. The part of the nervous system regulating coordination. C, Oculonuchal, Spitzka's name for the part of the postero- longitudinal fasciculus below the floor of the fourth ventricle.
  • Copaiba (ko-pa' -e-bah) [Sp.]. Balsam of co- paiba. The oleoresin of Copaifera offici- nalis, C. coriacea, C. guianensis, C. multi- juga, C. cordifolia, C. laxa, C. nitida, C. oblongifolia, and C. langsdorffii, leguminous trees, native to South America. It is a stimulant, diuretic, diaphoretic, and an expec- COPIOPIA 303 COPULATION torant, and is much used in gonorrhea. Syn., Copaiva. C, Balsam of. See Copaiba. C, East Indian. See Gurjun Balsam. C, Mass of, copaiba, 94; magnesia, 6 parts. Dose 10 gr.-i dr. (0.65-4.0 Gm.). Unof. C, Mix- ture of, Compound, Lafayette's mixture: co- paiba, 7 dr.; oil of cubebs, 1 dr.; glycerite of yolk of egg, 7 dr.; triturate and add syrup, 2\ oz. ; then add, with constant stirring, solution of potassium hydroxid, \ oz.; compound tincture of cardamom, 2 dr.; sweet spirit of niter, \ oz.; enough peppermint -water to make 8 oz. Dose 1 dr.-ioz. (4-16 Cc). Unof. C, Oil of {oleum copaiba, U. S. P.), a colorless substance constituting about one-half of copaiba, and used for the same purposes. Dose 10-15 mm - (°-°5- 1.0 Cc). C, Resin of, the residue after distil- ling off the volatile oil of copaiba, mainly copa- ibic acid. Dose 1-5 gr. (0.065-0.3 Gm.). Unof.
  • Copiopia (kop-i-o'-pe-ah). See Kopiopia.
  • Copper (kop'-er) [ME., coper]. Cuprum. A reddish-brown metal existing in nature chiefly in the form of copper pyrites, which is a double salt of copper and iron sulfid. Various salts are used in medicine. In toxic doses they are gastrointestinal irri- tants. In therapeutic doses they are used as astringents in inflammation of mucous, mem- branes. They are also employed as emetics, and, externally, as caustics. See Elements, Table of Chemic. C. Acetate, Cu(C 2 H 3 2 ) 2 , verdi- gris, used in pulmonary diseases and as a lotion in skin diseases. Dose ^S~i S 1 "- (0.0065-0.016 Gm.). C. Acetoarsenite, paris-green, used as a pigment and an insecticide. C. Aceto- phosphate, employed in chlorosis and amenor- rhea. C.-alum. See C, Aluminated. C, Aluminated, a combination of sulfates of copper and aluminium and potassium nitrate, occurring as a green powder; a mild caustic used in ophthalmia. Syn., Copper-alum; Lapis divinus. C. Amalgam, a metallic filling- material composed of copper and mercury. C. Ammoniate, ammonium carbonate, 3; copper sulfate, 4 parts; useful in chorea, hysteria, etc. Dose \-i gr. (0.01-0.065 Gm.). C. Ammoniosulfate, C. and Ammonium Sulfate, obtained by dissolving copper sulfate in ammonia-water and precipitating with alco- hol. It is antispasmodic and astringent. Dose §-2 gr. (0.03-0.13 Gm.) 3 or 4 times daily with tincture of opium after meals; maximum dose 5 gr. (0.3 Gm.) single; 10 gr. (0.6 Gm.) a day. Application for gleet, etc., 0.2 to 1 % solution or ointment. C. Arsenate, a blue powder obtained from ammonium arsenate with copper sulfate. It is used as an alterative in syphilis. Dose yr~§ g 1 "- (0.062-0.008 Gm.). C. Arsenite, a salt valuable in intestinal diseases. Dose Tiro- S r - (0.00065 Gm.). C. Carbonate, a compound of copper and carbonic acid. C. Nitrate Cu(N0 3 )3H 2 0, is used for the same purposes as the sulfate. C.-nose. Synonym of Acne rosacea. C. Nucleinate, a compound of nucleol and copper oxid con- taining 6% of copper; it occurs as a fine powder and is used in chronic conjunctivitis. Syn., Cuprol. C. Oleate, Cu(C 1? H330 2 ) 2 , a mixture of 10% copper oxid dissolved in oleic acid, forming a greenish-blue, granular powder, soluble in ether. It is applied to indolent ulcers; ointment, 10 to 20% in lanolin. C. Oxid, a compound of copper and oxygen. C. Oxid, Black, CuO, a brownish- black, amorphous powder obtained from copper nitrate or copper carbonate by igni- tion. It is used as a teniafuge. Dose f-ij gr. (0.05-0.1 1 Gm.) 3 or 4 times daily in pills for two weeks, abstaining from acid food. Externally it is used as an ointment with lard in treatment of chronic glandular in- duration. It is also employed in organic analy- sis. Syn., Copper mo n oxid. C. Oxid, Red, Cu 2 0, a dark-brown, crystalline powder. Syn., Copper hemioxid; Copper suboxid. C. Phosphate, CuHP0 4 , a bluish-green powder. It is used in tuberculosis. Dose \— Jgr. (0.008— 0.032 Gm.) several times daily. C, Reaction for. See Schoenbein. C. Sulfate (cupri sul- phas, U. S. P.), CuS0 4 .- 5H 2 0, soluble in water, valuable as an emetic, tonic, and as- tringent. Dose, as an emetic, 2-5 gr. (0.13- 0.32 Gm.); as a tonic, h gr. (0.01-0.032 Gm.). C. Sulfocarbolate; CuC 6 H(S0 4 ) 2 + 6H 2 0, green crystals soluble in water and alcohol. Syn., Cupriaseptol.
  • Copperas (kop'-er-as) [cupri rosa, rose of cop- per ( ?)]. A common name for ferrous sulfate.
  • Copraol (kop'-ra-ol) [copra, the dried kernel of the cocoanut]. A solid fat, derived from the cocoanut, and used as a substitute for cacao-butter in making suppositories. It melts at 30.3 C.
  • Copremia (kop-re'-me-ah) [no-poc, dung; alfia, blood]. A form of general blood-poi- soning arising from chronic constipation. The symptoms are anemia, sallow complexion, anorexia, frontal headache, vertigo, nausea, flatulence, thirst, fetid breath, lassitude, hypochondriasis, and irritability of temper.
  • Copro- (kop-ro-)[K.oT:poc, dung]. A prefix mean- ing relating to the feces or to dung.
  • Coprolalia (kop-ro-la'-le-ah) [copro-; XaXca, speech]. The use of filthy and offensive lan- guage when a manifestation of disease.
  • Coprolith (kop'-ro-lith) [copro-; X'cOoc, a stone]. A hard mass of fecal matter in the bowels.
  • Coprophagy (kop-roj'-a-je) [copro-; (f>ayel\s, to eat]. The eating of dung, a symptom seen in insane and hysteric patients.
  • Coproplanesis (kop-ro-plan-e'-sis) [copro-; TtXavyocc, wandering]. Escape of feces through a fistula or other abnormal opening.
  • Coprostasis (kop-ros' '-fas-is) [copro-; a-aatc, a standing]. The accumulation of fecal mat- ter in the bowel.
  • Coptis (kop'-tis) [kot.-scv, to cut]. Goldthread. The root of C. trifolia, a simple bitter tonic resembling quassia. It contains coptin, an alkaloid closely allied to berberin. Dose 10—30 gr. (0.65-2.0 Gm.).
  • Copulation (kop-u-la'-shun) [copulare, to couple]. The act of sexual intercourse. COR 304 CORIANDROL Cor (kor) [L.; gen., cordis]. The heart. See Heart. C. adiposum, a heart with a simple excess of the normal subpericardial fat. C. bovinum. See Bovine Heart. C. hirsutum, C. hispidum, C. tomentosum. See C. villosum. C. membranaceum, the auricular part of the heart. C. mobile, a heart which changes its position with the change of posture of the individual. C. villosum, hairy heart; the peculiar shaggy appearance presented by the heart in acute plastic peri- carditis, with the deposited fibrin existing in long shreds.
  • Coraco- (kor-ak-o-) [n6pa£, a crow]. Pertain- ing to the coracoid process.
  • Coracohyoid (kor-ak-o-hi'-oid). i. Relating to the coracoid process and the hyoid bone. 2. The omohyoid muscle.
  • Coracoid (kor f -ak-oid) [coraco-; eldoc, like- ness]. 1. Having the shape of a crow's beak. 2. The coracoid process. C. Liga- ment, a triangular ligament joining the cora- coid process to the acromion. C. Process, a beak-shaped process of the scapula.
  • Coracoscapular (ko-rak-o-skap'-u-lar). Relat- ing to the coracoid process of the scapula and to some other portion of the scapula.

Cord [chorda, a string]. 1. A tendon; any string-like body. 2. Used as a synonym for the umbilical cord, the vascular, cord-like structure connecting the placenta and fetus. C, Axis-. See Primitive Streak. C, Bio- plasson, a reticulum formed by branching cells. C, Colic, Transverse, Glenard's term for that portion of the transverse colon which becomes hard and rigid as the result of a stoppage of fecal matter by the kinking of the colon near its attachment by the pyloroco- lic ligament. C, Dorsal, the notochord. C, False, C, Superior (vocal), a fold of mucous membrane on either side of the middle line of the larynx, inclosing the superior thyroaryte- noid ligament. C, Genital, Thiersch's name for an embryonic structure formed from the two wolffian ducts and the mullerian ducts. C. of Hippocrates, the achilles tendon. C, Lumbosacral, a nerve-trunk formed from the divisions of the fourth and fifth lumbar nerves. C, Muscular, a cord-like prominence of a muscle due to morbid ex- citability of its fibers. C, Presentation of, descent of the umbilical cord between the presenting part and the membranes at the beginning of labor. C, Prolapse of, descent of the umbilical cord at the rupture of the bag of waters: incomplete, if remaining in the vagina, complete, if protruding therefrom. C.s, Sonorous, the semicircular canals of the internal ear. C., Spinal. See Spinal Cord. C.,True Vocal, C, Vocal, the vocal band. See under Larynx.

  • Cordate (kor'-dat) [cor]. Heart-shaped.
  • Cordein (kor' -de-in) . A white, crystalline sub- stance used as an analgesic and antiseptic. Syn., Methyltribromsalol, Cordia (kor' -de-ah) [E. and V. Cordus, German physicians (1486-1535 and 1515-1544)]. A genus of shrubs and trees of the order Bora- ginacea. C. aubletti is indigenous to Guiana; the leaves are used as an application to tumors and skin diseases. C. myxa is indigen- ous to the East Indies, but cultivated in Arabia and Egypt. The fruit is used in coughs, the powdered bark in ringworm, the root as a purgative.
  • Cordial (kord'-yal) [cor]. 1. Pertaining to the heart; exhilarant; stimulant. 2. An aro- matic, spirituous stimulant.
  • Cordiform (kor' -de -form) [cor; forma, form]. Cordate; shaped like a heart.
  • Cordite (kor'-dit). A smokeless gun-powder consisting of gun-cotton dissolved in acetone and nitroglycerin.
  • Cordol (kor'-dol). See Salol Tribromid.
  • Cordyl (kor'-dil). See Acetyl Tribromsalol.
  • Core (kor) [cor]. The central slough of a boil or carbuncle. 2. [/copy, the pupil.] The pupil of the eye.
  • Corectasis (kor-ek'-ta-sis) [i<6prj, the pupil; BKxaocc, a stretching out]. Dilation of the pupil.
  • Corectome (kor-ek'-tom) [core; kH.xkp.vEcv, to cut out]. An instrument used in iridectomy.
  • Corectopia (kor-ek-to' -pe-ah) [core; eKX07toc, misplaced]. An anomalous position of the pupil; displacement of the pupil.
  • Coredialysis (ko-re-di-aV -is-is) [core; dcaXuocc, dialysis]. The production of an artificial pupil at the ciliary border of the iris.
  • Corelysis (kor -eV -is-is) [core; Xuocc, a loosening]. The detachment of iritic adhesions to the lens or to the cornea.
  • Coremorphosis (kor-e-mor-fo'-sis) [core; pbp- (fxoocg, formation]. The operation for estab- lishing an artificial pupil.
  • Coreometer (kor-e-om'-et-er) [core; pkxpov, a measure]. An instrument for measuring the pupil of the eye.
  • Coreometry (kor-e-om 1 '-et-re) [see Coreom- eter]. The measurement of the pupil of the eye.
  • Coreplasty (kor' -e-plas-te) [core; nXapoetv, to form]. Any operation for forming an artificial pupil.
  • Coriamyrtin (ko-re-am-er' -tin) [Coriaria myrti- folia, myrtle], C^H^O^. An exceedingly poisonous principle, a glucosid, obtained from the fruit of Coriaria myrti folia. A cardiac stimulant. Maximum dose ■£% gr. (0.001 Gm.).
  • Coriander, Coriandrum (ko-re-an'-der, ko- re-an' -drum) [nopiavvov, coriander]. , Corian- der-seed. The coriandrum of the U. S. P. is the dried ripe fruit of Coriandrum sativum, an aromatic, carminative, and stimulant, used mainly to give flavor to other remedies and as a corrective to griping purgatives. Dose 10-20 gr. (0.65-1.3 Gm.). C, Oil of (oleum coriandri, U. S. P.), the volatile oil.. Dose 2-5 min. (0.13-0.32 Co).
  • Coriandrol (kor-e-an'-drol), C 10 H 18 O. The chief constituent of oil of coriander; a liquid iso- merid of borneol. CORIDIN 305 CORONALE Coridin ikor'-id-in), C 10 H 15 N. A liquid base obtained from the distillation of bones.
  • Corium (ko'-re-um) [L., "a hide; leather"]. The deep layer of the skin. See Skin.
  • Corm (korm) [nop fide, the trunk of a tree]. The bulbous underground part of certain plants, as the crocus.
  • Corn (korn) [cornu, horn]. A local induration and thickening of the skin from friction or pressure. See Clavus. C.-silk. See Zea mays. C.-smut. See Ustilago. C. -starch, the com- mercial name of a starch derived from maize, and extensively used as an article of food, especially for invalids; Cornaro's Diet. A diet for indigestion and the results of riotous living, devised by Luigi Cornaro, a Venetian gentleman of the seven- teenth century. It consisted of a daily al- lowance of bread, meat, and yolk of egg, amounting to 12 ounces in all. With this he took 14 ounces of a light Italian wine each day.
  • Cornea (kor'-ne-ah) [corneus, horny]. The transparent anterior portion of the eyeball, its area occupying about one-sixth the cir- cumference of the globe. It is continuous with the sclerotic, and is nourished by lymph from the looped blood-vessels at its peripheral border. C, Conic. See Kerato globus. C, Transplantation of, the operation of en- grafting a section of transparent cornea from some animal into the space of an excised portion of human cornea.

Corneal ikor'-ne-aV) [cornea]. Relating to the cornea.

  • Corneoblepharon (kor-ne-o-blej'-ar-on) [cor- nea; blepharon]. Adhesion of the surface of the eyelid to the cornea.
  • Corneosclera (kor-ne-o-skle'-rah) [cornea; sclera]. The cornea and sclera taken together.
  • Corneous (kor' -ne-us) [corneus, horny]. Horny or horn-like. C. Tissue, the substance of the nails.
  • Cornet (kor -net') [cornu]. 1. A small ear- trumpet worn within the ear and sometimes concealed by the hair of the wearer. 2. A bony layer. C, Bertin's, C, Sphenoid, the anterior part of the body of the sphenoid bone.
  • Corniculate (kor-nik' '-u-lat) [cornu]. Furnished with horns or horn-shaped appendages.
  • Corniculum (kor-nik' -u-lum) [cornicula, a little horn]. A small cornu or horn-like process.
  • Cornification (kor-nif-ik-a' -shun) [cornu; facere, to make]. The process of hardening or making horny.
  • Cornu (kor'-nu) [L.; pi., cornua]. A horn. A name applied to any excrescence resembling a horn. C. ammonis, the hippocampus major of the brain. C. cervi, hartshorn or ammo- nium hydroxid. C. Cutaneum, a horn-like excrescence arising from the skin. Syn., Cor- nu humanum. C., Dental, a horn of the den- tal pulp. These extensions form the body of the dental pulp, which corresponds with the positions of the cusps of the teeth. C. de- scendens, C. inferius, C. laterale, C. magnum, C. medium, C. sphenoidale, the medicornu, that prolongation of the lateral ventricle which, curving outward around the back of the thalamus, descends beneath it, and, extending forward and inward, ends in the anterior extremity of the hippocampal gyrus. C. dorsale, the dorsal projection of the mass of cinerea seen upon each half of the spinal cord in transverse section. Syn., Crus posticum; Posterior cornu. C. hu- manum. See C. cutaneum. C. occipitale, C, Posterior (of the lateral ventricle), the postcornu, a conic prolongation of the lateral ventricle, curving outward, backward, and inward into the occipital lobe. Syn., Cavitas digitata; Cornu ancyroide. Cornua of the Uterus. 1. The lateral fundibuliform prolongations of the uterine cavity into which the fallopian tubes open. 2. The oviducts. C. ventrale, the ventral projection of the mass of cinerea seen upon each half of the spinal cord in transverse section. Syn., Crus anterius.
  • Cornual (kor'-nu-al) [cornu]. Relating to a cornu. C. Myelitis, myelitis affecting the anterior cornua of the spinal cord.
  • Cornus (kor'-nus) [L.]. Dogwood. The bark of the root of C. florida, the properties of which are due to a crystalline principle, cornin. It is a simple stomachic bitter and slightly antiperiodic. Dose of the fluidex- tract 10 min.— 1 dr. (0.65—4.0 Cc).
  • Cornutin (kor -nu' -tin). An alkaloid, the active principle of ergot. Dose ^2 g r - (°- 00 5 Gm.). C. Citrate. Dose aVrV g 1 "- (0.003-0.006 Gm.) in spermatorrhea.
  • Coroclisis, Corocleisis (ko-ro-kW -sis) [nbpy, the pupil; nh'tocc, a closure]. Pathologic closure or obliteration of the pupil.
  • Corona (ko-ro'-nah) [L., a "crown" ]. 1. A crown. 2. The corona radiata. C. dentis, the crown of a tooth. C. glandis, the ridge" of the glans penis. C. radiata, a radiating mass of white nerve-fibers ascending from the internal capsule to the cortex cerebri. Coronae tubulorum. See Crypts of Lieber- kuhn. C. veneris, a circle of syphilitic blotches occurring on the forehead.
  • Coronal (kor-o'-naV) [corona]. Encircling like a crown; pertaining to the crown of the head. C. Suture, the suture joining the frontal with the two parietal bones.
  • Coronale (kor-o-naV -e) [L.]. The frontal bone. CORONARY 306 CORPUSCLE Coronary (kor' -o-na-re) [corona]. A term ap- plied to vessels, nerves, or attachments that encircle a part or an organ.
  • Coroner (kor'-o-ner) [corona]. An officer who inquires by authority of the law into the causes of sudden or violent deaths. C.'s Inquest, the legal inquiry before a jury into the cause of a sudden or violent death.
  • Coronilla (kor-o-nil'-ah) [dim. of corona]. A ge- nus of leguminous herbs. . C. scorpioides, an annual of southern France, furnishes coronillin {q. v.). C. varia is diuretic, purgative, and poisonous. It is used as a succedaneum for digitalis in cardiac disease. An aqueous ex- tract and a powder of the fresh plant are given in doses of igr. (0.098 Gm.).
  • Coronillin (kor-o-niV -in) [see Coronilla]. An alkaloid, C 7 H 12 3 , from Coronilla scorpioides; it is a cardiac tonic and diuretic. Dose 1-2 gr. (0.06-0.13 Gm.).
  • Coronoid (kor'-o-noid) [corona; etdoc, likeness]. Crown-shaped, as the coronoid process of the ulna or of the jaw.
  • Coroparelcysis (kor-o-par-eV -si-sis) [nop-q, the pupil; izapklnuotc, a drawing aside]. Opera- tive displacement of the pupil to remedy partial opacity of the cornea by bringing it opposite a transparent part.
  • Corpora (kor'-por-ah) [pi. of corpus, a body]. A general term applied to certain parts of the body having a rounded or ovoid shape. C. albicantia, two white masses in the in- terpeduncular space at the base of the brain, the projections of the anterior pillars of the fornix. C. aranacea, a granular substance occurring at times in the masses of papillomas. Syn., Sand-bodies. C. arantii, the fibrous tubercles in the center of each segment of the semilunar valves. C. cavernosa, the cylindric bodies of erectile tissue forming the chief part of the penis. Also, the two masses of erectile tissue composing the clitoris. C. geniculata. See Geniculate Bodies. C. quadrigemina, the optic lobes of the brain, the four rounded eminences situated under the corpus callosum. The anterior pair are called the nates, and the posterior, the testes. C. sesamoidea. See C. arantii.
  • Corpulin (kor'-pu-lin). A remedy for obesity said to consist of bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosis), tamarinds, and cascara sagrada.
  • Corpus (kor' -pus) [L., "a body"; pi., cor- pora (q. v.)]. A body; the human body. C. callosum, the broad band of white matter uniting the hemispheres of the cere- brum. C. caudatum, a ganglion or free ring of gray matter circling around the len- ticula of the brain. It is massive in the frontal portion, but becomes attenuated caudad; the anterior portion is called the head; the posterior, the tail. C. caverno- sum vaginae, the spongy tissue of the vagina. C. dentatum. 1. See Olivary Body. 2. The central folded gray nucleus of the cerebellum. C. fibrosum, a tough, semiopaque body oc- curring in the ovary, due to some fibrous change in the corpus luteum. C. fimbriatum, the lateral thin edge of the taenia hippocampi. C. highmorianum. See Highmore, Body of. C. luteum, the yellow body formed in the ovary in the site of a graafian vesicle after the escape of the ovum. C. luteum, False, that resulting when pregnancy does not occur. Syn., Corpus luteum of menstruation. C. luteum, True, that resulting when preg- nancy takes place. Syn., Corpus luteum of pregnancy. C. spongiosum, the spongy part of the penis encircling the urethra. C. stri- atum, a mass of gray matter extending into the lateral ventricles of the brain and com- posed of the caudate and lenticular nuclei. Corpuscle (kor'-pus-l) [dim. of corpus]. 1. A small body or particle. 2. A cell. C, Axile, C, Axis-, the central portion of a tactile corpuscle. Syn., Axile body. C.s, Babes- Ernst's. See Babes-Ernst's Bodies. C.s, Bennett's, large epithelial cells, filled with fatty detritus, found in the contents of some ovarian cysts. C.s, Bizzozero's. See Bizzozero's Blood-platelets. C.s, Blood-, Red, biconcave, nonnucleated discs, circular in outline, and containing red coloring-matter, termed hemoglobin, to which the color of the blood is due. Red corpuscles have been divided, according to their size, into normo- cytes (normal in size), megalocytes (of exces- sive size), microcytes (abnormally small), and poikilocytes (of irregular shape and size). The red corpuscles in the blood of man are about 3-^77 inch in diameter and T2TOT5" mcn thick, and their number is about 5,000,000 to each cubic millimeter of blood. They con- sist of a colorless stroma infiltrated with the coloring-matter (hemoglobin). C.S, Blood-, White (or colorless), flattened cells, about YsVo- mcn m diameter, existing in the ratio of 1 : 500 compared with red corpuscles. Their protoplasm is granular; they have one or more nuclei and no cell- wall. They pos- sess contractile power and alter their shape readily. The colorless corpuscles are vari- ously designated as ^eosinophil, basophil, neutrophil, mononuclear, polynuclear, lym- phocytes, transitional, large, small, etc. C, JBone-, an osteoblast. C.s, Burckhardt's, peculiar angular or roundish bodies of a yellowish color found in the secretion of trachoma. C.s, Cancroid, the pearly bodies of squamous epithelioma. C.s, Chorea. See under Chorea. C.s, Chromophil. See Nissl's Bodies. C.S, Chyle, lymph-corpus- cles. C.s, Colostrum. See Colostrum Corpuscles. C.s, Concentric. See HassalVs Bodies. C.s, Corneal, connective-tissue cor- puscles containing an oval nucleus and fur- nished with numerous branching processes occurring within the fibrous groundwork of ' the cornea. Syn., Toynbee's corpuscles; Vir- chow's corpuscles. C, Cytoid, a leukocyte. C, Davaine's. See Bacillus anthracis under CORPUSCLE 307 CORROSION Bacteria. C.s of Donne. See Colostrum Corpuscles. C.s, Drysdale's Ovarian, gran- ular cells, nonnucleated and of varying sizes, which were regarded by Drysdale as peculiar to ovarian fluid. C.s, Genital, special nerve- endings in the external genitalia. C.s, Ghost-, phantom-corpuscles. C.s, Gierke's, roundish, colloid bodies, of a significance not yet determined, sometimes found in the central nervous system; they appear to be identical with HassalPs corpuscles. C.s, Golgi's, tendon-spindles; small fusiform bodies resembling the pacinian corpuscles, ex- isting in tendons at the junction of the tendin- ous fibers with the muscular fibers. They have not been found in the ocular muscles. C, Golgi-Mazzoni's. See C, Mazzoni's. C.s, Grandry's, minute ovoid or spheric taste- corpuscles found in the papillas of the beak and tongue of birds. C.s, Hassall's. See H assail' s Bodies. C, Hayem's. See Achromacyte. C.S, Herbst's, small bodies resembling pacinian corpuscles, found in the mucosa of the tongue of some animals and birds. C.s, Jaworski's, spiral bodies of mucus found in the gastric secretion in cases of pronounced hyperchlorhydria. C.s, Key and Retzius', encapsulated corpuscles found in the bill of some aquatic birds and repre- senting transition forms between Herbst's and Pacini's corpuscles. C.s, Krause's. See Krause's Corpuscles. C.s, Langerhans' Stellate, terminations of nerve-fibers which have been observed in the rete mucosum of the epidermis. C.s, Leber's. See C.s, Gierke's. C.s, Lostorfer's, granular masses alleged by Lostorfer to have been found in the blood of syphilitic patients. C.s, Lymph-, nucleated ameboid cells found in lymph and chyle. Upon entering the blood with the lymph they are called white blood-corpuscles. The smaller ones have little if any ameboid movement, and are sometimes spoken of as free nuclei on account of their small cell- body; some of these corpuscles are coarsely granular and are therefore called granular cells. C, Malpighian (of the Kidney), the tuft of blood-vessels surrounded by the ex- panded portion of the uriniferous tubule, the capsule of Bowman. C.s, Malpighian (of the Spleen). See Malpighian Corpuscles. C, Mazzoni's, a peripheral ending of a sensory nerve closely resembling Krause's end- bulb. C.s, Meissner's. See C.s, Tactile- (i). C.s, Merkel's. See C.s, Grandry's. C.s, Miescher's. See Miescher's Tubes. C.s, Milk-, of v. Kolliker, cells containing fat -globules observed in the acini of the mam- mary gland and breaking up into milk-glob- ules on reaching the lactiferous ducts. C.s, Montgomery's. See Glands, Montgomery's. C, Morgagni's. See Morgagni's Globules. C.s, Norris' Invisible, colorless, transparent, biconcave discs of the same size as the red corpuscles, invisible in the serum because their color and refractive index are the same as those of the liquor sanguinis. C.s, Nunn's. See C.s, Bennett's. C.s, Pacinian, certain small corpuscles occurring in the subcutaneous cellular tissue of the fingers and toes. They consist of concentric lamellas of connective tissue surrounding the termination of a sensory nerve. C.s, Patterson's, the molluscum bodies: oval, shiny bodies found in the contents of the tubercles of molluscum con- tagiosum. C, Pavement-. See Cells, Endothelial. C.s, Phantom-. See Blood- platelets. C, Polar-, the centrosome. C.s, Reissner's, the epithelial cells covering Reissner's membrane. C, Rollett's Nerve-. See C, Mazzoni's. C.s, Shadow-. See Achromacyte. C.s, Spleen-, C.s, Splenic. See Malpighian Corpuscles. C.s, Tactile-, i. (0/ Wagner.) The small, oval bodies found in the papillas of the skin and enveloped by nerve-fibers. 2. See C.s, Grandry's. C, Taste-. See Taste -bud. C.s, Terminal. See C.s, Krause's. C.s, Touch-. See C.s, Tactile-. C.s, Toynbee's, the corneal corpuscles. C.s, Transparent, of Norris. See C.s, Norris' Invisible. C.s, Traube's. See Achromacyte. C.s, Typhic, the epithelial cells of Peyer's patches which in typhoid- fever have be- come granulated through degeneration. C.s, Vater's, C.s, Vater-Pacini's. See C.s, Pacinian. C.s, Virchow's. See C.s, Corneal. C, Zimmermann's, an achromacyte.
  • Corpuscular (hor-pus'-ku-lar) [corpuscle]. Re- lating to or of the nature of a corpuscle.
  • Corradiation (kor-ra-de-a'-shun). The act of radiating together, as focused rays.
  • Correctant, Corrective (kor-ek'-tant, kor-ek'- tiv) [corrigere, to correct]. 1. Modifying favorably. 2. A substance used to modify or make more pleasant the action of a purga- tive or other remedy.

Corrigan's Disease. 1. Aortic insufficiency. 2. Cirrhosis of the lung. C.'s Line, the purple or brownish-red line on the margin of the gums in chronic copper -poisoning. C.'s Pulse, "water-hammer pulse"; the abrupt, jerking pulse of aortic insufficiency. C.'s Respiration, "nervous or cerebral respira- tion." Frequent shallow and blowing breath- ing in low fevers — e. g., in typhus. C.'s Sign, an expansive pulsation felt in cases of . aneurysm of the abdominal aorta.

  • Corroborant (kor-ob'-o-ranf) [corrobarans, strengthening]. A tonic invigorating remedy.

Corrosion [kor-o'-zhun) [com, together; rodere, to gnaw]. The process of corroding or the state of being corroded. C. -anatomy, that branch of anatomy which demonstrates an anatomic specimen by means of a corrosive process that eats away those parts which it is not desired to preserve. In some cases a resisting-substance is injected, so as to pre- serve the vessels and ducts from corrosion. C. -preparation, one in which the vessels, ducts, or cavities of organs are filled by a fluid that will harden and preserve the shape of the vessel or cavity after the organ itself is corroded, digested, or otherwise destroyed. CORROSIVE 308 COSTOABDOMINAL Corrosive (kor-o'-siv) [see Corrosion], i. Eat- ing away. 2. A substance that destroys or- ganic tissue either by direct chemic means or by causing inflammation and suppuration. C. Chlorid, C. Sublimate. See Mercury Bichlorid.

  • Corrugator (kor f -u-ga-tor) [corrugere, to wrinkle]. That which wrinkles. See under Muscle.

Corsican Moss. A mixture of fragments of various seaweeds brought from Corsica. It is said to be alterative, febrifuge, anthelmin- tic, and nutritious. Unof. Syn., Helmintho- chorton.

  • Cortex (kor'-teks) [L., "bark"]. 1. The bark of an exogenous plant. 2. The surface-layer of an organ. 3. The external gray layer of the brain, the substantia corticalis, or cortical substance. 4. The peripheral portion of an organ, situated just beneath the capsule. C. aurantii, orange-peel. C. cerebri. See Cortex (3). C. corticis, the outer sheath of the kidney. C. Degeneration. Synonym of General paralysis of the insane. See under Paralysis. C. renalis, the cortical substance of the kidney.

Corti's Arch. The arch formed in the organ of Corti by the two files of rods. C.'s Canal. See Canal of Corti. C.'s Cells, the outer hair-cells of Corti's organ. C.'s Fibers. See C.'s Rods. C.'s Ganglion, the ganglion spirale, an aggregation of ganglion-cells in the spiral canals of the cochlea. C.'s Membrane, the membrana tectoria of the cochlea. C.'s Organ, a complicated organ, the product of differentiation of the epithelial lining of the cochlear canal, resting on the basilar mem- brane of the cochlea and containing the end- organs of the cochlear nerves. C.'s Rods, the pillars of the arch of the organ of Corti. C.'s Teeth, the auditory teeth; the tooth- like projections on the edge of the limbus laminae spiralis of the ear. C.'s Tunnel. Same as C.'s Canal.

  • Cortical (kor'-tik-al) [cortex]. Pertaining to the cortex or bark or to the cortex of the brain or of the kidney. C. Epilepsy, C. Paralysis K such as is due to a lesion of the cortical substance of the brain.
  • Corticate (kor' -te-kat) . Furnished with a bark or cortex.
  • Corticifugal (kor-te-sif -u-gal) [cortex; fugere, to flee]. Conducting away from the cortex.
  • Corticipetal (kor-te-sip' -et-al) [cortex; petere, to seek]. Conducting toward the cortex.
  • Corticospinal (kor-tik-o-spi'-nal). Pertaining to the cortex of the brain and the spinal cord.
  • Corundum (ko-run'-dum) [Hind., kurand]. A native crystalline aluminium oxid, A1 2 3 . Mixed with melted shellac, it is formed into wheels for use in the dental laboratory and for grinding in general. Coruscation (kor-us-ka 1 '-shun) [coruscare, to glitter]. A glittering or flashing of light, also the subjective sensation of light-flashes.

Corvisart's Disease. Idiopathic cardiac hy- pertrophy. C.'s Facies, the fades of Beau's disease.

  • Corydalin (kor-id'-al-in) [corydalis]. 1. An ex- tract from the root of Corydalis formosa (Dicentra canadensis); it is used in syphilis and scrofula. 2. An alkaloid, C 22 H 27 N0 4 (Freund) from Corydalis tuberosa; it is used as % a heart -tonic. Dose 1-5 gr. (0.065- 0.032 Gm.).
  • Corydalis (kor-id'-al-is) [nopudaXX'cg, the crested lark]. 1. Turkey-corn. The tuber of C. formosa (Dicentra canadensis), a tonic, diu- retic, and alterative. Dose of fluidextract 10-40 min. (0.6-2.5 Cc). 2. A genus of plants of the order Papaveracece. C. tuberosa, holewort, hollowwort, is an herb indigenous to Europe; the rhizome is anthelmintic and emmenagog. It contains corydalin and corydin.
  • Corydin (kor' '-id-in) . An amorphous alkaloid from Corydalis tuberosa.
  • Coryl (kor' -it). The name given to an anes- thetic composed of ethyl chlorid and methyl chlorid in such proportions that the boiling- point of the mixture should be about 32 F.
  • Coryleur (kor-il-ur'). An apparatus for spray- ing with coryl.
  • Coryza (kor-i'-zah) [nopu^a, a catarrh]. Ca- tarrh of the mucous membrane of the nasal passages and adjacent sinuses, popularly called "cold in the head." See Rhinitis.
  • Cosaprin (kos-ap'-rin), C 6 H ' NI |— €0— CH A sulfoderivative of acetanilid; it is a whitish- gray powder with a slightly saline taste, freely soluble in water. It is used as an antipyretic instead of acetanilid. Dose 5-8 gr. (0.3- 0.5 Gm.) 3 times daily.
  • Cosmetic (kos-mef -ik) [koojisIv, to adorn]. 1. Beautifying. 2. A remedy designed to hide defects of the skin or other external parts. C. Operation, a surgical operation to give a natural appearance to a defective or unsightly part.
  • Cosmic (kos'-mik) [koojioc, the universe]. Worldwide; of wide distribution, as a cosmic disease.
  • Cosmolin (koz r -mo-lin). See Petrolatum.
  • Costa (kos'-tah) [L.]. A rib.
  • Costal (kos'-tal) [costa]. Pertaining to the ribs. C. Arch, the arch of the ribs. C. Cartilages, the twelve cartilaginous extensions of the ribs.
  • Costate (kos'-tat). Ribbed; furnished with ribs or connecting structures.
  • Costive (kos'-tiv) [constipare, to be bound]. Constipated.
  • Costiveness (kos' -tiv-nes) [constipare]. Con- stipation.
  • Costo- (kos-to-) [costa]. A prefix denoting connection with the ribs.
  • Costoabdominal (kos-to-ab-dom'-in-al). Re- lating to the ribs and the abdomen. COSTOCHONDRAL 309 COULOMB Costochondral (kos-lo-kon'-dral). Pertaining to the ribs and their cartilages.
  • Costoclavicular (kos-to-klav-ik'-u-lar). Per- taining to the ribs and the clavicle.
  • Costocolic (kos-to-ko'-lik). Relating to the ribs and the colon.
  • Costoinferior (kos-to-in-fe'-re-or). Relating to the lower ribs; applied to a form of respira- tion in which the lower ribs move more than the upper.
  • Costoscapular (kos-to-skap'-u-lar). i. Re- lating to the ribs and the scapula. 2. The serratus magnus muscle.
  • Costotome (kos' '-to-torn) [costo-; ripjetv, to cut]. A strong knife or heavy shears with the under blade in the shape of a hook, for cutting the costal cartilages in dissection, etc.
  • Costotrachelian (kos-to-tra-ke'-le-an). Relat- ing to the ribs and to the transverse processes of the cervical vertebras.
  • Costotransverse (kos-to-tranz'-vers). 1. Per- taining to the ribs and transverse vertebral processes. 2. The scalenus lateralis. See under Muscle.
  • Costotransversectomy (kos-lo-lranz-vers-ek f - to-me) [costotransverse; iKzop.Tj, a cutting out]. Excision of part of a rib and a transverse vertebral process.
  • Costoxiphoid (kos-to-zi'-Joid). Relating to the ribs and to the ensiform cartilage.
  • Cot (kot) [AS., cote]. 1. A small bed. 2. The finger of a glove. See Finger -cot. C, Fever-, C.,Kibbee's, a bed devised especially for applying cold-water treatment to fever patients.

Cotard's Syndrome. A form of paranoia characterized by delusions of negation, with sensory disturbances and a tendency to suicide. Syn., Delire chronique des negations.

  • Cotarnin (ko-tar f -nin) [an anagram of narcotin], C 12 H 15 N0 4 . An oxidation-product of nar- cotin. C. Hydrochlorate, C 12 H 15 N0 4 . HC1 . - • H 2 0, small yellow crystals, soluble in water and alcohol. It is an internal hemostatic. Dose \-2 gr. (0.03-0.13 Gm.). Syn., Stypticin.
  • Coto (ko'-to) [Sp. "a cubit"]. Cotobark. The bark of a tree native to Bolivia. It contains a bitter principle, cotoin, C 22 H 18 O c , irritant to the skin and mucous membranes. It is recommended for diarrhea and zymotic fevers, and for the night-sweats of pulmonary tuber- culosis. Dose of the powder 1-15 gr. (0.065- 1.0 Gm.); of the fluidextract 5-15 min. (0.32- 1.0 Cc); of the tincture (1 : 10) 10-30 min. (0.65-2.0 Cc).
  • Cotoin (ko'-to-in) [coto], C 22 H 18 6 . An astrin- gent alkaloid from coto (q. v.). It is employed in dysentery and cholera. Dose §-5 gr. (0.03- 0.3 Gm.). Paracotoin is one-half as strong as cotoin.
  • Cotton (kot'-n) [Ar., qutun, cotton]. Gos- sypium, a white, fibrous seed-hair that en- velops the seeds of the cotton-plant. -C., Absorbent, cotton so prepared that it readily absorbs water. See also Gossypium. C, Gun-. See Pyroxylin. C.-oil. See C.-seed Oil. C.-root, C.-root Bark. See under Gossypium. C.-seed Oil, an oil obtained by pressure from the hulled seeds of several species of Gossypium (q. v.).

Cotugno's Canal. The aquaeductus vestibuli. Syn., Canalis cotunnii. C.'s Disease, sciatica. Syn., Malum cotunnii. C.'s Liquor, the perilymph of the osseous labyrinth of the ear. Syn., Liquor cotunnii. C.'s Nerve, the naso- palatine nerve. C.'s Space. See Boettcher- Cotugno's Space.

  • Cotyledon (kot-il-e' '-don) [kotuXtjocLv, a socket]. 1. Any one of the enlarged, vascular villi of the chorion which project into depressions of the decidua vera. 2. Any one of the numer- ous rounded portions into which the uterine surface of the placenta is divided. 3. A genus of plants of the order Crassulacece. C. umbilicus, navelwort of Europe, has been highly recommended in epilepsy, but its medicinal properties are feeble.
  • Cotyloid (kot' -il-oid) [koxuXtj, a cup; eldoc, form]. Cup-shaped. C. Cavity, C. Fossa, the acetabulum. C. Ligament, a ligament surrounding the acetabulum. C. Notch, a notch in the anterior and lower border of the acetabulum.
  • Cotylopubic (kot-il-o-pu' -bik) . Relating to the acetabulum and the os pubis.
  • Cotyltfsacral (kot-il-o-sa' '-kral) . Relating to the acetabulum and the sacrum.
  • Couching (kowtch' -ing) [Fr., coucher, to de- press]. The operation, now fallen into dis- use, of depressing a cataractous lens into the vitreous chamber, where it was left to be absorbed.
  • Cough (kawf) [ME.]. A sudden, violent expulsion of air after deep inspiration and closure of the glottis. C, Dry, that unat- tended by expectoration. C, Ear-, cough excited reflexly from some morbid condition of the ear. C, Moist, cough with free expectoration. C., Morton's, cough fol- lowed by the vomiting of food, occurring frequently in pulmonary tuberculosis. C, Pleuritic, the dry, short, frequent cough of pleurisy, pneumonia, and phthisis, which accompanies the pain and friction-sounds of pleurisy and disappears with effusion or when bronchitis supervenes. C, Reflex, cough produced by irritation of a remote organ. See C., Ear-, and C., Stomach-. C, Stomach-. See C, Reflex. C, Sydenham's, spasm of the respiratory muscles in hysteria. C, Uterine, a reflex cough occurring in sufferers from genital disease due to irritation of the uterovaginal fibers of the hypogastric plexus supplying the fornix vaginae and cervix uteri and the nerves and ganglions supplying the fundus uteri and ovaries. C, Winter-, a -short troublesome cough of old people due to chronic bronchitis, and recurring every winter.
  • Coulomb (koo-lom') [after de Coulomb, a French physicist]. The unit of measurement of electric quantity; the quantity of electricity COUMARIN 310 CRADLE that passes during one second through a conductor having a resistance of one ohm, with one volt of electromotive force. The micro- coulomb is the millionth part of this amount.
  • Coumarin (koo'-mar-in), C 9 H 6 2 . A vege- table proximate principle that occurs in Dipteryx odorata, Tonka bean, and in Meli- lotus officinalis. It conceals the odor of iodoform.
  • Counteraction (kown-ter-ak'-shun). The ac- tion of a drug or agent opposed to that of some other drug or agent.
  • Counterirritation (kown-ter-ir-it-a' -shun) [contra, against; irritare, to irritate]. Su- perficial inflammation produced artificially, in order to exercise a good effect upon some adjacent or deep-seated morbid process.
  • Counteropening (kown' -ter -o -pen-in g) [contra; opening]. An incision made in an abscess or cavity, opposite to another, generally for pur- poses of drainage.
  • Counterpoison (kown' -ter -poi-zn) [contra; potio, a drink]. A poison given as an anti- dote to another poison.
  • Counterpressure (kown'.-ter-presh-ur). Pres- sure opposed to pressure from a contrary di- rection. * Counterpuncture (kown' -ter -punk-chur). See Counteropening.

Coup de soleil [Fr.]. Sunstroke.

  • Coupler (kup'-ler) [copulare, to bind], i. An arrangement for fastening wire to a tooth in correcting irregularities in dentition. 2. A device for connecting different parts of an electric apparatus.
  • Courbometer (koor-bom' -et-er) [Fr., courbe, a curve; ixtcpov, a measure]. A device of Chatelain to show the curve of the alternat- ing current.

Courvoisier's Law. Tumors of the head of the pancreas almost invariably cause dila- tion of the gall-bladder. See Gall-stone, Cour- voisier's Law Concerning.

  • Coutoubea (koo-toc' -be-ah) [South American name]. A genus of plants of the order Gen- tianece. C spicata, of Brazil, is emmenagog and anthelmintic.
  • Cover (kuv'-er) [com, together; operire, to shut]. C. -glass, in microscopy, the thin slip of glass covering the object mounted on the slide.
  • Cowage, Cowhage, Cowitch (kow'-aj, -itch) [Hind., kawanch, cowage]. The external hairs of the pod of Mucuna pruriens, formerly used in medicine as a mechanic vermifuge. See also Mucuna.

Cowper's Glands. The bulbourethral glands; two compound tubular glands situated be- tween the two layers of the triangular liga- ment, anteriorly to the prostate gland; they correspond to Bartholin's glands in the female. C.'s Ligament, the portion of the fascia lata that is attached to the crest of the pubis.

Cowperian Cyst. A retention cyst formed in Cowper's gland.

  • Cowperitis (kow-per-i'-tis). Inflammation of the glands of Cowper, usually gonorrheal in origin.
  • Cowpox, Cowpock (kow'-poks). A contagious eruptive fever occurring in the cow, and thought to correspond with smallpox in man.
  • Coxa (koks'-ah) [L., "the hip"]. The hip- joint or the hip. C. valga, a condition, the reverse of coxa vara, in which the angle between the neck and the shaft of the femur is increased above 140 degrees. C. vara, a condition in which the neck of the femur is bent downward sufficiently to cause symp- toms; this- bending may reach such an ex- tent that the neck forms with the shaft a right angle or less, instead of the normal angle of 120 to 140 degrees.
  • Coxalgia (koks-al' -je-ah) [coxa; aXyoc, pain]. Literally, pain in the hip-joint, but generally used synonymously with hip-disease.
  • Coxalgic (koks-aV -jik) [coxalgia]. Relating to coxalgia.
  • Coxankylometer (koks-ang-kil-om' -et-er) [coxa; ajKuXoc, bent; fiexpov, a measure]. Volk- mann's instrument for measuring the de- formity in hip-disease.
  • Coxarthrocace (koks-arth-rok'-as-e) [coxa; apdpov, joint; nandc, bad]. A fungoid in- flammation of the hip-joint.

Coxarum morbus. Hip-joint disease.

Coxe's Hive Mixture. A mixture of squill and senna, of each, 120; tartar emetic, 3; sugar, 1200; calcium phosphate, 9; dilute alcohol and water, ad 2000.

  • Coxitis (koks-i'-tis) [coxa; tree, inflammation]. Inflammation of the hip-joint. C. coty- loidea, that confined principally to the acetab- ulum. C, Senile, a rheumatoid disease of the hip-joint occurring in old people, marked by pain, stiffness, and wasting, without any tendency to suppuration.
  • Coxofemoral (koks-o-fem' -or-al) [coxa; femur, the thigh-bone]. Relating to the hip and the femur, as the coxofemoral joint — the hip-joint.
  • Coxopathy (koks-op' -ath-e) [coxa; tzoBoc, dis- ease]. Any affection of the hip-joint.
  • Crabs'-eyes (krabz'-iz). 1. Flat, calcareous concretions (Lapides cancrorum) derived from the stomach of the crab; they have been used as a means of removing foreign bodies from the eye. 2. A name for the seeds of Abrus precatorius.

Cracked-pot Sound. A peculiar sound elic- ited by percussion over a pulmonary cavity communicating with a bronchus.

  • Cradle (kra'-dl) [AS., cradolj. In surgery, a wire or wicker frame so arranged CRAMP 311 CRANIOMETRIC as to keep the weight of the bed-clothing from an injured part of the body. It is em- ployed in the treatment of fractures, wounds, etc. C, Ice-, the suspension, over a febrile patient, by means of iron frames, of a num- ber of buckets, kept half filled with ice, and inclosed in a light covering.
  • Cramp (kramp) [Teut., kramp]. A spasmodic tonic contraction of a muscle attended with sharp pain. C, Intermittent, tetany. C, Professional, spasm of certain groups of muscles, from their continuous use in dif- ferent occupations, as writer's, hammerman's, piano-player's, dancer's cramp, etc. C.s, Tonic (of fingers and toes in children), tetany.

Cramptonian Muscle. A bundle of striated muscular fibers extending from the annular ligament to the sclera in the eye of birds.

Crane's-bill Root. See Geranium.

  • Cranial (kra' -ne-at) [cranium]. Relating to the cranium. C. Capacity, Modes of Measur- ing. See under Skull.
  • Craniectomy (kra-ne-ek' -to-me) [cranium; en- ropLT), a cutting out]. The surgical removal of strips or pieces of the cranial bones. It is performed in cases of microcephalia.
  • Craniencephalometer (kra-ne-en-sef-al-om' '- et-er) [cranium; i-fukcfraXoc, the brain; fxirpov, a measure]. An instrument for determining the position of the gyri of the brain from the outer surface of the head.
  • Cranio- (kra-ne-o-) [cranium]. A prefix mean- ing relating to the cranium.
  • Cranioabdominal (kra-ne-o-ab-dom' -in-at) . Re- lating to the cranium and the abdomen; ap- plied to temperaments showing a predomin- ance of cerebral and abdominal influences.
  • Craniocerebral (kra-ne-o-ser'-e-bral). Relat- ing to the cranium and the cerebrum.
  • Cranio cervical (kra-ne-o-ser' -vik-al) . Relat- ing to the cranium and the neck.
  • Cranioclasm (kra' -ne-o-klasm) [cranio-; nXaecv, to break]. The operation of breaking the fetal head by means of the cranioclast.
  • Cranioclast (kra' ' -ne-o-klast) [see Cranioclasm]. A heavy forceps for crushing the fetal head.
  • Craniology (kra-ne-oV-o-je) [cranio-; Xoyoc;, science]. A branch of anatomy comprising the study of skulls.

Craniometer [kra-ne-om' -et-er) [cranio-; \ikx- pov, a measure]. An instrument for meas- uring the dimensions of the skull.

  • Craniometric, Craniometrical (kra-ne-o-met' '- rik, -at) [see Craniometer]. Pertaining to craniometry. C. Point, any one of the points of measurement used in craniometry. The craniometric points are the following: Acan- thion, a point in the median line of the skull at the base of the nasal spine. Alveolar Point, the point between the two middle incisors of the upper jaw. Antinion, that point on the glabellum, and in the median line, that is farthest from the inion. Asterion, the point behind the ear where the parietal, temporal, and occipital bones meet. Auricular Point, the center of the orifice of the external auditory meatus. Basion, the middle point of the anterior margin of the foramen magnum. Bregma, the point where the coronal and sagittal sutures meet. Dacryon, or Dak- ryon, the point beside the root of the nose where the frontal, lacrimal, and superior maxillary bones meet. Entomion, the point where the parietal notch of the temporal bone receives the anterior extension of the mastoid angle of the parietal bone. Glabella, or Glabellum, the point in the median line between the superciliary arches, marked by a swelling, sometimes by a depression. Gna- thion. Same as Mental Point. Gonion, the point at the angle of the lower jaw. Hor- mion, the anterior point of the basilar por- tion of the united sphenooccipital bone, where it is crossed by the median line. Inion, the external occipital protuberance. Jugal Point, the point situated at the angle that the posterior border of the frontal branch of the malar bone makes with the superior bor- der of its zygomatic branch. Koronion, the apex of the coronoid process of the in- ferior maxilla. Lambda, the point of meet- ing of the sagittal and the lambdoid sutures. Malar Point, a point situated on the tu- bercle on the external surface of the malar bone or at the intersection of a line drawn from the external extremity of the fronto- malar suture to the tubercle at the inferior angle of the malar bone and a line drawn nearly horizontally from the inferior border of the orbit over the malar bone to the superior border of the zygomatic arch. Maximum Occipital Point, or Occipital Point, the posterior extremity of the anteroposterior diameter of the skull, measured from the glabella in front to the most distant point behind. Mental Point, the middle point of the anterior lip of the lower border of the lower jaw. Metopion, or Metopic Point, a point in the middle line between the two frontal eminences. Nasion, or Nasal Point, the middle of the frontal suture at the root of the nose. Obelion, the part of the sagit- tal suture between the two parietal foramens. Occipital Point. See Maximum Occipital Point in this table. Ophryon, the middle of the supraorbital line, which, drawn across the narrowest part of the forehead, separates the face from the cranium. Opisthion, the middle point of the posterior border of the foramen magnum. Prosthion, the alveo- lar point. Pterion, the point where the frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones come together. Rhinion, the upper median point of the anterior nasal opening. Spinal Point. Same as Subnasal Point. Stephanion, Inferior, the point where the ridge for the temporal muscle intersects the coronal suture. Stephanion, Superior, the point where the coronal suture crosses the temporal ridge. Subnasal Point, the middle of the inferior border of the anterior nares at the base of the nasal spine. Supra- CRANIOMETRY 312 CREASOTE auricular Point, the point vertically over the auricular point at the root of the zygo- matic process. Supranasal Point, Supra- orbital Point. Same as Ophryon. Sym- physion, the median point of the outer border of the alveolus of the lower jaw. Vertex, the superior point of the skull. In obstetrics, that conic portion of the skull the apex of which is at the posterior fontanel and the base of which is formed by the biparietal and trachelobregmatic diameters.
  • Craniometry (kra-ne-om r -et-re) [see Craniometer]. The ascertainment of the proportions and measurements of skulls.
  • Craniorrachischisis (kra-ne-or-rak-is'-kis-is) [cranio-; pa%ic, spine; ox'tocc, a cleaving]. Congenital fissure of the skull and spine.
  • Cranioschisis (hra-ne^os' -his -is) [cranio-; ox'cocc, a cleaving]. Congenital fissure of the skull.
  • Craniotabes (kra-ne-o-ta' -bez) [cranio-; tabes, a wasting]. An atrophy of the cranial bones occurring in infancy, with the formation of small, shallow, conic pits in the bone- substance. Craniotabes results from rachitis, syphilis, or marasmus.
  • Craniothoracic (kra-ne-o-thor-as'-ik). Relat- ing to the skull and the thorax; applied to temperaments showing a predominance of cerebral and thoracic influences.
  • Craniotomy (kra-ne-ot'-o-me) [cranio-; rofirj, a cutting]. The operation of reducing the size of the fetal head by cutting or breaking it up, when delivery is otherwise impossible. C, Linear. See Craniectomy.
  • Craniotonoscopy (kra-ne-o-ton-os'-ko-pe) [cranio-; xovog, tone; oKOite'cv, to exam- ine]. An auscultatory method devised by Gabritschewsky for the localization of changes in the bones of the skull (thinning or thickening) by means of the variations in sound transmitted through the bones and a special resonator (pneumatoscope) placed in the mouth.
  • Craniotrypesis (kra-ne-o-trip-e' 'sis) [cranio- ; rpuTt-qocc, a boring]. Trephining.
  • Craniotympanic (kra-ne-o-tim-pan f -ik) [cran- io-; tympanum}. Pertaining to the skull and the tympanum.
  • Cranitis (kra"-ni' -lis) . Inflammation of a cranial bone.
  • Cranium (kra'-ne-um) [npavhv, the skull]. The skull. The cavity that contains the brain, its membranes, and vessels.
  • Crapulent, Crapulous krap' -u-lent, -lus) [crapula, drunkenness; surfeit]. Marked by excess in eating and drinking.
  • Crassamentum (kras-am-en' '-turn) [L., "thick- ness"]. A clot, as of blood.
  • Crataegus (kra-fe' -gus) [Kpazacyog, the haw- thorn]. A genus of rosaceous shrubs. C. oxyacantha, a European shrub, contains a crystallizable principle, crategin, in the bark. A strong tincture in doses of 3 drops is used in heart disease. Cravat (kra-va?) [Ft., cravate]. A bandage of triangular shape, used as a temporary dressing for a wound or fracture. The mid- dle is applied to the injured part, and the ends are brought around and tied.
  • Crealbin (kre-al'-bin). An internal antiseptic said to consist of creolin and albumin. Syn., Creolalbin.
  • Cream (krem) [cremor, ■ thick juice or broth]. The rich fat part of milk. C. of Tartar. See Potassium Bitartrate.
  • Crease (kres) [Celtic]. A line made by folding. C, Gluteofemoral, C, Iliofemoral, the crease that bounds the buttock below, cor- responding nearly to the lower edge of the gluteus maximus muscle. It is of supposed significance in the diagnosis of hip-disease.
  • Creaspl (kre'-as-ol) [icpiac, flesh; oleum, oil], C 8 H 10 O 2 . One of the principal phenols con- tained in creasote. It is formed from guaia- cum-resin, and is found in beechwood tar. It is a colorless, oily liquid of an agreeable odor and a burning taste, boiling at 220 C. It is very similar to guaiacol.
  • Creasote, Creasotum (kre'-a-sot, kre-a-so' -turn) [upkag, flesh; ow^ecv, to preserve]. The pro- duct of the distillation of wood-tar, preferably that from the beech, Fagus sylvatica, consisting of a mixture of phenol-compounds. It is an inflammable oily liquid, differing in this respect from phenol. It does not coagulate albumin or collodion. Most of the commer- cial creasote consists of phenol or contains a large percentage of it. It is antiseptic, astringent, styptic, anesthetic, and escharotic. It is used extensively in pulmonary tuber- culosis. Dose 1-3 min. (0.06-0.2 Cc). C, Alpha-, a preparation containing the con- stituents of normal creasote mixed in such proportion that it contains 25 % of crystalline guaiacol. C, Beechwood, that obtained from beechwood. C. Benzoate, an antiseptic used as a spray in diseases of the throat and nose. C. -calcium Chlorhydro- phosphate, a white, syrupy mass used in tuberculosis. Dose 37-8 gr. (0.19-0.52 Gm.) twice daily. C. Carbonate, guaiacol carbonate with other carbonates containing 90% of beechwood creasote. Maximum daily dose in tuberculosis 80 min. (5 Cc). It is recommended in treatment of croupous pneu- monia. Dose 15 gr. (1 Gm.) every 2 hours. Syn., Creosotal. C. -magnesia, a mixture of creasote and calcined magnesia, free from odor and taste of creasote. It is a nonirritant antiseptic. Dose 8 gr. (0.52 Gm.). Syn., Creosolid; Magnesium creosotate. C. Mix- ture (mistura creasoti, B. P.), creasote and glacial acetic acid, of each, 16 min. (1 Cc), dissolved in 15 oz. (55 Cc.) of water to which oz. (30 Cc.) of syrup and \ dr. (2 Cc.) of spirit of juniper have been added. Dose 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc). C. Ointment (unguentum creasoti, B. P.), creasote, 1; simple oint- ment, 12; for local application. C. Oleate, a yellowish, oily liquid used in the same manner as creasote. Dose 40-60 min. (2.5- CREATIN 313 CRESAPROL 3.8 Cc.) daily. Syn., Creasoteoleic ether ; Oleocreasote. C. Phosphate, P0 4 (C 6 H 7 ) 3 , a syrupy fluid containing 80% of creasote and 20 % of phosphoric acid anhydrid ; it is used as a substitute for creasote. Syn., Tricrea- sote phosphate. C. Tannophosphate, an amber-colored fluid used in tuberculosis. C. Valerianate, a noncaustic fluid which is used in all forms of tuberculosis. Dose 3 min. (0.2 Cc), increasing to 18-28 min. (1.1- 1.7 'Cc.) daily, in milk. Syn., Eosot. C. Vapor (vapor creasoti, B. P.), for inhalation. C. Water (aqua creasoti, U. S. P.), a 1 % solution. Dose 1-4 dr. (4-16 Cc).
  • Creatin (kre'-at-in) [npiac, flesh], C 4 H 9 N 3 2 . A neutral organic substance that occurs in the animal organism, especially in the juice of muscles. C, Dehydrated, cre- atinin.
  • Creatinemia (kre-at-in-e' -me-ah) [creatin; a}/xa, blood]. An excess of creatin in the blood.
  • Creatinin (kre-af '-in-in) [creatin], C 4 H 7 N 3 0. An alkaline substance, a normal constituent of urine. It crystallizes in rhombic prisms and is a strong base. It is much more soluble than creatin. C, Reaction for. See Jaffe, Kemer, v. Maschke, Weyl.
  • Crede's Method. 1. A prophylactic measure against ophthalmia neonatorum by the in- stillation, into the eyes of new-born children, of a few drops of a 1 or 2 % solution of silver nitrate. 2. A method of expelling the pla- centa by grasping the uterus firmly through the abdominal walls, kneading it to excite contraction, and then pressing downward toward the sacrum. C.'s Ointment, a soluble silver ointment made from colloidal silver, applied by inunctions in septicemia and pyemia. Dose ^-1 dr. (2-4 Gm.), re- peated every 12 hours until abatement of symptoms.
  • Creek Dots. Small shining dots, of unknown nature and often hereditary, occurring at times in the retina anterior to the retinal vessels; they were so named by Marcus Gunn, who first described them.
  • Cremaster (kre-mas' -ter) [Kpep.av, to support]. The muscle that draws up the testis. See under Muscle.
  • Cremasteric (kre-mas-ter' -ik) [cremaster]. Per- taining to the cremaster muscle. C. Reflex. See under Re-flex.
  • Cremation (kre-ma' '-shun) [cremare, to burn]. The destruction of the dead body by burning, as distinguished from interment.
  • Cremnophobia (krem-no-fo' -be-ah) [kptj/ivoc, a crag; 6ftoc, fear]. Morbid fear of preci- pices.
  • Cremometer (krem-oni'-et-er) [cream; [ikrpov, a measure]. A graduated tube for deter- mining the percentage of cream in milk.
  • Cremor (kre'-mor) [L., "broth"]. Cream. Any thick substance formed on the surface of a liquid. C. tartari, cream of tartar.
  • Crenation (kre-na' -shun) [crena, a notch]. A notched or mulberry -like appearance of the red corpuscles of the blood. It is seen when they are exposed to the air or strong saline solutions.
  • Crenothrix (kren' '-oth-riks) [kptjvt), a spring; dpi$, hair]. A genus of Schizomycetes the filaments of which are enveloped in a gelatin- ous sheath.
  • Creoform (kre f -o-}orm). A solid, tasteless antiseptic consisting of guaiacol, creasote, and formaldehyd.
  • Creolin (kre'-o-lin) [fcpeac, flesh; oleum, oil]. A coal-tar product deprived of phenol; it is an antiseptic, used especially as a douche in obstetric practice. It has also been used in a solution of 5 : 1000 for irrigation of the bowel in dysentery and enterocolitis.
  • Creosal (kre'-o-sal). A dark -brown, hygro- scopic powder, with odor and taste of creasote, obtained by heating beechwood creasote with tannic acid and phosphorous oxychlorid. It is antiseptic and astringent, and is used in bronchial inflammations. Dose 15-135 gr. (1-9 Gm.) daily. Syn., Tannosal.
  • Creosin (kre f -o-sin) . A compound of creasote, iodin, calcium hypophosphite, and balsam of peru; it is used like creasote.
  • Creosoform (kre-o' -so-) orm). A combination of creasote and formaldehyd, occurring as a greenish powder.
  • Creosolid (kre-o-sol'-id). See Creasote-mag- nesia.
  • Creosomagnesol (kre-o-so-mag' -ne-sol) . A dry mixture of potassium hydroxid, creasote, and magnesia; antiseptic. Dose 2 gr. (0.13 Gm.) in pill with honey.
  • Creosotal (kre-o 1 '-so-tal) . See Creasote Carbonate.
  • Crepitant (kref '-it-ant) [crepitare, to crackle]. Possessing the character of crepitation. C. Rale. See under Rale.
  • Crepitation, Crepitus (krep-it-a' -shun, krep'- it-us) [crepitare]. 1. The grating of fractured bones. 2. The crackling of the joints. 3. The noise produced by pressure upon tissues con- taining an abnormal amount of air or gas, as in cellular emphysema. 4. The sound heard at the end of inspiration in the first stage of croupous pneumonia. It closely re- sembles the sound produced by rubbing the hair between the fingers held close to the ear. Crepitus indux, a crepitant rale heard in pneumonia at the beginning of hepatization. Crepitus redux, a crepitant rale heard in pneumonia during the stage of resolution; usually the first manifestation of the reces- sion of the disease. C, Silken, a sensation such as is produced when two surfaces of silk are rubbed together, felt by the hand when manipulating a joint affected with hydrarthrosis.
  • Cresalol (kres'-al-ol) [cresol; salol]. Cresol salicylate, an intestinal antiseptic Cresamin (kres'-am-in). An antiseptic and ger- micide mixture of ethylenediamin and tricresol.
  • Cresaprol (kres-ap'-rol). See Cresin. CRESCENT 314 CRETINISM Crescent (kres'-ent) [crescere, to grow]. i. Sickle-shaped, or shaped like the new moon. 2. A form of Plasmodium malaria; one of the crescentic, nonflagellate, refractive, pig- mented bodies seen in the blood of persons suffering from protracted forms of malarial poisoning; i. e., after the second week in estivoautumnal fever, in malarial remittent fever, and in the cachectic victims of chronic malaria. C.s of Gianuzzi, groups of deeply- staining cells in the acinus of a gland, pushed to one side by the secreting cells, and proba- bly representing exhausted cells. C, Myopic. See Myopic Crescent. C. -sphere, Lambertin's term for that phase of development of the malarial parasite when it becomes sausage- shaped or crescent-shaped. It constitutes a sexual phase of the parasite and is destined to be swallowed by Anopheles and to carry on the further life -history of the parasite. C.s of the Spinal Cord, the lateral gray bands of the spinal cord as seen in horizontal section.
  • Cresin (kre'-sin). A mixture of cresol, 25%, and sodium cresoxylacetate ; a brown, clear • fluid, said to be less poisonous than phenol. It is used in 0.5 to 1 % solution as a wound antiseptic. Syn., Cresaprol.
  • Cresol (kre'-sol) [upkac, flesh; oleum, oil], C 7 H 8 0. Cresylic acid; a body obtained from the distillation of coal-tar. It is a colorless, caustic liquid, with properties simi- lar to those of phenol, but is superior as an antiseptic. Syn., Paramethyl phenol. C- anitol, a compound of anitol and cresol, used as a bactericide. C. Iodid. See Loso- phan. C.-naphthol, a brown, viscous, tar- like liquid, insoluble in water; it is used as a germicide. C. Salicylate, C.-salol. See Cresalol. C, Solution of, Compound (liquor cresolis compositus, U.S. P.). See under Solution.
  • Crest (krest) [crista, a crest]. A ridge or linear prominence, especially of bone. See Crista. C, Deltoid, a ridge on the humerus at the attachment of the deltoid muscle. C, Eth- moid. 1. A transverse ridge on the inner as- pect of the nasal process of the superior maxilla. 2. The turbinated crest. C, Frontal, a ridge along the middle line of the internal surface of the frontal bone. C. of Ilium, the thickened and expanded upper border of the ilium. C, Incisor (of Henle), the forward prolongation of the nasal crest, terminating in the anterior nasal spine; the cartilage of the nasal septum rests upon it. Syn., Crista incisiva. C., Infratemporal, one on the outer aspect of the great wing of the sphenoid and separating the part of the bone which partly forms the temporal fossa from that which aids in forming the zygomatic fossa. C, Lacrimal, a vertical ridge dividing the external surface of the lacrimal bone into two parts. C, Lambdoid. See C, Occipital. C, Nasal, a crest on the internal border of the nasal bone and forming part of the septum of the nose. C, Ob- turator, a bony ridge running from the spine of the os pubis to the anterior end of the cotyloid notch. C, Occipital, a vertical ridge on the external surface of the occipital bone, extending from the occipital protuber- ance to the foramen magnum. C. of Pubes, a crest extending from the spine to the inner extremity of the pubes. C, Sacral, C. of Sacrum, a series of eminences forming a longitudinal ridge on the middle line of the posterior surface of the sacrum. C, Sphe- noid, a thin ridge of bone in the median line of the anterior surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. C, Sphenomaxillary, an arched crest formed in part by the anterior surface of the great wing of the sphenoid and in part by the pterygoid process forming the border of the sphenomaxillary fissure. C, Supramastoid, a bony ridge above the external auditory meatus. C. of Tibia, the prominent border or ridge on the front of the tibia; the shin. C, Turbinated, a promi- nent horizontal ridge on the internal surface of the palate bone. C, Zygomatic, the an- terior border of the great wing of the sphenoid; it articulates with the malar bone and sepa- rates the orbital from the temporal surface.
  • Cresyl (kres f -il), CyHy. The radicle of cresol. C. Alcohol, C 6 H 4 (OH)CH 3 , formed from phenyl alcohol by the substitution of a molecule of methyl for an atom of the hydrogen of the phenyl. C. Hydrate. See C. Alcohol.
  • Cresylate (kres'-il-at). Any compound of cresol with a metallic radicle.
  • Creta (kre'-tah) [L.]. Chalk. Native calcium carbonate. Cretae, Mistura (U. S. P.), con- sists of compound chalk powder, 20; cin- namon-water, 40; water, 40. It is used in diarrhea. Dose oz. (15 Cc). C. prae- parata (U. S. P.), prepared chalk; chalk freed from impurities by washing. Dose 5- 20 gr. (0.32-1.3 Gm.). Cretae, Pulvis, Aromaticus (B. P.). Dose 10 gr.-i dr. (0.65-4.0 Gm.). Cretae, Pulvis, Composi- tus (U. S. P.), compound chalk powder; consists of prepared chalk, 30; acacia in powder, 20; sugar, 50. Dose 5 gr.-i dr. (0.32-4.0 Gm.). Cretae, Trochisci, each contains prepared chalk, 4 gr.; acacia, 1 gr.; sugar, 6 gr.; with a little nutmeg.
  • Cretaceous (kre-ta' -she-us) [creta]. 1. Chalky. 2. Chalky -white in color.
  • Cretin (kre'-tin) [Fr., cretin, a simple-minded person]. A person affected with cretinism.
  • Cretinism (kre' -tin-izm) [cretin]. A congenital disease, characterized by absence of the thyroid gland, diminutiveness of size, thickness of neck, shortness of arms and legs, prominence of abdomen, large size of face, thickness of lips, large and pro- truding tongue, and imbecility or idiocy. It occurs endemically in the goitrous dis- tricts of Switzerland, and sporadically in other parts of Europe and in America. Lack of the secretion of the thyroid gland seems to be the cause. C, Acquired, C, Adult. Synonym of Myxedema. CRETINOID 315 CRISTATE Cretinoid (kre' -tin-oid) [cretin]. i. Resem- bling a cretin; resembling cretinism. 2. A person who resembles a cretin. C. State, the morbid state presented by a sufferer from cretinism; cretinism.
  • Cribration (krib-ra' -shun) [cribrum]. 1. The state of being cribriform or perforate. 2. The act of sifting.
  • Cribriform (krib' '-re-form) [cribrum]. Perfor- ated like a sieve, as the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone.
  • Cribrum (krib' -rum) [L.; pi., cribra]. A sieve. C. benedictum, a perforate septum, sup- posed by the ancients to separate two hypo- thetic cavities of the kidneys, by which the blood in the upper one was strained and freed from impurities. Cribra orbitalia, inconstant porosities behind the edge of the orbit on the inferior surface of the orbital plate of the frontal bone; they may be culdesacs or, when developed more fully, may com- municate.
  • Crico- (kri-ko-) [KpUoc, a ring]. A prefix denoting connection with the cricoid carti- lage.
  • Cricoarytenoid (kri-ko-ar-i 1 '-te-noid) [crico-; arytenoid]. Pertaining to the cricoid and arytenoid cartilages.
  • Cricoid (kri' -koid) [crico-; tlbog, form]. Ring- shaped. C. Cartilage, the ring-shaped cartil- age of the larynx.
  • Cricoidectomy (kri-koid-ek' -to-me) [cricoid; kn~kp.ve.Lv, to cut out]. The excision of the cricoid cartilage.
  • Cricothyroid (kri-ko -ihi' -roid) [crico-; thyroid]. Pertaining to the cricoid and thyroid cartil- ages. C. Artery, a small branch of the superior thyroid, crossing the cricothyroid membrane. C. Membrane, a ligamentous membrane that lies between the cricoid and thyroid cartilages. C. Muscle. See under Muscle.