The free dictionary of medicine M-Z

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.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z


  • Quack (kwak). A pretender of medical skill; a vender of nostrums; a medical charlatan.
  • Quackery (kwak'-er-e). The practice of medi- cine by a quack.
  • Quadrangular (kwod-rang 1 '-gu-lar) [quadrant]. Having four angles, as the quadrangular lobe, the square lobe of the cerebellum.
  • Quadrant (kwod'-rant) [see quadratus]. i. The fourth part of a circle, subtending an angle of 90 degrees. 2. One of the four regions into which the abdomen may be di- vided for purposes of physical diagnosis.
  • Quadrate (kwod'-rat) [quadrant]. Square; four-sided. Q. Lobule. See Precuneus.
  • Quadratus (kwod-ra'-tus) [L.]. Squared; hav- ing four sides. Q. Muscle. See under Muscle.
  • Quadri- (kwod-re-) [L.]. A prefix denoting four or four times.- Quadribasic (kwod-re-ba f -sik) [quadri-; basis, base]. In chemistry, applied to an acid having four replaceable hydrogen-atoms.
  • Quadriceps (kwod'-re-seps) [quadri-; caput, head]. Four-headed, as a quadriceps muscle. See under Muscle.
  • Quadrigeminal (kwod-re- jem' '-in-aV) [see Quad- rigeminum]. Fourfold; consisting of four parts, as the quadrigeminal bodies. See Corpora quadri gemina.
  • Quadrigeminum (kwod-re-jem' -in-um) [quad- rigeminus, fourfold]. One of the corpora quadrigemina.
  • Quadrille (kwod-riV) [Fr.]. An embryologic term designating the complex movement undergone by the dividing centrosomes pre- vious to the formation of the cleavage cen- trosomes.
  • Quadriurate (kwod-re-u'-rdt) [quadri-; urate]. A term applied to the hyperacid urate of human urine and the urine of birds and reptiles.
  • Quadrivalent (kwod-riv' -al-ent) [quadri-; va- lere, to be worth]. In chemistry, having a combining power equivalent to that of four hydrogen-atoms.
  • Quadruplet (kwod-ru'-plet) [quadruplare, to make fourfold]. Any one of four children born at one birth.

Quain's Fatty Heart. Fatty degeneration of the cardiac muscular fibers.

Quaker-button. A popular name for nux vomica.


  • Qualitative (kwoV -it-a-tiv) [qualitas, quality]. Pertaining to quality. Q. Analysis. See Analysis, Qualitative.
  • Quantitative (kwon'-tit-a-tiv) [quantus, how much]. Pertaining to quantity. Q. An- alysis. See Analysis, Quantitative.
  • Quantivalence (kwon-tiv' -al-ens) [quantus, how much; valere, to be worth]. The combining power of an element or radicle expressed in terms of the number of atoms of hydrogen with which it will unite. Univalent or monad atoms, as chlorin, are saturated with one atom; bivalent or diad atoms require two; trivalent or triad, as boron, take three; quadri- valent or tetrad, quinquivalent or pentad, sexvalent or hexad, require two, three, four, five, and six atoms of hydrogen respectively.
  • Quantum (kwon'-tum) [L.]. As much as. Q., Normal, a constant quantity or standard.
  • Quarantine (kwor'-an-ten) [It., quarania, forty]. 1. The time (formerly forty days) during which vessels or travelers from ports infected with contagious or epidemic diseases are required by law to remain outside the port of their destination, as a safeguard against the spread- ing of such diseases. 2. The place of detention. 3. The act of detaining vessels or travelers from suspected ports or places for purposes of inspection or disinfection. Q., Land-, the isolation of a person or district on land for purposes similar to those of de- tention of persons arriving at a place by sea.
  • Quart (kwort) [quartus, fourth]. The fourth part of a gallon.
  • Quartan (kwor'-tan) [quartus]. 1. Recurring on the fourth day. 2. A form of intermittent fever the paroxysms of which occur every fourth day. Q., Double, quartan fever char- acterized by milder and severer paroxysms, each occurring every fourth day. Q. Fever. See Quartan (2).
  • Quartipara (kwor-tip'-ar-ah) [quartus; parere, to bring forth]. A woman in her fourth pregnancy. See Multipara.
  • Quartiparous (kwor-tip'-ar-us) [quartipara]. Pregnant four times.
  • Quartisternum (kwor-te-ster'-num) [quartus, fourth; sternum]. A part of the sternum having a special center of ossification cor- responding with the fourth intercostal space.
  • Quassation (kwas-a'-shun) [quassatio, a shaking or shattering]. The reduction of barks, roots, and other drugs to morsels, in preparation for further pharmaceutic treatment. Syn., Cas- sation.
  • Quassia (kwosh'-e-aK) [after Quassi, a negro slave who first used it]. The wood of several trees of the order Simarubacea'. The quassia of the U. S. P. and B. P. is the wood of Picrasma excelsa, known as Jamaica quassia, or of Quassia amara, known as Surinam quassia. It is a simple bitter, and is used in dyspepsia and constipation; in the form QUASSIN 814 QUININ of an enema it is employed against seatworms. Q., Extract Of (extractum quassia, U. S. P., B. P.). Dose 1-3 gr. (0.065-0.2 Gm.). Q., Fluidextract of (fluidextr -actum quassia, U. S. P.). Dose £-1 dr. (2-4 Cc). Q., Infu- sion of(infusum quassia, B. P.). Dose 2 oz. (60 Cc). Q. f Tincture of (tinctura quassia, U. S. P.). Dose 1 dr. (4 Cc.).
  • Quassin (kwos'-in), C2oH 2 e0 6 (?). The active principle of quassia; very bitter, white crys- tals, soluble in alcohol and chloroform; used as a tonic. Dose 3V - ! gr. (0.002-0.02 Gm.).
  • Quaternary (kwa-ter' -na-re) [quaterni, four each]. 1. Consisting of four elements. 2. Fourth in order.
  • Quatuor (kwat'-u-or) [L.]. Four. Q. Pills, pills made up of iron sulfate, quinin, aloes, and nux vomica.
  • Quebrabunda (ka-brah-bun'-dah) [Port.]. Straddling disease, a tropical disease similar to beriberi which attacks horses and pigs.
  • Quebrachin (ke-brah'-kin). An alkaloid of quebracho (q. v.). It is used internally and hypodermatically in dyspnea. Dose 3-1 \ gr. (0.04-0.1 Gm.).
  • Quebracho (ke-brah'-ko) [from Pg. quebra-hacho, ax-breaker]. The name of several hard- wooded trees of South America. The white quebracho (quebracho bianco) is A spidosperma quebracho, of the order Apocynacea.

Queen's-deligh^Queen's-root. See Stillingia.


  • Quercin (kwer'-sin) [quercus], C c H 6 (OH) 6 . A bitter, crystallizable carbohydrate extracted from acorns and oak-bark.
  • Quercitannic Acid (kwer-si-tan' '-ik) [quercus; tannin], C 17 H 16 9 . found in oak-bark.
  • Quercite (kwer'-sit) [quercus], C 6 H 7 (OH) 5 . A sweet principle found in acorns.
  • Quercitrin (kwer' -sit-rin) [quercus; citrus, lemon], C 33 H 30 O 17 . A glucosid found in the bark of Quercus tinctoria and in many other plants.
  • Quercus (kwer'-kus) [L., "the oak"]. The quercus of the U. S. P. is the dried bark of quercus alba. Q., Fluidextract of (fluid- extractum quercus, U. S. P.). Dose 15 min. (1 Cc). See Oak.
  • Quick (kwik) [AS., cwic, alive]. A sensitive, vital, tender part, as the flesh under a nail.
  • Quickening (kwik'-en-ing) [see Quick]. The first feeling on the part of the pregnant woman of fetal movements, occurring between the fourth and fifth months of pregnancy.

Quicklime [quick; lime]. Calcium oxid. See under Lime.

Quicksilver [quick; silver]. The popular name for mercury.


  • Quillaia, Quillaja (kwil-a' -yah) [Chilian, quil- lean, to wash]. A genus of trees of the order Rosacea. The quillaja of the U. S. P. is the dried bark of Quillaja saponaria. It contains saponin and produces a froth when agitated in water. It is used in pulmonary affections and as a sternutatory, and in the arts as a substitute for soap. Syn., Soap- bark. Q., Fluidextract of (fluidextr actum quillaja, U. S. P.). Dose 3 min. (0.2 Cc). Q., Tincture of (tinctura quillaja, U. S. P.). Dose 1 dr. (4 Cc).

Quill-suture. See Suture, Quill-.


  • Quina (kwin'-ah). Same as Cinchona. -Q. calisaya, yellow cinchona bark. Q. colorada, red cinchona bark.
  • Quinacetin Sulfate (kwin-as' -et-in) , (C 37 H 31 - N0 2 ) 2 H 2 S0 4 H 2 0. An antipyretic and ano- dyne. Dose 5-15 gr. (0.32-0.97 Gm.).
  • Quinaldin (kwin-aV -din) , C 10 H 9 N. Methyl- quinolin.
  • Quinaphenin (kwin-af -en-in) . A white, taste- less powder, obtained by action of quinin on the hydrochlorate of eloxyphenylcarbamic acid. Used in whooping-cough. Dose for young children 1-2 J gr.(0.065-0.16 Gm.) daily; older children 3-5 gr. (0.2-0.3 Gm.).
  • Quinaseptol (kwin-ah-sep'-tol). See Diaphtol. Q., Argentic, an odorless, harmless antiseptic and hemostatic which promotes granulation.
  • Quinate (kwin' -at). A salt of quinic acid.

Quincke's Disease. Angioneurotic edema; acute circumscribed edema. Q.'s Pulse, rhythmic reddening and blanching of the finger-nails depending upon oscillations of blood-pressure which are propagated into the capillaries; it is found in aortic insufficiency. Q.'s Spinal Puncture. See Puncture, Lumbar.


  • Quinia (kwin' -e-ah) . See Quinin.
  • Quinic (kwin'-ik) [Peruvian, kina, bark]. Per- taining to quinin. Q. Acid, C 7 H 12 2 , an acid occurring in cinchona bark, in the ivy, oak, elm, ash, coffee-plant, etc.
  • Quinidin (kwin' -id-in) [quinin], C 20 H 24 N 2 O 2 . An alkaloid of cinchona bark isomeric with quinin, which it resembles in action, differing only in being less powerful. Q. Sulfate, is used as an antiperiodic in doses of 20-60 gr. (1.3-4.0 Gm.). Q. Tannate, is used in diar- rhea, nephritis, and malaria. Dose 2-12 gr. (0.1-0.8 Gm.) twice daily.
  • Quinin (kin-en') [Peruvian, kina, bark], C^- H 24 N 2 2 + 3H 2 0. Quinin (quinina, U. S. P.) is a bitter amorphous or crystalline alkaloid ob- tained from the bark of various species .of cinchona. It is soluble in 900 parts of water, readily soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloro- form, and gives a beautiful emerald-green color when it or its salts are treated with a solution of chlorin and then with ammonia. Quinin acts as a stimulant to the nervous system, causing in large doses cerebral con- gestion and lessening of the reflexes; it is a slight respiratory stimulant and a depressant QUININ 815 QUINOLIN to the circulation; it lessens the ameboid movement of the white corpuscles, and during fever is strongly antipyretic; it also possesses antiseptic properties. In large doses it causes ringing in the ears, a feeling of fulness in the head, dizziness, slight deafness, and at times disturbances of vision; occasionally also a rise of temperature (quinin- fever) . It is used as an antiperiodic in malaria, in which disease it has a specific action; it is also employed as an antipyretic in other febrile affections, as a tonic in convalescence, as a stimulant to the uterus during parturition, in whooping-cough, coryza, and hay-fever.
  • Quinoidin (kin-oi'-din). See Chinoidin. Q., Animal-, a basic substance obtained from animal tissues and having the property of fluorescence like quinin.
  • Quinol (kin'-ol). See Hydroquinone.
  • Quinolin (kin'-o-lin) [quinin], C 9 H 7 N. A liquid alkaloid obtained in the destructive distilla- tion of quinin, or cinchonin, with potassium hydroxid; it occurs also in coal-tar. It is antipyretic and antiseptic. Dose 4-10 min. (0.2-0.6 Cc). Q. -bismuth Sulfocyanate, (CHN . HSCN) 3 Bi(SCN) 3 , a granular, orange-red powder, insoluble in water, alcohol, or ether; melts at 7 6° C. It is used in the treatment of gonorrhea, skin diseases, and ulcers in 0.5 to 1 % solution. Q.
  • Quinon (kin' -on) [quinin], C 6 H 4 2 . A yellow, crystalline substance obtained by heating quinic acid with manganese dioxid and sul- furic acid. It is the lowest member of a series of bodies known as quinones.
  • Quinopyrin (kin-o-pi' -rin) . A concentrated aqueous solution of quinin hydrochlorid and antipyrin, used subcutaneously in malaria.
  • Quinosol (kin'-o-sol). 1. C 9 H 6 N . OS0 3 K + H 2 0. Oxyquinolin potassium sulfate, a yel- low powder, soluble in water; antipyretic, antiseptic, styptic, and deodorant. Syn., Chinosol. 2. The proprietary name for a neutral combination of tricresyl sulfonate and quinolin, with tricresol. It is not caustic, and is soluble in water to the extent of 1 in 25. A disinfectant for surgical instruments, and bac- tericide. Application, 0.1 to 2% solutions.
  • Quinotannic Acid (kin-o-tan' -ik) [quinin; tannin]. A form of tannic acid found in cinchona bark.
  • Quino vin (kin'-o-vin) [Peruvian, kina, bark], CsgH^On. Kinovin, a bitter glucosid found in cinchona bark.

Quinquaud's Disease. A disease of the hair- follicles attended with cicatrization of the skin. Syn., Acne decalvans; Folliculitis decalvans. Q.'s Panaris, phlegmonous in- flammation of the fingers and toes of neuro- pathic origin, differing from Morvan's dis- ease in that it is painful and never accom- panies paretic phenomena, and ordinarily does not entail necrosis of the phalanges.


  • Quinquivalent (kwin-kwiv' -al-ent) [quinque, five; valere, to be worth]. Having a valence of five; capable of combining with five atoms of hydrogen or their equivalent.
  • Quinsy (kwin'-ze) [cc, a curving]. Curvature of the spine.
  • Rachiodynia (ra-ke-o-din' '-e-ah) [rachi-; ddovq, pain]. Spasmodic pain in the spinal column.
  • Rachioplegia (ra-ke-o-ple' -je-ah) [rachi-; ttAtjpj, stroke]. Spinal paralysis; paraplegia.
  • Rachiotomy (ra-ke-of -o-me) [rachi-; ri/ivecv, to cut]. 1. The operation of cutting into or through the vertebral column. 2. The opera- tion of cutting through the spine of the fetus to facilitate delivery.
  • Rachipagus (ra-kip'-ag-us) [rachi-; nayoc, that which is fixed]. A twin monster joined at the spines.
  • Rachis (ra'-kis) [paxav'cc, radish]. A nervous affection attended with spasmodic disorder of the joints and the limbs. It has been attributed to a poisonous principle in the seeds of the wild radish, which become mixed with grain.* The affection is allied to ergotism and pellagra.
  • Raphe (raf'-a) [pa7j, a seam]. A seam or ridge, especially one indicating the line of junction of two symmetric halves.
  • Raptus (rap'-tus) [rapere, to seize]. Any sudden attack or seizure; rape.
  • Rarefaction (rar-e-fak'-shun) [rarus, thin; rare; facere, to make]. The act of rarefying or of decreasing the density of a substance, especially the air. R. of Bone, the process of rendering bone more porous.
  • Rarefy (rar'-e-fi) [see Rarefaction]. To make less dense or more porous.

Rarefying Osteitis. See Osteoporosis.


  • Rasceta (ras'-e-tah) [L.]. The transverse lines or creases on the inner side of the wrist.

Rasch's Sign. Fluctuation obtained by apply- ing two fingers of the right hand to the cervix, as in ballottement, and steadying the uterus through the abdomen with the left hand. It depends upon the presence of the liquor amnii, and is an early sign of pregnancy.

Rash [OF., rasche, from radere, to scrape]. A superficial eruption of the skin or mucous membrane. R., Amygdalotomy, one that generally appears on the second or third day after the operation, on the neck, chest, or abdomen. R., Caterpillar-, a localized erup- tion attributed to the irritant action of the hairs of certain caterpillars. R., Drug-, one produced by drugs. R., Medicinal. See R., Drug-. R., Mulberry-, an eruption resembling an exanthem of measles, some- times occurring in typhus. R., Nettle-. See Nettlerash. R., Rose-. See Roseola. R., Scarlet. See Scarlatina. R., Tonsillotomy. See R., Amygdalotomy. R., Tooth-, any rash attributed to dentition.


  • Rasion (ra'-zhun) [radere, to scrape]. The scraping of drugs with a file.

Rasmussen's Aneurysm. Dilation of an artery in a tuberculous cavity; its rupture is a frequent cause of hemorrhage. R.'s Test for Urobilin, shake together thor- oughly equal parts of urine and ether to which has been added 6 or 7 drops of tincture of iodin. Allow it to stand until the solution separates into an upper layer of ether and iodin and a lower one of urine. In the pres- ence of bile the lower layer turns green if bili- verdin also exists.

Raspail's Reaction for Albumins. These are colored red by sugar and concentrated sulfuric acid.


  • Raspatory (ras'-pa-to-re) [raspatorium, from radere, to scrape]. A rasp or file for trimming the rough surfaces of bones or for removing the periosteum.
  • Raspberry (raz'-ber-e). The fruit of Rubus idceus, a plant of the order Rosacea. A syrup is used as a vehicle and as a drink in fevers.
  • Rasura (ra-zu'-rah) [L.]. 1. The process of rasping, shaving, or scraping. 2. Scrapings; filings, RATANY 821 RAYNAUD'S DISEASE Ratany, Ratanhia (rat'-an-e, rat-an'-he-ah). See Krameria.
  • Rathke's Duct (rat'-kaz). See Duct, Rathke's. R.'s Folds, two projecting folds of the fetal mesoderm which are placed between the orifice of the intestine and the allantois and unite in the median line to form Douglas' septum. R.'s Glands. See Jacobson's Organ. R.'s Pouch, in the embryo, the diverticulum of the pharyngeal membrane which is connected with the midbrain, and ultimately forms the anterior lobe of the hypophysis.
  • Rational (ra'-shon-al) (ratio, reason]. Based upon reason; reasonable. In therapeutics, opposed to empiric. R. Formula. See For- mula, Constitutional. R. Symptoms, the symptoms elicited by questioning the patient, as opposed to those ascertained by physical examination.
  • Ratsbane (ratz'-ban). i. Arsenic trioxid. 2. A name given to any rat-poison containing arsenic.
  • Rattle (rat' 4) [AS., hrceteldn, to rattle]. A rale. R., Death-, a gurgling sound observed in dying persons, due to the passage of the air through mucus in the trachea.

Rau's Process. See Folian Process.

Rauber's Layer. A superficial stratum of flat cells occurring in the center of the embryonal spot at an early stage in the development of the blastodermic membranes.


  • Raynaud's Disease (ra-no). 1. A trophoneu- RE- 822 REAUMUR'S THERMOMETER rosis characterized by three grades of inten- sity: (a) Local syncope, observed most fre- quently in the extremities, and producing the condition known as dead fingers or dead toes. (6) Local asphyxia, which usually follows local syncope, but may develop independently. The fingers, toes, and ears are the parts usually affected. In the most extreme degree the parts are swollen, stiff, and livid, and the capillary circulation is almost stag- nant, (c) Local or symmetric gangrene. Small areas of necrosis appear on the pads of the fingers and of the toes, also at the edges of the ears and tip of the nose. Occasionally symmetric patches are seen on the limbs or trunk, and in severe cases terminate in ex- tensive gangrene. Some cases are attended by hemoglobinuria. The pathology of the disease is obscure. 2. Paralysis of the muscles of the throat following parotitis. R.'s Gangrene. See R.'s Disease (1).

Re-. A Latin prefix signifying back or again.


  • Reaction (re-ak' '-shun) [re, again; agere, to act]. 1. Counteraction; opposite action; interaction. 2. The response of an organ or part to a stimulus. 3. In chemistry — (a) interaction of two or more substances when brought in contact; (b) the response to a certain test, as acid reaction, alkaline reaction, responding to the test for acid and alkali respectively. R., Addition, the direct union of two or more molecules to form a new mole- cule. R., Amphigenous, R., Amphoteric, a double reaction occurring occasionally in the urine, owing to the presence of substances by which the liquid responds to both the acid and alkaline tests. R., Bareggi's. See Ba- reggi's Reaction. R., Bechterew's. See Bechterew's Reaction. R., Chameleon, the peculiar change of color observed in cultures of Pseudomonas pyocyanea, from green to brown and back again. R., Chemic. See Reaction (3). R., Clump, the agglutina- tion of bacteria or of leukocytes as the result of the action of certain enzyms, lysins, or toxins. R., Consensual, reaction which is independent of the will. R. of Degeneration, the reaction obtained when an electric stimulus is applied to a muscle deprived of its trophic nerve influence. It is characterized by the following conditions: diminution or abolition of the excitability of the muscles for the faradic current, with a temporary increase in excita- bility for the galvanic current. In the nerves there is a diminution or abolition of both far- adic and galvanic excitability.


  • Reagent (re-a'-jent) [re, again; agere, to act]. A substance used to produce a chemic reac- tion.
  • Realgar (re-al' - gar ) [ Ar. , rah] al - ghar, powder of the mine]. Arsenous disulfid, /\S202« Reamputation (re-am-pu-ta' '-shun) [re-; ampu- tation]. An amputation upon a member on which the operation has been performed be- fore.

Reaumur's Thermometer. See Thermom- eter, Reaumur.


  • RECEIVER 823 RECTOVESICAL Receiver (re-se' '-ver) [recipire, to receive], i. The vessel receiving the products of dis- tillation. 2. In an air-pump, the jar in which the vacuum is produced.
  • Receptaculum (re-sep-tak' -u-lum) [L., "a re- ceptacle"]. A receptacle. R. chyli, the sac- like beginning of the thoracic duct opposite the last dorsal vertebra. R. seminis. See Cistern, Seminal.
  • Receptor (re-sep'-tor) [recipere, to receive]. A name given by Ehrlich to the atomic lateral chain or haptophorous group, which, existing in each cell in addition to its nucleus, com- bines with the intermediary body. R. of the First Order, one that unites with a toxin. R. of the Second Order, one that has two haptophore groups, one of which unites with a nutritional substance (immune body) and the other with a fermentive sub- stance (complement).
  • Recession (re-sesh' -un) [recedere, to recede]. The gradual withdrawal of a part from its normal position, as the recession of the gums from the necks of the teeth.
  • Recessus (re-ses'-us) [L.]. A depression or recess. R. hemiellipticus. See Fovea hemi- elliptica. R. hemisphaericus. See Fovea hemisphcerica. R. pharyngeus, a pouch- like process of the mucosa of the pharynx situated below the opening of the eustachian tube.
  • Recidivation (re-sid-iv-a' 'shun) [recidivus, a falling back]. The relapsing of a disease.
  • Recipe (res'-ip-e). i. The imperative of re- cipere, used as the heading of a physician's prescription, and signifying take. Symbol 1$. 2. Also the formula itself.

Reciprocal Proportions, Law of. See Dal- ton's Law.

Recklinghausen's Canals. See Canals of Recklinghausen. R.'s Disease, i. Neuro- fibromatosis. 2. Hemachromatosis; an affec- tion characterized by bronzing of the skin, hypertrophic cirrhosis of the liver, enlarge- ment of the spleen, and, in later stages, dia- betes from pancreatic sclerosis.


  • Reclination (rek-lin-a' '-shun) [reclinare, to recline], i. An old operation for cataract, called also "couching," in which the lens was pushed back into the vitreous chamber. 2. The act of lying down.

Reclus' Disease. Cystic disease of the mammary gland; chronic cystic or interstitial mastitis.


  • Recomposition (re-kom-po-zish'-un) [recom- ponere, to reunite]. Reunion of parts or constituents after temporary dissolution.
  • Reconstituent (re-kon-stif -u-ent) [re-; con- stituere, to constitute]. A medicine which promotes continuous repair of tissue-waste or makes compensation for its loss.
  • Recrement (rek f -re-ment) [recrementum, from re, again; crescere, to grow]. A secretion that is reabsorbed after fulfilling its function.
  • Recrementitious (rek-re-men-tish' -us) [recre- ment]. Pertaining to or of the nature of a recrement.
  • Recrudescence (re-kru-des'-ens) [re-; cru- descere, to become raw]. An increase in the symptoms of a disease after a remission or a short intermission.
  • Rectal (rek'-tal). Pertaining to the rectum or performed through the rectum. R. Ali- mentation. See Alimentation, Rectal. R. Crises, attacks of rectal pain and tenesmus occurring in locomotor ataxia.
  • Rectalgia (rek-tal' -je-ah) [rectum; alyog, pain]. Pain in the rectum; proctalgia.
  • Rectification (rek-tij-ik-a 1 '-shun) [rectus, straight; facere, to make], i. A straighten- ing, as rectification of a crooked limb. 2. The redistillation of weak spirit in order to strengthen it.

Rectified Spirit. Alcohol containing 94.9 % of ethyl-alcohol.


  • Rectify (rek f -lif-i) [see Rectification]. To make right or straight; to refine.
  • Recto- (rek-to-) [rectum], A prefix meaning re- lating to the rectum.
  • Rectoabdominal (rek-to-ab-dom'-in-at). Re- lating to the rectum and the abdomen.
  • Rectocele (rek'-to-sel) [recto-; ktjAt), hernia]. Prolapse of the rectum into the vagina.
  • Rectococcygeal (rek-to-kok-sif -e-al) [recto-; coccygeal]. Pertaining to the rectum and the coccyx.
  • Rectococcypexia (rek-to-koks-e-peks'-e-ah) [rec- to-; KOKKut;, coccyx; Trq&f, a fastening]. Suturing of the rectum to the coccyx.
  • Rectocolitis (rek-to-kol-i'-tis). Inflammation of the mucosa of the rectum and colon com- bined.
  • Rectocolonic (rek-to-ko-lon'-ik) [recto-; colon]. Pertaining to the rectum and the colon.
  • Rectocystotomy (rek-to-sist-of -o-me) [recto-; cystotomy]. Incision of the bladder through the rectum.
  • Rectogenital (rek-lo-jen'-it-al). Pertaining to the rectum and the genital organs.
  • Recto labial (rek-to-la'-be-al). Relating to the rectum and the labia pudendi.
  • Rectopexia (rek-to-peks'-e-ah) [recto-; ny^cc, a fastening]. Surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum.
  • Rectoscope (rek' -to-skop) [recto-; okotcuv, to inspect]. A rectal speculum.
  • Rectostenosis (rek-to -sten-o' '-sis) [recto-, steno- sis]. Stenosis of the rectum.
  • Rectotome (rek' -to -torn) [recto-; ropr), a cut- ting]. A cutting instrument used in rectot- omy.
  • Rectotomy (rek-tot 1 -o-me) . See Proctotomy.
  • Rectourethral (rek-to-u-re' '-thral) [recto-; urethra]. Pertaining to the rectum and the urethra.
  • Rectouterine (rek-to-u'-ter-in) [recto-; uterus]. Pertaining to the rectum and the uterus.
  • Rectovaginal (rek-to-vaf '-in-al) [recto-; vagina]. Pertaining to the rectum and the vagina. R. Fistula, an opening between the vagina and the rectum.
  • Rectovesical (rek-to-ves' -ik-al) [recto-; vesica, RECTUM 824 REFLEX the bladder]. Pertaining to the rectum and the bladder.
  • Rectum (rek' - turn) [rectus, straight]. The lower part of the large intestine, extending from the sigmoid flexure to the anus. It be- gins opposite the left sacroiliac synchondrosis, passes obliquely downward to the middle of the sacrum, and thence descends in the median line to terminate at the anus.
  • Rectus (rek'-tus) [L.]. Straight; applied to anything having a straight course. R. Mus- cle. See under Muscle.
  • Recumbent (re-kum'-bent) [recumbere, to re- cline]. Leaning back ; reclining.
  • Recuperate (re-ku'-per-dt) [recuperare, to re- gain]. To regain strength or health.
  • Recurrens (re-kur' -enz) [see Recurrent]. Re- lapsing fever.
  • Recurrent (re-kur' -ent) [re, back; currere, to run], i. Returning. 2. In anatomy, turn- ing back in its course, as recurrent laryngeal nerve. R. Fever, relapsing fever.

Red [AS., redd]. The least refrangible of the spectral colors ; of a color resembling that of the blood. R. Bark. See Cinchona. R.- blindness. See under Blindness, Color-. R. Gum, a red, papular eruption of infants. Syn., Strophulus. R. Lead, red lead oxid, formerly used in plasters. R. Nucleus. See Nucleus, Tegmental. R. Pepper. See Cap- sicum. R. Precipitate. See Mercury Oxid, Red. R. Softening, a form of acute softening of the brain or spinal cord, characterized by a red, punctiform appearance due to the pres- ence of blood.


  • Redintegration (red-in-te-gra 1 '-shun) [redinte- grare, to renew]. The complete restitution of a part that has been injured or destroyed.
  • Redressment (re-dres 1 '-ment) [Ft., redresse- ment]. Correction of a deformity or replace- ment of a dislocated part. Redressement force, the forcible correction of a deformity or restoration of a displaced part.
  • Reduce (re-dus') [re, back; ducere, to lead]. 1. To restore a part to its normal relations, as to reduce a hernia or fracture. 2. In chemistry, to bring back to the metallic form; to deprive of oxygen.
  • Reduced (re-dusd') [reduce]. 1. Restored to the proper place. 2. In chemistry, brought back into the metallic form, as reduced iron. 3. Diminished in size. R. Eye. See Eye, Reduced, of Donders.
  • Reducible (re-du'-si-bl) [reduce]. Capable of being reduced.
  • Reducin (re-du'-sin). A leukomain, C 12 H 24 - N 6 9 , found in urine.
  • Reduction (re-duk' -shun) [reduce]. The act of reducing. R. en bloc, R. en masse, the reduction of a strangulated hernia still surrounded by its sac, thus failing to relieve the strangulation.
  • Reduplicated (re-du' ' -plik-a-ted) [see Redupli- cation]. Doubled, as reduplicated heart - sounds. See Reduplication.
  • Reduplication (re-du-plik-a' -shun) [re, again; duplicare, to double]. A doubling. R. of the Heart-sounds, a doubling of either the first or the second sound of the heart.
  • Redux (re' - duks) [L.]. Returning. R., Crepitus, the small mucous rales heard in the early stage of the resolution of lobar pneumonia.
  • Reed (red). See Abomasum.

Reel, Cerebellar. The peculiar staggering gait in diseases of the cerebellum, particularly in tumor.

Rees' Test for Albumin. Small amounts of albumin are precipitated by an alcoholic solution of tannic acid.


  • Reevolution (re-ev-ol-u' -shun) . Hughlings Jackson's term for a symptom following an epileptic attack, which consists of three stages: (1) Suspension of power to under- stand speech (word-deafness); (2) perception of words and echolalia without comprehen- sion; (3) return to conscious perception of speech with continued lack of comprehension.
  • Refine (re-fin') [re, again; finire, to finish]. To purify; to separate a substance from foreign matter.
  • Reflection (re-flek'-shun) [reflex]. A bending or turning back; specifically, the turning back of a ray of light from a surface upon which it impinges without penetrating.
  • Reflector (re-flek'-tor). A polished surface by which light is reflected.
  • Reflex (re'-fleks) [re, back; flectere, to bend]. 1. Anything reflected or thrown back. 2. A reflex act. R., Abdominal, contraction of the muscles about the umbilicus, on sharp, sudden stroking of the abdominal wall from the margin of the ribs downward; it shows integrity of the spinal cord from the eighth to the twelfth dorsal nerve. R. Act, an act following immediately upon a stimulus with- out the intervention of the will. R., Ankle, clonic contractions of the tendo achillis, de- pendent upon alternate contraction and re- laxation of the anterior, tibial, and calf-mus- cles; obtained by sudden complete flexion of the foot, by pressing the hand against the sole. Syn., Ankle-clonus. R. Arc, the mechanism necessary for a reflex action; it consists of an afferent or sensory nerve; a nerve-center to change this sensory impulse into a motor one; and an efferent or motor nerve to carry a motor impulse to the muscle or group of muscles. R., Biceps, contraction of the biceps muscle on tapping the tendon of the biceps; a normal reflex, but increased by the causes which increase the knee-jerk. R., Bone, a reflex muscular contraction evoked by blows over a bone. R., Bulbocavernous. See R. } Virile. R., Chin. See R., Jaw. R., Ciliospinal, pupillary dilation on irri- tation of the skin of the neck. R., Corneal. Same as R., Eyelid-closure. R., Cremasteric, retraction of the testicle on the corresponding side, obtained on stimula- tion of the skin on the front and inner aspect of the thigh; it shows integrity of the cord between the first and second pairs of lumbar nerves. R., Crossed, one in which stimulation REFLEX 825 REFLEX of one side of the body produces a reflex on the opposite side. R., Deep, reflexes devel- oped by percussion of tendons or bones. R., Dorsal. Same as R., Erector spina. R., Epigastric, dimpling in the epigastrium, due to contraction of the highest fibers of the rectus abdominis muscle, on stimulation of the skin in the fifth or sixth intercostal space near the axilla; it shows integrity of the cord from the fourth to the seventh dorsal nerves. R., Erector spinae, local contrac- tion of erector spinae muscle on stimulation of the skin along the border; it shows in- tegrity of the dorsal region of the cord. R., Eyelid-closure, closure of the lid on irrita- tion of the conjunctiva. R., Faucial, vomit- ing on irritation of the fauces. R., Femoral, plantar flexion of the first three toes and of the foot, and extension of the knee-joint upon irritation of the skin on the upper anterior aspect of the thigh; it occurs in disease of the spinal cord, e. g., in some cases of trans- verse myelitis. R., Front-tap. See R., Tendo achillis. R., Gluteal, contraction of the glutei upon firm, sudden stroking of the skin over the buttock; it shows integrity of the cord at the fourth and fifth lumbar nerves. R., Guttural, a reflex observed in cases of diseased genitalia in women, in which the patient is desirous of spitting but cannot. R., Haab's Pupil-. See Haab's Pupil-reflex. R., Interscapular. SeeR.,Scaptilar. R., Iris- contraction. See R., Pupillary. R., Jaw, clonic movements of the inferior maxilla, ob- tained on a downward stroke with a hammer on the lower jaw hanging passively or gently supported by the hand ; it is rarely present in health; increased in sclerosis of the lateral columns of cord. Syn., Jaw-clonus; Jaw-jerk. R., Knee, contraction of the quadriceps muscle, the foot being jerked forward on striking the patellar tendon after rendering it tense by flexing the knee at a right angle; it is normal in health; absent in locomotor ataxia, destructive lesions of the lower part of the cord, multiple neuritis, affections of the anterior gray cornua, infantile paralysis, meningitis, diphtheric paralysis, atrophic palsy, pseudohypertrophic muscular paralysis, diabetes, etc.; increased in diseases of the pyramidal tracts, in spinal irritability, tumors of the brain, cerebrospinal sclerosis, lateral sclerosis, after epileptic seizures or unilateral convulsions. Syn., Knee-jerk. R., Laryn- geal, coughing, produced by irritation of the fauces, larynx, etc. R., Lumbar. Same as R., Erector spina. R. Multi- plicator, 'an apparatus for the registra- tion of tendon-reflexes. R., Nasal, sneezing, on irritation of the schneiderian membrane. R., Obliquus, contraction of the fibers of the obliquus externus in females (corresponds to cremasteric in males, although it can also be caused in males) on irritation of skin below Poupart's ligament. R., Ophthalmic. See R., Supraorbital. R., Palatal, swallowing produced by irritation of the palate. R., Palmar, contraction of the digital flexors upon tickling the palm; it shows that the cervical region of the cord is normal. R., Patellar. Same as R., Knee. R., Pa- tellar, Paradoxic, contraction of the ad- ductor but not of the quadriceps muscle on percussing the patellar tendon, with the patient in the dorsal decubitus. If the patient is in the sitting posture, the normal reflex is elicited; it shows spinal concussion. R.s, Pathic, movements resulting from stimulation of a sensory nerve. R., Penis. See R., Virile. R., Periosteal, sharp con- tractions of the muscles upon tapping the bones of the forearm or leg; it indicates dis- ease of the lateral columns of the spinal cord. R., Peroneal, reflex movements caused by a stroke on the peroneus muscles when tense or when the foot is turned inward. R., Pharyngeal, swallowing produced by irrita- tion of the pharynx. R., Plantar, contrac- tion of the toes upon stroking the sole of the foot. R., Platysma, dilation of the pupil upon pinching the platysma myoides muscle. R., Pupillary, contraction of the iris on exposure of the retina to light; it is absent in basal meningitis, etc. R., Pupil- lary, Paradoxic, dilation of the pupil on stimulation of the retina by light. R., Scap- ular, contraction of the scapular muscles on irritation of the interscapular region; it shows integrity of the cord between the upper two or three dorsal and lower two or three cervical nerves. R., Skin. See R., Platysma. R., Sole. Same as R., Plantar. R., Spinal, those reflex actions emanating from centers in the spinal cord. R., Superficial, such as are developed from irritation of the skin. R., Supraorbital, a slight contrac- tion of the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle on striking the supraorbital nerve or one of its branches a slight blow. R., Tendo achillis, reflex contraction of the gastrocne- mius muscle, produced by striking the mus- cles on the anterior part of leg while in exten- sion, the foot being extended by the hand upon the sole; it is considered a delicate test of heightened spinal irritability. Syn., Front- tap contraction. R., Toe, involuntary flexion of the foot, then flexion of the leg, and, lastly, flexion of the thigh on the pelvis upon strong flexion of the great toe; it is seen in cases in which the knee-jerk and other tendon-reflexes are strongly developed. R., Triceps, extension of the forearm on tapping the tendon of the triceps muscle. R., Virile, retraction of the bulbocavernous portion upon sharp percussion of the back of the penis, the sheath having been made tense; it occurs in health. R., Visceral, one of a group of reflexes, as, blinking, from touching the cornea; penile, erection on slight contact or produced by passing a catheter; rectal, constriction of the bowel following introduction of a foreign body, as a sup- pository; sneezing, that produced by a draft REFLEXOGRAPH 826 REGION 3 of cold air or a brilliant light; vesical, con- traction of the bladder following irritation of the urethral orifice, e. g., incontinence of urine in children, by reason of a long prepuce; vomiting, from tickling the fauces. R., Wrist, a series of jerking movements of the hand produced by pressing the hand back- ward to extreme extension; observed in the late rigidity of hemiplegia. Syn., Wrist- clonus.
  • Reflexograph (re-fleks'-o-graf) [reflex; fpacf^cv, to write]. An instrument for measuring, timing, and charting automatically knee-jerks and other tendon-reflexes.
  • Refiexophil (re-fleks'-o-fil) [reflex; cXe~cv, to love]. Attended by reflex activity.
  • Reflux (re'-fluks) [re, back; fluere, to flow]. A return flow.
  • Refract (re-frakV) [re, back; fr anger e, to break], i. To bend back. 2. To change direction by refraction. 3. To estimate the degree of ametropia, heterophoria, and heterotropia present in an eye.
  • Refraction (re-frak' -shun) [refract]. 1. The act of refracting or bending back. 2. The deviation of a ray of light from a straight line in passing obliquely from one transparent medium to another of different density. 3. The state of refractive power, especially of the eye; the ametropia, emmetropia, or muscle- imbalance present. 4. The act or process of correcting errors of ocular refraction. R., Angle of, the angle formed by a refracted ray of light with the perpendicular at the point of refraction. R., Double, the power possessed by certain substances, as Iceland spar, of dividing a ray of light and thus producing a double image of an object. R., Dynamic, the static refraction of the eye, plus that secured by the action of the accommodative apparatus. R., Index of, the refractive power of any substance as compared with air. It is the quotient of the angle of incidence divided by the angle of refraction of a ray passing through the sub- stance. R., Static, that of the eye when accommodation is at rest.
  • Refractive (re-frak' -tiv) [refract]. Refracting; capable of refracting or bending back; per- taining to refraction. R. Index. See Index, Refractive.
  • Refractivity (re-frak-tiv'-it-e) [refract]. Power of refraction; ability to refract.
  • Refractometer (re-frak-tom'-et-er) [refract; [ikrpov, a measure]. 1. An instrument for measuring the refraction of the eye. 2. An instrument for the determination of the refractive indexes of liquids.
  • Refractory (re-frak' -tor-e) [refractarius, stub- born]. 1. Resisting treatment. 2. Resisting the action of heat; slow to melt.
  • Refracture (re-frak' -tur) [re, back; frangere, to break]. The breaking again of fractured bones that have joined by faulty or improper union.
  • Refrangibility (re-fran-jib-il'-it-e) [sec Refract]. Capability of undergoing refraction.
  • Refresh (re- fresh') [re, again; friscus, new]. In surgery, to give to an old lesion the char- . acter of a fresh wound.
  • Refrigerant (re-frif '-er-ant) [see Refrigeration]. 1. Cooling; lessening fever. 2. A medicine or agent having cooling properties or lowering body-temperature .
  • Refrigeration (re-frij-er-a'-shun) [re, again; frigus, cold]. The act of lowering the tem- perature of a body by conducting away its heat to a surrounding cooler substance.
  • Refusion (re-fu'-zhun) [refusio, an over- flowing]. The act of withdrawing blood from the vessels, exposing it to the oxygen of the air, and passing it back again.
  • Regeneration (re-jen-er-a' -shun) [re, again; generare, to beget]. The repair of lost or diseased structures.
  • Regimen (rej'-im-en) [regere, to rule]. The regulated use of food and the sanitary ar- rangement of surroundings to suit existing conditions of health or disease.
  • Region (re'-jun) [regio, a region]. One of the divisions of the body possessing either natural or arbitrary boundaries. R.s of the Abdomen. See under Abdomen. R., Epigas- tric. See under Abdomen. R., Hypochon- driac. See under Abdomen. R., Hypogastric. See under Abdomen. R., Iliac, the region ex- ternal to the hypogastric region. R., Infra- axillary, the space between the anterior and posterior axillary lines. R., Infraclavicular, the space just below the clavicle. R., Infra- mammary, the space between a line drawn along the upper border of the xiphoid carti- tilage and the margin of the false ribs. R., Infrascapular, the region on each side of the vertebral column below a horizontal line drawn through the inferior angle of each scapula. R., Infraspinous, that included between the spine of the scapula and a line passing through the angle of the scapula. R., Inguinal, the region of the groin. R., Interscapular, the space between the scapulas. R., Ischiorectal, the region be- tween the ischium and the rectum. R., Lum- bar. See under Abdomen. R., Mammary, the space on the anterior surface of the chest between the third and the sixth ribs. R., Parotid. See R., Retrom axillary. R., Pre- cordial, the surface of the chest covering the heart. R., Prevertebral, the ventral surface of the vertebral column. R., Pulmo vascu- lar, the part of the, thorax in which the lung overlaps the origins of the large vessels. R., Retromaxillary, the area dorsad of the superior maxilla. R., Sacrococcygeal, that part of the dorsal wall of the pelvis correspond- ing to the ventral surface of the sacrum and coccyx. R., Sternal, the region overlying the sternum. R., Sternal, Inferior, the part of the sternal region lying below the margins of the third costal cartilages. R., Sternal, Superior, that portion of the ster- nal region lying above the lower margins of - fl-fc •S3 be q.
  • Regional (re'-jun-al) [region]. Pertaining to a region. R. Anatomy, the branch of anatomy that treats of the relations of the structures in a region of the body to each other and to the body-surface. (See illustra- tions on p. 827.) Regressive (re-gres' -iv) [re, back; gradi, to go]. Going back; returning; subsiding.
  • Regular (reg'-u-lar) [regere, to rule]. Ac- cording to rule or custom. R. Physician, one belonging to the regular school. R. School of Medicine, the great mass of the profession, whose practice is based on the results of experience and experimental re- search without adherence to any exclusive theory of therapeutics.

Regurgitation ire-gur-fit-a'-shun) [re, again; gurgitare, to engulf]. 1. A back-flow of blood through a heart -valve that is defective. 2. The return of food from the stomach to the mouth soon after eating, without the ordinary efforts at vomiting. R., Aortic, that of the blood-serum through the aorta from in- competence of the valves. R., Functional, a form of mitral regurgitation due to contraction of the chordae tendinese and papillary muscles. R., Mitral. See Mitral Regurgitation.

Reichardt's Test for Arsenic in the Urine. Concentrate 200 Cc. of urine with about 2 Gm. of caustic soda; dissolve the residue in a little water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, and then test in a Marsh's apparatus.

ReichePs Cloacal Duct. See Duct, Reich- el's Cloacal.

Reichert's Canal. See Canal, Hensen's. R.'s Cartilages, the hyoid bars which constitute the skeletal elements of the hyoid branchial arch of the embryo and ultimately become the styloid processes, the stylohyal ligaments, and the lesser cornua of the hyoid bone. R.'s Membrane. See Bowman's Membrane.

Reichl's Test for Proteids. To the proteid solution add 2 or 3 drops of an alcoholic so- lution of benzaldehyd, and then considerable sulfuric acid, previously diluted with an equal bulk of water. Finally, add a few drops of a ferric sulfate solution, and a deep blue coloration will be produced in the cold after some time, or at once on warming. Solid proteids are stained blue by this reaction.

Reichl-Mikosch's Reagent for Albumins. Benzaldehyd and sulfuric acid containing ferric sulfate.

Reichmann's Disease. A chronic disease of the stomach characterized by permanent gastric hypersecretion, associated with marked dilation of the stomach, with thickening of its walls, and hypertrophy of the glands. It is accompanied by violent attacks, of pain with vomiting, and may be followed by the forma- tion of a round ulcer on the wall of the stom- ach. R.'s Sign, the presence in the stomach, before eating in the morning, of an acid liquid mixed with alimentary residues; it is indicative of gastrosuccorrhea and pyloric stenosis..

Reid's Lines. Three imaginary lines serving for measurements in craniocerebral topog- raphy; one of them, the base line, is drawn from the lower margin of the orbit through the center of the external auditory meatus to just below the external occipital protuber- ance. The two others are perpendicular to it, one corresponding to the small depression in front of the external auditory meatus, the other to the posterior border of the mastoid process. The fissure of Rolando extends from the upper limit of the posterior vertical line to the point of intersection of the anterior line and the fissure of Sylvius.

Reil's Ansa. A tract of fibers passing from the optic thalamus downward and outward toward the white substance of the hemisphere. Syn., Ansa peduncularis; Goose's foot. R.'s Covered Band, the lateral longitudinal strias; the longitudinal fibers which cross the transverse strias beneath the fornicate convolu- tion. R.'s Island. See Island of Reil. R.'s Line, a ridge descending posteriorly from the summit of the pyramid of the cerebellum. R.'s Sulcus, the sulcus in the bottom of the sylvian fissure, separating the insula from the remainder of the hemisphere.


  • Reimplantation (re-im-plan-ta' '-shun) [re, again; plantar e, to plant]. In dental surgery, the replacing of a drawn tooth into its socket.
  • Reinfection (re-in-fek' -shun) [re, again; in- fection]. Infection a second time with the same kind of virus.
  • Reinoculation (re-in-ok-u-la' '-shun) [re, again; inoculare, to inoculate]. Inoculation a second time with the same kind of virus.

Reinsch's Test. A test for arsenic. The suspected fluid is strongly acidulated with hydrochloric acid and boiled, some slips of bright copper being added; a grayish coating on the copper may be shown to be arsenic by heating in a glass tube held obliquely, when, if it is arsenic, a crystalline coating will be sublimated on the glass above the copper.

Rein version ire-in-ver' -shun) [re, again; in- vert]. The act of reducing an inverted uterus by the application of pressure to the fundus.

Reisseisen's Muscles. The muscular fibers of the bronchi.


  • N REJUVENESCENCE 829 REPERCUSSIVE Rejuvenescence (re-ju-ven-es'-ens) [re, again; juvenescere, to grow young]. A renewal of youth; a renewal of strength and vigor. Relapse (re-laps') [re, again; labi, to fall]. A return of an attack of a disease shortly after the beginning of convalescence.

Relapsing Fever. An acute infectious dis- ease due to Spirochceta obermeieri. After a period of incubation of from 5 to 7 days, the disease sets in with chilL fever, and pains in the back and limbs. The spleen enlarges, sweats and delirium occur, and the symptoms continue for 5 or 6 days, then suddenly cease by crisis. After a variable in- terval, usually in about a week, a second par- oxysm occurs, which may be followed by a third and fourth. The disease prevails where conditions of overcrowding and defective food-supply obtain; hence the name some- times given it, famine-fever.


  • Relaxant (re-laks' -ant) [see Relaxation]. 1. Loosening; causing relaxation. . 2. An agent that diminishes tension.
  • Relaxation (re-laks-a' -shun) [re, again; laxare, to loosen]. A diminution of tension in a part; a diminution in functional activity, as relax- ation of the skin.
  • Relief (re-lef) [OF., relef, a raising]. 1. The partial removal of anything distressing; alleviation. R. Incision, one to relieve tension; as in an abscess.
  • Remak's Band (rem'-ak). The axis-cylinder of a nerve-fiber. R.'s Fibers. See Fibers of Remak. R.'s Fibrils, the fibrils composing a nonmedullated nerve-fiber. R.'s Ganglion. See Ganglion, Remak 's. R.'s Layer, the inner longitudinal fibrous layer of the tunica intima of large arteries. R.'s Sign, the pro- duction, by the pricking of a needle, of a double sensation, the second being painful; it is noted in tabes dorsalis. R.'s Type of Palsy, paralysis affecting the muscles of the arm — the deltoid, biceps, brachialis anti- cus, and supinator longus.
  • Remedial (re-me' -de-al) [remedy]. Having the nature of a remedy; relieving; curative.
  • Remedy (rem'-ed-e) [re, again; mederi, to heal]. Anything used in the treatment of disease.
  • Remijia (re-mij'-e-ah) [Remijo, a Spanish surgeon]. A genus of rubiaceous shrubs and trees closely related to cinchona.
  • Remission (re-mish' -un) [re, back; mittere, to send]. 1. Abatement or subsidence of the symptoms of a disease. 2. The period of diminution of the symptoms of a disease.
  • Remittent (re-miV -ent) [remission]. Charac- terized by remissions. R. Fever, a malarial fever characterized by periods of remission without complete apyrexia.
  • Remulus (rem'-u-lus) [L., "a small oar"]. The narrow dorsal portion of a rib.

Ren [L.]. Kidney.


  • Renaden (ren' -ad-en). A proprietary prepara- tion from kidnevs; used in chronic nephritis. Dose 1 \-2 dr. (6-8 Gm.).
  • Renal (re'-nal) [ren]. Pertaining to the kidney.

R. Calculus, a concretion in the kidney. R. Inadequacy, the condition in which the amount of urinary solids, and often the quan- tity of urine itself, is considerably diminished. It is probably due to an exhausted condition of the epithelial cells of the kidney. R. Plexus. See Plexus, Renal.


  • Renculin (ren'-ku-lin) [ren]. An albuminoid said to exist in the suprarenal capsules.

Rendu's Type of Tremor. A hysteric tremor provoked or increased by volitional move- ments.


  • Renicapsule (ren-e-kap'-sill) [ren; capsula, a capsule]. A suprarenal capsule.
  • Reniform (ren'-e-form) [ren; forma, form]. Kidney-shaped.
  • Renin (ren' -in) [ren]. A renal substance used in organotherapy.
  • Renipuncture (ren-e-punk'-chur) [ren; pun- gere, to prick]. Puncture of the capsule of the kidney.
  • Renitent (ren f -it-ent) [reniti, to resist]. Re- sistant to pressure.
  • Rennet (ren'-et) [AS., rinnan, to run]. _ The prepared inner membrane of the fourth stomach of the calf, or an infusion of this membrane. It contains a milk-curdling fer- ment that decomposes casein.
  • Rennin (ren'-in) [see Rennet]. The milk- curdling ferment of the gastric juice.
  • Renninogen, Rennogen (ren-in'-o-jen, ren'- o-jen) [rennet]. The zymogen whence rennin is formed; it exists in the cells of the mucous membrane of the stomach.
  • Renocutaneous (ren-o-ku-ta' -ne-us) [ren; cu- taneous]. Relating to the kidneys and the skin.
  • Renogastric (ren-o-gas'-trik) [ren; yaa-i t p, stomach]. Relating to the kidney and the stomach.
  • Renuent (ren'-u-ent) [renuens, nodding back the head]. In anatomy, throwing back the head; applied to certain muscles.

Reoch's Test for Albumin. See Mac-Wil- liam. R.'s Test for Hydrochloric Acid in the Contents of the Stomach, on the ad- dition of a mixture of citrate of iron and quinin and potassium sulfocyanid to the gastric juice or contents of the stomach, con- taining free hydrochloric acid, a red colora- tion will be produced.


  • Reorganization (re-or-gan-iz-a' -shun) [re, again; organization]. Healing by the de- velopment of tissue elements similar to those lost through some morbid process.
  • Repellent (re-pel' -ent) [re, back; pellere, to push]. 1. Driving back. 2. Causing reso- lution of morbid processes.
  • Repercolation (re-per-ko-la'-shun) [re, again; percolare, to percolate]. Repeated percola- tion; the passage of a percolate for a second time, or oftener, through the percolator.
  • Repercussion ('-un) [re, again; percussion]. 1. Ballottement. 2. A driving in or dispersion of a tumor or eruption.
  • Repercussive (re-per-kus'-iv) [see Repercus- sion]. 1. Repellent. 2. A repellent drug.
  • REPLETION 830 RESONATOR Repletion (re-pW -shun) [re, again; plere, to fill]. The condition of being full. Reposing (re-po' '-zing) [see Reposition]. Re- turning an abnormally placed part to its proper position. Reposition (re-po-zi'sh' -un) [re, back; ponere, to place]. The act of returning into place, as reposition of the uterus. Repositor (re-poz'-it-or) [see Reposition]. An instrument for replacing parts that have become displaced, especially for replacing a prolapsed umbilical cord; an instrument used in the replacement of a displaced uterus. Reproduction (re-pro-duk'-shun) [re, again; produce]. The act of producing again; the procreation of one's kind; the producing of something like that lost. Reproductive (re-pro-duk'-tiv) [reproduction]. Pertaining to reproduction, as the reproduc- tive organs. Repulsion (re-puV -shun) [re, back; pellere, to drive; to push], i. The act of repelling or driving back or apart. 2. The influence tending to drive two bodies apart; the oppo- site of attraction. Resaldol (rez-al'-dol). An acetyl derivative of saliformin and resorcinol; an intestinal astrin- gent and antiseptic. Dose 8 dr.-2^ oz. (30-75 Gm.) daily. Resection (re-sek'-shun) [re, again; secare, to cut]. The operation of cutting out. R. of a Joint, the cutting away of the ends of the bones forming a joint, or a portion of bone, nerve, or other structure. Reserve Air. See Respiration. Reservoir of Pecquet (pek-a'). See Receptac- ulum chyli. Residual Air (re-zid'-u-al). See under Respi- ration. Residue, Residuum (rez'-id-u, rez-id' -u-um) [residere, to remain]. That remaining after a part has been removed; balance or re- mainder. Resilience (re-zil'-e-ens) [resilient]. The qual- ity of being elastic or resilient. Resilient (re-ziV -e-ent) [re, back; satire, to leap]. Rebounding; elastic. R. Stricture, one that contracts again immediately after being dilated. Resin (rez'-in) [resina]. 1. One of a class of vegetable substances exuding from various plants, and characterized by being soluble in alcohol, in ether, and in the volatile oils, and insoluble in water; they are readily fusible and inflammable. They are obtained in pharmacy by treating the substances contain- ing them with alcohol, and then precipitating the alcoholic solution with water. 2. See Rosin. R. of Jalap (resina jalapce, U. S. P., B. P.). Dose 2-5 gr. (0.13-0.32 Gm.). R. of Podophyllum (resina podophylli, U. S. P.). Dose £-gr. (0.008-0.032 Gm.). R. of Scammony (resina scammonii, U. S. P., B. P.). Dose 4-8 gr. (0.26-0.52 Gm.). Resina (rez'-in-ah). Colophony. The residue left after distilling off the volatile oil of tur- pentine. See Rosin, Resinate (rez' -in-dt) . A compound of a resin with a base. Resineon (rez-in'-e-on). A volatile oil distilled from resin with potash and freed from phenol. It is used as a wound antiseptic and in the treatment of skin diseases. Resinol (rez'-in-ol). See Retinol. Resinous (rez'-in-us) [resin]. Having the nature of a resin. Resistance(re-zis' -tans) [resistare, to with- stand]. 1. Opposition to force or external impression. 2. In electricity, the opposition offered by a conductor to the passage of the current. R.-Coil, a coil of wire for increas- ing the resistance in a circuit. R., Essential, R., Internal, the resistance to conduction within the battery itself. R., Extraordinary, R., External, the resistance to conduction outside of the battery. R., IssaefFs Period of, a temporary power of resistance to inocu- lation by virulent cultures of bacteria, con- ferred by the injection of various substances, such as salt solution, urine, serum, etc. Resistivity (re-zis-tiv'-it-e) [resistance]. The amount or character of electric resistance exhibited by a body. Resol (rez'-oV). A disinfectant mixture of sap- onified wood-tar and methyl-alcohol. Resolution (rez-o-lu' -shun) [resolvere, to resolve]. The return of a part to the normal state after a pathologic process. Resolve (re-zolv') [resolvere, to resolve]. 1. To return to the normal state after some pathologic process. 2. To separate anything into its component parts. Resolvent (re-zol'-vent) [resolve]. 1. Causing solution or dissipation of tissue. 2. An agent causing resolution. Resolving Power. The capability of a lens of making clear the finest details of an object. Resonance (rez'-o-nans) [re, again; sonare, to sound]. 1. The sound obtained on striking a hollow object, especially the note obtained on percussing the chest or abdomen. 2. The sound of the voice as transmitted to the ear applied to the chest. R., Cracked-pot, a sound elicited by percussing over a pulmon- ary cavity communicating with a bronchus. R., Hydatid, a peculiar sound heard in com- bined auscultation and percussion of hydatid cysts. It is not heard in other cystic condi- tions. R., Skodaic, the increased percussion resonance over the upper part of a lung when the lower part is compressed by a pleural effusion. R., Tympanitic, a hollow sound elicited on percussion over the intestine and over large pulmonary cavities with thin yielding walls. R., Vesicular, the normal pulmonary resonance. R., Vesiculotympanitic, an admixture of vesicular and tympanitic reso- nance. R., Vocal, the sound heard on aus- cultation of the chest during ordinary speech. R., Whispering, the sound heard on aus- cultation of the chest during the act of whis- pering. Resonator (rez'-o-na-tor) [see Resonance] instrument used to intensify sounds.
  • An RESOPYRIN 831 RESTRINGENT Resopyrin (rez-o-pi'-rin). A compound of resorcinol and antipyrin. It is used in any condition in which antipyrin and resorcinol are indicated. Dose 5-10 gr. (0.32-0.65 Gm.).
  • Resorbent (re-sorb' -ent) [resorbere, to draw to itself]. 1. Favoring resorption. 2. A drug which aids in the process of resorption.
  • Resorbin (re-sorb' -in). A penetrating oint- ment-base consisting of an emulsion of sweet almond oil, wax, and a dilute aqueous solution of gelatin or soap.
  • Resorcinol (re-zor' -sin-ol) [resin; orcin]. 1. C 6 - H 6 2 . A crystalline substance isomeric with pyrocatechin and hydroquinone, and usually prepared by fusing sodium benzene disul- fonate with sodium hydroxid. It is an antipyretic and antiseptic, but is chiefly used in ointments for chronic skin diseases. Dose 2-5 gr. (0.13-0.32 Gm.). 2. Equal parts of resorcinol and iodoform fused together; it is used as a surgical dusting-powder, 20 to 50 % with starch, or 7 to 1 5 % ointment.
  • Resorption (re-sorp'-shun) [re, again; sorbere, to absorb]. The absorption of morbid de- posits, as of the products of inflammation. R. -infection, a mode of infection marked by the development of bacteria at a distance from the point of introduction.
  • "Respir able- (res-pi' -rah-bl or res'-pe-rah-bl) [see Respiration]. Capable of being inspired and expired; capable of furnishing the gaseous interchange in the lung necessary for life.
  • Respiration (res - pi -ra' - shun) [re, again; spirare, to breathe]. 1. The inter- change between the gases of living organisms and the gases of the medium in which they live, through any channel, as cutaneous respiration. 2. The act of breathing with the lungs; the taking into and the expelling from the lungs of air. It consists of two acts — inspiration, or the taking in of the atmospheric air, and ex- piration, the expelling of the modified air. Expired air contains less oxygen and more carbon dioxid than inspired air. The volume of air taken into the lungs and given out during an ordinary respiration(tidal air) is 500 Cc; the volume that can be inspired in addition by a forcible inspiration (comple- mental air) is 1500 Cc; that which remains in the chest after a normal expiration (reserve or supplemental air) is 1500 Cc; the amount remaining in the chest after the most com- plete expiration (residual air) is from 1200- 1600 Cc The volume of air that can be forcibly expelled after the most forcible inspiration is termed vital or respiratory capacity and is equal to the tidal air, com- plemental air, and reserve air, or about 3500 Cc. See Breath and Breathing. R., Ab- dominal, a type of respiration caused by the contraction of the diaphragm and the elasticity of the abdominal walls and viscera. It is more common in men than in women. R., Accelerated, that exceeding 25 a minute. R., Artificial, the artificial production of the normal respiratory movements. See Artificial Respiration. R., Costal, a type of respiration in which the chest movement predominates over the diaphragmatic move- ment, seen especially in women. R., Meta- morphosing, a form of respiration in which inspiration is at first harsh, but toward the end becomes blowing and accompanied by adventitious sounds. It is produced by the entrance of air into a cavity through a narrow opening.
  • Respirator (res' -pi-ra-tor) [respiration]. An appliance by which the inspired air, in passing through it, is warmed, purified, or medicated.
  • Respiratory (res-pi' -ra-to-re or res' -pe-ra-to-re) [respiration]. Pertaining to respiration. R. Bundle, the ascending root of the glosso- pharyngeal nerve, probably arising in the posterior horns of the cord. R. Center. See Center, Respiratory. R. Excursion, the entire movement of the chest during the complete act of respiration. R. Murmur, the sound produced by the air entering and escaping from the lungs during respiration. R. Nerve, one of two nerves supplying important muscles of respiration: the external is the posterior thoracic nerve; the internal, the phrenic nerve. R. Quotient, the ratio of the amount of oxygen taken in by the lungs to the carbon dioxid given off in the same period of time. R. Tract, all the air- passages and air-cells concerned in respiration.
  • Respirometer (res-pi-rom' -et-er) [respiration; fifrpov, a measure]. A device to determine the character of the respiration.

Rest [ME., resten, to rest]. 1. Cessation of labor or action; to sleep; to lie dormant. 2. A mass of embryonic cells which, having been misplaced during organic evolution, remain quiescent and fail to reach their nor- mal evolution. They at times act as foci for the development of newgrowths or other pathologic phenomena. R.s, Adrenal, R.s, Suprarenal, masses of aberrant adrenal tissue occasionally observed beneath the capsule of the kidney. R.-cure. See Mitchell's Treatment.


  • Restibrachium (res-te-bra'-ke-um) [restis; brachium]. The inferior peduncles of the cerebellum.
  • Restiform (res' -te- form) [restis; forma, form]. Corded or cord-like. R. Body, a part of the medulla oblongata, which as the inferior cerebellar peduncle connects the medulla with the cerebellum. It contains fibers from the lateral column of the spinal cord (the lateral cerebellar tract), from the posterior column, and from the inferior olivary nucleus.
  • Restis (res'-tis) [L., "a rope"]. The restiform body.
  • Restitution (res-tit-u' -shun) [re, again; statuere, to set up]. The act of restoring.
  • Restorative (re-sto'-ra-tiv) [restore]. A remedy that is efficacious in restoring health and strength.
  • Re stringent (re-strin'-jent) [re stringer e, to re- strain]. An astringent or styptic RESUDATION 832 RETRACTILE Resudation (re-su-da'-shun) [re, again; sudor, sweat]. The return of sweating as a symp- tom.

Resupinate ire-su' -pin-at) [re, again; supinare, to bend backward]. Turned in a direction opposite to normal; as an ovary with its apex downward.


  • Resuscitation (re-sus-it-a'-shun) [re, again; suscitare, to raise up]. The bringing back to life of one apparently dead.
  • Resuscitator (re-sus'-it-a-tor) [see Resuscita- tion]. One who or that which resuscitates. R., Intragastric, an apparatus devised by Fenton B. Tiirck for the purpose of reducing surgical shock and collapse. It consists simply of a double stomach-tube, at one end of which is attached a soft-rubber bag. By this means heat is applied in a uniform and diffuse manner, up to 135 F.
  • Retamin (ret-am'-in) [retama, the Spanish name for genista], C 15 H 26 N 2 0. An alkaloid from the bark of Genista sphcerocarpa.

Retch [AS., hrcBcan, to clear the throat]. To strain at vomiting.


  • Rete (re'-te) [L.]. A net or net-like structure. R. malpighii. See R. mucosum. R. mira- bile, a cluster of fine vessels produced by the splitting of an artery into numerous branches. If the branches do not reunite, it is called unipolar rete mirabile; if they re- unite, bipolar rete mirabile. R. mirabile duplex, a rete mirabile consisting both of veins and of arteries. R. mucosum, the deeper layers of the epidermis. R. testis, R. vasculosum of the testis, the network of seminal tubules in the corpus highmori- anum.

Retention ire-ten' -shun) [re, back; tenere, to hold]. The act of retaining or holding back. R. Cyst. See Cyst, Retention. R.-hypoth- esis (of Chauveau). See Immunity, Theory of, Chauveau's Retention. R. mensium, a condition in which menstruation occurs but its products are retained in consequence of atresia of the genital canal. R. of Urine, the holding of the urine in the bladder on account of some hindrance to urination.


  • Retial (re'-te-al) [rete]. Relating to, or of the nature of, a rete.

Reticula iret-ik' -u-lah) [pi. of reticulum, a net- work]. The preferred name for formatio reticularis.

Reticular iret-ik' -u-lar) [reticulum]. Resem- bling a net; formed by a network. R. For- mation. See Formatio reticularis. R. Lamina, the membrane covering the organ of Corti. R. Layer of the Skin, the deep layer of the skin, consisting of interlacing bands of white and yellow fibrous tissue.

Reticulated iret-ik' -u-la-ted). See Reticular.

Reticulum iret-ik' -u-lum) [reticulum, dim. of rete, net]. A network.


  • Retiform (ret'-if-orm). Net-shaped; reticular. R. Tissue, adenoid tissue.

Retina iret'-in-ah) [rete]. The delicate mem- brane of the eye representing the terminal expansion of the optic nerve, and extending from the point of entrance of the nerve for- ward to its termination in the ora serrata. It consists of the following layers, named from behind forward: (a) the pigment-layer; (b) the neuroepithelial layer, comprising the layer of rods and cones(Jacob's membrane; bacillary layer), the outer limiting membrane, and the outer nuclear layer; (c) the cerebral layer, comprising the outer reticular layei (outer granular layer), the inner nuclear layer, the inner reticular layer (inner granular layer), the ganglion-cell layer, the nerve-fiber layer. These layers are cemented together by a sup- porting framework of connective tissue, the fibers of Miiller, or radiating fibers.

Retinaculum iret-in-ak' -u-lum) [L., "a band"]. A band or membrane holding back an organ or part. R. ligamenti arcuati, the short external lateral ligament of the knee-joint. R. morgagni, R. of the Ileocecal Valve, the ridge formed by the coming together of the valve-segments at each end of the opening between the cecum and the ileum. R. pero- neorum inferius, a fibrous band running over the peroneal tendons as they pass through the grooves on the outer side of the calcaneum. R. peroneorum superius, the external annular ligament of the ankle-joint. R. tendineum, the annular ligament of the wrist or ankle.

Retinal iret'-in-aV) [retina]. Pertaining to or affecting the retina. R. Apoplexy, hemor- rhage into the retina.


  • Retinitis (ret-in-i'-tis) [retina; cxcg, inflamma- tion]. Inflammation of the retina. R., Albuminuric, retinitis due to nephritis. R. apoplectica, retinal apoplexy. R., Central Recurrent, a rare form of syphilitic retinitis characterized by a central dark scotoma which disappears in a few days to return in a few weeks, the attacks becoming more frequent. R., Diabetic, retinitis occurring in diabetes. R., Hemorrhagic, retinitis associated with hemorrhages. R., Leukemic, a form occur- ring in leukemia and characterized by pallor of the retinal vessels and optic disc and hemor- rhages.
  • Retinochoroiditis (ret-in-o-ko-roi-di'-tis) [re- tina; choroiditis]. Inflammation of the retina and choroid.
  • Retinol (ret'-in-ol) [resin], C 32 H 16 . A liquid hydrocarbon obtained in the destructive dis- tillation of resin. It is used as a solvent and has also been employed in gonorrhea.

Retinoscopy iret-in-os' -ko-pe) [retina; onontiv, to view]. A method of determining the refrac- tion of the eye by observation of the move- ments of the retinal images and shadows through the ophthalmoscopic mirror. Syn., Skiascopy.

Retort ire-tort') [re, back; torguere, to twist]. A vessel employed in distillation, consisting of an expanded globular portion and a long neck, and containing the liquid to be dis- tilled.


  • Retractile (re-trak'-til) [retract]. Capable of being drawn back, RETRACTILITY 833 RETRO VACCINATION Retractility (re-trak-tiV -it-e) [retract]. The power of retracting or drawing back.
  • Retraction (re-trak'-shun) [retract]. The act of retracting or drawing back; a retraction of the muscles after amputation.
  • Retractor (re-trak'-tor) [retract]. An instru- ment for drawing back the lips of a wound so as to give a better view of the deeper parts.
  • Retrad (re'-trad) [retro, backward]. In or toward the rear.
  • Retrahens aurem (re-tra'-henz aw' -rem). Drawing back the ear. See under Muscle.
  • Retrahent (re'-tra-hent) [retrahens, drawing back]. Drawing backward; retracting.
  • Retrenchment (re-trench' -ment) [Fr., retrenche- ment]. A plastic operation the object of which is to obtain cicatricial contraction by the re- moval of superfluous tissue.
  • Retro- (re-tro-). A prefix meaning back, back- ward, or behind.
  • Retroanterograde (re-tro-anf -er-o-grdd) [retro-; anterius, before; gradi, to go]. Reversing the order of succession. R. Amnesia. See Amnesia, Retroanterograde.
  • Retroauricular (re-tro-a-w-rik' -u-lar) . Dorsad of the auricle of the ear or of the heart.
  • Retrobuccal (re-tro-buk '-al) [retro-; bucca, the cheek]. Pertaining to the back part of the mouth or of the cheek.
  • Retrobulbar (re-tro-buV -bar) [retro-; bulbar]. Situated or occurring behind the eyeball. R. Neuritis, inflammation in the orbital part of the optic nerve.
  • Retrocecal (re-tro-se'-kal). Pertaining to the back of the cecum.
  • Retrocedent (re-tro-se'-dent) [retro-; cedere, to go]. Going back; disappearing from the surface. R. Gout, a form of gout in which the joint-inflammation suddenly disappears and is replaced by affections of the internal organs.
  • Retroceps (re'-tro-seps) [Fr.]. A variety of obstetric forceps used to grasp the fetal head from behind.
  • Retrocervical (re-tro-ser' '-vik-al) [retro-; cervix, neck]. Situated behind the cervix uteri.
  • Retrocession (re-tro-sesh'-un) [retrocede]. The act of going back.
  • Retroclusion (re-tro-klu' '-zhun) [retro-; clau- dere, to shut]. A form of acupressure in which the pin is passed first above the artery into the tissues on the other side, then below the artery into the tissues upon the side first entered.
  • Retrocollic (re-tro-kol'-ik) [see Retrocollis]. Pertaining to the muscles at the back of the neck. R. Spasm, spasm of the muscles at the back of the neck, causing retraction of the head.
  • Retrocollis (re-tro-kol'-is) [retro-; collis, the nape of the neck]. Torticollis.
  • Retrodeviation (re-tro-de-ve-a' -shun) [retro-; deviation]. Any backward displacement; a retroflexion or retroversion.
  • Retrodisplacement (re-tro-dis-plds'-ment) [re- 54 tro-; displacement]. Backward displacement of a part or organ.
  • Retroesophageal (re-tro-e-sof-aj'-e-al) [retro-; esophagus]. Located behind the esophagus.
  • Retroflexion (re-tro-flek' '-shun) [retro-; flexion]. The state of being bent backward. R. of the Uterus, a condition in which the uterus is bent backward upon itself, producing a sharp angle in its axis.
  • Retrograde (ret'-ro-grad or re'-tro-grad) [retro-; gradi, to go]. Going backward; undoing. R. Embolism, embolism in which the em- bolus has gone against the normal direction of the blood-stream.

Retro graphy [re-tro g'-ra-fe) [retro-; -rpafecv, to write]. Backward writing; mirror-writing.


  • Retroinsular (re-tro-in' -su-lar) [retro-; insula, island]. Situated behind the island of Reil, as the retroinsular convolutions.
  • Retro jector (re' -tro-jek-tor) [retro-; jacere, to throw]. An instrument for washing out the uterus.
  • Retrolinglial (re-tro-ling' -gvcaV) [retro-; lingua, the tongue]. Relating to that part of the throat back of the tongue.
  • Retronasal (re-tro-na'-zal) [retro-; nasus, nose]. Situated behind the nose or nasal cavities.
  • Retroperitoneal (re-tro-per-it-on-e'-al) [see Re- tro peritoneum]. Situated behind the peri- toneum.
  • Retroperitoneum (re-tro-per-it-on-e'-um) [re- tro-; peritoneum]. The space lying behind the peritoneum and in front of the spinal column and lumbar muscles.
  • Retroperitonitis (re-tro-per-it-on-i' -tis) [retro-; peritonitis]. Inflammation of the retroperi- toneal structures.
  • Retropharyngeal (re-tro- far-in'-je-al) [retro-; pharynx]. Situated behind the pharynx, as retropharyngeal abscess.
  • Retroposed (re'-tro-pozd) [retro-; ponere, to place]. Displaced backward.
  • Retropulsion (re-tro-puV -shun) [retro-; pellere, to drive], i. A driving or turning back, as of the fetal head. 2. A running backward; a form of walking sometimes seen in paralysis agitans.
  • Retrostalsis (re-tro-staV -sis) [retro-; o-blotc, compression]. Reversed peristalsis; peristal- tic action that tends to drive the intestinal contents cephalad instead of caudad.
  • Retrosternal (re-tro-ster'-nal) [retro-; sternum]. Situated behind the sternum.
  • Retrotarsal (re-tro-tar'-sal) [retro-; tarsus]. Situated behind the tarsus, as the retro- tarsal fold of the conjunctiva. R. Fold. See Fornix conjunctivae.
  • Retrouterine (re-tro-u'-ter-in) [reiro-; uterus]. Behind the uterus. R. Hematocele, a blood- tumor behind the uterus in the pouch of Douglas.
  • Retrovaccination (re - tro - vak - sin - a'- shun ) [retro-; vaccination]. Vaccination with virus RETRO VERSIOFLEXION 834 RHEIN from a cow that had been inoculated with the virus of smallpox from a human subject.
  • Retroversion (re-tro-ver' -shun) [retro-; ver- sion]. A turning back. R. of Uterus, a condition in which the uterus is tilted back- ward without curvature of its axis.
  • Retroverted (re'-tro-ver-ted). Tilted or turned backward, as a retroverted uterus.

Retzius' Brown Strias. Brownish concentric lines in the enamel of the teeth, running effecting revulsion by the alternate application of heat and cold. 2. A plate or cylinder set with needles, used in producing counterirri- tation. Reynold's Test for Acetone. To the liquid to be tested add freshly precipitated mercuric oxid; shake and filter. If acetone is present, the filtrate will contain mercury, owing to the acetone dissolving freshly precipitated mer- curic oxid. The mercury may be detected by overlaying the filtrate with ammonium sulfid, which turns black nearly parallel to the surface.

  • Rhabditis (rab-di'-tis) [pafidoc, a rod]. A genus the fascial formation investing the intrapelvic of nematode worms a few species of which are and bulbous portions of the urethra and Cow- parasitic in man.


  • Rhacoma (ra-ko'-mah) [po.Kcscv, to rend]. Ex- In this space, which is filled with connective tissue, the bladder is not covered by the peri- toneum. Syn., Cavum retzii. R.'s Veins, the veins forming anastomoses between the mesenteric veins and the inferior vena cava. Reusner's Sign of Early Pregnancy. An increase in the volume of the pulsation of the uterine arteries may be perceived through the vagina in the posterior culdesac as early as the fourth week.


  • Rhacous (ra'-kus) [paKoc, a rag]. Wrinkled; lacerated.


  • Rhamnin (ram'-nin) [rhamnus]. fluidextract of cascara sagrada.
  • Rhamnose (ram'-noz) [rhamnus], C 6 H 12 O s . One of the glucoses. It results upon decomposing various glucosids with dilute sulfuric acid.
  • Rhamnus (ram'-nus) [pap.vog, buckthorn]. A genus of trees and shrubs; buckthorns. R. purshiana (U. S. P.), cascara sagrada. The dried bark of R. purshiana, the California buckthorn. It is used as a laxative in habit- ual constipation. Dose 15 gr. (1 Gm.). Dose of the extract (extractum rhamni pur- shiana, U. S. P.) 4 gr. (0.25 Gm.); of the ■fluidextract (jluidextr actum rhamni purshiana, U. S. P.) 15 min. (1 Cc); of the aromatic fluidextract (fluidextr actum rhamni purshiana aromaticum, U. S. P.) 15 min. (1 Cc). See also Cascara sagrada.
  • Rhegma (reg'-mah) [pfjf/Jta, a rent]. A rupture of the walls of a vessel or of the containing membrane of a tissue, as, for example, the coats of the eye, the walls of the peritoneum. Also, the bursting of an abscess.
  • Rhein (re' -in) [rheum]. 1. The precipitate from a tincture of Rheum palmatum; it is cathartic, tonic, cholagog, and antiseptic. Dose 1-4 gr. (0.065-0.25 Gm.). 2. Same as Chrysarobin.
  • Rheometer (re-om'-et-er) [rheo-; pkxpov, a measure], i. A galvanometer. 2. An ap- paratus for measuring the velocity of the blood-current.
  • Rheophore (re'-o-for) [rheo-; ipsoj, to bear]. An electrode.
  • Rheoscope (re'-o-skop) [rheo-; okotzs'iv, to see]. An instrument for demonstrating the exist- ence of an electric current; a galvanoscope.
  • Rheostat (re'-o-stat) [rheo-; loxavo.c, to stand]. An instrument introduced into an electric current and offering a known resistance, for the purpose of regulating the strength of the current.
  • Rheotachygraphy (re-o-tak-ig'-raf-e) [rheo-; raxbf, swift; ypafaiv, to write]. The regis- tration of the curve of variation in electromo- tive action of muscles.
  • Rheotome (re'-o-tom) [rheo-; rifiv^ev, to cut]. An instrument for breaking and making a galvanic circuit; an interrupter. R., Differ- ential, one for indicating the negative varia- tion in muscle-currents.
  • Rheotrope (re'-o-trop) [rheo-; xpkrzscv, to turn]. An apparatus for reversing the direction of an electric current.
  • Rhestocythemia (res-to-si-the' -me-ah) [pacoxoc, destroyed; kuxoc, cell; alp.a, blood]. The presence of broken-down erythrocytes in the blood.
  • Rheum (re'-um). 1. See Rhubarb. 2. [peup.a, from peev, to flow.] Any w T atery or catarrhal discharge. R., Salt-, eczema.
  • Rheumagon (ru'-ma-gon) [rheum; ajecv, to carry off]. A proprietary preparation of sodium iodid and sodium phosphate for use in gout and syphilis.
  • Rheumatalgia (ru - mat - aV - je - ah) [rheum; aXyoc, pain]. Rheumatic pain.
  • Rheumatic (ru-mat'-ik) [rheum]. Pertaining to, of the nature of, or affected with rheuma- tism. R. Diathesis, the condition of body tending to the development of rheumatism. R. Fever, acute articular rheumatism. R. Gout. Synonym of Rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Rheumatin (ru' -mat-in). See Saloquinin Sal- icylate.
  • Rheumatism (ru' -mat-izm) [rheum]. A con- stitutional disease characterized by pain in the joints and muscles, tending to recur, and associated with exposure to cold and wet. R., Acute Articular, a form characterized by fever, by swelling of various joints, begin- ning usually in one and rapidly spreading to others, by acid sweats, and by a marked tendency to involve the endocardium, less frequently the pericardium, pleura, and peri- toneum. The iris and conjunctiva may also become affected. R., Chronic, a chronic form in which the symptoms are milder and in which the disease attacks either the muscles {muscular rheumatism) or the joints (chronic articular rheumatism). R. , Gonorrheal, joint- inflammation occurring in association with gonorrheal urethritis. It generally involves but one joint; if several are affected, it is usually the smaller joints. The course is chronic. R., Inflammatory, acute articular rheumatism. R., Synovial, a rheumatic dis- order of the synovial membranes with serous accumulation.
  • Rheumatismal (ru-ma-tiz' -mat) [rheumatism]. Pertaining to rheumatism.
  • Rheumato-, Rheumo- (ru-mat-o-, ru-mo-) [rheumatism]. Prefixes meaning relating to rheumatism.
  • Rheumatoid (ru'-ma-toid) [rheumato-; eldoc, like]. Resembling rheumatism. R. Ar- thritis. See Arthritis, Rheumatoid.
  • Rheumatokelis (ru-mat-o-ke' -lis) [rheumato-; kt)Mc, a spot]. Purpura occurring in con- junction with rheumatism.
  • Rheumatophthisis (ru-mat-o ff'-this-is) [rheu- mato-; phthisis]. Atrophy the result of rheumatism.
  • Rheumatopyra (ru-mat-o-pi'-rah) [rheumato-; -up, fire]. Rheumatic fever.
  • Rheumatosis (ru-mat-o' -sis) [rheum]. The con- dition due to the action of poisons in the blood affecting the articular and endocardial parts.
  • Rheumatospasm (ru-maf -o-spazm) [rheuma- to-;, a spasm]. Spasms due to rheumatism.
  • Rheumic (ru'-mik) [rheum]. Pertaining to rheum. R. Diathesis, one that gives rise to cutaneous eruptions.
  • Rheumodontalgia (ru-mo-don-tal'-je-ah) [rheu- mo-; odontalgia]. Toothache of rheumatic origin.
  • Rheumophthalmia (ru-moff-thal' -me-ah) [rheu- mo-; ophthalmia]. Ophthalmia due to rheu- matism.
  • Rheumotylus (ru-mo-tiV -us) [rheumo-; xbloc, a knob]. A callus the result of rheumatism.
  • Rhexis (reks'-is) [pf^ec, rupture]. Rupture of a vessel or of an organ.
  • Rhicnosis (rik-no'-sis) [pcuvoc, shriveled]. A wrinkling of the skin, the result of muscular atrophy.
  • Rhigolene (rig'-o-len) [p'eyoc, cold]. A very volatile liquid obtained from petroleum by distillation, and used as a local anesthetic. Its rapid evaporation freezes and benumbs the part upon which it is sprayed.
  • Rhin-, Rhino- (rin-, ri-no-) [pec, nose]. A pre- fix signifying pertaining to the nose.
  • Rhinalgia (ri-nal'-je-ah) [rhin-; aXyoc, pain]. Pain in the nose.
  • Rhinalgin (ri-nal'-jin). A nasal suppository, recommended in coryza, said to contain cacao- butter, 1 Gm.; alumnol, 0.01 Gm.; menthol, 0.025 Gm.; and oil of valerian, 0.025 Gm.
  • Rhinedema (ri-ne-de'-mah) [rhin-; edema]. Edema affecting the nose.
  • Rhinelcos (ri-nel'-kos) [rhin-; Ukoc, an ulcer]. A nasal ulcer.
  • Rhinencephalon (ri-nen-sef -al-on) [rhin-; iy- RHINENCHYSIS 836 akcjiaXoc, brain]. The olfactory lobe of the brain.
  • Rhinenchysis (ri-nen'-ki-sis) [rhin-; ijxe'tv, to pour in]. The injection of liquid into the nasal cavities.
  • Rhinesthesia (ri-nes-the' -ze-ah) [rhin-; a'codrjocg, sensation]. The sense of smell.
  • Rhineurynter (ri-nu-rin' -ter) [rhin-; eupuvecv, to dilate]. A distensible bag or sac which is inflated after insertion into the nostril.
  • Rhinhematoma (rin-hem-at-o'-mah) [rhin-; hematoma]. An effusion of blood into the nasal cartilage.
  • Rhinion (rin'-e-on) [peg, nose]. The lower point of the suture between the nasal bones. See under Craniometric Point.
  • Rhinitis (ri-ni'-tis) [rhin-; cue, inflammation]. Inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane. R., Acute, coryza; cold in the head. R., Chronic, a form usually due to repeated attacks of acute rhinitis, and producing in the early stages hypertrophy of the mucous membrane (hypertrophic rhinitis) and in the later stages atrophy (atrophic rhinitis), and the presence of dark, offensively smelling crusts. R., Fibrinous, a rare form of rhin- itis characterized by the development of a false membrane in the nose. R., Pseudomem- branous. See R., Fibrinous. R., Syphil- itic, a chronic form due to syphilis, and usually attended by ulceration and caries of the bone and an offensive discharge (ozena). R., Tuberculous, that due to the tubercle bacillus; it is usually associated with ulcera- tion and caries of the bones.
  • Rhinobyon (ri-no' -be-on) [rhino-; ftuecv, to stop]. A nasal plug or tampon.
  • Rhinocephalus (ri-no-sef'-al-us) [rhino-; K£(f>aXrj, head]. A monster in which the nose resembles a tube and the eyes are fused below the nose.
  • Rhinocheiloplasty (ri-no-ki' '4o-plas-te) [rhino-; cheilo plasty]. Plastic surgery of the nose and lip- Rhinocleisis (ri-no-kW -sis) [rhino-, icXelocc, fastening]. Nasal obstruction. Rhinocnesmus (ri - nok - nez' - mus) [rhino-; Kvt}0 ', an itching]. Itching of the nose. Rhinodacryolith (ri - no - dak' - re - o - lith) [rhino-; dacryolith]. A lacrimal stone in the nasal duct. Rhinoderma (ri-no-der'-mah). See Keratosis pilaris. Rhinodynia (ri-no-din' -e-ah) [rhino-; ddovq, pain]. Any pain in the nose. Rhinolalia (ri-no-la' -le-ah) [rhino-; XaXca, speech]. Imperfect articulation due to undue closure(rhinolalia clausa) or undue patu- lousness (rhinolalia aperta) of the posterior nares. Rhinolaryngitis (ri-no-lar-in-ji'-tis). Simul- taneous inflammation of the mucosa of the nose and larynx. Rhinolaryngology (ri -no- lar - in - gol' -o- je) .

The science of the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nose and larynx.

RHINOPLASTY Xcdoc, a stone].


  • Rhinolith (ri 1 ' -no-lit h) [rhino-; A nasal calculus. Rhinologic (ri-no-lof -ik) [rhinology]. Per- taining to rhinology. Rhinologist (ri-nol' -o-jist) [rhinology]. A specialist in the treatment of diseases of the nose. * Rhinology (ri-nol' -O-je) [rhino-; X6yoc, science].

The science of the anatomy, functions, and diseases of the nose. Rhinometer]] (ri-nom'-et-er) [rhino-; /xhpov, a measure]. An instrument for measuring the nose.



  • Rhinomiosis (ri-no-mi-o' -sis) [rhino-; fisctoocc, a lessening]. Operative shortening of the nose.
  • Rhinommectomy (ri-nom-ek' -to-me) [rhino-; ofJLfxa, the eye; ii, eye]. Visual purple; a retinal substance the color of which is preserved by darkness, but bleached by daylight; it is contained in the retinal rods.
  • Rhomboid (rom'-boid) [pop. floe, a rhomb; eldoc, resemblance]. Having a shape similar to that of a rhomb, a quadrilateral figure with op- posite sides equal and parallel and oblique angles. R. Fossa, the fourth ventricle of the brain. R. Ligament. See Ligament, Rhomboid.
  • Rhoncal (rong'-kal). Same as Rhonchal.
  • Rhonchal (rong'-kal) [rhonchus]. Relating to or produced by a rhonchus, as rhonchal fremitus.
  • Rhonchus (rong'-kus) [f>6xx°C, snore]. A rat- tling sound produced in the throat or bronchial tubes during respiration. See Rale.
  • Rhotacism (ro'-tas-izm) [poj, the Greek p, r]. The use of the r sound in place of other speech-sounds; the too strong utterance of the letter r.
  • Rhubarb (ru'-barb) [pfjov, rhubarb]. The general name for plants of the genus Rheum, of the order Polygonacea. The official drug (rheum, U. S. P.; rhei radix, B. P.) is the bark of Rheum officinale or Rheum palmatum; it contains chrysophanic acid, tannic acid (rheotannic acid), and several coloring prin- ciples, and is used as a laxative, stomachic, and astringent. Its chief uses are in dyspepsia with constipation, in the diarrhea of children, and in the beginning of bilious fevers. Dose 5-30 gr. (0.32-2.0 Gm.). R., Extract of (extractum rhei, U. S. P., B. P.). Dose 10-15 gr. (0.65-1.0 Gm.). R., Fluidextract of (fluidextr actum rhei, U. S. P.). Dose 10-30 min. (0.65-2.0 Cc). R., Infusion of (in- fusum rhei, B. P.). Dose 1-2 oz. (32-64 Cc). R., Pills of, Compound (pilules rhei com- posites, U. S. P.), pills of rhubarb and aloes. Dose 2-4 pills. R., Powder of, Compound (pulvis rhei compositus, U. S. P., B. P.), Gregory's powder. Dose ^-1 dr. (2-4 Gm.). R. and Soda, Mixture of (mistura rhei et sodce, U. S. P.). Dose f-i dr. (2-4 Gm.). R., Syrup of (syrupus rhei, U. S. P., B. P.). Dose 1 dr. (4 Cc). R., Syrup of, Aromatic (syrupus rhei aromaticus, U. S. P.). Dose dr. (4 Cc). Both the syrup and the aro- matic syrup are used chiefly for children, in the doses given. R., Tincture of (tinctura rhei, U. S. P., B. P.). Dose 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc). R., Tincture of, Aromatic (tinctura rhei aromat- ica, U. S. P.). Dose £-1 dr. (2-4 Cc). R., Wine of (vinum rhei, B. P.). Dose 1-4 dr. (4-16 Cc).
  • Rhypophobia (ri-po-fo' -be-ah) [punoc, filth; (froftelv, to fear]. A morbid dread of filth.
  • Rhyptic (rip'-tik) [ptmecv, to cleanse]. Deter- gent; cleansing; cathartic.
  • Rhythm (rithm) [pudp.6c, rhythm]. Action or function recurring at regular intervals.
  • Rhythmophone (rith'-mo-fon) [rhythm; (frajurj, sound]. A form of microphone for studying the heart-beat and pulse-beat.
  • Rib [AS., ribb]. One of the 24 long, flat, curved bones forming the wall of the thorax. R.s, Abdominal, the floating ribs. R.s, Asternal, the false ribs. R.s, Cervical, rib- like processes extending ventrally from the cervical vertebras. R., False, one of the five lower ribs not attached to the sternum directly. R., Floating, one of the last two ribs which have one end free. R.s, Short, the false ribs. R.s, Sternal, the true ribs. R., True, one of the seven upper ribs that are attached to the sternum. R.s, Vertebro- chondral, the highest three false ribs; they are united in front by their costal cartilages.

Ribes' Ganglion. See Ganglion of Ribes.


  • Ribesin (ri-be'-zin) [ribesiicm, currant]. The juice of the black currant, Ribes nigrum, used for staining microscopic sections.
  • Rice (rls). A plant, Oryza sativa, of the Graminece; also its seed. Rice is used as a food, as a demulcent, and, in the form of rice- water, as a drink in fevers. R. -water Evac- uations, the name given to the bowel dis- charges in cholera.

Richardson's Method of Auscultation. The introduction into the esophagus of an elastic bougie or tube connected with the ear-pieces of a stethoscope.

Richter's Hernia. See Hernia, Richter's.

Richter-Monro's Line. See Monro's Line.


  • Ricin (ris'-in) [ricinus, castor-oil]. A poison- ous proteid found in the castor-oil bean.
  • Ricinin (ris'-in-in) [ricinus]. A poisonous crystalline substance obtained from castor- oil.
  • Ricinism (ris'-in-izni). Poisoning from the seeds of Ricinus communis; it is marked by hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and icterus.
  • Ricinus (ris'-in-us) [L., "a tick," from the re- semblance of the seed to that insect]. A plant or tree, R. communis, or castor-oil plant, of' the order Euphorbiacecs. Ricini, Oleum (U. S. P.), castor-oil, the fixed oil expressed from the seeds of R. communis; it is used as a cathartic in constipation, colic, and irritative diarrheas. Dose ^ oz. (16 Cc).
  • Rickety (rik'-et-e) [rickets]. Affected with or distorted by rickets.

Ricord's Chancre. The parchment-like initial lesion of syphilis. Syn., Chancre parchemine.


  • Rictus (rik'-tus) [L., from ringi, to gape]. A fissure or cleft; a gaping, as of the mouth. R. lupinus, cleft palate.

Rider's Bone. An osseous formation in the adductor muscles of the leg, from long-con- tinued pressure of the leg against the saddle.


  • Ridge (rij) [ME., rigge, the back of a man or beast]. An extended elevation or crest. R., Genital, the germ-ridge, in front of and in- ternal to the wolffian body, from which the internal reproductive organs are developed. R., Intervertebral, that on the vertebral end of a rib dividing the articular surface into two portions. R., Maxillary, the dental crest; a ridge of vascular fibrous tissue along the alveolar processes of the fetus. R.s, Occipital, the superior and inferior curved lines of the occipital bone. R.s, Palatine, the central ridge together with the lateral corrugations of the mucosa of the hard palate; they are especially noticeable in the human fetus. R., Temporal, that extending from the external angular process of the frontal bone, across the frontal and parietal bones, and terminating in the posterior root of the zygomatic process.

Ridley's Sinus. The circular sinus.

Riedel's Process. A tongue-shaped process of the liver frequently felt over the enlarged gall-bladder in cases of cholelithiasis.

Riegel's Syndrome. Riegel's disease; the association of tachycardia with troubles simulating asthma.

Riegler's Test for Albumin. 1. Calcium naphtholsulfonate, 8; citric acid, 8; dissolve in distilled water, 200; 10 Cc. of urine is mixed with 10 to 20 drops of the reagent. Traces of albumin are indicated by a turbidity; larger quantities by a precipitate. Quantitative determination may be made with an albumin- ometer. 2. Ten Gm. betanaphthalinsulfonic acid are well shaken with 200 Cc. water and filtered. A turbidity or precipitate on adding 20 to 30 drops of reagent to 5 to 6 Cc. of fluid indicates albumin. Sensitiveness, 1 : 40,000. Albumoses and peptones react in a similar manner, but the precipitate disappears on warming and reappears on cooling. R.'s Test for Albumoses and Peptones, dissolve 5 Gm. paranitranilin in 25 Cc. water and 6 Cc. concentrated sulfuric acid; add 100 Cc. water, then a solution of sodium nitrite 3 Gm. in 25 Cc. water, and make up to 500 Cc. with water. Filter and preserve in the dark. Mix 10 Cc. reagent with 10 Cc. fluid to be tested, then add 30 drops 10% solution RIEUX'S HERNIA 839 RITTER-ROLLET'S PHENOMENON NaOH — if very small quantities of albumoses or peptones are present, a yellowish orange color develops; with notable quantities a blood-red, even the froth on shaking being red. On now adding excess of H 2 S0 4 an orange or brownish precipitate forms. R.'s Test for Aldehyds and Glucose, heat o.i Gm. phenyl- hydrazin hydrochlorate, 0.5 Gm. crystal sodium acetate, and 1 Cc. sugar solution until dissolved. When near boiling-point add 20 to 30 drops 10 % NaOH without shaking — in a few seconds to 5 minutes liquid becomes violet-red, even if there is but 0.005 % sugar present. If no sugar present, color will be a slight pink. For sugar in urine, color must develop within one minute to afford physio- logic significance. Reaction also occurs with aldehyds, hence absence of these must be assured. According to Jolles, absence of albumin must also be assured. Reaction uninfluenced by uric acid or creatinin. R.'s Test for Bile -pigments, on adding an excess of paradiazonitranilin solution to an alkaline solution of bilirubin or biliverdin, intensely colored reddish-violet flocks are precipitated, soluble in chloroform, alcohol, or benzin, and affording reddish-violet or violet solution. R.'s Test for Nitrites, 15 Cc. of the fluid to be examined is mixed in a test-tube with 0.02 to 0.03 Gm. of the naphthol reagent '(equal parts naphthionic acid and pure betanaphthol) and 2 or 3 drops concentrated HC1, shaken, and 1 Cc. strong NH 3 poured down the side of the tube, while held in a slanting position; presence of nitrites is in- dicated by appearance of a red zone, and on shaking the whole solution turns red. R.'s Test for Uric Acid, paranitranilin, 0.5 Gm.; water, 10 Cc; pure concentrated H 2 S0 4 , 15 drops. Put into a glass flask of 150 Cc. capacity, and heat with agitation until dis- solved. Water 20 Cc. is now added, the mixture cooled quickly, 2.5 % NaN0 2 solu- tion 10 Cc. is added, and diluted, after 15 minutes, with water 60 Cc. The mixture is shaken up repeatedly and filtered. The for- mation of a blue or green color on adding the reagent and 10% NaOH solution indicates presence of uric acid.

Rieux's Hernia. Retrocecal hernia.

Riga's Disease. Papillomatous ulceration of the frenum of the tongue, covered with a whitish, diphtheroid exudate.

Rigg's Disease. See Fauchard's Disease.


  • Rigidity (pi-id' -it-e) [rigidus, stiff]. Stiffness; immobility. R., Cadaveric, R., Postmor- tem, rigor mortis.
  • Rigor (ri'-gor) [rigor, from rigere, to be cold]. Chill. R. mortis, the muscular rigidity that occurs a short time after death, due to chemic changes resulting in coagulation of the muscle- plasma and the development of an acid reac- tion.
  • Rima (ri'-mah). A chink or cleft. R. glottidis, the cleft between the true vocal bands; the glottis.
  • Rimula (rim'-u-lah) [dim. of rima, a chink].

A small cleft or fissure, especially of the spinal cord or the cerebellum.


  • Rinderpest (rin'-der-pest) [Ger., "cattle-pest"]. An acute infectious disease of cattle, appear- ing occasionally among sheep and other rum- inants.

Rindfleisch's Granule-cells. Eosinophil leu- kocytes with granulations.

Ring [ME.]. A circular opening or the structure surrounding it. See Annulus. R.- bodies, peculiar ring-shaped bodies found in the erythrocytes in pernicious anemia, leuke- mia, and lead-poisoning.

Ringworm. Tinea trichophytina, a conta- gious disease of the skin due to a vegetable parasite, the trichophyton. See Tinea.

Rinmann's Sign of Early Pregnancy. Slender cords radiating from the nipple ; they are considered to be hypertrophic acini of the glands.


  • Rhine's Test (rin'-na). A test to determine the condition of the various parts of the ear, performed by applying a vibrating tuning- fork first over the mastoid process, leaving it there until the patient seems no longer to hear the sound, and then as quickly as pos- sible bringing it immediately in front of the external meatus, avoiding all contact with the head or ear. If the patient is then able to hear the sound of the tuning-fork once more, it indicates that the conduction through the air is better than through the bone.

Riolan's Arch. The arch of the mesentery which is attached to the transverse mesocolon. R.'s Bouquet, the muscular bundle attached to the styloid process and composed of the styloglossus, stylohyoid, and stvlopharyngeus. R.'s Muscle, the ciliary portion of the or- bicularis palpebrarum. R.'s Ossicles, small bones sometimes found in the suture between the inferior border of the occipital bone and the mastoid portion of the temporal bone. ■ Ripault's Sign. A change in the shape of the pupil on pressure upon the eye, transitory during life, but permanent after death.


  • Risorius (ri-zo'-re-us) [ridere, to laugh]. Laugh- ing. R. Muscle. See under Muscle.
  • Risus (ri'-zus) [L.]. A grin or laugh. R. sardonicus, the sardonic grin, a peculiar grinning distortion of the face produced by spasm of the muscles about the mouth, seen in tetanus.

Ritter's Disease. Dermatitis exfoliativa of the newborn. R.'s Fiber, a delicate fiber regarded as a nerve-fiber, seen in the axis of a retinal rod, near the peripheral end of which it forms a small enlargement. R.'s Law of Contraction, stimulation of a nerve occurs both at the moment of closing and of opening of the electric current. R.'s Tetanus, tetanic contractions occurring on the opening of the constant current which has been made to pass for some time through a long section of a nerve. In man the phenomenon does not occur under physiologic conditions, but it is seen in tetany.

Ritter-Rollet's Phenomenon. Flexion of the RITTER-VALLI'S LAW 840 ROLANDO'S ARCIFORM FIBERS foot following the application of a mild gal- vanic current, and extension following that of a strong current.

Ritter-Valli's Law. Section of a living nerve is followed by a gradual loss of irritability, preceded by a slight increase, the phenomenon taking place centrifugally from the divided end.

Riverius' Draft. A solution of sodium citrate.

Rivinian Canals, R. Ducts. The ducts of the sublingual gland. R. Foramen. See Bochdalek's Canal. R. Glands, the sublin- gual glands. R. Ligament. See ShrapnelVs Membrane. R. Notch, R. Segment, a notch of irregular outline at the upper border of the sulcus tympanicus; it is marked at each end by a small spine.

Rivolta's Disease. Actinomycosis.


  • Rixolin (riks' -ol-in) . A mixture of petroleum and light oil of camphor.
  • Riziform (riz'-ij-orm). Resembling grains of rice.

Rob. A confection made of fruit-juice, espe- cially of that of the mulberry.

Robert's Pelvis. The transversely contracted or doubly synostotic pelvis; ankylosis of both sacroiliac synchondroses, the sacrum being absent or undeveloped.

Roberts' Test for Albumin. Float the urine on the surface of a saturated common salt solution containing 5 % of hydrochloric acid, of specific gravity 1.052. A white ring or zone formed between the two liquids indicates albumin. Roberts suggests that a mixture of 1 part strong nitric acid and 5 parts saturated magnesium sulfate solution may be employed also. R.'s Test for Glu- cose in Urine, find the specific gravity of the urine at a known temperature by means of a urinometer supplied with a thermometer. Acidify slightly with tartaric acid, and add a piece of yeast the size of a pea, and shake. Let it stand in a warm place (2o°-25° C.) for 24 hours. Filter through a dry filter and cool to the same temperature at which the specific gravity was previously taken. Take the specific gravity again. Every degree of density lost represents 1 grain of glucose to the ounce of urine.

Robertson's Pupil. See A rgyll Robertson Pupil.


  • Robin (ro'-bin). A toxic albuminoid from the bark of the locust tree, Robinia pseudacacia; its action is similar to that of abrin and ricin.

Robin's Myeloplaxes. Osteoclasts.


  • Roborant (ro'-bor-ant) [robor, strength]. 1. Tonic, strengthening. 2. A tonic or strength- ening remedy.
  • Roborat (ro'-bor-at) [see Roborant]. An albu- minous dietetic prepared from maize, con- taining lecithin and glycerinophosphoric acid.
  • Roborin (ro'-bor-in). A grayish-green powder or brown mass, obtained from blood, and said to consist of water, 7.6%, calcium carbonate, 10.23 %> common salt, 1.7 %, iron oxid, 0.49 %, other mineral substances, 1.28%, albuminoids, 78.63%; the last are principally calcic al- buminates.
  • Roccella (rok-sel'-ah). A genus of plants of the Roccellece. R. tinctoria is the litmus-plant.

Rock-oil. See Petroleum.

Rod [ME.]. One of numerous slender bacillary structures, as in the retina. R.- and-cone Layer, R. and Cones. See under Retina. R. -granules, cells of the outer nuclear layer of the retina; they are characterized by transverse strias and give off processes connected with the nerve- fiber layer of the retina. R.s, Retinal, cylindric bodies found in the rods and cones of the retina.


  • Rodagen (rod'-ah-jen). A proprietary pre- paration of goats' milk for use in exophthal- mic goiter.

Rodent Ulcer. See Ulcer, Rodent.

Rodriguez' Aneurysm. Varicose aneurysm in which the sac is immediately contiguous to the artery.

Roederer's Ecchymoses. See Bayard's Ec- chymoses. R.'s Obliquity, flexion of the chin when the child is engaged at the superior pelvic strait during labor.


  • Roentgenism (rent' '-gen-izm) [Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen, a German physician]. The applica- tion of the roentgen-rays in therapeutics.

Roentgen-rays. See Rays, Roentgen-.


Roger's Disease. The presence of a con- genital abnormal communication between the ventricles of the heart. R.'s Symptom, subnormal temperature during the third stage of tuberculous meningitis, regarded by Roger as pathognomonic of the disease.

Rokitansky's Disease. Acute yellow atrophy of the liver. R.'s Tumor, an ovarian tumor made up of a large number of cysts.


  • Rolandic (ro-lan'-dik) [Louis Rolando, an Italian anatomist, 1 773-1831]. Described by Rolando, as the rolandic fissure. R. Angle, the acute angle formed by the fissure of Rolando with the superior border of the cerebral hemisphere. R. Area, the excitomotor area of the cerebral hemispheres, comprising the ascending frontal and ascend- ing parietal convolutions.

Rolando's Arciform Fibers. The external arcuate fibers of the oblongata. R.'s Cells, the ganglion-cells found in Rolando's gelat- inous substance. R.'s Fissure. See Fissure, Rolando's. R. 's Funiculus, the lateral cuneate funiculus, a longitudinal prominence caused by Rolando's gelatinous substance on the surface of the oblongata, between the cuneate funiculus and the line of roots of the spinal accessory nerve. R.'s Gelatinous Sub- stance, the elongated column which forms a continuation of the apexes of the posterior horns of the spinal cord, extending from the lumbar portion of the cord upward into the pons. It consists of neuroglia and a number of ganglion-cells. R.'s Tubercle, a mass of gray matter forming the upper termination ROLAND OMETER 841 ROSENBACHS DISEASE of Rolando's funiculus. The fibers given off from its cells go to make up the sensor}- root of the trigeminus.


  • Rolandometer (ro-land-om'-et-er). A device for locating on the head the place of the fissure of Rolando.

Roller's Nucleus, i. A nucleus situated near the hilum of the olivary body of the oblongata; it is connected with the fibers of f he anterolateral fundamental tract of the spinal cord. 2. An aggregation of small ganglion-cells situated anteriorly to the nuc'eus of the hypoglossal nerve.

Rollei -bandage. A bandage made into a cylindric roll.

RolletY. Chancre. One partaking of the characteristics of both simple and true chancre. R.'s Nerve-corpuscles. See Cor- puscle, Golgi's. R.'s Secondary Substance. See JLngelmanris Lateral Disc.

Roman-Delluc's Test for Urobilin in Urine. Shake 100 Cc. urine with 20 Cc. chloroform, after acidulating with 8 to 10 drops acetic acid. Overlay 2 Cc. of clear chloroformic solution with 4 Cc. of 1 : 1000 solution zinc acetate in 95 % alcohol. At the line of separation a characteristic green fluorescence will appear if urobilin is present, more easily recognized against a black background. On shaking, fluorescence is more marked and the mixture acquires a pink tint.

Romberg's Disease. Progressive facial hemi- atrophy. R.'s Sign. 1. Swaying of the body and inability to stand when the eyes are closed and the feet placed together; it is seen in tabes dorsalis, hereditary cerebellar ataxia, etc. It is also called the Bra ch- Romberg symp- tom. 2. Neuralgic pain in the course and distribution of the obturator nerve, pathog- nomonic of obturator hernia. R.'s Spasm, masticatory sp^->m, a spasm affecting the muscles supplier by the motor fibers of the fifth nerva R.'s Trophoneurosis. See Romberg's Disease.

Tvommelaere's Law. Constant diminution of the nitrogen in the urine in Cases of carcinoma. R.'s Sign, diminution of the normal phosphates and sodium chlorids in the urine is pathognomonic of cancerous cachexia.


  • Rongeur Forceps (rong-zhur). A strong pair of forceps for breaking off pieces of bone, especially in enlarging a trephine opening.

Root [Icel., rot]. 1. The descending axis of a plant. 2. The part of an organ em- bedded in the tissues, as the root of a tooth. R. of a Nerve, one of two bundles of nerve-fibers, the anterior and posterior loots, joining to form a nerve-trunk. R.- sLeath, the epithelium of the hair-follicle. R.-zone, a name given to the column of Burdach of the spinal cord.


  • Rcphetic (ro-fet'-ik) [potfir/ZCKoc, given to sopping up]. A mechanic absorbent agent, as a dust- ing-powder, sponge, etc.
  • Rosa (ro'-zah) [L.]. A rose. See Rose.
  • Rosacea (jo-za'-se-ah). See Acne rosacea.
  • Rosalia (ro - sa' - le - ah) . 1. Scarlatina. 2. Measles. 3. Erythema.
  • Rosanilin (ro-zan' -il-in) [rose; anilin], C 20 H 19 - N 3 0. A colorless, crystalline derivative of anilin. R. Acetate, R. Hydrochlorid, the red dye fuchsin.

Rosary, Rachitic. See Rachitic Rosary.


  • Rose (roz) [oodov, from Ar., n'ard, a rose]. A genus of plants of the order Rosacece. R.s, , Attar of. See R., Oil of. R.-cold. See Hay- fever. R. , Confection of (confcciio rosce, U. S. P.), a confection prepared from the petals of the red rose (rosa gallica, U. S. P.). R., Dog-, the common wild rose of Europe. The fruit (rosce canince fructus, B. P.) is used in Europe as a vehicle. R., Fluidextract of(fluidex- tractum rosce, U. S. P.), used as an astringent and vehicle. Dose 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc). R., Honey of (mel rosce, U. S. P.), a syrup made of fluidextract of rose and clarified honey. Dose 1 dr. (4 Cc). R., Oil of (oleum rosce, U. S. P.), a volatile oil distilled from the petals of Rosa damascena , and employed as a per- fume and flavoring agent. Syn., Attar of roses. R., Red (rosa gallica, U. S. P.; rosce gallica petala, B. P.), the dried petals are slightly astringent and tonic, but are chiefly employed as a vehicle. R., Syrup of (syrupus rosce, U. S. P.), a syrup made of fluidextract of rose, diluted sulfuric acid, sugar, and water. R. -water (aqua rosce, U. S. P.). Dose 4 dr. (16 Cc). R. -water, Ointment of (ungiientum aquce rosce, L~. S. P.), cold cream. R. -water, Triple (aqua rosce fortior, U. S. P.), stronger rose-water.
  • Rosemary (roz' -yna-re) [rosmarinus, marine dew; from ros, dew; marinus, marine]. The Rosmarinus officinalis, a plant of the order Labiatce. R., Oil of (oleum rosmarini, U. S. P.), a volatile oil used as a stimulant and in rubefacient liniments. Dose 3-6 min. (0.2- 0.3 Cc). R., Spirit of (spirit us rosmarini, B. P.), prepared from the oil and used as a perfume and in liniments.

Rosenbach's Disease. A nodular enlarge- ment, painful to the touch, of the dorsal as- pect of the proximal ends of the last pha- langes. The affection is regarded as identical with Heberden's nodes. R.'s Modification of Gmelin's Test for Bile-pigments, when the liquid has all been filtered through a very small filter, apply to the inside of the filter a drop of nitric acid containing only a very little nitrous acid, when a pale yellow spot will form, surrounded by colored rings, which are yellowish-red, violet, blue, and green. R.'s Sign. 1. Loss of the abdominal ROSENBACH-SEMON'S LAW 842 ROUND LIGAMENT reflex in inflammatory intestinal diseases. 2. Tremor of the eyelids when the patient is asked to close them, often associated with in- sufficient closure of the lids. It is seen in neurasthenia. R.'s Syndrome, a variety of paroxysmal tachycardia consisting in the asso- ciation of cardiac, respiratory, and gastric troubles. R.'s Test for Indirubin, boil the liquid with nitric acid, and indigo-blue will be formed from indirubin.

Rosenbach-Semon's Law. See Semon's Law.

Rosenberg's Method. By requiring the pa- tient to read aloud a difficult passage, the production of the knee-jerk is facilitated.

Rosenheim's Sign. A friction-sound heard on auscultation over the left hypochondrium in fibrous perigastritis.

Rosenmueller's Fossa. A depression be- hind the pharyngeal orifice of the eustachian tube, frequently the seat of morbid growths. R.'s Gland. 1. The palpebral portion of the lacrimal gland. 2. The largest of the group of deep subinguinal glands in the crural ring. R.'s Organ, the parovarium, a vestige of the wolffian body and duct. R.'s Valve, a semilunar fold of the mucous membrane seen occasionally in the lacrimal duct above its junction with the lacrimal sac.

Rosenthal's Canal. The spiral canal of the modiolus. R.'s Hyperacid Vomiting. See Rossbactis Disease. R.'s Sign, the ap- plication of a strong faradic current to the sides of the vertebral column causes burning and stabbing pains in cases of spondylitis. R.'s Vein, the basilar vein, a branch of Ga- len's vein.


  • Roseola (ro-ze' '-o-lah) [roseus, rosy]. 1. Rose- rash, a name given to any rose-colored erup- tion. 2. Synonym of Rubella. R. cholerica, an eruption sometimes appearing in cholera. R., Syphilitic, an eruption of rose-colored spots appearing early in secondary syphilis. R. typhosa, the eruption of typhoid or typhus fever. R. vaccina, a general rose-colored eruption sometimes occurring during vaccinia.

Roseoles a verre bleu. Faint syphilids dis- covered by means of cobalt-blue glasses worn close to the eyes, before they are revealed to the naked eyer Roser's Position. With head dependent over the end of the table.

Roser-Braun's Sign. Absence of pulsations of the dura in cases of cerebral abscess, tumors, etc.

Roser-Nelaton's Line. See Line, Nelaton's.


  • Rosin (roz'-in). The residue left after distilling off the volatile oil from turpentine. See also Resina. R. Cerate (ceratum resince, U. S. P.), a mixture of rosin, yellow wax, and lard. R. Cerate, Compound(ceratum resince composi- tum,XJ. S. P.), a mixture of rosin, yellow wax, prepared suet, turpentine, and linseed-oil.

Rosin's Test for Indirubin. Render the liquid alkaline with sodium carbonate and extract with ether, which is colored red by the indirubin.


  • Rosolic Acid (ro-zol'-ik), C 20 H 16 O 3 . A sub- stance used as a test for acids and alkalis: acids decolorize it; with alkalis it gives a red color.

Rossbach's Disease. Gastroxynsis; a neu- rosis of the stomach attended with paroxysmal hypersecretion.


  • Rostellum (ros-tel'-um) [dim. of rostrum]. A little beak, especially the hook-bearing portion of the head of certain worms.
  • Rostrate (ros'-trat) [rostrum]. Furnished with a beak or beak-like process.
  • Rostrum (ros'-trum) [L.]. A beak; a pro- jection or ridge. R. sphenoidale, the ver- tical ridge on the inferior aspect of the body of the sphenoid bone, which is received in the upper grooved border of the vomer. Syn., Beak 0} the sphenoid.

Rot [AS., rotian, to rot]. Decay. R., Potato-. See Mildew.


  • Rotary (ro'-ta-re) [rotation]. Producing or characterized by rotation.
  • Rotation (ro-ta' '-shun) [rotare, to turn, from rota, a wheel]. The act of turning about an axis passing through the center of a body, as rotation of the eye, rotation of the arm.
  • Rotator (ro-ta' -tor) [see Rotation]. Anything, especially a muscle, that produces rotation.

Rotch's Sign. Dulness on percussion in the right fifth intercostal space in pericardial effusion.

Roth's Disease, R.'s Symptom-complex. "Meraigia paraesthetica." See Bernhardt' s Paresthesia. R.'s Spots, white spots re- sembling those of albuminuric retinitis, seen in the region of the optic disc and the macula in cases of septic retinitis. R.'s Vas aber- rans, an inconstant diverticulum of the middle portion of the rete testis.


  • Rottlerin (rot'-ler-in), C 22 H 20 O G . A bitter prin- ciple from kamila; used as an anthelmintic.
  • Rotula (rot'-u-lah) [dim. of rota, a wheel]. The patella.

Roughton's Band. Collapse, from atrophy of the tissues, of the zone corresponding to the junction of the alas nasi with the lateral cartilages. The resulting contact of this zone with the septum causes obstruction during inspiration.

Rougnon-Heberden's Disease. Angina pec- toris.


  • Rouleau (roo-lo) [Fr.; pi., rouleaux]. A roll, especially a roll of red blood-corpuscles, re- sembling a roll of coins.

Round Ligament. 1. One of the ligaments of the uterus passing through the inguinal canal. 2. One of the ligaments of the liver lying in the longitudinal fissure. 3. One of the ligaments of the hip- joint — ligamentum teres.

ROUNDWORM 843 RUPIA Roundworm. The ascaris.


  • Roup (roop). A contagious disease of fowls; it is probably diphtheric.

Rovighi's Sign, Hydatid fremitus; a thrill ob- served on combined palpation and percussion in cases of superficial hydatid cyst of the liver.


  • Rubber (rub'-er). The elastica of the U. S. P. The prepared milk-juice of several' species of Hevea. Syn., Caoutchouc; India-rubber; Para rubber. R.-dam, a sheet of rubber used to confine the flow of secretions or of discharges from a wound.
  • Rubedo (ru-be'-do) [ruber, red]. Any diffused redness of the skin.
  • Rubefacient (ru-be-fa' 'she-ent) [ruber; facere, to make], i. Causing redness of the skin. 2. An agent that causes redness of the skin.
  • Rubella (ru-bel'-ah) [dim. of rubeola]. An acute contagious eruptive disease, of short duration and mild character. After a period of incubation varying from one to three weeks, the disease sets in abruptly with pains in the limbs, sore throat, and slight fever. The eruption appears at the end of the first day, and consists of red papules, and disappears usually without desquamation in about three days. The disease is associated with enlarge- ment of the superficial cervical and posterior auricular glands. Syn., Epidemic roseola; French measles; German measles; Rotheln.
  • Rubeola (ru-be'-o-lah). See Measles.

Rubeolin iru-be' -ol-in) [rubeola]. A name given to the specific toxin of measles.


  • Rubescent (ru-bes f -ent) [rubescere, to become red]. Growing red.
  • Rubia (ru'-be-ah). The Rubia tinctorum or dyers' madder, containing the coloring prin- ciples alizarin (C 14 H s 4 ) and purpurin (C 14 - H 8 5 ). It is used as a dye.

Rubidium iru-bid' -e-um) [rubidus, red]. A rare alkaline metal, resembling potassium in physical and chemic properties; its salts are used in medicine.


  • Rubiginous (ru-bif '-in-us) [rubiginosus, rusty]. Rust-colored.
  • Rubigo (ru-bi'-go) [L.]. Rust.
  • Rubin (ru'-bhi). Synonym of Fuchsin.

Rubner's Test for Carbon Monoxid in the Blood. Agitate the blood with 4 or 5 volumes of solution of lead acetate for one minute. If the blood contains CO, it will retain its bright color; if it does not, it will turn chocolate- brown. R.'s Test for Glucose, add to the liquid an excess of lead acetate; filter, and add to the filtrate ammonium hydrate until no further precipitate is produced. Warm gently, when the precipitate formed will gradually become pink; this color decreases on standing.


  • Rubor (ru'-bor) [L.]. Redness or discoloration due to inflammation. R., Regional, isolated spots which become red, with elevation of temperature, observed after local cyanosis.
  • Rubrescin (ru-bres'-in). A combination of resorcinol, 50 Gm., and chloral hydrate, 25 Gm. It is used in 1 % solution as an indicator for alkalimetry and acidimetry.
  • Rubrin (ru'-brin). See Hematin.

Rubrol. A solution used by injection in gonor- rhea, and said to consist of boric acid, thymol, and a coal-tar derivative in water.


  • Rubrum (ru'-brum) [ruber, red]. The pre- ferred name for the nucleus ruber.
  • Rubus (ru'-bus) [L.]. Blackberry. A genus of plants of the order Rosacece. The rubus of the U. S. P. is the dried bark of the rhizome of R. villosus, R. nigrobaccus, and R. cuneifolius. It is used as an astringent tonic in diarrhea. Dose 20-30 gr. (1.3-2.0 Gm.). R., Fluid- extract of (fluidextractum rubi, U. S. P.). Dose ^-i dr. (2-4 Cc). R., Syrup of (syru- pus rubi, U. S. P.). Dose 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc). The fruit of R. idceus, the raspberry, is used to prepare syrupus rubi idcei, which is used as a tonic.
  • Ructus (ruk'-tus) [L.]. A belching of gas from the stomach.
  • Rudimentary (ru-dim-en' -ta-re) [rudimentum, a rudiment]. Undeveloped; unfinished.
  • Rue (ru) [poxi}, rue]. A plant, Ruta graveolens, of the order Rutacece, yielding an oil (oleum rutce, B. P.) which is a local irritant and has been employed in amenorrhea and menor- rhagia. Dose 2-5 min.(0.13-0.32 Cc).

Ruffini's End-organs. See End-organs, Ruf- fini's.


  • Ruga (ru'-gaK) [L.]. A fold or ridge. Rugae, Palatal, the elevations upon the mucous covering of the hard palate; they assist in speech and deglutition.
  • Rugose (ru'-gos) [ruga]. Characterized by folds.
  • Rugosity (ru-gos' -it-e) [ruga]. A condition of being in folds.

Ruhmkorff's Coil. An induction coil.

Rum [abb. from ME. rumbooze, alcoholic liquor]. A spirit obtained from the molasses of the sugar-cane by fermentation and dis- tillation.

Rumen [ru'-men) [L.]. The first stomach of ruminants, also called the paunch, from which the food is returned to the mouth for remastication.

Rumex iru'-meks) [L.]. Yellow dock, a genus of plants of the order Polygonacece. The root of R. crispus is astringent and tonic, and has been employed externally and internally in various diseases of the skin. Dose of the extract 1 dr. (4 Cc).


  • Rumin (ru'-min) [rumex]. A precipitate from a tincture of the root of Rumex crispus. It is antiscorbutic, alterative, and astringent.

Rummo's Disease. Cardioptosis.

Rump [Icel., rumpr]. The region near the end of the backbone; the buttocks.

Rumpf 's Sign. Fibrillary twitching of muscles in traumatic neurosis.

Run-around. Suppurative inflammation around a finger-nail.

Runeberg's Type of Pernicious Anemia. A form of pernicious anemia with remissions.


  • Rupia (ru'-pe-ah) [puizoc, filth]. A form of RUPIAL 844 SAC eruption occurring especially in tertiary syph- ilis, and characterized by the formation of large, dirty-brown, stratified, conic crusts.
  • Rupial (ru'-pe-al) [rupia]. Resembling or characterized by rupia.
  • Rupture (rup'-tur) [rumpere, to break], i. A forcible tearing of a part, as rupture of the uterus, rupture of the bladder. 2. Hernia.

Rusconi's Anus. The blastopore.

Russell's Bodies. Fuchsin bodies. Round- ish colloid or hyaline bodies, of varying size, found in a variety of conditions, notably in carcinomatous growths and certain morbid changes of the mucosa of the nose and stomach.

Rust [AS.]. 1. The oxid and hydroxid of iron formed on the surface of iron exposed to the air. 2. A disease common on cereals, causing rust-like masses to break out on the tissues of the plant.

Rust's Disease. Tuberculous spondylitis af- fecting the first and second cervical verte- bras. R.'s Symptoms, at every change of position of the body a patient suffering from caries or carcinoma of the upper cervical ver- tebras supports his head with the hand.


  • Rut (rut) [OF., "a roaring"]. 1. The state of concomitant menstruation and ovulation in the lower animals. 2. The condition of a male animal in which it is capable of insemi- nating.
  • Ruta (ru'-tah). See Rue.
  • Rutidosis (ru-tid-o' -sis) [pox'cg, a wrinkle]. A wrinkling; the contraction or puckering of the cornea that just precedes death.

Ruysch's Glomerulus. See Malpighian Tuft. R.'s Membrane. See Membrana ruyschiana. R.'s Tube, a minute tubular cavity in the nasal septum, opening by a small, round orifice a little below and in front of the naso- palatine foramen. It is best seen in the fetus, and represents the rudimentary homolog of Jacobson's organ. R.'s Uterine Muscle, the muscular tissue of the fundus uteri; it was believed by Ruysch to act independent of the rest of the uterine muscle.


  • Rye (rl) [AS., ryge]. The plant Secale cereale and its grain. The grain is used in the man- ufacture of bread.
  • Rypia (ri'-pe-ah). See Rupia.

S. 1. The symbol of sulfur. 2. An abbreviation of sinister, left; in prescriptions, of signa, sign. S. romanum, the sigmoid flexure of the colon.


  • Sabadilla (sab-ad-il'-ah). Cevadilla; Schoeno- caulon officinale (Asagrcea officinalis), a plant of the order Melanthacece, containing the alkaloids veratrin, sabadin, and sabadinin. It is an emetocathartic, and was formerly used as a teniacide and to destoy vermin in the hair. Its chief value is as a source of veratrin. It is official in the B. P.
  • Sabadin (sab'-ad-in), C 29 H 51 NO s (Merck). An alkaloid from the seeds of Schcenocaulon officinale, occurring in white, acicular crystals, soluble in water, alcohol, and ether; melts at 240 C. It is sternutatory.
  • Sabal (sab'-al). Saw-palmetto. The sabal of the U. S. P. is the partly dried ripe fruit of Serenoa serrulata. A fluidextract has been recom- mended in inflammations of the genitourinary tract, atonic impotence, and in bronchitis and pulmonary tuberculosis. Dose 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc.).
  • Sabbatia (sab-a'-she-ah) [after Liberatus Sab- bati, an Italian botanist]. A genus of the order Gentianece. S. angularis is the American centaury.
  • Sabbattin (sab'-at-in). A glucosid obtained from Sabbatia elliottii, quinin flower; it is antiperi- odic and antipyretic.
  • Sabina (sa-bi'-nah). See Savin.
  • Sabulous (sab'-u-lus) [sabulum, sand]. Gritty; sandy.
  • Saburra (sab-ur'-ah) [L., " coarse sand"].

Foulness of the stomach or of the tongue or teeth; sordes.


  • Saburral (sab-ur'-al) [saburra]. 1. Pertaining to or affected with saburra. 2. Resembling or pertaining to coarse sand.
  • Sac (sak) [saccus, a bag]. The bag-like bulging or covering of a natural cavity, hernia, cyst, or tumor. S.s, Air-, the air-cells of the lung. S., Allantoid. Synonym of Allan- tois. S., Amniotic, the amnion. S.s, Audi- tory, the rudimentary organs of hearing of the embryo of certain vertebrates. S., Con- junctival, that formed by reflection of the palpebral conjunctiva. S., Dorsal, a recess between the epiphysis cerebri and the roof of the third ventricle. Syn., Suprapineal recess. S., Embryonic, the sac-like stage of the em- bryo, which it presents early in its develop- ment, just after the abdominal plates have closed. S., Endolymphatic, a sac of the dura included in the aqueduct of the vestibule. See under Duct, Endolymphatic. S. of the Epididymis, the visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis covering the epididymis. S., Fetal. See S., Gestation-. S., Gestation-, the sac inclosing the embryo in ectopic pregnancy. S., Hernial, the peritoneal covering of a hernia. S., Lacrimal, the dilated upper por- tion of the lacrimal duct. S., Omental, the sac formed between the ascending and de- scending portions of the great omentum. S., Pericardial, the pericardium. S., Peri- toneal, the cavity formed by the peritoneal serous membrane. S., Pleural, the cav- SACCATE 845 SACCULUS ity formed by the pleura. S. of the Pul- monary Veins, the left auricle of the heart. S., Serous, the closed cavity formed by any serous membrane. S., Tubotym- panic, the diverticulum of the primitive gut forming the tympanic cavity and the eusta- chian tube. S., Umbilical, the umbilical vesicle. S. of the Venae cavae, the right auricle of the heart. S., Vitelline, the sac inclosing the vitellus or yolk in the embryo.
  • Saccate, Saccated (sak' -at, sak'-a-ted) [saccus, a sac]. Sac-shaped; contained in a sac; encysted.
  • Saccharated (sak'-ar-a-ted) [saccharin]. Con- taining sugar. S. Ferrous Carbonate (ferri carbonas saccharatus, U. S. P.). Dose 4 gr. (0.25 Gm.)._ Saccharification (sak-ar-if-ik-a' -shun) [sac- charin; facere, to make]. The act of convert- ing into sugar.
  • Saccharimeter (sak-ar-im' -et-er) [saccharin; [ihpov, a measure]. An apparatus for de- termining the amount of sugar in solutions, either in the form of a hydrometer, which indicates the strength in sugar by the specific gravity of the solution; or of a polarimeter, which indicates the strength in sugar by the number of degrees of rotation of the plane of polarization. S. Test, a solution of dextrose rotates the plane of polarized light to the right.
  • Saccharin (sak'-ar-in) [oanyapov, sugar], C 7 H 5 - SO3N. A crystalline substance nearly 280 times sweeter than cane-sugar, and used as a substitute for the latter in diabetes. It is also employed as an antiseptic. Syn., Benzoyl sulfonicimid; Glucusimid; Glusid; Orthosulfaminbenzoic anhydrid; Saccharinol; Saccharinose; Sycose; Zuckerin. S. -sodium, a soluble powder containing 90% of sac- charin; used as an intestinal antiseptic. Dose 15 gr. (1 Gm.) once or twice daily.
  • Saccharine (sak'-ar-in) [saccharum]. Contain- ing sugar; sugary; as sweet as sugar.
  • Saccharomyces (sak-ar-o-mi'-sez) [saccharum; jj.uk7)c, a fungus]. A genus of unicellular vegetable organisms, of which the yeast-plant is a common example. S. albicans, same as Oidium albicans, the fungus of thrush. S. cerevisiae, the ferment of beer-yeast. S. far- ciminosus, causes epizootic lymphangitis. S. granulomatosus, Sanfelice (1898) ob- tained from granulomatous nodule of a pig. Inoculated in swine, it produced similar lesions, but was not pathogenic to other ani- mals. S. lithogenes, Sanfelice (1895), from a carcinomatous metastasis in an ox, the primary tumor occurring in the liver. It killed white mice in 8 days after subcutane- ous inoculation. S. neoformans, Sanfelice (1895), isolated from fermenting grape-juice. It produced nodules in all organs of guinea- pigs except brain, heart, and suprarenals; death occurred in 20 to 30 days after inocula- tion. He emphasized the similarity of the organisms to the socalled coccidia of cancers. S. niger, isolated from the tissue of a guinea- pig which died of marasmus. It produced enlargement of lymph-glands and suppuration at the point of inoculation in guinea-pigs, rabbits, chickens, and dogs. S. ruber, Demme (1891), a red, budding fungus found in milk, which produced gastroenteritis in children. Shown by Casagrandi (1897) to be pathogenic for guinea-pigs, dogs, and mice when inoculated subcutaneously or into the abdomen. S. septicus, de Galtano, found in urinary sediment. An exceptionally viru- lent species producing fatal fibrinous periton- itis and septicemia in guinea-pigs in 12 hours. S. theobromag, the yeast causing the fermentation in the curing of cacao. S. tumefaciens albus, Foulerton, isolated from patients in cases of pharyngitis.
  • Saccharomycosis (sak-ar-o-mi-ko'-sis). A path- ologic condition due to yeasts or Sac- charomyces. S. hominis, a name given by Busse (1894) to pyemia produced by a patho- genic yeast. Syn., Saccharomycosis sub- cutaneus tumefaciens, Curtis; Saccharomycose humaine, Curtis (1896).
  • Saccharoscope (sak'-ar-o-skop) [saccharum; okotizIv, to view]. An instrument for determ- ining and registering the amount of sugar in the urine.
  • Saccharose (sak'-ar-os) [saccharum]. 1. C 12 H 22 - O u . A crystalline carbohydrate, cane-sugar, occurring in the juice of many plants, chiefly in sugar-cane, in some varieties of maple, and in beet-root; it melts at 160 C; at 190 - 200 C. it changes into a brown, noncrystal- lizable mass called caramel, used in coloring liquids. It is not directly fermentable, and does not reduce alkaline copper solutions. 2. Any one of a group of carbohydrates isomeric with cane-sugar.
  • Saccharosuria (sak-ar-o-su'-re-ah) [saccharose; ohpov, urine]. The presence of saccharose in the urine.
  • Saccharum (sak'-ar-um) [oanyapov, sugar], C 1 2H 22 11 , sugar. The sugar of the phar- macopeia (saccharum, U. S. P.; saccharum purificatwn, B. P.) is the refined sugar ob- tained from S. ofjicinarum and from various species of Sorghum. See Saccharose (1). S. lactis (U. S. P.), milk-sugar.
  • Sacchorrhea (sak-or-e'-ah) [saccharum; pe'cv, to flow]. Glycosuria.
  • Sacciform (sak' -si f -or m) [sac; forma, form]. Resembling a sac.
  • Saccular (sak'-u-lar) [sac]. Sac-shaped, as a saccular aneurysm.
  • Sacculated (sak' -u-la-ted) [sac]. Divided into small sacs.
  • Sacculation (sak-u-la'-shun) [sac]. 1. The state of being sacculated. 2. The formation of small sacs.
  • Saccule (sak'-ul) [sacculus, dim. of sac, a sac]. 1. A small sac. 2. The smaller of two vestib- ular sacs of the membranous labyrinth of the ear. See Sacculus labyrinthi.
  • Sacculocochlear (sak-u-lo-kok'-le-ar). Relating to the saccule of the . vestibule and the cochlea.
  • Sacculus (sak'-u-lus). A saccule. S. caeca- lis, S. laryngis, the laryngeal pouch between SACCUS 846 SAGAPENUM the superior vocal bands and the inner surface of the thyroid cartilage. Sacculi chalico- phori, the lacunas of bone. S. chylifer, S. rorifer, the receptaculum chyli. S. cordis, the pericardium. S. ellipticus, S. hemiellipti- cus. See Utricle. S., Horner's, the anal pocket; a saccular fold of the rectal mucosa. S. labyrinthi, S. proprius, S. rotundus, S. sphaericus, the saccule of the vestibule.
  • Saccus (sak'-us) [L.]. A sac. S. endolymph- aticus, a small sac contained in the aque- duct of the vestibule and serving to establish a communication between the endolymph and the subdural space.

Sachse's Solution. See under S.'s Test. S.'s Test, a quantitative test for the determination of sugar in urine, consisting in the reduction of the test solution, a solution of red iodid of mercury 18 Gm., potassium iodid 25 Gm., potassium hydroxid 80 Gm., water to make a liter. The end of the reaction is ascertained by means of a solution of stannous chlorid, supersaturated with sodium hydroxid.


  • Sacrache (sak'-rak) [sacrum; ache]. Sacral pain in the gravid woman.
  • Sacral (sa'-kral) [sacrum]. Pertaining to the sacrum.
  • Sacra media (sa'-krah me'-de-ah) [arteria understood]. The artery running down the middle of the anterior surface of the sacrum and representing the termination of the aorta.
  • Sacrectomy (sa-krek 1 '-to-me) [sacrum; i/tro/nr), excision]. Excision of part of the sacrum. See Operation, Kraske's.
  • Sacro- (sa-kro-) [sacrum]. A prefix denoting relating to the sacrum.
  • Sacroanterior (sa-kro-an-te'-re-or). Applied to a fetus having the sacrum directed forward.
  • Sacrococcygeal (sa-kro-kok-sif -e-al) [sacro-; coccyx]. Pertaining to the sacrum and the coccyx.
  • Sacrocoxitis (sa-kro-koks-i'-tis). See Sacro- iliac Disease.
  • Sacrodynia (sa-kro-din'-e-ah) [sacro-; dduvq, pain]. Pain referred to the region of the sacrum in cases of hysteria or neurasthenia.
  • Sacroiliac (sa-kro -il'-e-ak) [sacro-; ilium]. Pertaining to the sacrum and the ilium. S. Disease, an inflammation, usually tubercu- lous, of the sacroiliac joint, characterized by pain, tenderness, and swelling and elongation of the limb.
  • Sacrolumbar (sa-kro-lum' '-bar) [sacro-; lum- bus, loin]. Pertaining to the sacrum and the loins. S. Angle, the angle formed by the articulation of the sacrum and the last lumbar vertebra.
  • Sacroposterior (sa - kro - pos - te' -re- or) [sacro-; posterior]. Of the fetus, having the sacrum directed backward.
  • Sacrosciatic (sa-kro-si-af -ik) [sacro-; sciatic]. Pertaining to the sacrum and the ischium, as the sacrosciatic notch, sacrosciatic ligaments.
  • Sacrospinalis (sa-kro-spi-na' -lis) [sacro-; spine]. The erector spinae muscle.
  • Sacrotomy (sa-krof -o-me) [sacro-; re/ivecv, to cut]. Excision of the lower portion of the sacrum.
  • Sacrouterine (sa-kro-u'-ter-in). Pertaining to the sacrum and the uterus.
  • Sacro vertebral (sa-kro -ver' -te-bral) [sacro-; vertebra]. Pertaining to the sacrum and the vertebras.
  • Sacrum (sa'-krum) [sacer, sacred; os, bone, understood]. A curved triangular bone com- posed of five united vertebras, situated be- tween the last lumbar vertebra above, the coccyx below, and the ossa innominata on each side, and forming the posterior boundary of the pelvis.
  • Sactosalpinx (sak -to- sal' - pinks) [oanToc, crammed; oahztj^, tube]. The obstruction of a fallopian tube and consequent distention from retained secretion. S. haemorrhagica. See Hematosalpinx.
  • Saddle (sad' -I) [ME., sadel]. A ccntrivance secured on the back of a horse or other animal to serve as a seat for a rider. S.-arch, that form of dental vault the section of which represents the shape of a saddle. S.-back, lordosis. S.-bags, a pair of leathern cases, formerly, and still locally, carried by physicians upon the saddle, and containing their medicines and instruments. S.-head. See Clinocephalus. S. -joint, an articulation in which each surface is concave in one direction and convex in the other. S.- nose, a nose of which the bridge is sunken in. S., Turkish. See Sella turcica.
  • Saenger's Macula (seng'-er) . A bright red spot marking the orifice of the duct of Bartholin's gland in cases of gonorrheal vulvitis. Syn., Macula gonorrhoeica. S.'s Pupil Reaction, for the differential diagnosis of cerebral syph- ilis and tabes; in amaurosis and optic atrophy of cerebral syphilis the pupil reflex to light may be preserved and even increased after a protracted stay in the dark, which is never the case in tabes dorsalis.
  • Saffron (saf'-ron) [Ar., zafaran, saffron]. The Crocus sativus, a plant of the order Iridece. Its stigmas (crocus, B. P.) contain a glucosid, coloring-matter (crocin), and a bitter principle. Saffron is used as a coloring and flavoring agent, and in the form of a tea to bring out the eruption of the exanthematous diseases.
  • Safranin (saf'-ra-nin) [saffron], C 18 H l8 N 4 . A coal-tar dye used in microscopy, especially in studying karyokinesis. It is a powerful car- diac and respiratory poison.
  • Safrene (saf'-ren) [saffron], C 10 H 16 . A hydro- carbon obtained from sassafras.
  • Safrol (saf'-rol) [saffron; oleum, oil]. Safrolum (U. S. P.), C 10 H lo p 2 . The stearoptene of sas- safras oil, used in headache, neuralgia, and rheumatism. Dose 10-20 min. (0.65-1.3 Cc).
  • Sagapenum (sag -a-pe' - num) . A fetid gum- resin believed to be the concrete juice of Ferula persica. Its properties resemble those of asafetida and galbanum.
  • i I SAGE 847 SALICYLATE Sage (saj) [salvia]. Salvia officinalis, a plant of the order Labiates. Its leaves (salvia, U. S. P.) contain several terpenes, an oil, salviol, C 10 H l6 O, and camphor. Sage is tonic, astringent, and aromatic, and is used in dyspepsia. It was formerly employed in colliquative sweats. Dose 20-30 gr. (1.3-2.0 Gm.).
  • Sagittal (saj'-it-al) [sagitta, an arrow]. 1. Arrow-like, as the sagittal suture of the skull. 2. Pertaining to the anteroposterior median plane of the body. S. Nucleus, the nucleus of the oculomotor nerve.
  • Sago (sa'-go) [Malay, sdgu]. The starch ob- tained from the sago-palm, used as a food and demulcent. S. -spleen, a spleen presenting on section the appearance of sago-grains, as a result of amyloid degeneration of the malpighian bodies.
  • Sagotia racemosa (sa-go'-she-ah). A South American species of the order Euphorbiacea, used as a tonic and aphrodisiac.
  • Sagradin (sag' -rah-din) . The proprietary name for a 20 % solution of extract of cascara sagrada with spirit of peppermint.

Saigon Cinnamon. A variety of cinnamon {cinnamomum saigonicum, U. S. P.) ob- tained from Saigon, the capital of French Cochin-China. See Cinnamon.

St. Anthony's Fire. Erysipelas; anthrax.

St. Gothard's Disease. Ankylostomiasis.

St. Hubert's Disease. Hydrophobia.

St. Ignatius' Bean. See Ignatia.

St. Roch's Disease. Bubo.

St. Sement's Disease. Syphilis.

St. Vitus' Dance. Chorea. So named because in the epidemic of chorea in Strasburg in 1488 those who were afflicted were sent on a pil- grimage to the chapel of St. Vitus at Zabern, a town in Alsace-Lorraine. St. Vitus' Dance of the Voice, stammering.

Sal [L.]. 1. Salt. 2. Any substance resemb- ling salt. S. acetosella, potassium binoxa- late. S. aeratus, sodium bicarbonate. S. alembroth. See Alembroth. S. ammo- niac, ammonium chlorid. S. communis. See Salt, Common. S. de duobus, potassium sulfate. S. enxium, potassium bisulfate. S. glauberi. See Salt, Glauber's. S. kissin- gense, a salt obtained from the mineral springs of Kissingen, in Bavaria. S. pru- nella? , S. prunelle. 1. A fused mixture of potassium nitrate, 128 parts, and sulfur, 1 part. 2. Fused potassium nitrate. S. ru- pium, rock-salt. S. seignette, potassium and sodium tartrate. S. sodae. See Salt of Soda. S. volatilis, ammonium carbonate.

Sala's Cells. Stellate connective-tissue cells found in the network of fibers forming the sensory nerve-endings in the pericardium.


  • Salaam Convulsion (sa-lahm') [At., salam, saluting]. A clonic spasm of the muscles of the trunk, producing a bowing movement; it is usually due to hysteria.
  • Salactol (sal-ak'-tol). A combination of the sodium salts of salicylic and lactic acids dis- solved in a 1 % solution of hydrogen dioxid; it is recommended in diphtheria. The solu- tion is applied as a spray or with a brush, and given internally in doses of a tablespoon- ful (15 Cc).
  • Salamandarin (sal-a-man 1 '-dar-in) . See Leu- komains, Table of.
  • Salamid (sal' -am-id) . An amidogen derivative of salicylic acid, which it closely resembles in therapeutic properties, but acts more promptly and in smaller doses.
  • Salborol (sal-bo' -rol). A compound of phenyl salicylate and boric acid, used in rheumatism.
  • Saldanin (sal'-dan-in). A local anesthetic said to be prepared from Datura arborea.
  • Salep (sal'-ep) [Ar., sahleb]. The dried tubers of various species of the genus Orchis and the genus Eulophia. It is used as a food, like sago and tapioca.
  • Salhypnone (sal-hip' -non), C 6 H 4 0(COC 6 H 5 )- COOCH3. A benzoylmethylsalicylic ester; long colorless needles, insoluble in water, sparingly soluble in alcohol and ether; melts at ii3°-ii4°. It is used as an antiseptic.
  • Salicamar (sal-ik'-am-ar), CH 2 OH . CHOH . - CH 2 . C 6 H 4 CO . CH 2 . CHOH . CH 2 OH. A glycerol ether of glycerolsalicylic acid; recom- mended as a stomachic and antirheumatic.
  • Salicin (sal'-is-in) [salix, willow], Ci 3 H 18 7 . A crystalline glucosid found in the bark and leaves of the willow. Salicin (salicinum, U. S. P., B. P.) is used as a substitute for salicylic acid in doses of 5-30 gr.(0.3-2.0 Gm.); maximum daily dosage iqo gr. (9.7 Gm.).
  • Salicol (sal'-ik-ol). A. proprietary solution said to consist of methyl-alcohol, salicylic acid, and oil of wintergreen in water; used as an antiseptic and cosmetic.
  • Salicyl (sal'-is-il) [salicylic acid], C 7 H 6 2 . The hypothetic radicle of salicylic acid. S. Acetate, C 2 H 3 . O . C 7 H 5 2 0, acetosalicylic anhydrid. S. Acetol, salactol. S.-anilid, salifebrin. S.-creasote, a paste prescribed by Unna in skin diseases, consisting of a mixture of sal- icylic acid, creasote, wax, and cerate. S.-p- phenetidin. See Malakin. S.-quinin Sal- icylate. See Saloquinin Salicylate. S.- resorcinol, C 13 H 10 O 4 , obtained from salicylic acid and resorcinol with heat. It occurs in plates slightly soluble in water; melts at 133 C. It is antiseptic, antipyretic, and analgesic, and used in typhoid, diarrhea, etc. Dose 5-15 gr. (0.32-1.0 Gm.); maximum dose 15 gr. (1 Gm.) single; 60 gr. (4 Gm.) daily. S. Urate, a salt of salicyluric acid.
  • Salicylage (sal'-is-il-dj) [salicylic acid]. The addition of salicylic acid to foods for their preservation.
  • Salicylamid (sal-is-W -am-id) [salicylic acid], C 5 H 4 (OH)CONH 2 . A tasteless compound produced by treating methyl salicylate with an alcoholic solution of ammonia, and used as a substitute for salicylic acid.
  • Salicylate (sal-is' -il-at) [salicylic acid]. A salt of salicylic acid. The salicylates of lithium, methyl, and sodium, which are official, and those of ammonium and strontium, which are SALICYLATED 848 SALKOWSKI'S MODIFICATION unofficial, are used in rheumatism, in doses of 10-15 gr. (0.65-1.0 Gm.). Bismuth salicy- late is employed as an intestinal antiseptic; naphthol salicylate is betol; phenyl salicylate is salol.
  • Salicylated (sal-is' -il-a-ted). Impregnated with salicylic acid.
  • Salicylic Acid (sal-i-sil'-ik). See Acid, Salicy- lic. S.-acid Glycerolester, recommended as a valuable antirheumatic remedy. S. Alcohol. See Saligenin. S. Aldehyd, sali- cylous acid; used as an internal antiseptic. Dose 2-8 gr. (0.1-0.5 Gm.) daily. S.-amid. See Salicylamid. S. Amylester. See Amyl Salicylate. S. Anhydrid. See S. Aldehyd. S. Cream, an antiseptic mixture of pow- dered salicylic acid, 2 dr. ; phenol, 1 dr. ; gly- cerol, 10 dr. S. Naphthylic Ester. See Betol. S. Phenylester. See Salol. S. Silk, a dressing made of silk waste impregnated with 10% salicylic acid and a little glycerol. S. Suet, one part of salicylic acid in 49 parts of mutton-suet; used as, a dressing for sores. S. Thymolester, thymol acetate. S. Wool, cotton impregnated with 4 to 10% of salicylic acid and an equal amount of glycerol.
  • Salicylid (sal-is' -il-id). An anhydrid of salicy- lic acid. S.-phenetidin. See Malakin.
  • Salicylize (sal'-is-il-iz). To treat with salicylic acid.
  • Salicylol (sal'-is-il-ol). See Salicylic Aldehyd.
  • Salicyluric Acid (sal-is-il-u'-rik) [salicylic; uric]. A compound of glycol and salicylic acid found in the urine after the administration of salicylic acid.
  • Salifebrin (sal-e-feb'-rin). Salicylanilid; C 13 - H n N0 2 , a white, permanent powder, insoluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol; recom- mended as an antipyretic and antineuralgic. It colors blue litmus-paper red.
  • Saliferous (sal-if'-er-us) [sal, salt; ferre, to bear]. Producing salt.
  • Salifiable (sal-if-i'-a-bl) [sal; fieri, to become]. Forming a salt by union with an acid.
  • Saliformin (sal-i}-orm'-in), (CH 2 ) 6 N 4 . C 6 H 4 - (OH)COOH. A white, crystalline powder, of sour taste, soluble in water and alcohol. It is an antiseptic and uric-acid solvent. Dose 15-30 gr.(1-2 Gm.). Syn., Formin salicylate; Hexa methylentetraminsalicylate; Urotropin salicylate.
  • Saligallol (sal-e-gal'-ol). Pyrogallol disalicy- late, a resinous solid, soluble in acetone or chloroform. Used as a vehicle for dermic applications and as a varnish.
  • Saligenin (sal-ij'-en-in) [salicin; yzvvav, to produce], C 7 H 8 2 . Orthooxybenzylalcohol, a substance obtained from salicin by boiling with dilute hydrochloric or sulfuric acid.
  • Salimeter (sal-im'-et-er) [saline; jikxpov, a measure]. A hydrometer for ascertaining the strength of saline solutions.
  • Saline (sa'-len or sa'-lin) .[sal, salt]. 1. Salty; containing salt or substance resembling salt. 2. A salt of an alkali or alkaline earth. S. Solution, a 0.6 % solution of sodium chlorid; normal salt solution.
  • Salipyrin (sa-lip'-ir-in or sal-i-pi'-rin) [salicy- late; _ nup^ fire], C n H 12 N 2 . C 7 H 6 O s . An- tipyrin salicylate, consisting of 57.7 parts of salicylic acid and 42.3 parts of antipyrin; it is soluble in water, and is used in rheuma- tism, neuralgia, and as an antipyretic. Dose 15-3? gr- (1-2 Gm.).
  • Saliretin (sal-e-ret'-in) [saligenin; pyzcvT}, resin], C l4 H 14 3 . An amorphous resinous body, pro- duced by treating saligenin with acids.

Salisbury Treatment. The treatment of obesity by meat diet and hot water.


  • Salitannol (sal-e-tan'-ol), C 14 H 16 7 . A con- densation-product of salicylic and gallic acids by action of phosphorous oxychlorid; a white, amorphous powder, soluble in solutions of caustic alkalis, slightly soluble in alcohol. Recommended as a surgical antiseptic.
  • Saliva (sa-li'-vah) [L.]. The mixed secretion of the parotid, submaxillary, sublingual, and mucous glands of the mouth. It is opalescent, tasteless, alkaline, and has a specific gravity of from 1004 to 1009, and contains serum- albumin, globulin, mucin, urea, an amylolytic ferment called ptyalin, and a proteolytic and a lipolytic ferment; also salts, among which is potassium sulfocyanid, derived especially from the parotid gland. Among formed ele- ments are epithelial cells, salivary corpuscles, and bacteria. The functions of saliva are to moisten the food and lubricate the bolus, to dissolve certain substances, to facilitate tast- ing, to aid in deglutition and articulation, and to digest starches, which it converts into maltose, dextrin, and glucose.
  • Salivary (sal' -iv-a-re) [saliva]. Pertaining to or producing saliva; formed from saliva. S. Calculus, a calcareous concretion found in the salivary ducts.
  • Salivate (sal'-iv-dt) [salivare, to spit out]. To cause an excessive discharge of saliva.
  • Salivation (sal-iv-a' -shun) [salivate]. An ex- cessive secretion of saliva; a condition pro- duced by mercury, pilocarpin, and by nervous disturbances. S., Psychic. See A pty 'alia (2).
  • Salivator (sal' -iv-a-tor) [salivate]. An agent causing salivation.
  • Salivatory (sal-iv-a' -to-re). Salivant; stimu- lating the secretion of saliva.

Salkowski's Modification of Hoppe-Seyler's Test for CO in the Blood. Add to the blood to be tested 20 volumes of water and an equal quantity of a sodium hydroxid solution of specific gravity 1.34. In the presence of car- bon monoxid the mixture will soon become milky, changing to bright red. On standing, red flakes collect on the surface. Normal blood treated in this way gives a dirty brown coloration. S.'s Reaction for Choles- . terin, dissolve the substance in chloroform and add an equal volume of concentrated sulfuric acid. The cholesterin solution be- comes bluish-red, changing gradually to vio- let red, while the sulfuric acid appears red with a green fluorescence. S.'s Test for Indol, to the indol solution add a few drops (DE) SALLE'S LINE 849 SALT of nitric acid, and then, drop by drop, a 2 % solution of potassium nitrite. The presence of indol is evinced by a red color, and finally by a red precipitate of nitrosoindol nitrate.

(de) Salle's Line. A line beginning at the upper margin of the ala nasi, encircling the angle of the mouth, and ending at the edge of the orbicularis oris. For significance see Jadelot's Lines.


  • Salmiac (sal'-me-ak). Ammonium chlorid.
  • Salmin (sal'-min), C^H^N^O,; + 4H 2 0. A protamin from salmon, identical or isomeric with clupein.

Salmon's Back-cut. An incision along the track of an anal fistula.


  • Salol (sal'-ol) [salix, willow]. See Phenyl Sali- cylate. S., Camphorated, a mixture of 75 % of phenyl salicylate with 25 % of camphor; an oily liquid, soluble in alcohol, ether, chloro- form, or oils, a local anesthetic, antiseptic, and analgesic. Dose 3-10 gr. (0.2-0.65 Gm.). Syn., Camphor salol. S. Tribromid, C 6 H 4 . - OH . COO . C 6 H 2 Br 3 , a white, odorless, taste- less powder, freely soluble in chloroform and glacial acetic acid, insoluble in ether or alco- hol. It is a combined hypnotic and hemo- static. Dose 32 gr. (2 Gm.). Syn., Cordol.
  • Salolism (sa'-lol-izm). Poisoning by phenyl salicylate, a mixture of salicylism and carbol- ism in which the symptoms of the latter predominate.
  • Salophen (sal'-o-fen) [salix, willow], C 6 H 4 . - OH . C0 2 . C 6 H 4 . NH (C 2 H 3 0) = C 15 H 13 N0 4 . Acetylparamidophenyl salicylate, a crystal- line substance containing 50% of salicylic acid, and used as a substitute for the latter, and as an intestinal antiseptic. Dose 15 gr. (1 Gm.).
  • Saloquinin (sal-o-kin'-en), C 6 H 4 . OH . CO . - O . C 20 H 23 N 2 O. The quinin ester of salicylic acid; a crystalline, absolutely tasteless sub- stance, insoluble in water, readily soluble in alcohol or ether; melts at 130 C. It is used as is quinin. Dose 10-30 gr. (0.65-2.0 Gm.) several times daily. S. Salicylate, C 6 H 4 . OH . COO . QqH^O . C 6 H 4 . OH . - COOH, crystallizes in white needles, soluble with difficulty in water; melts at 179 C. It is tasteless and recommended in rheumatism. Dose 15 gr. (1 Gm.) 3 times daily. Syn., Rheumatin.
  • Salosantal (sal-o-san'-tal). A 33% solution of phenyl salicylate in sandalwood oil with the addition of a little oil of peppermint. It is indicated in cystitis, prostatitis, etc. Dose 10-20 drops 3 times daily after meals.
  • Salpingectomy (sal-pin-jek' -to-me) [salpinx; inro[ir), excision]. Excision of the fallopian tube.
  • Salpingion (sal-pin' '-je-on) . The point at the inferior surface of the apex of the petrosa.
  • Salpingitic (sal - pin - jit' '- ik) [salpinx; cue, inflammation]. Pertaining to or affected with salpingitis.
  • Salpingitis (sal - pin- ji' -Us) [salpinx; cue, inflammation]. 1. Inflammation of the fal- lopian tube. 2. Inflammation of the eusta- 5S chian tube." S., Chronic Parenchymatous, pachysalpingitis, chronic interstitial inflam- mation and thickening of the muscular coat of the fallopian tube. S., Chronic Vegetat- ing, excessive hypertrophy of the mucosa of the fallopian tube. S., Gonorrheal, that due to infection with gonococci. S., Hemor- rhagic, hematosalpinx. S., Interstitial, that marked by excessive formation of con- nective tissue. S., Isthmic Nodular, fol- licular inflammation of the small constricted portion(isthmus) of the oviduct, with forma- tion of small nodules of muscular and con- nective tissue. S., Mural. See S., Chronic Parenchymatous. S., Nodular, a form marked by formation of solid nodules. Cf. S., Tuberculous. S., Parenchymatous. See S., Chronic Parenchymatous. S., Pneu- mococcous, that due to infection with pneumococci. S., Pseudofollicular, adeno- myoma originating in the tubal epithelium. S., Purulent, salpingitis with secretion of pus instead of mucus or serum. S., Tubercu- lous, that marked by the infiltration of the lining membrane and walls of the tube with tuberculous nodules.
  • Salpingo- (sal-ping-go-) [oaXncy$, tube]. A pre- fix denoting relation to the fallopian or the eustachian tube.
  • Salpingocele (sal-ping' -go-sel) [salpingo-; kt}Xtj, a hernia]. Hernia of the oviduct.
  • Salpingooophorectomy (sal-ping-go-o-o-for- ek'-to-me) [salpingo-; oophoron; ixxo/iiy, ex- cision]. Excision of the fallopian tube and the ovary.
  • Salpingooophoritis (sal-ping-go-o-of-or-i'-tis) [salpingo-; oophoron; cue. inflammation]. In- flammation of the fallopian tube and the ovary.
  • Salpingooophorocele (sal-ping-go-o-of'-or-o- sel) [salpingo-; oophorocele). Hernial pro- trusion of the ovary and oviduct.
  • Salpingoperitonitis (sal-ping-go-per-it-on-i'- tis). Inflammation of the peritoneum lining the oviduct.
  • Salpingoscope (sal - ping' -go- shop) [salpingo-; OKOitzlv, to look]. A modified cystoscope pro- vided with an electric lamp of low voltage for exploration of the nasopharynx.
  • Salpingostaphylinus (sal-pin g-go-staf-il-i'-nus) [salpingo-; oracf)uXrj, uvula]. The abductor muscle of the eustachian tube. S. internus. Synonym of Levator palati. See under Muscle.
  • Salpingostomy (sal-ping-gos' -to-me) [salpingo-; oro/ia, mouth]. The operation of making an artificial fistula between a fallopian tube and the body -surf ace.
  • Salpingotomy (sal-ping-got'-o-me) [salpingo-; ro/irj, a cutting]. The operation of cutting into a fallopian tube.
  • Salpinx (sal'-pinks) [oaXizcfZ, tube]. A tube, especially the eustachian or the fallopian tube.

Salt [sal, salt]. 1. Sodium chlorid. 2. Any compound of a base and an acid. S., Acid, a salt formed from a dibasic or polybasic acid SALT 850 SANATORIUM in which only a part of the replaceable hy- drogen atoms has been replaced by the base. S., Alkaline. See S., Basic. S., Aperient, of Frederick, sodium sulfate. S. of Barilla, sodium carbonate. S., Basic, a salt contain- ing an excess of the basic element, and formed by the union of a normal salt with a basic oxid or hydroxid. S., Bay-, sodium chlorid; also the sea-salt obtained by the evaporation of sea-water by solar heat. S. of Bones, ammonium carbonate. S., Carlsbad, a salt prepared from one of the springs at Carlsbad or made in imitation of it. Each spring con- tains in varying degrees carbonates of mag- nesia, iron, manganese, calcium, strontium, lithium, and sodium, sulfates of sodium and potassium, sodium chlorid, sodium fluorid, 'sodium borate, and calcium phosphate. S. of Colcothar, sulfate of iron. S., Common, sodium chlorid. S., Crab Orchard, a mild saline purgative produced from the evaporated water of springs at Crab Orchard, Kentucky. It contains magnesium, sodium, and potas- sium sulfates and a little iron and lithium. S., Diuretic, potassium acetate. S., Double, one in which the hydrogen atoms of an acid are replaced by two metals. S., Epsom-, magnesium sulfate. S.-frog, a frog from whose vascular system all blood has been artificially removed and replaced by normal salt solution. Syn., Cohnheim's frog. S., Glauber's, sodium sulfate. S., Halogen, S., Haloid, any salt of the halogen elements, bromin, chlorin, fluorin, and iodin. S.s of Lemon, potassium binoxalate. S., Mon- sel's, subsulfate of iron, used chiefly in solu- tion as a styptic. S., Neutral, one formed by the replacement of all the hydrogen atoms of an acid by a base or a radicle. S., Nor- mal. Synonym of S., Neutral. S.s, Pres- ton's, English smelling-salts. S., Purging, Tasteless, sodium phosphate. S.-rheum, chronic eczema. S., Rochelle, sodium and potassium tartrate. S., Rock-, native so- dium chlorid, occurring in crystalline masses. S., Sea-, the sodium chlorid obtained by the evaporation of sea-water. S., Secondary. Same as S., Neutral. S. -sickness. See Sickness, Salt-. S., Smelling-, any pungent, irritant salt which when inhaled usually acts reflexly as a respiratory or circulatory stimu- lant. Ammonium carbonate is generally used. S. of Soda, sodium carbonate. S. Solution, a solution of sodium chlorid in dis- tilled water. One containing from 0.6 to 0.75 % of sodium chlorid is known as a normal or physiologic salt solution, and is used in physiologic experiments on living tissues. In medicine it has been employed to restore to the system the fluids lost by severe hemorrhage or profuse diarrheal discharges. The solution is introduced into the subcutaneous tissues or into a vein; sometimes also into the rectum. S. of Sorrel, potassium binoxalate derived from species of Oxalis and Rumex. S.S, Spirit of, hydrochloric acid. S. -starvation. See Hypochlorization. S. of Tartar, pure potassium carbonate. S. of Urine, am- monium carbonate. S. of Vitriol, zinc sulfate. S. of Wisdom, sal alembroth. S. of Wormwood, potash prepared from worm- wood.

Saltans rosa. Urticaria.


  • Saltatory, Saltatoric (sal'-tat-o-re, sal-tat-or' -ik) [saltare, to dance]. Dancing or leaping. S. Spasm, a clonic spasm that causes the patient to leap or jump when he attempts to stand.

Salted. A term applied to animals that have recovered from South African horse-sickness.

Salter's Incremental Lines. Dentinal lines more or less parallel to the surface of the tooth and produced by imperfectly calcified dentin.


  • Saltpeter (sawlt-pe'-tre) [salt;^ petra, a rock]. Potassium nitrate. S., Chili, sodium nitrate.

Salts. A saline cathartic, especially magnesium sulfate, sodium sulfate, or rochelle salt.


  • Salubrin (sal-u r -brin) [salubritas, healthfulness]. A compound said to contain 2 % of anhydrous acetic acid, 25 % of acetic ether, 50 % of alco- hol, and the remainder distilled water. It is antiseptic, astringent, and hemostatic, and is used diluted with water as a gargle and on compresses.
  • Salubrious (sa-lu'-bre-us) [salus, health]. Healthful.
  • Salubrol (sal-u'-brol). Tetrabromomethylene- diantipyrin. An inodorous, antiseptic powder used in the same way as iodoform.
  • Salufer (sal' -u-fer) . Sodium silicofmorid.
  • Salumin (sal f -u-min) . See Aluminium Sali- cylate.
  • Salve (sahv) [AS., sealf\. Ointment. S., Deshler's, compound rosin cerate.
  • Salvia (sal'-ve-ah) [L.]. The official name for the dried leaves of Salvia officinalis. See Sage.

Salzer's Operation. Excision of the whole of the third division of the fifth nerve.


  • Sambucin (sam-bu'-sin) [Sambucus, the elder]. An alcoholic fluidextract of the bark of Sam- bucus nigra. It is a diuretic.
  • Sambucus (sam-bu'-kus) [L.]. Elder; a shrub or tree of the order CapHfoliacecB. The flowers of S. canadensis and the berries are sudorific; the latter have been used as an alterative in rheumatism and syphilis. The inner bark has been employed in epilepsy, dropsy, and various chronic diseases. Aqua sambuci (B. P.) is used as a vehicle.

Sanative \san'-a-tiv) [sanare, to heal]. Pro- moting health; healing.


  • Sanatogen (san-at'-o-jen). A dietetic contain- ing 90 % of casein and 5 % of sodium phos- phoglycerid. Dose 1 teaspoonful (5 Cc.) added to soup, cocoa, etc.
  • Sanatolyn (san-at'-ol-in). A disinfectant said to consist of phenol and sulfuric acid with a percentage of ferrous sulfate.
  • Sanatorium (san-at-o' -re-um) (sanare, to heal]. An establishment for the treatment of the sick; especially a private hospital. See Sanitarium.

Sand [AS.]. An aggregation of fine grains of silicic oxid. S., Auditory, otoliths. S.-bath. i. A vessel containing dry sand in which a substance requiring a slowly rising or uniform temperature may be heated. S. -blind. See Metamorphopsia. S. -bodies. See Corpora aranacea. S., Intestinal, gritty material passed with the stools. S., Pineal. See Acervulus. S. -tumor. See Psammoma.


  • Sandalwood, i . Red saunders (Santalum rub- rum, U. S. P.; Pterocarpi ligni, B. P.), the wood of Pterocarpus santalinus, of the order Leguminosce. It is used as a coloring agent. 2. The wood of Santalum album, of the order SantalacecB, containing a volatile oil. S. Oil (oleum santali, U. S. P., B. P.), used in bronchitis and gonorrhea. Dose 15-20 min. (1.0-1.3 Cc).
  • Sandarac (san'-dar-ak). A white, transparent resin produced by Callitris quadrivalvis, a tree of North Africa. It is now little used except as a varnish and incense. S. Varnish, in dentistry a solution of sandarac in alcohol used as a separating medium in making plaster casts.
  • Sandaracin (san-dar' -as-in) . Giese's name for sandarac which has been exposed to the action of alcohol. It is a mixture of two of the three resins of which sandarac is said to be com- posed.

Sander's Sign. Undulatory character of the cardiac impulse, most marked in the epigastric region, in adherent pericardium. S.'s Type of Paranoia, paranoia appearing in youth. Syn., Paranoia originaria.


  • Sane (sari) [sanus, whole]. Of sound mind.
  • Sanguification (sang- gwif-ik-a' 'shun) [sanguis, blood; facere, to make]. 1. The formation of blood. 2. Conversion into blood, as the sanguification of substances absorbed from the intestinal tract.
  • Sanguimotion (sang-gwi-mo' -shun) [sanguis; motion]. The circulation of the blood.
  • Sanguimotory (sang-gwi-mo'-tor-e). Relating to the circulation of the blood.
  • Sanguinaria (sang-gwin-a' -re-ah) [sanguis]. Bloodroot, a genus of plants of the order PapaveracecB. The rhizome of 5. canadensis (sanguinaria, U. S. P.) is emetic and nar- cotic; in large doses it is an irritant and con- vulsant. It is used chiefly as an expector- ant in bronchitis. Dose, as an expectorant, 1-5 gr. (0.065-0.32 Gm.); as an emetic, 5- 10 gr. (0.32-0.65 Gm.). S., Fluidextract of(fluidextractum sanguinariae, U. S. P.). Dose 1-10 min. (0.065-0.65 Cc). S., Tinc- ture of (tinctura sanguinarice , U. S. P.). Dose 30-60 min. (2-4 Cc).
  • Sanguinarin (sang-gwin-a'-riri), C 20 H 15 NO 4 , the most important alkaloid derived from the rhizome of Sanguinaria canadensis. Dose T2— £~f gr. (0.005-0.0 1 1-0.05 Gm.) in solu- tion. Small doses expectorant, large doses emetic. S. Nitrate, C 17 H 15 N0 4 . HN0 3 , a red, crystalline powder, soluble in water and alco- hol, Dosage and uses the same as the alkaloid.
  • S. Sulfate, (C 17 H 15 N0 4 ) 2 . H 2 S0 4 , red crystal- line powder, soluble in water and alcohol. Dosage and uses the same as the alkaloid.
  • Sanguine (sang' -gwin) [sanguis]. 1. Resem- bling blood; bloody. 2. Hopeful; active, as sanguine temperament.
  • Sanguineous (sang-gwin' -e-us) [sanguis]. 1. Pertaining to the blood; containing blood. 2. Sanguine. S. Cyst, a cyst containing blood-stained fluid.
  • Sanguino (sang'-gwin-o). A proprietary prepa- ration said to contain all iron salts, albu- mins, fats, and carbohydrates formed in the animal organism.
  • Sanguinoform (sang-gwin' '-o-form). A thera- peutic preparation of blood said to be obtained from the embryonic blood-forming organs of animals.
  • Sanguinolent (sang-gwin' -o-leni) [sanguis]. Tinged with blood.
  • Sanies (sa'-ne-ez) [L.]. A thin, fetid, greenish, seropurulent fluid discharged from an ulcer, wound, or fistula.
  • Sanious (sa'-ne-us) [sanies]. Pertaining to or resembling sanies, as sanious pus.
  • Sanitarium (san-it-a'-re-um) [sanitas, health]. A place where the conditions are such as especially to promote health; a resort for con- valescents. S., Ocean, a ship so constructed as to be specially adapted to the requirements of invalids or convalescents and to making long cruises.
  • Sanitary (san'-it-a-re) [sanitas]. Pertaining to health. S. Cordon, a line of guards to control ingress or egress to an infected locality. S. Science, the science that includes a con- sideration of all that can be done for the pre- vention of disease and the promotion of the public health.
  • Sanitation (san-it-a' -shun) [sanitary]. The act of securing a healthful condition; the applica- tion of sanitary measures.
  • Sanity (san'-it-e) [sanitas, from sanus, sound]. Soundness of mind.
  • Sanmethyl (san-meth'-il). A proprietary prepa- ration said to consist of methylene-blue, copaiba, phenyl salicylate, oils of sandalwood and cinnamon, and the oleoresins of cubebs and matico. It is used in gonorrhea. Dose in capsules 10 min. (0.66 Cc).
  • Sanmetra (san-mef -rah) [sanus, sound; p-yrpa, womb]. A combination of zinc sulfate, 1 gr. ; antipyrin, 2 gr.; ichthyol, 5 gr. ; fluid- extract of hydrastis, 5 gr. ; creasote, 1-2 gr.; extract of hyoscyamus, 1-2 gr. ; menthol and thymol, each, 1-25 gr. ; oil of eucalyptus, 1 gr. It is indicated in vaginal, uterine, and pelvic diseases, and is used in suppositories.
  • Sanmetto (san-mef -0). A proprietary prepa- ration recommended in genitourinary dis- eases and said to consist of sandalwood and saw-palmetto. Dose 1 teaspoon ful (5 Cc.) 4 times daily.
  • Sano (san'-o). A dietetic said to consist of dex- trinated barley flour with a high percentage SANODERMA 852 SAPODERMIN of proteids; according to analysis, it consists of water, 13.7%; proteids, 12.5%; fat, 1.6%; mineral matter, 1.85%; soluble carbohy- drates, 4.1%; cellulose, 1.4%;. and starch, 64.9 %.
  • Sano derma (san-o-der'-mah). A sterilized muslin bandage saturated with bismuth subnitrate.
  • Sanoform (san'-o-jorm), C 6 H 2 I 2 OHCOOCH 3 . The methyl ether of diiodosalicylic acid. It is a white, tasteless, odorless, permanent powder, containing 62.7% iodin; melts at no° C; soluble in alcohol, ether, or vaselin. It is used as a surgical dressing in powder or 10 % ointment.
  • Sanose (san'-oz). A proprietary dietetic said to contain 80% of casein and 20% of albu- mose; a white, odorless, tasteless powder forming an emulsion when stirred with water or milk. Dose 5 dr.-i^ oz.(20-50 Gm.) in a pint of milk.
  • Sanosin (san'-o-sin). A mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and eucalyptus leaves. The fumes of this when ignited are used by inhalation in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Sansom's Sign. 1. Considerable extension of dulness in the second and third intercostal spaces in pericardial effusion. 2. A rhythmic murmur transmitted through the air in the mouth when the lips of the patient are applied to the chestpiece of the stethoscope; it is heard in cases of aortic aneurysm.

Sanson's Images. See Purkinje's Images.


  • Santal (san'-tal). Santalum, white sandal- wood. See Sandalwood (2).
  • Santalal (san'-tal-at), C 15 H 24 0. A constituent of santal oil found by Chapoteaut; boils at 3°o° C.
  • Santalol (san'-tal-ol), C 15 H 26 0. A constituent of oil of santal found by Chapoteaut; it boils at 310 C.

Santa Lucia Bark. The bark of Exostemma floribundum, a rubiaceous tree of the Antilles.


  • Santol (san'-tol), C 8 H 6 3 . A crystalline sub- stance found by H. Weidel (1870) in white sandalwood.
  • Santolina (san-to-W -na) (santalum, because of the similarity of odor]. A genus of composite plants. The herb and fruit of S. chamcecy- parissus of Europe are anthelmintic, anti- spasmodic, and stomachic. As anthelmintic, dose for adults — of decoction, 5 oz. for 4 suc- cessive mornings, then followed by cathartic.
  • Santonica (san-ton'-ik-ah) \oavzovcnbv, worm- wood]. Levant wormseed, the unexpanded flower-heads of Artemisia pauciflora (U. S. P.) or A. maritima, var., Stechmanniana (B. P.), of the order Composite, the essential con- stituent of which is santonin, C 15 H 18 3 (san- toninum, U. S. P., B. P.). Santonin is a neutral crystalline principle, producing, in overdoses, xanthopsia, giddiness, stupor, at times convulsions, and death from failure of respiration. The urine is colored yellow. Santonica and santonin are used as vermicides against the lumbricoid worm. Dose of santonica 10-30 gr. (0.65-2.0 Gm.); of santonin 1-2 gr. (0.065-0.13 Gm.). Sodium santoninate was formerly used as a substitute for santonin, but has produced poisoning.
  • Santonin (san'-to-nin). See Under Santonica. S., Troches of (trochisci santonini, U. S. P., B. P.), those of the U. S. P. contain each about J gr. (0.033 Gm.) of santonin; those of the B. P. contain 1 gr. (0.065 Gm.) of the drug.
  • Santoninoxim (san-ton-in-oks'-im), C 15 H 18 2 - (NOH). A derivative of santonin by action of an alcoholic solution of hydroxylamin hydrochlorate with soda; a white, crystalline powder, less toxic than santonin, and used as a vermicide. Dose for adults 5 gr. (0.32 Gm.) divided into two doses and taken at intervals of one to two hours, followed by a cathartic. Repeat for 2 or 3 days.
  • Santonism (san f -ton-izm) . Poisoning from overdosage of santonin.

Santorini's Canal. See Bernard's Canal. S.'s Cartilages, cornicula laryngis; the car- tilaginous nodules on the tips of the aryte- noid cartilages. S.'s Circular Muscle, in- voluntary muscular fibers encircling the ure- thra beneath the constrictor urethras. S.'s Concha, a small, supernumerary, spongy bone sometimes found above the superior turbinated bone of the ethmoid. S.'s Fis- sures, two fissures separating the cartilagin- ous portions of the external auditory canal into three incomplete rings. Syn., Incisures santorini. S.'s Muscle. See under Muscle. S.'s Plexus. 1. The vesicoprostatic plexus of veins in the male ; the venous plexus surround- ing the front and sides of the urethra in the female. 2. An anastomotic network formed at the foramen ovale by the filaments of the two roots of the inferior maxillary nerve. S.'s Veins, the emissary veins forming a com- munication between the cerebral sinuses and the veins of the scalp; especially, the small veins passing through the parietal foramen and connecting the parietal with the superior longitudinal sinus.


  • Sapan-wood (sap-an'-wud). The wood of CcBsalpinia sappan, used as a dye as a sub- stitute for hematoxylon.
  • Saphenous (sa-k'-nus) [aa^vric, manifest]. Apparent; superficial; manifest; applied to two veins of the lower limb, the internal or long saphenous vein and external or short saphenous vein, situated just beneath the sur- face; also applied to the nerves accompany- ing these veins. S. Opening, an opening in the fascia lata at the upper part of the thigh through which the long saphenous vein and nerve pass.
  • Sapid (sap f -id) [sapere, to taste]. Capable of being tasted.
  • Sapidity (sap-id' -it-e) [sapid]. The property or quality of a substance which gives it taste.
  • Sapo (sa'-po) [L.]. Soap. See Soap.
  • Sapodermin (sap-o-der'-min). An antiseptic soap containing albuminate of mercury; used in the treatment of parasitic and fungoid dis- eases, SAPOGENIN 853 SARCINA Sapogenin (sap-oj' -en-in) , Q^H^O^ (Hesse). A derivative of saponin by action of dilute acids with heat. It occurs in needles grouped in stars, soluble in alcohol or ether. Syn., Saporetin.
  • Sapolan (sap'-ol-an). A compound said to consist of a naphtha product, 2.5 parts; soap, 3 to 4%; lanolin, 1.5 parts; it is used in skin diseases.
  • Saponaceous (sap-o-na' -se-us) [sapo, soap]. Having the nature of soap.
  • Saponal (sap'-o-nal). A cleansing compound said to consist of soap, 20%; sodium carbon- ate, 60%; sodium chlorid, 2.2%; and water, 11%.
  • Saponaria (sap-o-na' -re-ah) [sapo, soap]. A genus of plants of the order Caryophyllece. S. officinalis, or soapwort, bouncing-bet, is a species growing wild abundantly in the United States and Europe in the vicinity of houses. The root, rhizome, and stolons are used in gout, syphilis, and as an expectorant. It contains saponin, sapotoxin, sapogenin, etc.
  • Saponarius (sap-o-na' -re-us). Of a soapy character.
  • Saponetin (sap-on-et'-in). A microcrystalline body, C 40 H b6 O 15 , obtained by heating saponin with dilute acids.
  • Saponification (sa-pon-i}-ik-a'-shun) [sapo; fa- cere, to make]. The act of converting into soap ; the process of treating a neutral fat with an alkali, which combines with the fatty acid, forming a soap.
  • Saponiform (sap-on' -e- form). Soap-like in ap- pearance and consistence.
  • Saponify (sa-pon'-e-fi) [see Saponification]. To convert into soap; to convert a neutral fat by the action of an alkali into free glycerol and a salt of the alkali, the latter forming a soap.
  • Saponin (sap'-o-nin) [sapo], C 32 H 54 18 . A glucosid contained in the roots of soapwort and other plants, and in aqueous solution forming a strong lather. S., Coal-tar. See Liquor carbonis detergens.
  • Saponule, Saponulus (sap' -on-ill, sap-on' -u- lus). Imperfect soaps formed by combination of essential oils with bases.
  • Sapotin (sap'-o-tin). A glucosid, C 29 H 52 O 20 , extracted from the seed of the sapodilla-plum, the fruit of Achras sapota, occurring in minute crystals which melt at 240 C. It is readily soluble in water, less so in alcohol, and in- soluble in ether, benzin, or chloroform.
  • Sapotiretin (sap-o-tir-ef -in) , C 17 H 32 Oi . A prod- uct obtained from sapotin by boiling it with dilute sulfuric acid; insoluble in water, readily soluble in alcohol.
  • Sapotoxin (sap-o-toks'-in) [sapo; to^ckov, poison], C 17 H 30 O 10 . A poisonous glucosid ob- tained from saponin.
  • Sappanin (sap'-an-in). A substance obtained by the fusion of an extract of the wood of Ccesalpinia sappan with caustic soda.

Sappey's Accessory Portal Veins. A system of venules uniting to form small trunks, which redivide in the liver and empty into the sublob- ular veins. It consists of the minute nutrient veins of the portal vein, hepatic artery, and bile-ducts; of venules lying in the gastro- hepatic omentum, the suspensory ligament of the liver, and about the fundus of the gall- bladder; and of the group of small veins in the umbilical, region. Through the branches lying in the suspensory ligament of the liver and through the parumbilical group the portal vein communicates with the venae cavae. S.'s Fibers, smooth muscular fibers found in the check ligaments of the eyeball close to their orbital attachment.


  • Sapphism (saf'-izm) [from Zancfroj, Sappho, a Greek poetess]. Tribadism.
  • Sapremia, Sapraemia (sap-rem'-e-ah) [oanpoc, putrid; alfia, blood]. The intoxication pro- duced by absorption of the results of putrefac- tion of a contained material within a more or less shut containing cavity whose walls are capable of absorption of noxious products as they form; so long as the putrefaction is lim- ited to the contained mass it is sapremia; when the process spreads from the containing tissue it becomes septicemia.
  • Saprin (sap'-rin) [oanpof, putrid]. A non- poisonous ptomain formed in the putrefaction of animal tissues.
  • Sapro- (sap-ro-) [oanpoc, putrid]. A prefix signifying decay, putridity, etc.
  • Saprogenic, Saprogenous (sap-ro-jen'-ik, sap- raj' -en-us) [sapro-; yevvav, to beget]. 1. Causing putrefaction. 2. Produced by putre- faction.
  • Saprolegnia (sap-ro-leg'-ne-ah) [sapro-; Ikyvov, an edge]. Fly-fungus. A genus of oomy- cetous fungi of the order Saprolegniacece. Four species are known : 5. monoica, S. dioeca, S. asterophora, and S. ferax. They are all saprophytes on dead plants and animals, especially flies, in water, with the exception of the last-named species, which is both sapro- phyte and facultative parasite. It is the cause of fish or salmon disease.
  • Saprophagous (sap-ro f'-a-gus) [sapro-; (f>aye"cv, to eat]. Subsisting on decaying matter.
  • Saprophyte (sap'-ro-flt) [sapro-; (p"uxdv, a plant]. A vegetable organism living on dead organic matter.
  • Saprophytic (sap-ro- fit' -ik) [saprophyte]. Growing in dead organic matter, as sapro- phytic bacteria.
  • Saprostomous (sap-ros'-to-mus) [sapro-; ardfia, mouth]. Having offensive breath.

Sar, Sara [E. Ind., "rotten"]. Vernacular for trypanosomiasis (surra) (q. v.).

Sarbo's Sign. Analgesia of the peroneal nerve, occasionally observed in tabes dorsalis.


  • Sarc (sark) [oap£, flesh]. The belly, body, or fleshy portions of a muscle.
  • Sarcina (sar-si'-nah) [L., "a bundle"; ph, sar- cince]. A genus of schizomycetes consisting of cocci dividing in three directions, thus pro- ducing cubic masses. See Bacteria.
  • Sarcinuria (sar-sin-u'-re-ah) [sarcin; oupov, urine]. The discharge of sarcin with the urine.
  • Sarco- (sar-ko-) [oap£, flesh]. A prefix denoting composed of or pertaining to flesh.
  • Sarcoblast (sar'-ko -blast) [sarco-; ftXaozbc, a germ], i. In biology, a protoplasmic germ- inal mass. 2. Marchesini's term for Sarco- plast.
  • Sarcocarcinoma (sar-ko-kar-sin-o'-mah). A tumor composed of malignant growth of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous types.
  • Sarcocele (sar'-ko-sel) [sarco-; ktjXt), a tumor]. Any fleshy swelling of the testicle. S. mal- leosa, that due to Bacillus mallei. S., Syph- ilitic, syphilitic orchitis.
  • Sarcocephalus (sar-ko-sef'-al-us) [sarco-; «£<£- clXtj, head]. A genus of the Rubiacece. S. escu- lentus, a shrub of western Africa, the Guinea or Sierra Leone peach, yields an astringent antipyretic bark, doundaki or doundake (q. v.) ; it is the quinquina africane or kina du Rio Nunez of the French. The wood, called nijmo, is tonic and astringent. It contains the alkaloid doundakin.
  • Sarcocystis (sar-ko-sis'-tis) [sarco-; kuotcc, a cyst]. A group of the sporozoa. S. mies- cheri, a parasite found in pork and beef.
  • Sarcode (sar'-kod) [oap£, flesh]. Protoplasm.
  • Sarcoepiplomphalus (sar-ko-ep-e-plom'-fal-us) [sarco-; ininXoov, caul; 6p.aye~cv, to* eat]. Coprophagous; excrement- eating.
  • SCATOSIN 858 SCHISTO- Scatosin (skat'-o-sin) [onaxbc, dung], C 10 H 16 N 2 - 2 - A base isolated by F. Baum, 1893, from the products of pancreatic autodigestion ; it is probably related to skatol.
  • Scatt (skat). See Anthrax.
  • Scatula (skat' -u-lah) [L.]. An oblong, flat box for powders or pills.
  • Scatulation (skat-u-la' -shun) [ML., scatula, a box]. The state or condition of incasement.
  • Scavenger (skav'-en-jer) [AS., scedwian, to show]. One who cleans; a remover of waste and filth. S. -cells, wandering cells that take up debris; they are common in the nervous system.
  • Scelotyrbe (sel-o-ter'-he) [okUoc; leg; rup/3r), vacillation]. Weakness or indecision in step- ping, often due to a palsied condition. S. agitans, S. festinans (Sauvages), paralysis agitans. S. fibrilis. See Subsultus tendi- num. S. pituitosa. See Enteritis, Pseu- domembranous. S. spastica, chronic spasms affecting the lower limbs and causing lame- ness. S. tarantismus, chorea.

Schacher's Ganglion. The ophthalmic gan- glion.

Schachowa's Spiral Tube. The section of a uriniferous tubule that lies between a con- voluted and a looped tubule.

Schaefer's Dumb-bells. The dumb-bell shaped elements regarded by Schaefer as constituting the primitive fibrils of striped muscular tissue. S.'s Reflex, pinching of the achilles tendon at its middle or upper third causes slight flexion of the foot and toes in cases of organic hemiplegia. The signifi- cance of this reflex is the same as that of Babinski's toe phenomenon.

Schede's Method. A method of treating caries of bone. The diseased tissue is scraped away and the cavity allowed to fill with a blood-clot. The latter is kept moist and aseptic by a covering of gauze and protective.

Scheiner's Experiment. An experiment il- lustrating refraction and accommodation of the eye. The person looks through two pin- holes made in a card and placed at a less dis- tance than the diameter of the pupil. If the eye is emmetropic, or if accurately focused, the two sets of rays, passing through the pin- holes, unite and form a single image. In a myopic or a hyperopic eye the object appears double.


  • Schema (ske'-mah) [aj^/m, form]. 1. A simple design to illustrate a complex mechanism. 2. An outline of a subject.
  • Schematic (ske-maf -ik) [schema]. Pertaining to or of the nature of a schema. S. Eye, one showing the proportions of a normal or typical eye.
  • Schemograph (ske'-mo-graf) [schema; ypafecv, to write]. An apparatus for tracing the out- line of the field of vision; the measurement of the field is made with the perimeter.

Schenck Method. The determination of sex of infants by regulation of the mother's diet before and during pregnancy; that it is pos- sible to govern the process of gestation so as to determine the sex of human offspring: " When no sugar is secreted, not even the smallest quantity, then the ovum will be developed which is qualified to become a male child." Scherer's Test for Inosit. Evaporate the sub- stance to dryness on a platinum foil with nitric acid, add ammonia and one drop of calcium chlorid solution, and carefully re- evaporate to dryness. In the presence of inosit a rose-red residue is obtained. S.'s Test for Leucin, carefully evaporate the leucin to dryness on platinum foil with nitric acid. Add a few drops of sodium hydroxid and warm, and the colorless residue changes to a color varying from pale yellow to brown, according to the purity of the leucin; and further evaporation agglomerates it into an oily drop, which rolls about on the foil. S.'s Test for Tyrosin, carefully evaporate the substance to dryness on platinum foil with nitric acid. A yellow residue is formed (nitro- tyrosin), which becomes a deep reddish-yellow color on the application of caustic soda.


  • Scherlievo (skar-le-a'-vo) [Ital.]. A form of ulcerative syphilis prevalent in the Austrian seaports during the last century.

Schiefferdecker's Intermediate Disc. See under Disc.

Schiff's Reaction for Choiesterin. Evap- orate the substance over a small flame in a porcelain dish with a few drops of a mixture consisting of 1 part of a medium solution of ferric chlorid and 2 or 3 parts of concentrated hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. In the pres- ence of choiesterin a reddish-violet residue is first obtained and then a bluish- violet. S.'s Test for Carbohydrates in Urine, dip strips of paper in a mixture of equal parts of glacial acetic acid and xylidin, with a very little alcohol, and dry. Warm the urine with sulfuric acid, and expose the paper to the fumes. In the presence of carbohy- drates the paper will be stained red. S.'s Test for Urea, add to the urea a drop of a concentrated watery solution of furfurol, and next a drop of hydrochloric acid of spe- cific gravity 1.10. A play of color is pro- duced, changing from yellow, green, and blue to purple. The same reaction is given by allantoin, but it is less intense. S.'s Test for Uric Acid, allow the substance to dis- solve in sodium carbonate, and on the addi- tion of a solution of silver nitrate a reduction of black silver oxid is obtained. If a piece of filter-paper previously treated with silver nitrate solution is treated with a drop of the solution of the substance in sodium carbonate, a reduction of black silver oxid will also be formed on the paper.


  • Schindylesis (skin-dil-e'-sis) [oxtvouXrjOcc, a cleavage]. A form of articulation in which a plate of one bone is received into a fissure of another bone.
  • Schisto-, Schiz-, Schizto- (skis-to-, skiz-, skiz- SCH1STOCEPHALUS 859 SCHOTT'S METHOD to-) [o'/coroc, cleft]. Prefixes meaning split or fissured. Schistocephalus (skis-to-sef -al-us) [schisto-; ice(j>a).r], head]. i. Having a fissured skull.

1. An aggregation of schistocytes in the blood.


  • Schistometer (skis-tom' '-et-er) [schisto-; p.hpov, a measure]. A device for measuring the dis- tance between the vocal cords.
  • Schistoprosopia (skis-to-pro-so' '-pe-ah) [schisto-; TipcbooTtov, face]. Congenital fissure of the face.
  • Schistoprosopus (skis-to-pros-o'-pus) [see Schis- toprosopia]. 1. Having a cleft or fissured face. 2. A monster having a fissure of the face.
  • Schistorachis (skis-tor' -a-kis) [schisto-; paxcc, spine]. Spina bifida.
  • Schistosoma japonicum (skis-to-so'-mah jap- on' -ik-um). An Asiatic blood-fluke the cause of a disease endemic in certain parts of China and Japan; there are enlargement of the liver and spleen, increased appetite, diarrhea, and frequently mucous, bloody stools. Syn., Schistosoma cattoi.
  • Schistosomus (skis-to-so'-mus) [schisto-; oujjia, a body]. A variety of monster in which there is a lateral or median eventration extending the whole length of the abdomen, the lower extremities being absent or rudimentary.
  • Schistothorax (skis-to-tho'-raks) [schisto-; tho- rax]. Fissure of the thorax.
  • Schizaxon (skiz-aks'-on) [schiz-; axis]. An axon which divides in its course into equal or nearly equal branches.
  • Schizogenesis (skiz-o-jen'-es-is) [schizo-; ykve- occ, production]. Reproduction by fission.
  • Schizogonic (skiz-o-gon'-ik). Relating to schiz- ogony.
  • Schizogony (skiz-og'-o-ne) [schizo-; fovea, gen- eration]. 1. Same as Schizogenesis. 2. A form of multiple division in which the con- tents of the oocyst eventually split up into swarm spores. Cf. Sporogony.
  • Schizomycetes (skiz-o-mi-se' -tez) [schizo-; (iukt)C, a fungus]. The cleft fungi or bacteria, so called because multiplying by fission.
  • Schizont (skiz'-ont) [oxK tcv i to divide]. Schau- dinn's term for the mother-cell in coccidia which, by multiple division, gives rise to the crescentic swarm spores called merozoites. Syn., Oudeterospore (E. R. Lankester, 1900); Sporocyte (Ron, 1899). Cf. Sporont.

Schlange's Sign. In cases of intestinal ob- struction the intestine is dilated above the seat of obstruction and peristaltic movements are absent below that point.

Schleich Infiltration Anesthesia. A local anesthesia produced by the hypodermatic injection of cocain, combined with a weak salt solution ; by the addition of a little morphin the anesthetic action is prolonged. S. Method of Producing General Anesthesia, the ad- ministration of small doses of chloroform, petroleum ether, and sulfuric ether. S.'s Solu- tion, 1 § gr. of cocain "hydrochlorid, J gr. of morphin hydrochlorid, 3 gr. common salt, dissolved in 3 oz. and 3 dr. of sterilized water.

Schlemm's Canal. See Canal, Schlemm's. S.'s Ligament, one of two ligaments connected with the shoulder-joints; the glenoideobrachial ligament.

Schlesinger's Type of Syringomyelia. The dorsolumbar type.


  • Schmidt's Blood-coagulation Theory. Para- globulin under the influence of fibrin-fer- ment enters into combination with fibrinogen, the result being fibrin. S.'s Incisions. See Lantermann's Incisions. S.'s (Ad.) Method for Demonstrating Disturbances in the Functions of the Intestine, it is formed upon the amount of the fermentation of the feces. The patient is given daily 1560 Gm. milk, 4 eggs, 3 pieces (100 Gm.) of zwieback, a plate of oatmeal-soup (40 Gm.), with 10 Gm. of sugar, a plate of flour soup made with 25 Gm. of wheat flour and 10 Gm. of sugar, and a cup of bouillon; 120 Gm. of potatoes are also given. A small amount (0.3 Gm.) of carmin is given to color and designate the first stool to be examined. A small portion of the stool is dried to constant weight and weighed. It is then mixed with water and placed in a fer- mentation-tube and kept at 37 C. Fer- mentation with the evolution of gases sets in and is divided into an early and a late fer- mentation. Early fermentation occurs dur- ing the first 24 or 48 hours. Later fermen- tation begins slowly on the second or third day. In the early fermentation it is the starch that is acted upon, while in the late it is the albuminous cellulose materials. Early fer- mentation can be considered as present only when in the first 24 hours an evident amount of gas is formed. Normally after the diet de- scribed there should be no such fermentation. Its occurrence indicates faulty starch digestion and an abnormal condition of the bowels, especially of the small intestine.

Schmiedei's Ganglion. The inferior carotid ganglion.


Schoen's Theory of Accommodation. See under Accommodation.

Schoenbein's Reaction for Copper. On the addition of potassium cyanid and tincture of guaiac to a solution of a copper salt a blue coloration is produced.

Schoenlein's Disease. Peliosis rheumatica. S.'s Triad, purpuric exanthem, rheumatic phenomena, and gastrointestinal disorders in peliosis rheumatica.

Schott's Method. 1. A method of treating heart disease by resisted exercise and special forms Of baths. 2. A system of gymnastic SCHREGER'S LINES 860 SCLERA movements, accompanied by baths contain- ing Nauheim salts, for the treatment of heart disease, anemia, and chronic rheumatism.

Schreger's Lines. Curved lines in the enamel of the teeth, parallel to the surface; they are due to the optic effect produced by the simul- taneous curvature of the dentinal fibers.

Schreiber's Maneuver. Friction of the skin of the thigh and leg to reinforce the patellar and achilles tendon-reflexes.


Schroeder's Contraction Ring. See Bandl's Ring. S.'s Test for Urea, add to the urea crystal a solution of bromin in chloroform. The urea will decompose, with the formation of gas.

Schuele's Sign. Vertical folds between the eyebrows, forming the Greek letter omega (omega melancholicum), frequently seen in subjects of melancholia.

Schueller's Ducts. The ducts of Skene's glands.

Schultze's Cells. The olfactory cells. S.'s Comma-shaped Tract, a small tract of de- scending fibers in the posteroexternal column of the spinal cord near the gray commissure. S.'s Fold, a fold formed by the amnion near the insertion of the umbilical cord when the cephalic end of the fetus encroaches upon the latter. S.'s Granules, finely granular masses in the blood formed by the breaking-up of the blood-plaques. S.'s Position of the Pla- centa, the position assumed by the placenta when its central portion bulges downward and is expelled in advance of the periphery. S.'s Reagent for Cellulose, iodin dissolved to saturation in a zinc chlorid solution of spe- cific gravity 1.8, and the addition of 6 parts of potassium iodid. This reagent turns cellulose blue. S.'s Test for Cholesterin, evaporate to dryness with nitric acid, using a porcelain dish on the water-bath. In the presence of cholesterin a yellow residue is obtained, which changes to yellowish-red on the addition of ammonia. S.'s Test for Pro- teids, to a solution of the proteid add a few drops of a dilute cane-sugar solution and then concentrated sulfuric acid. On warming and keeping the temperature at 6o° C. a bluish-red color is produced.

Schultze-Chvostek's Sign. See Chvostek's Symptom.

Schwabach's Test. The duration of the per- ception of a vibrating tuning-fork placed upon the cranium is prolonged beyond the normal in cases of middle-ear disease, but shortened when the deafness is due to a central cause.

Schwalbe's Convolution. The first occipi- tal convolution. S.'s Fissure, one between the lower portion of the temporosphenoid and the occipital lobes. S.'s Sheath, the deli- cate sheath which covers elastic fibers. S.'s Space, the subvaginal space of the optic nerve.

Schwann, Primitive Bundle of. A muscular fiber. S., Sheath of, the neurilemma of a nerve-fiber. S., White Substance of, the myelin of a medullated nerve-fiber.

Schwarz's Reaction for Sulfonal. Upon heating sulfonal with charcoal the odor of mercaptan is evolved.


  • Schweinerothlauf (shwi-na-rot'-lowf) [Ger.]. Hog-erysipelas, an infectious disease of hogs characterized by fever and an eruption of reddish or brownish spots, and due to a special bacillus. See Bacillus ersipelatos suis under Bacteria. Syn., Rouget du pore.

Schweitzer's Reagent for Cellulose. Copper sulfate, 10 parts; water, 100 parts. Add potassium hydroxid 5 parts, in water 50 parts. Wash the precipitate and dissolve in 20% ammonia solution. This reagent dissolves cellulose.


  • Sciatic (si-at'-ik) [tox'tov, ischium]. 1. Per- taining to the ischium, as the sciatic notch. 2. Pertaining to the sciatic nerve, as sciatic neuralgia.
  • Sciatica (si-af-ik-ah) [ischiaticus, from is- chium], A disease characterized by neuralgic pain along the course of the sciatic nerve. It usually follows exposure to cold and wet, and is dependent upon inflammation of the nerve. In addition to pain there are numbness and tingling, tenderness along the course of the nerve, and eventually wasting of the muscles, See Felt Treatment of Sciatica.
  • Scillipicrin (sil-ip-ik' -rin) [scilla; TztKpbc, bit- ter]. A yellowish-white, amorphous, hygro- scopic powder obtained from squill. It is used as a diuretic in doses of 8-45 gr. (0.5-3.0 Gm.) daily.
  • Scillism (sil'-izm) [scilla]. Poisoning from ex- tracts or tinctures of squill due to the con- tained glucosid, scilli toxin. It is marked by vomiting, retarded pulse, and stupor.
  • Scillitic (sil-it'-ik). Pertaining to or containing squill.
  • Scillitoxin (sil-it-oks '-in) [scilla; to^ckov, poi- son]. An amorphous, light-brown, bitter, active principle of squill. It is soluble in alcohol, insoluble in ether and water, and a cardiac poison somewhat resembling digitalis. It is used as a diuretic in doses of 4u~ru g r - (0.001-0.002 Gm.) several times daily; maxi- mum daily dose f gr. (0.05 Gm.).
  • Scirrhoid (skir'-oid) [scirrhus; etdoc, like]. Resembling a scirrhus.
  • Scirrhosarca (skir-o-sar'-kah) [scirrhus; oa.p£, flesh]. Hardening of the flesh, especially of new-born infants; sclerema neonatorum.
  • Scirrhus (skir r -us) [oncppoc, hard]. A hard carcinoma.
  • Scissile (sis'-T) [scindere, to divide]. Capable of being divided.
  • Scissors (siz'-orz) [scindere, to cut]. An in- strument consisting of two blades held to- gether by a rivet, and crossing each other so that in closing they cut the object placed between them.
  • Scissura (siz-u'-rah) [scindere, to cut]. A fissure.
  • Sclera (skle'-rah) [oKAypoc, hard]. The sclerotic SCLERACNE 861 SCLEROSIS coat of the eye; the firm, fibrous, outer mem- brane of the eyeball, continuous with the sheath of the optic nerve behind and with the cornea in front.
  • Scleracne (skle-rak'-ne) [onX-qpoc, hard; acne]. Acne indurata.
  • Scleral (skle'-ral) [sclera]. Pertaining to the sclera.
  • Sclerangia (skle-ran'-je-ah) [sclera; dyyuov, a vessel], i. A sense of hardness yielded by a vessel. 2. See An gio sclero sis.
  • Sclerectasia (skle-rek-ta'-ze-ah) [sclera; 'iKzaocc, extension]. Localized bulging of the sclera.
  • Sclerectomy (skle-rek'-to-me) [sclera; Ikxo[xt}, excision]. Excision of a portion of the sclera.
  • Scleredema (skle-re-de'-mah). See Sclerema cedematosum.
  • Sclerema (skle-re'-mah) [sclera]. A hardening. S. adiposum, a grave form of sclerema neona- torum marked by extreme hardness of the skin, atrophy, and adherence to the sub- cutaneous tissues. S. adultorum. See Morphea. S. cutis, scleroderma. S. neona- torum, a disease of the newborn char- acterized by a hardening of the subcu- taneous tissue, especially of the legs and feet, and probably dependent on a coagulation of the fat. S. cedematosum, a generally fatal form of sclerema neonatorum marked b> edema of the skin with induration, impair- ment of muscular action, and subnormal temperature. Syn., Compact edema of in- fants. S., Partial, Schwimmer's name for scleroderma occurring in limited areas. Syn., Sclereme en plaques. S. universale, Schwim- mer's name for scleroderma affecting at once the whole surface of the body, or from single areas of sclerosis of the skin gradually diffus- ing itself over the entire body. Syn., Car- cinus eburneus (Alibert) ; Cutis tensa chronica (Fuchs); Elephantiasis sclerosa (Rasmussen); Sclerosis corii (Wilson).
  • Scleriasis (skle-ri' -as-is) [sclera]. Scleroderma.
  • Scleritis (skle-ri' -tis) [sclera; cue, inflamma- tion]. Inflammation of the sclerotic coat of the eye. It may exist alone* (simple scleritis or episcleritis) or may be combined with inflammation of the cornea, iris, or choroid.
  • Sclero- (skle-ro-) [onX-qpoc, hard], i. A prefix meaning hard. 2. A prefix denoting con- nection with the sclera.
  • Sclerochoroiditis (skle-ro-ko-roid-i'-tis) [sclero-; choroiditis]. Inflammation of the choroid and the sclerotic coat of the eye.
  • Sclerocornea (skle-ro-kor'-ne-ah). The sclera and cornea regarded as one.
  • Sclerocorneal (skle-ro-kor' -ne-al) [sclero-; cor- nea]. Pertaining conjointly to the sclerotic coat and the cornea of the eye.
  • Sclerocyclotomy (skle-ro-si-klot'-o-me) [sclero-; kukXoc, a circle; roprj, a cutting]. Hancock's operation of division of the ciliary muscle, Sclerodactylia, Sclerodactyly (skle-ro-dak-tiV- e-ah, skle-ro-dak' -til-e) [sclero-; danxuXoc', finger]. A disease of the fingers (or toes) allied to scleroderma. It is usually sym- metric, occurs chiefly in women, and leads to marked deformity.
  • Scleroderma (skle-ro-der' '-mah) . [sclero-; dipp.a, skin]. A disease characterized by a progres- sive induration of the skin, occurring either in circumscribed patches (see Morphea) or diffusely. The skin becomes hard, pig- mented, and firmly attached to the under- lying tissues; destructive changes may also occur, and joints may become immobile from adhesions of the skin. The cause of sclero- derma is not known. S. neonatorum, See Sclerema neonatorum. S. cedematosa. See Sclerema cedematosum.
  • Sclerogenous (skle-ro j'-en-us) [sclero-; yevvau, to beget]. Producing a hard substance.
  • Sclerogeny (skle-ro j' -en-e) [see Sclerogenous]. The formation of sclerous tissue.
  • Sclerokeratoiritis (skle -ro-ker-at-o- i-ri'- tis) . Combined inflammation of the sclera, cornea, and iris.
  • Scleroma (skle-ro' -mah) [sclero-; bfia, tumor]. Abnormal hardness or induration of a part. S. adultorum. Synonym of Scleroderma.
  • Scleromatocystis (skle-rom' ' -at-o-sist-is) [sclero-; Kuo-cc, a bladder]. Induration of a cyst, but es- pecially of the gall-bladder or urinary bladder.
  • Sclerometer (skle-rom' -et-er) [sclero-; pkxpov, a measure]. An apparatus for determining the hardness of substances.
  • Scleromucin (skle-ro-mu'-sin) [sclero-; mucus]. A gummy substance obtained from ergot, and considered one of its active principles.
  • Scleronyxis (skle-ron-ik'-sis) [sclero-; vo$cc, a pricking]. Puncture of the sclera.
  • Sclerosarcoma (skle-ro-sar-ko'-mah) [sclero-; sarcoma]. A hard, fleshy tumor of the gums.
  • Sclerosed (skle'-rozd) [sclerosis]. Affected with sclerosis; hardened.
  • Sclerosis (skle-ro' -sis) [on),r)p6c, hard]. Harden- ing, especially a hardening of a part from an overgrowth of fibrous tissue; applied par- ticularly to hardening of the nervous system from atrophy or degeneration of the nerve- elements and hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue; also to a chronic inflammation of the arteries characterized by thickening of their coats. S., Diffuse, one extending through a large part of the brain and cord. S. t Dis- seminated, a form in which numerous scler- otic patches are scattered through the brain and cord. S., Insular. See S., Multiple. S., Lateral. See Lateral Sclerosis. S. of Middle Ear, v. Troltsch's name for otitis media hypertrophica. S., Multiple, chronic induration occurring in patches in different parts of the nervous system. The principal symptoms are muscular weakness and tremor upon essaying voluntary action. S., Mul- tiple Cerebral, multiple sclerosis affecting only the brain. S., Multiple Cerebro- SCLEROSKELETON 862 SCOPOLAMIN See See spinal, multiple sclerosis affecting both the brain and the spinal cord. S., Neu- ral, sclerosis attended by chronic neuritis. S. tela? cellularis et adiposae, scleroderma. S. testis, sarcocele. S., Tuberous, a form marked by hypertrophy and increased density of the involved areas. S., Ulcerating [Baumler], the primary lesion of syphilis; Hunterian or indurated chancre. S., Vas- cular, sclerosis of the walls of blood-vessels; arteriosclerosis.
  • Scleroskeleton (skle-ro-skel' -et-on) [sclero-; skele- ton]. In biology, ossifications other than the bones of the main endoskeleton.
  • Sclerostenosis (skle-ro-sten-o'-sis) [sclero-; stenosis]. i. Sclerosis with stenosis. 2. Scleroderma.
  • Sclerothrix (skle'-ro-thriks) [sclero-; dpi£, hair]. 1. Abnormal hardness of the hair. 2. Of Metch- nikoff, a genus of Mycobacteriacece included in Mycobacterium, Lehmann and Neumann.
  • Sclerotic (skle-rot' -ik) [sclera]. Hard; indu- rated. S. Coat. See Sclera.
  • Sclerotium (skle-ro' '-she-urn) [sclera]. A thick mass of hyphas constituting a resting-stage in the development of some fungi, as the ergot.
  • Sclerotome (skle'-ro-tom) [sclero-; xepvecv, to cut], 1. A knife used in sclerotomy. 2. A hard tissue separating successive myotomes in certain of the lower vertebrates. 3. The skeletal tissue of an embryonic metamere.
  • Sclerotomy (skle-rot'-o-me) [see Sclerotome]. The operation of incising the sclera. S., Anterior, the making of an incision through the sclera anterior to the ciliary body, and entering the anterior chamber, as is done in glaucoma. S., Posterior, sclerotomy by an incision through the sclera behind the cili- ary body, and entering the vitreous chamber.
  • Sclerozone (skle'-ro-zon)[sclero-;zone]. That por- tion of the surface of a bone giving attachment to the muscle derived from a given myotome.
  • Sclopetarius (sklo-pet-a' -re-us) [L.]. Relating to a gun. Sclopetaria vulnera, gunshot wounds. Syn., Sclopetica vulnera.
  • Scobinate (sko'-bin-at) [scobus, a file]. Having a rough surface.
  • Scolecitis (sko-le-si'-tis) [scolex; ace, inflam- mation]. Appendicitis.
  • Scolecoiditis (sko-le-koid-i'-tis) [scolex; eldoc, likeness; tree, inflammation]. Appendicitis.
  • Scolex (sko'-leks) [oko'j).i)$, a worm]. The head of a tape-worm, giving rise to the chain of proglottides.
  • Scolicoiditis (sko-le-koid-i f -tis). Gerster's name for appendicitis.
  • Scoliocoiditis (sko-le-o-koid-i f -tis). Nothna- gel's term for appendicitis.
  • Extreme Scoliosis. — (Moullin.) Scolio lordosis (sko-le-o-lor-do' -sis) . Combined scoliosis and lordosis. Scoliorachitic (sko-le-o-ra-kif -ik) [scoliosis; ra- chitis]. Pertain- in g to or pro- duced by scolio- sis and rickets. Scolio siometry (sko - le-o-si -om'- et - re) [scoliosis; fikrpov, a meas- ure]. The esti- mation of the de- gree of deformity in scoliosis. Scoliosis (sko-le- 0' - sis) [okoXcoc, curved]. A mor- bid lateral cur- vature of the spine. Scoliotic (sko-le- ot f -ik) [scoliosis]. Pertaining to or marked by scoli- osis. Scoliotome (sko f - le-o-tom) [scoliosis; xovog, a stretching]. An apparatus for elongating the spine and les- sening the rotation in lateral curvature. Scombrin (skom'-brin) [Scomber, a genus of fishes]. A protamin obtained from mature spermatozoa of mackerel. Scombron(skom' -bron) . Bang's name for a histon obtained from immature spermatozoa of mackerel. Scoop [AS., skopa]. An instrument resem- bling a spoon, for the extraction of bodies from cavities, as an ear-scoop, lithotomy-scoop. §COTi3LT\n.(sko'-par-in). See under Scoparius. Scoparius (sko-pa' '-re-us) [scopa, a broom]. The Cytisus scoparius, a shrub of the order Leguminosce. The dried tops constitute the scoparius of the U. S. P. (scoparii cacumina, B. P.); they contain the alkaloid spartein, C 15 H 26 N 2 , and a neutral principle, scoparin, C^H^Ojo. Scoparius is diuretic and ca- thartic, these actions probably depending upon scoparin. Dose of the fluidextract 20- 40 min. (1.3-2.6 Cc). Unof. For proper- ties of spartein see Spartein. Scopola (sko-pol'-ah). The dried rhizome of Scopola carniolica. Dose 1-3 gr. (0.05-0.15 Gm.). The rhizomes of 6 1 . japonica and S. carniolica contain the alkaloid scopolamin or scopolein, used as a mydriatic. Scopolamin, Scopolein (sko-pol-am'-in, sko- pol'-e-in). The active principle of Scopola car- niolica, C 17 H 22 N0 4 , an alkaloid apparently identical with hyoscin, used with morphin in producing anesthesia by Schneiderlin's and Korff's method (see under Anesthetic, Local). S. Hydrobromid (scopolamines hydrobromi- dum, U. S. P.), Ci 7 H 21 N0 4 HBr, hygroscopic crystals, used as a mydriatic and sedative. Externally in ophthalmology, tV - ! % solution; subcutaneously for the insane, ^—ei gr, SCOPOPHOBIA 863 SCUTELLARIA Scopophobia (sko-po-fo 1 '-be-ah) [oKone'cv, to ex- amine; (f>6ftoc, fe ar l- A morbid dread of being seen.
  • Scorbutic (skor-bu'-tik) [scorbutus]. Pertaining to, affected with, or caused by scorbutus or scurvy.
  • Scotodinia (sko-to-din'-e-ah) [okotoc, darkness; d'cvoc, a whirl]. Vertigo associated with the appearance of black spots before the eyes.
  • Scotograph (sko'-to-graf) [okotoc, darkness; ypafecv, to write]. i. An instrument for aiding the blind to write. 2. A name given to the picture produced by means of the so- called roentgen-rays. See Rays, Roentgen-.
  • Scotoma (sko-to' -mah) [oKOTOtfia, darkness]. An area in the visual field rays of light from which are not at all (absolute scotoma) or im- perfectly (relative scotoma) perceived. S., Central, one limited to the region of the visual field corresponding to the macula lutea. S., Color-, color-blindness limited to a part of the visual field, and which may exist without interruption of the field for white light. S., Flittering. See 6". scintillans. S., Negative, a defect due to the destruction of the retinal center, and which is not noticeable to the patient. S., Positive, a scotoma perceptible to the patient as a dark spot before his eyes. S., Relative, a scotoma within which per- ception of light is only partially impaired. S., Ring-, S., Annular, a zone of scotoma surrounding the center of the visual field. S. scintillans, S., Scintillating, a scotoma with serrated margins extending peripherally and producing a large defect in the visual field. Syn., Fortification-spectrum.

Scotometer, Scotommeter, Scotomometer (sko-tom'-et-ur, sko-to -mom' -ei-ur) [okotoc dark- ness; .fihpov, a measure]. 1. An instrument for detecting, locating, and measuring sco- tomas. 2. An instrument used in the de- tection of central scotomas.


  • Scototherapy (sko-to-ther'-ap-e) [okotoc, dark- ness; dspo-nata, therapy]. The treatment of malaria and other diseases by keeping the patient in a dark room and in the intervals between the attacks of the disease clothing him in garments impenetrable by light.
  • Scrattage (skrat-ahjh) [Fr.]. Ophthalmoxysis, the oldest method of mechanic treatment of trachoma, the scratching out of the granules; revived in 1890. Syn., Brassage.
  • Screatus (skre-a'-tus) [L.]. 1. A hawking. 2. A neurosis characterized by paroxysms of hawking.

Scrivener's Palsy. See Writer's Cramp.


  • Scrobiculus (skro-bik' -u-lus) [L.]. A small pit. S. cordis, the depression at the epi- gastrium; the pit of the stomach.
  • Scrofula (skrof -u-lah) [scrofa, a sow]. A term formerly applied to a peculiar condition characterized by enlargement of the lym- phatic glands and necrosis of the bones; it is at present considered a form of tuberculosis.
  • Scrofulid (skrof'-u-lid). See Scrofuloderma Scrof uloderm (skrof -u-lo- derm) [scrofula; depfxa, the skin]. A disease of the skin due to scrofula, and generally characterized by super- ficial irregular ulcers with undermined edges. The cause is the tubercle bacillus.
  • Scrofulosis (skrof -u-lo' -sis) [scrofula]. The state characterized by the presence of scrof- ula; a scrofulous diathesis.
  • Scrofulous (skrof -u-lus) [scrofula]. Having the nature of, affected with, or produced- by scrofula.
  • Scroll (skrol) [ME., scrolle]. A roll of paper, or anything folded so as to resemble a roll. S.-bone, a turbinate bone. S.s, Olfactory, the turbinate bones.
  • Scrophularin (skrof -u-la'-rin). A principle obtained by Walz from Scrophularia nodosa.
  • Scrotal (skro'-tal) [scrotum]. Pertaining to or contained in the scrotum, as scrotal hernia.
  • Scrotopexy (skro'-to-peks-e) [scrotum; x^cc, a fixing in]. Longuet's term for the preserva- tion of the scrotum which results from the extraserous transplantation of the testicle in cases of varicocele. Cf . Orchidopexy; Vagino- pexy.
  • Scrotum (skro'-tum) [L.]. The pouch con- taining the testicles, consisting of skin, dartos, spermatic fascia, cremasteric fascia, infundib- uliform fascia, and parietal tunica vaginalis.
  • Scrumpox (skrum'-poks). A name used in England among school-children for impetigo contagiosa.
  • Scruple (skru'-pl) [scrupulus, dim. of scrupus, a sharp stone]. In apothecaries' weight, 20 grains; represented by the sign 9.
  • Sculcopin (skul'-ko-pin). The proprietary name for a preparation of hydrastis and skull- cap, used as a local astringent.

Scultetus' Bandage. A bandage used in compound fractures, so arranged that the short pieces of which it is composed may be removed without motion of the limb.


  • Scurf (skerf) [AS.]. A bran -like desquamation of the epidermis, especially from the scalp; dandruff.
  • Scurvy (sker'-ve) [scurf]. A disease observed among persons who have been deprived of proper food for a length of time; it is char- acterized by spongy gums, extravasations of blood beneath the skin, hemorrhages from the mucous membranes, fetor of the breath, and painful contractions of the muscles. It is most common among sailors living on salt meats. S. -grass, Cochlearia officinalis, a plant of the order Cruciferce, the properties of which reside in a volatile oil resembling oil of mustard. It is used in scurvy and in chronic rheumatism. S., Land-. See Pur- pura hcemorrhagica.
  • Scutellaria (sku-tel-a' -re-ah) [scutellum, a little shield]. A genus of the Labiatce. The dried plant of S. lateriflora, skullcap, is the Scutellaria of the U. S. P., and is employed in neuralgia, chorea, delirium tremens, and other nervous affections. S., Fluidextract of SCUTELLARIN 864 SECRETIN {jluidextr actum Scutellaria, U. S. P.). Dose 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc).
  • Scutellaria (sku-tel-ar'-in). 1. An impure pre- cipitate from an alcoholic tincture of Scutellaria. Dose 3-4 gr. (0.2-0.26 Gm.). 2. C 10 H 8 O 3 . A nontoxic principle derived from the root of Scutellaria lateriflora, forming flat yellow needles, soluble in alcohol, ether, or alkalis, melting at 199 C. It is used as a tonic and sedative in nervous diseases. Dose f— 4 gr. (0.05-0.26 Gm.).
  • Scutulate (sku'-tu-ldt ) [scutulum]. Shaped like a lozenge.
  • Scutulum (shu'-tu-lum) [dim. of scutum, a shield]. Any one of the thin plates of the eruption of favus.
  • Scutum (sku'-tum) [L., "a shield"]. A shield-like plate of bone. S. tympanicum, the semilunar plate of bone separating the attic of the tympanum from the outer mastoid cells.
  • Scybala (sib'-al-ah). Plural of scybalum (q. v.).
  • Scybalous (sib'-al-us) [scybalum]. Of the nature of a scybalum.
  • Scybalum (sib'-al-um) [onufiolov, fecal matter]. A mass of abnormally hard fecal matter.
  • Scymnol (sim'-nol) [Scymnus, a genus of sharks], C 27 H 46 5 or C 32 H 54 6 . An organic base obtained by Hammarsten from the bile of sharks.
  • Scyphoid (si'-Joid or ski'-foid) [oKCsiv, to soften]. Relating to tannin; tannic.

Seamstress's Cramp. A painful cramp af- fecting the fingers of seamstresses; an occu- pation-neurosis analogous to writer's cramp.


  • Searcher (serch'-er). A sound used for the detection of stone in the bladder.

Sea-sickness. A condition occurring in per- sons aboard ship, produced by the rolling of the ship, and characterized by vertigo, nausea, retching, and prostration. A similar state may be induced by riding in cars, elevators, etc.

Sea-tangle. See Laminaria.

Seat -worm. See Oxyuris.


  • Sebaceous (se-ba'-shus) [sebum, fat]. Pertain- ing to sebum; secreting sebum. S. Cyst, a cystic tumor formed by occlusion of the duct of a sebaceous gland, with retention of the secretion, dilation, and thickening of the wall of the gland. It contains a grayish-white cheesy material. S. Glands, S. Follicles, compound saccular glands associated with the hair-follicles, and secreting a semifluid sub- stance, the sebum, composed of oil-droplets and broken-down epithelial cells, Sebadilla (seb-ad-il'-ah). See Sabadilla.

Sebileau's Sublingual Hollow. A pyramidal area with its base upward, extending along beneath the tongue, and formed by the oral mucosa and the sublingual glands, the apex below at the point where the mylohyoid muscle covers the geniohyoid.


  • Sebiparous (seb-ip' -ar-us) [sebum; parere, to produce]. Secreting sebum.
  • Sebolith (seb f -o-lith) [sebum; X'cdog, a stone]. A concretion in a sebaceous gland.
  • Seborrhea, Seborrhoea (seb-or-e'-ah) [sebum; poca, a flow]. A functional disease of the seba- ceous glands, characterized by an excessive secretion of sebum, which collects upon the skin in the form of an oily coating or of crusts or scales. Seborrhoea congestiva, lupus erythe- matosus. Seborrhoea capillitii, S. capitis, seborrhea of the scalp. Seborrhoea corporis, seborrhea of the trunk. Seborrhoea faciei, seborrhea of the face. Seborrhoea flaves- cens. See 5. nasi. Seborrhoea ichthyosis, a variety characterized by the formation of large, plate-like crusts. Seborrhoea nasi, seborrhea of the sebaceous glands of the nose. Seborrhoea nigra, S. nigricans, seborrhea with the formation of dark-colored crusts, the coloration being usually from dirt. Sebor- rhoea oleosa, a form characterized by an excessive oiliness of the skin, especially about the forehead and nose. Seborrhoea sicca, the commonest form of seborrhea, char- acterized by greasy, brownish-gray scales.
  • Seborrheic, Seborrheic (seb-or-e'-ik, seb-or-o'- ik). 1. Affected with seborrhea. 2. One suffering with seborrhea.
  • Sebum (se'-bum) [L.]. The secretion of the sebaceous glands. See Sebaceous Glands.
  • Secale (se-ka'-le) [L.]. Rye. S. cornutum. See Ergot.
  • Secalose (sek'-al-os). A carbohydrate from green rye, soluble in water.

Second Intention. See under Healing. S. Nerve, the optic nerve.


  • Secondary (sek 1 '-un-da-re) [secundarius, from secundus, second]. 1. Second in the order of time or development, as the secondary lesions of syphilis. 2. Second in relation; subordinate; produced by a cause considered primary. S. Amputation, an amputation done after the subsidence of inflammatory symptoms. S. Cataract. See Cataract, Re- current Capsular. S. Coil, the coil of wire in which the induced current is generated. S. Degeneration (of nerve-fibers), a degeneration following injury 'or disease of the trophic cen- ters. S. Hemorrhage. See Hemorrhage, Secondary.
  • Secrete (se-kret') [secernere, to separate]. To separate; specifically, to separate from the blood, or form out of materials furnished by the blood a certain substance termed secretion.
  • Secretin (se-kre'-tiri) [see Secrete]. . A body produced in the epithelial cells of the duo- denum by the contact of acid. It is absorbed from the cells by the blood and excites the pancreas to secretion, i SECRETION 865 SEIDEL'S REACTION Secretion (se-kre'-shun) [secrete], i. The act of secreting or forming from materials fur- nished by the blood a certain substance which is either eliminated from the body or used in carrying on special functions. 2. The substance secreted. S., External, a secre- tion thrown out upon the external or internal surface of the body. S., Internal, a secretion that is not thrown out upon a surface, but is absorbed into the blood.
  • Secretogog (se-kre'-to-gog) [secretion; aytoybc, leading]. 1. Stimulating the secretory func- tion. 2. An agent which stimulates secretion.
  • Secretory (se f -kre-to-re) [secretion]. Pertaining to secretion; performing secretion. S. Capil- laries, minute canaliculi into which gland- cells discharge their secretion; they are simple or branched, sometimes anastomose, forming a network enveloping the gland-cell, and open individually or united in a single trunk into the lumen of the gland. They occur in the fundus glands of the stomach, where the capil- lary networks envelop the parietal cells, in the liver, and in other glands.
  • Sectile (sek'-HV) [secare, to cut]. Capable of being cut.
  • Sectio (sek'-she-o) [L.]. See Section. S. ab- dominis. See Celiotomy. S. agrippina, ce- sarean section. S. alta, suprapubic cystot- omy. S. cadaveris, an autopsy. S. caesa- rea, cesarean section. S. franconiana, suprapubic cystotomy. S. lateralis, lateral lithotomy. S. mariana, S. mediana, median lithotomy. S. nympharum, nymphotomy.
  • Section (sek'-shun) [secare, to cut]. 1. The act of cutting or dividing. 2. A cut; a cut surface. S., Abdominal. See Celiotomy. S., Cesarean. See Cesarean Section. S.- cutter, a microtome. S., Frontal, a section dividing the body into dorsal and ventral parts. S., Occipital, a transverse section through the middle of the occipital lobe. S., Parietal, a transverse vertical section through the ascending parietal convolution. S., Peri- neal, external urethrotomy without a guide. S.s, Pitres', a series of sections through the brain for postmortem examination. S., Sagittal, a section parallel with the sagittal suture, and hence with the median plane of the body, and serving to divide the body into equal parts.
  • Secundagravida (se-kun-dah-grav'-id-ah) [se- cicndus, second; gravidus, pregnant]. A woman pregnant the second time.
  • Secundines (sek' '-uh-denz) [secundus, second]. The placenta, part of the umbilicus, and the membranes discharged from the uterus after the birth of the child.
  • Secundipara (se-kun-dip'-ar-ah) [secundus, second; parere, to bring forth]. A woman who has borne two children.
  • Secundiparity (se-kun-dip-ar'-it-e). The state of being a secundipara.
  • Sedatin (sed'-at-in). 1. Antipyrin. 2. See Va- leryl-phenetidin. 56 Sedation (se-da' '-shun) [sedare, to soothe]. 1. A state of lessened functional activity. 2. The production of a state of lessened func- tional activity.
  • Sedative (sed'-at-iv) [see Sedation]. 1. Quiet- ing or lessening functional activity. 2. An agent lessening functional activitv.
  • Sediment (sed'-im-ent) [sedimentum, from se- dere, to sit]. The material settling to the bottom of a liquid.
  • Sedimentation (sed-im-en-ta' -shun) [sediment]. The process of producing the deposition of a sediment, especially the rapid deposition by means of a centrifugal machine.
  • Sedimentator (sed-i-ment' '-at-or) . A centrif- ugal apparatus for producing a rapid deposit of the sediment of urine.

Seebeck-Holmgren's Test. See Holmgren's Test.


  • Seehear (se'-her). Of W. Rollins, a stethoscope fitted with a sound chamber and fluorescent screen by means of which the heart and lungs are rendered both visible and audible.

Seeligmueller's Sign. Mydriasis on the af- fected side in cases of neuralgia.

Seessel's Pocket. A slight depression in the epithelial lining of the pharyngeal membrane of the embryo, behind Rathke's hypophyseal pouch.

Seglas' Type of Paranoia. Psychomotor type of paranoia.


  • Segment (seg'-ment) [segmentum, from secare, to cut.] A small piece cut from the periphery of anything; a part bounded by a natural or imaginary line. S., Vertebral. 1. See So- matome. 2. The cusps of the heart-valves.
  • Segmental (seg-men'-tal) [segment]. 1. Per- taining to a segment; made up of segments. 2. Undergoing or resulting from segmentation. S. Duct, the duct of the pronephron. S. Organs, a tubular structure found in the embryos of amniotic animals, and comprising the pronephron, the mesonephron, and the metanephron.
  • Segmentation (seg-men-ta'-shun) [segment]. The process of dividing into two equal parts, as the segmentation of the ovum. S.- cavity, the central space in the ovum pro- duced by segmentation. S. -cells. See S.- sphere. S. -nucleus. See Nucleus, Seg- mentation-. S. -sphere, one of the cells of an ovum formed by segmentation.
  • Segregator (seg'-re-ga-tor) [segregare, to sepa- rate]. An instrument by means of which urine from each kidney may be secured with- out danger of admixture.

Seguin's Signal Symptom. The initial con- vulsion of an attack of jacksonian epilepsy, which indicates the seat of the cortical lesion.

Seidel's Reaction for Inosit. Evaporate to dryness a little of the substance in a platinum crucible with nitric acid of specific gravity 1.1-1.2, and treat the residue with ammonia and a few drops of a solution of strontium acetate. If inosit is present, a green color and a violet precipitate are obtained.


  • Seisesthesia (si-zes-the' -ze-ah) [oslacc, a con- cussion; a'caQyotc, sensation]. Perception of concussion.
  • Seismotherapy (slz-mo-ther' -ap-e)- [oecajibg, a shaking; depaneca, therapy]. The therapeu- tic use of mechanic vibration; vibrothera- peutics. Syn., Shaking cure.
  • Sejunction (se- junk' -shun) [sejungere, to dis- unite]. In psychology the interruption of the continuity of association-complexes, tending to break up personality.
  • Selection (se-lek'-shun) [seligere, to choose]. The act of choosing. S., Natural, the selec- tive action of external conditions, whereby characters favorable to the species of animal or plant are preserved. S., Sexual, the selec- tion produced by preferences of the one sex for a member of the other sex in some way specially endowed.
  • Selector (se-lek' -tor) [selection]. A device for selecting or separating. S., Cell-, an ap- . pliance for regulating the current strength in galvanic electricity. A good selector must admit of an increase or a decrease of elec- tromotive force through the introduction of one cell at a time; it must permit of such in- crease or decrease without producing any interruption in the flow of the current. All selectors are constructed upon one of three principles: the crank, the rider, or the plug system.
  • Seleniate (sel-en'-e-dt). A salt of selenic acid.
  • Selenic (se-len'-ik) [selenium]. A compound containing selenium combined directly with three atoms of oxygen. S. Acid, H 2 Se0 4 , a dibasic acid resembling sulfuric acid in its properties.
  • Seleniferous (sel-en-if'-er-us) [selenium; ferre, to bear]. Containing selenium.
  • Selenin B (sel-en'-in) [selenium]. The active toxic element in cultures of Diplococcus semilunaris.
  • Selenite (se'-len-lt) [selenium], i. A salt of selenous acid. 2. A translucent form of calcium sulfate.
  • Selenitic (se-len-it'-ik). Containing selenite.
  • Selenium (se-le'-ne-um) [oeXrjvrj, the moon], Se = 78.6; usually bivalent, sometimes quad- rivalent or hexavalent. A rare element re- sembling sulfur in its properties.
  • Selenogamia (sel-en-o-gam 1 '-e-ah) [ozX-qvq, the moon; yap.dc, marriage]. Somnambulism.
  • Selenopyrin (sel-en-o-pi'-rin). A reaction prod- uct of potassium selinid with a socalled anti- pyrin chlorid.

Self -abuse, Self. -pollution. See Masturbation.

Self-limited. Limited by reason of inherent qualities; applied to diseases that run a defi- nite limited course independent of treatment.


  • Sella (sel'-ah) [L.]. A saddle. S. turcica, the pituitary fossa of the sphenoid bone lodg- ing the pituitary body.
  • Semeiography (sem-i-og'-ra-fe) [oypelov, sign; ypacptcv, to write]. Symptomatology.
  • Semeiology (sem-i-oV -o-je) [oypelov, sign; A67-00, discourse]. Symptomatology.
  • Semeiotic (sem-i-ot'-ik) [arjpe'iov, sign]. Per- taining to symptoms.
  • Semeiotics (sem-i-ot'-iks) [see Semeiotic]. Symptomatology.
  • Semelincident (sem-el-in 1 '-sid-ent) [semel, once; incidere, to happen]. Happening only once in the same person, as a semelincident disease.
  • Semen (se'-men). 1. A seed. 2. The fecun- dating fluid of the male, chiefly secreted by the testicles, composed of liquor seminis, sem- inal granules, oil-globules, and spermatozoa.
  • Semi- (sem-i-) [L.]. A prefix denoting half.
  • Semicanal (sem-i-kan-al') [semi-; canal]. A canal open on one side; a sulcus or groove.
  • Semicanalis (sem-i-kan-a' -lis). See Semicanal. S. humeri, the bicipital groove. S. nervi vidiani, the groove on the temporal bone for the passage of the vidian nerve. S. tensor tympani, a depression situated close to the hiatus of Fallopius in the anterior wall of the tympanum. The tendon of the tensor tym- pani is transmitted through an aperture at its apex. S. tubae eustachii. See Sulcus tubes eustachii. S. tympanicus, the tympanic canal.
  • Semicircular (sem-i- sir' -ku-lar) [semi-; circu- lus, a circle]. Having the form of a half- circle. S. Canals. See under Ear.
  • Semicordate (sem-i-kor'-dat) [semi-; cor, the heart]. Shaped like the half of a heart that has been divided longitudinally.
  • Semicretinism (sem-i-kre'-tin-izm). The con- dition of being a semicretin.
  • Semiglutin (sem-i- glu' -tin), C 55 H 85 N 17 22 . A derivative of gelatin resembling a peptone.
  • Semilunar (sem-i-lu'-nar) [semi-; luna, moon]. Resembling a half-moon in shape, as the semilunar bone of the carpus, the semilu- nar cartilage of the knee, the semilunar ganglion of the abdominal sympathetic nerve or of the trifacial nerve (gasserian ganglion), the semilunar valves of the heart. S. Space of Traube, the tympanitic area at the lower part of the left chest corresponding to the stomach.
  • Semimembranous (sem -i- mem' - bra - nus) . Partly membranous, as the semimembranous muscle (semimembranosus) . See under Muscle.
  • Seminal (sem'-in-al) [semen]. Pertaining to the semen. S. Cyst, a cyst of the spermatic cord or testicle containing semen. S. Ves- icle. See Vesicle, Seminal.
  • Seminalism (sem' -in-al-izm) [seminalis, rela- ting to seed; primary]. A vitalistic theory proposed by Bouchet, of Paris, which teaches that the vital forces of man and beasts are totally distinct and that beasts have an in- telligence of instinct and man oxie_of abstrac- tion.
  • Seminex (sem'-in-eks) [semi-; nex, death]. Half dead.
  • Seminormal • (sem-i-nor'-mal) [semi-; norma, rule]. Half-normal. S. Solution, one con- taining in solution half the quantity of the substance contained in the normal solution.
  • Semis (se'-mis) [L.]. Half; abbreviated in prescriptions to ss, which is placed after the sign indicating the measure.
  • Semisomnis (sem-i-som'-nis) [semi; somnus, sleep]. Coma.
  • Semisomnous (sem-i-som' -nus). Relating to a comatose condition.
  • Semisoporus (sem-i-so' -por-us) [semi-; sopor, sleep]. Coma.
  • Semisulcus (sem-i-suV -~kus) . A half sulcus which, uniting with another sulcus, forms a complete sulcus.
  • Semitendinous (sem-i-ten'-din-us). Partly ten- dinous, as a semitendinous muscle (semiten- dinosus). See under Muscle.
  • Semivalent (sem-iv' -al-ent) [semi-; valere, to be able]. Of one-half the normal valency.

Semon's Law. In progressive organic lesions of the motor laryngeal nerves, the cricoaryte- noidei postici — the abductors of the vocal cords — are the first, and sometimes the only, muscles affected. S.'s Symptom, impaired mobility of the vocal cords in carcinoma of the larynx.

Semon-Rosenbach's Law. See Semon's Law.


  • Sempiternal (sem-pi-ter'-nal) [sempiternus, ever- lasting]. Applied to an indivisible specific totality bringing back the past to the present, in opposition throughout all time to the re- mainder of transitory nature (Montgomery).
  • Senalbin (sen-al'-bin), C^pL^^O^. A glu- cosid found in white mustard, Brassica alba.
  • Senecin (sen'-es-in). An alkaloid found in 1895 in Senecio vulgaris.
  • Senecio (se-ne'-se-o) [senex, an old man]. Groundsel, a genus of composite-flowered plants, said to contain 960 species, many of them medicinal. 5. aureus is the com- mon liferoot. S. canicida, verba del Puebla, a Mexican species, is diuretic and is recommended in treatment of epilepsy. 5. cineraria is a species of South America; the fresh juice of the leaves, stems, and flowers is recommended in treatment of capsular and lenticular cataracts and other diseases of the eye. 5. gracilis is a slender species, generally regarded as a variety of 5. aureus. S. jacobcea, ragwort or ragweed, is tonic and astringent.
  • Senega (sen'-e-ga) [L.]. The Polygala senega, a plant of the Polygalece. Its root is official (senega, U. S. P.; senegce. radix, B. P.); it con- tains a bitter principle, senegin or polygalic acid (or polygalin), which is probably identi- cal with saponin. It is used as a stimulant, expectorant, and diuretic; in large doses it is emetocathartic. It is chiefly employed in bronchitis and laryngitis, as a diuretic in dropsy, and in amenorrhea. Dose 10-20 gr. (0.65-1.3 Gm.); of the infusion 1 oz. (30 Cc). S., Fluidextract of (fluidextractum senegce, U. S. P.). Dose 10-20 min. (0.65-1.3 Cc). S., Syrup of. (syrupus senegce, U. S. P.)^ Dose 1-2 dr. (4-8 Cc). S., Tincture of (tinctura senegce, B. P.). Dose 1 dr. (4 Cc).
  • Senegin (sen' '-e-jin) , C 32 H 52 17 (Hesse), a yel- lowish powder, soluble in water; used as an expectorant and diuretic. Dose \-2 gr. (0.032-0.13 Gm.).

Seng. A proprietary digestant said to be de- rived from ginseng, Aralia quinquefolia.


  • Senile (se'-nil) [senilis; from senex, old]. Per- taining to or caused by old age.
  • Senilism (sen'-il-izm) [senile] A condition of prematurity. See Progeria. Cf. Ateleiosis; Infantilism.
  • Senility (sen-iV -it-e) [senile]. The state of being senile; the weakness characteristic of old age. m Seniocin (sen-i' -o-sin) . An alkaloid obtained from Senecio vulgaris and S. jacobcea.

Senki. A disease resembling lepra and as- sociated with colic, described by Kompfer in 1 713 as peculiar to Japan.

Senn's Bone-plates [after Nicholas Senn, an American surgeon]. Plates of decalcified bone used in intestinal anastomosis. S.'s Test, the introduction of hydrogen gas into the bowel through the rectum, for the detection and localization of an abnormal opening.


  • Senna (sen' -ah) [Ar., sena]. The leaflets of various species of Cassia, a genus of the order Leguminosce. Senna of the U. S. P. is de- rived fom Cassia acuti folia; that of the B. P. is of two varieties — Alexandrian senna, from Cassia acuti folia, and East India or Tin- nevelly senna, from Cassia angustifolia. De- resinate senna is that from which the resin has been removed by maceration in alcohol to prevent griping. Senna contains cathartic acid, a glucosid representing the purgative properties of senna, the bitter principles sennapicrin and sennacrol, and a coloring- matter, chrysophan. Senna is used as a purgative, generally in combination with an aromatic to prevent griping. Dose \-2 dr. (2-8 Cc). S., Compound Infusion of (infusum sennce compositum, U. S. P.), black draught, contains senna, manna, and mag- nesium sulfate. Dose 4 oz. (128 Cc). S., Con- fection of (confectio sennce, U. S. P., B. P.). Dose 2 dr. (8 Gm.). S., Fluidextract of (fluidextractum sennce, U. S. P.). Dose 1-4 dr. (4-16 Cc). S., Syrup of (syrupus sennce, U. S. P., B. P.). Dose 1-4 dr. (4-16 Cc). S., Tincture of (tinctura sennce, B. P.). Dose 1-4 dr. (4-16 Cc).
  • Sennit (sen' -it), C 21 H 44 N 19 . A nonfermen table sugar found in senna, occurring in soluble warty crystals. Syn., Cathartomannite.
  • Sensation (sen-sa'-shun) [sensatio, from sen- tire, to feel]. A feeling or impression pro- duced by the stimulation of an afferent nerve.

SENSE 868 SEPTENTRIONALIN S., Correlative, stimulation of the cerebrum by a sensation carried by a single sensory nerve. S., Cutaneous, a sensation pro- duced through the medium of the skin. S., Eccentric, the conception .of locality. S., External, a sensation transmitted from a peripheral sense-organ. S., General. See Subjective Sensation. S., Girdle, girdle- pain. S., Internal. See Subjective Sensa- tion. S., Objective, an external sensation due to some objective agency. S.s, Psycho- visual, sensations of sight without the stimu- lation of the retina; visions. S., Radiating. See S., Secondary (i). 8., Secondary, i. Miiller's name for the excitement of one sensation by another or the extension of mor- bid sensations in disease to unaffected parts. 2. A sensation of one type attending a sensa- tion of another type. Cf. Audition coloree. S., Special, any sensation produced by the special senses. S., Subjective. See Sub- jective Sensation. S., Tactile, one produced through the sense of touch. S., Trans- ference of, clairvoyance.


  • Sense (sens) [sensus, from sentire, to feel], i. Any one of the faculties by which stimuli from the external world or from within the body are received and transformed into sen- sations. The faculties receiving impulses from the external world are the senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste, which are the special senses, and the muscular and temperature-sense. Those receiving impulses from the internal organs (visceral senses) are the hunger-sense, thirst-sense, and others. 2. A sensation.
  • Sensibility (sen-sib-iV -it-e) [see Sense], i. The ability to receive and feel impressions. 2. The ability of a nerve or end-organ to receive and transmit impulses. S., Recur- rent, Longet's and Magendie's term for the sensibility observed in the anterior roots of the spinal nerves, which appeared to be de- pendent on the posterior root, and not in- herent, like the sensibility of the posterior root itself. The existence of recurrent sen- sibility was denied by Longet.
  • Sensibilizer (sen' -sib-il-i-zer) [see Sense]. A substance which, acting as a chemic screen, conduces to synthesis or other chemic pro- cesses.
  • Sensible (sen'-si-bl) [sense, to feel]. Percep- tible by the senses, as sensible perspira- tion; capable of receiving an impression through the senses.
  • Sensitive (sen' -sit-iv) [sensitivus]. i. Capa- ble of feeling; capable of transmitting sen- sation. 2. Reacting to a stimulus. S. Soul (of Stahl), the immortal principle.
  • Sensomobile (sen-so-mo' -bil) [sensus, feeling; mobilis, movable]. Moving in response to stimulation.
  • Sensomobility (sen-so-mo-bil'-it-e). The ca- pacity for movement in response to a sensory stimulus.
  • Sensorial (sen-so' -re-al) [sensorium]. Pertain- ing to the sensorium.
  • Sensoriglandular (sen -so- re - gland' - u - lar) . Causing glandular action by stimulation of the sensory nerves.
  • Sensorimetabolism (sen-ro-re-met-ab'-ol-izm) . Metabolism resulting from stimulation of the sensory nerves.
  • Sensorimotor (sen-so-re-mo' -tor) [sensus, feel- ing; motor]. Both sensory and motor; con- cerned with the perception of sensory im- pulses and with motor impulses. S. Centers, centers that are concerned both with the per- ception of sensation and with motor impulses.
  • Sensorimuscular (sen-so-re-mus'-ku-lar) . Pro- ducing muscular action in response to stimu- lation of the sensory nerves.
  • Sensorium (sen-so' -re-um) [L.]. A center for sensations, especially the part of the brain concerned in receiving and combining the impressions conveyed to the individual sen- sory centers.
  • Sensory (sen'-so-re) [sensus, feeling]. Pertaining to or conveying sensation. S. Aphasia. See under Aphasia. S. Aura, an aura affecting the special senses. S. Crossway, the posterior third of the posterior limb of the internal capsule, where the afferent fibers conveying sensory impulses cross to the opposite side. S. Epilepsy, various disturbances of sensation occurring in paroxysms that replace the epi- leptic convulsion. S. Nerve, one that con- veys sensations from the periphery to the centers.
  • Sentient (sen' -she-ent) [sentire, to feel]. Capa- ble of feeling.
  • Sentina (sen-ti'-nah) [L., "the hold of a ship"]. The epiphysis cerebri.

Sentinal-pile. The thickened wall of the anal pocket at the lower end of an anal fissure.


  • Separator (sep'-ar-a-tor) [separare, to separate]. t. Anything that separates, especially an instrument for separating the teeth. 2. An instrument for detaching the pericranium or periosteum.
  • Sepedogenesis (se-ped-o-jen'-e-sis) [sepedon; yevvav, to produce]. Putrescence.
  • Sepedon (se'-ped-on) [orjxecv, to be rotten]. Putridity.
  • Sepsin (sep'-sin) [sepsis]. A poisonous pto- main obtained from decomposed yeast and blood.
  • Sepsis (sep'-sis) [of)S. orientate yield a bland, sweetish oil. S., Oil of (oleum sesami), sesame oil, employed like olive-oil. Syn., Benne oil; Teel oil.
  • Sesqui- (ses-kwe-) [L.]. A prefix denoting one and one-half.

Sesquih. Abbreviation of sesquihora, an hour and a half.


  • Sesquioxid (ses-kwe-oks' -id) [sesqui-; osuf , acid]. A compound of oxygen and another element, containing three parts of oxygen to two of the other element.
  • Sesquisalt (ses'-kwe-saii'lt) [sesqui-; salt]. A salt containing one and one-half times as much of the acid as of the radicle or base.
  • Sessile (ses'-il) [sessilis, from sedere, to sit]. Attached by a broad base; not pedunculated, as a sessile tumor.

Sesunc. Abbreviation of sesuncia, an ounce and a half.

Set [ME., setten]. i. To reduce the displace- ment in a fracture and apply suitable band- ages. 2. To harden; to solidify — as a cement or amalgam.


  • Seta.ria.' (se-ta'-re-ah) [seta, a bristle]. A genus of grasses including millet, S. italica.
  • Setarin (se-ta'-rin). A toxic glucosid isolated by E. F. Ladd, 1899, from millet, Setaria italica.
  • Seton (se'-ton) [seta, a bristle]. 1. A thread or skein of threads drawn through a fold of the skin, so as to produce a fistulous tract; it is used as a counterirritant. 2. The tract thus produced.
  • Setose (se'-toz). Beset with bristle-like appen- Setschenow's Inhibitory Center (setch'-en- of). A cerebral center for the inhibition of reflex movements, situated in the corpora quadrigemina and the medulla oblongata. Seven -day Fever. Relapsing fever. Seviparous (se-vip'-ar-us) [sevum; parere, to produce]. Sebiferous; fat-producing. Sevum (se'-vum) [L.]. Suet. S. praeparatum, the prepared suet of the U. S. P. Sewer-gas. The mixture of gases emanating from sewers. * Sewing Spasm. See Seamstress's Cramp. Sextan (seks'-tan) [sex, six]. Occurring every sixth dav, as a sextan fever. Sextipara (seks-tip'-ar-ah) [sextus, sixth; parere, to produce]. A woman in labor for the sixth time. Sextuplet (seks-tu f -plet) [sex, six]. One of six offspring of a single gestation. Sexual (seks'-u-al) [sexus, sex]. Pertaining to or characteristic of sex, as the sexual organs.
  • S. Involution, the menopause. Sexvalent (seks 1 '-val-ent) [sex, six; valere, to be worth]. Having an atomicity of six as compared with that of hydrogen. Shadowgram. See Rays, Roentgen-, Shadow -test. See Skiascopy. Shakes (shaks). See Ague.

Shaking Palsy. See Paralysis agitans.

Share-bone. The os pubis.

Sharpey's Intercrossing Fibers. The col- lagenous fibers forming the lamellas which constitute the walls of the haversian canals in bone; same as osteogenic fibers. S.'s Perforating Fibers, calcined white or elas- tic fibers which connect the lamellas in the walls of the haversian canals.

Shaven -rbeard Appearance. A peculiar ap- pearance of the agminated glands of the intestine in typhoid fever, resembling that of a recently shaven beard.


  • Sheath (sheth) [ME., schethe]. A covering. S., Crural, the femoral sheath. See Femoral Sheath. S., Dural, a strong fibrous mem- brane forming the external investment of the optic nerve. See Dura. S. of Henle.

1. An attenuated extension of the perineum investing the fibers composing funiculi of a nerve-trunk; it consists of a delicate fibrous envelop lined with endothelial plates, which in some cases alone represent the entire sheath.

2. The cellular layer forming the outer por- tion of the inner root-sheath of the hair. S., Medullary, the myelin-sheath surrounding the axis-cylinder. S., Neural. See S., Medullary. S. of the Optic Nerve. See S., Dural. S., Pial, the investment of the optic nerve derived from the pia. S., Primi- tive, S. of Schwann. See Neurilemma. S. of Rectus, that formed by the aponeuroses of the external and internal oblique muscles and the transversalis. S., Schwalbe's, the delicate sheath which covers elastic fibers.

Sheep -pox. A contagious pustular disease of sheep similar to cow-pox.

Sheldon's Method of Hemostasis in Dis- articulation of the Kip-joint. Consists in a preliminary disarticulation of the head of the femur, followed by the introduc- tion of the artery forceps into the wound be- hind the femur and clamping of the femoral vessels.

Shepherd's Fracture. A fracture of the outer portion of the astragalus.

Sherrington's Law. The peripheral branches of the spinal nerve-roots — anterior and pos- terior — form anastomoses in such a manner as to supply any given region of the integu- ment with the branches of three roots — a middle one and the ones next above and below.


  • Shield (sheld) [ME., sheeld]. 1. A protec- tive structure or apparatus. 2. In biology, a protective plate, scute, lorica, or carapace. S., Antithermic, a protective covering of the cautery to prevent destruction of the tissues about the field of operation. S. Eone, the scapula. S., Nipple-, a protective cover- ing for sore nipples. S. -shaped, shaped like a buckler or shield. S., Sims', an in- strument used in the application of wire su- tures.

Shin [AS., scina]. The sharp anterior margin of the tibia. S.-bone, the tibia.


SHIP-FEVER 874 SIALORRHEA Ship -fever. Typhus fever.


  • Shiver (shiv'-er) [ME., chiveren, to shiver]. A slight tremor or shaking of the body due to cold, etc.

Shock [Fr., shoe]. i. A sudden grave de pression of the system produced by opera- tions, accidents, or strong emotion. It is due to a profound influence on the nervous system. If not fatal, it is followed by a stage of reac- tion. 2. The agent causing a general or local depression, as an electric shock.

Shoddy Fever. A diseased condition caused by the inhalation of the dust in shoddy facto- ries; it is characterized by feverishness, head- ache, nausea, dryness of the mouth, dyspnea, cough, and expectoration.

Shoemaker's Spasm. An occupation-neuro- sis, analogous to writer's cramp, occurring in shoemakers.

Short Circuit. One in which an electric cur- rent encounters an abnormally small resist- ance. S. -circuiting, a modification of Nek- ton's operation for intestinal obstruction consisting either in lateral approximation and union or lateral implantation. S. -sight, S.-sightedness, myopia. S.-windedness, dyspnea.


  • Shoulder (shol'-der) [AS., sculder]. The region where the arm joins the trunk, formed by the meeting of the clavicle and the scapula and the overlying soft parts. S. -blade, the scapula. S. -girdle. See Girdle, Shoulder-.

dislocated shoulder. S. -wrench, a sprain or dislocation of the shoulder.


  • Diagrammatic Section of Shoulder through Bicipi- tal Groove. — (W. A.) i. Deltoid. 2. Acromion. 3. Subacromial bursa. 4. Glenoid ligament. 5. Capsule of shoulder- joint. 6. Glenoid cavity. 7. Long tendon of biceps. 8. Glen- oid ligament. 9. Synovial membrane lining capsule and ensheathing biceps tendon. 10. Inner fold of capsule and synovial membrane, n. Extraarticular portion of biceps tendon. 12. Humerus.

S., Noisy, of R. H. Sayre, a grating of the muscles over the scapula on moving the shoul- der up and down, believed to be due to a snapping tendon between or a bursa beneath the scapula. S., Slipped, S., Splayed, a Ligaments of the Scapula and Shoulder-joint. — (Wilson.) 1. Superior acromioclavicular ligament. 2. Coracoclavic- ular ligament (trapezoid). 3. Coracoclavicular liga- ment (conoid). 4. Coracoacromial ligament. 5. Transverse ligament. 6. Capsular ligament. 7. Coracohumeral ligament. 8. The long tendon of the biceps issuing from the capsular ligament and enter- ing the bicipital groove. 9. Extracapsular portion of shoulder-socket, formed by under surface of acro- mion and coracoacromial ligament.


  • Show (sho) [AS., sceawian, to look]. 1. A bloody discharge from the birth-canal prior to labor. 2. The first appearance of a men- strual flow.

Shrapnell's Membrane. See Membrane, ShrapnelVs.

Shucks. A strong tea of corn-shucks, used as a remedy for chronic malaria in the southern United States.

Shuttle-bone. The scaphoid bone.

Si. A symbol for silicon.


  • Sialemesis (si-al-em-e' -sis) [o'caXov, _ spittle; emesis]. The hysteric vomiting of saliva.
  • Sialic, Sialine (si-al'-ik, si'-al-en) [sialon]. Having the nature of saliva.
  • Sialogenous (si-al-oj'-en-us) [sialon; yzvvav, to produce]. Generating saliva.
  • Sialogog (si-al'-o-gog) [sialon; ayinybs, lead- ing]. 1. Producing a flow of saliva. 2. A drug producing a flow of saliva.
  • Sialorrhea (si-aUor-e'-ah) [sialon; pola, a flow]. Salivation. S., Pancreatic, a flow of pan- creatic juice.
  • Sibbens (sib'-enz) [Gael., subhan, raspberries]. A disease formerly endemic in the Scotch highlands, and by some identified with syph- ilis, by others with yaws.
  • Sibilant (sib' -il-ant) [sibilare, to hiss]. Hissing or whistling, as a sibilant rale.
  • Sibilus (sib'-il-us) [sibilare, to hiss]. A sibilant rale.

Sibson's Aortic Vestibule. The chamber formed by the left ventricle just below the aortic orifice for the reception of the semilunar valves during diastole. S.'s Groove, a fur- row formed in some individuals by a promi- nence of the lower border of the pectoralis major. S.'s Notch, the inward curve of the upper left border of precordial dulness in acute pericardial effusion.


  • Siccant, Siccative (sik'-ant, sik'-at-iv) [siccare, to dry]. i. Drying; tending to make dry. 2. A drying agent or medicine.
  • Sicco (sik'-o). Dried hematogen (q. v.); a black-brown, tasteless powder, soluble in water, indicated in anemia, chlorosis, etc. Dose 75-105 gr. (5-7 Gm.) daily; children 4 gr. (0.25 Gm.).

Sick [AS., seoc]. Ill; not well. S. Headache, migraine.


  • Sickingia (sik-in' -je-ah) [Count v. Sickingen, of Vienna]. A genus of rubiaceous plants. S. rubra, casca de arariba, is a species found in Brazil and Japan; furnishes arariba bark, used in intermittent fever. It contains the alkaloid aribin and a red coloring-matter. 5. viridiflora, casca de arariba branca, of Brazil, furnishes a bark used in malaria.
  • Sickness (sik'-nes) [sick]. 1. The state of being unwell. 2. Nausea. S., African Horse-. See Edemamycosis. S., African Sleeping-. See African Lethargy. S., Ceylon, beriberi. S., Country, nostalgia. S., Creeping, chronic ergotism. S., Fall- ing, epilepsy, S., Green, chlorosis. S., Jumping, a form of choromania. See Jumpers. S., Leaguer, typhus. S., Milk, a form of poisoning due to the ingestion of diseased milk or meat. S., Monthly, the menstrual epoch. S., Mountain-, a sensation of nausea, with impeded respira- tion and irregular heart's action, due to the rarefied air of high altitudes. S., Painted. See Pinta Disease. S., Railway. See Car-sick- ness. S., Salt, a condition of starvation due to animals being confined on poor pastures consisting of dry wire grass and other inferior vegetation. S., Sea-. See Sea-sickness. S., Spotted. See Pinta Disease. S., Sweat- ing. See Sweating-sickness. S., Theater, Paul's name for malaise with dyspnea and oppression followed by weak pulse and syn- cope, usually observed in women who have dined hurriedly and reached a crowded theater in a heated condition; frequently a result of eye-strain. See Vertigo, Stomachal.

A glucosidal body found by Peckolt in the root-bark of Bowditchia virgiloides.


  • Sida (si'-dah) [owrj, a malvaceous plant]. A genus of plants of the order Malvacece. S. paniculata, a species of Peru, is an active vermifuge. Its action is believed to be due to the very minute but resisting bristles which cover its leaves. S. rhombifolia, Queensland hemp, containing a great amount of mucilage, is used in Australia for snake-bite, pulmonary complaints, and in making poultices.
  • Side (sid) [ME.]. A lateral half of the body or of any bilateral organ. S.-bone. 1. The hip-bone. 2. The diseased or disordered con- dition in horses which causes the lateral cartilages above the heels to ossify. 3. An abnormal ossification of the lateral elastic cartilage in a horse's foot. S. -chain. See Receptor. S. -chain Theory. See under Lateral and under Immunity.
  • Siderant, Siderante (sid'-er-ant, sid-er-an' '-te) [siderari, to be blasted or planet struck]. Characterized by sudden and abrupt onset as though the result of malign astral influences.
  • Siderism (sid'-er-izm) [siderites, the lodestone]. The curative influences long supposed to be exerted over the body by the lodestone; the priests of Samothrace drove a thriving trade in magnetized iron rings worn as amulets and cure-alls; they were worn by the worshipers of the Cabiri, afterward by the Roman priests of Jupiter, and in recent times socalled "rheu- matism rings" and magnetic belts and insoles give evidence of the persistence of a belief in siderism.
  • Siderophone (sid-er'-o-Jon) [oidypoc, iron ; cf)ajvr] } a sound]. An electric appliance devised by Martin Jannson (1902) as an improvement upon Asmus' sideroscope for detecting the presence of small splinters of iron.
  • Sideroscope (sid-er'-o-skop) [a'cd-qpoc, iron; OKonelv, to examine]. An instrument for the detection of particles of iron or steel in the eyes.
  • Siderosis (sid-er-o'-sis) [c'cd-qpoc, iron]. 1. A pigmentation by a deposit of particles of iron; specifically, a chronic interstitial pneumonia caused by the inhalation of particles of iron. 2. A recognized type of lung disease (pneu- mokoniosis) due to the inhalation of metallic dust. Cf. Anthracosis; Chalicosis; Silicosis.
  • Sidonal (si' -don-al) . See Piperazin Quinate. S., New, quinic acid anhydrid, a white, taste- less powder, soluble in water, used as a uric- acid solvent. Dose 75-120 gr. (5-8 Gm.) daily, given in 4 or more doses.

Siegle's Otoscope, S.'s Speculum. An in- strument consisting of a glass-covered box with a conic projection and a rubber tube attached laterally. When the conic projec- tion is inserted firmly into the external audi- tory canal, and the air is compressed or rare- fied, the movements of the drum-membrane may be observed. It is also used for the purpose of rendering the articulations of the ossicles mobile.

Siemerling's Nucleus. The anteroventral SIEUR'S SIGN 876 SIGN nucleus of the anterior group of oculomotor nuclei in the gray matter below the sylvian aqueduct.

Sieur's Sign. "Signe du sou." A clear, metallic sound sometimes heard in cases of pleural effusion on percussing the chest in front with two coins and auscultating behind.


  • Sieve (siv) [AS., sife]. An apparatus with a reticulated bottom, used for the separation of fine from coarse particles. The gage of the sieve is usually expressed in the number of meshes in a square inch.

Sigaultian Operation, Sigault's Operation [J. R. Sigault, a French obstetrician]. Sym- physiotomy.


  • Sigh (si) [AS., sican, to sigh]. A prolonged and deep inspiration followed by a shorter expiration. Syn., Suspirium.
  • Sight (sit) [AS., siht]. The act of seeing; the special sense concerned in seeing. S., Day-, hemeralopia. S., Far-, S., Long, hyperopia. S., Night-, nyctalopia. S., Old, presbyopia. S., Short-, myopia.
  • Sigillation (sij-il-a'-shun) [sigillum, a seal]. The mark of a cicatrix.
  • Sigmatism (sig'-mat-izm) [see Sigmoid], i. Defective utterance of the sound of 5. 2. The too frequent use of the s sound in speech.
  • Sigmoid (sig'-moid) [ocyfxa, the Greek s; sldoc, likeness]. 1. Shaped like the letter S. 2. Pertaining to the sigmoid flexure of the colon, as the sigmoid artery, the sigmoid mesocolon. S. Cavities, two depressions on the head of the ulna; the greater is for articulation with the humerus; the lesser, on the outer side of the coronoid process, is for articulation with the radius. S. Flexure, an S-shaped bend in the colon between the descending portion and the rectum, usually occupying the left iliac fossa.
  • Sigmoido- (sig-moi-do-) [sigmoid]. A prefix denoting relation to the sigmoid flexure.
  • Sigmoidopexy (sig-moid '-o-peks-e) [sigmoido-; xy&C, a fixing]. An operation for prolapse of the rectum by fixation of the sigmoid flexure.
  • Sigmoidoproctostomy (sig-moid-o-proh-tos'- to-me) [sigmoido-; proctostomy]. Anastomosis of the sigmoid flexure of the colon with the rectum.
  • Sigmoidoscope (sig-moid '-o-skop) [sigmoido-;, to view]. An appliance for the in- spection of the sigmoid flexure; it differs from the proctoscope in its greater length and diameter.
  • Sigmoidoscopy (sig-moid-os f -ko-pe) [see Sig- moidoscope], Visual inspection of the sigmoid flexure with the aid of special instruments.
  • Sigmoidostomy (sig-moid-os' -to-me) [sigmoido-; otdfia, mouth]. The formation of an artificial anus in the sigmoid flexure of the c,olon.
  • Sign (sin) [signum, a mark]. A mark or evi- dence; in a restricted sense, a physical sign. S., Abadie's, a spasm of the levator palpebral superioris muscle, present in exophthalmic goiter. S., Achilles, the achilles tendon reflex. S.s of Adherent Pericardium. See S., Broadbent's, S., Kreyssig's, S., Kussmaul's, S., Sander s\ S., Williams.' S., Ahlf eld's irregular tetanic contractions affecting local- ized areas of the uterus, observed after the third month of pregnancy. S. of Alcohol- ism. See S., Quinquauds. S., Allis's, relaxation of the fascia between the crest of the ilium and the trochanter major, seen in fracture of the neck of the femur. Andral's Decubitus, the position usually assumed in the early stage of pleurisy by the patient, who seeks to alleviate the pain by lying on the sound side. S.s of Anesthesia. See S. f Lehman's. S.s of Aneurysm. See S., Boz- zolo's, S., Cardarelli's, S., Gerhardt's, S., Glasgow's, S., Hope's, S., Perez's, S., San- som's. S. of Angina pectoris. See S., Beaume's. S.s of Aortic Insufficiency. See S., Mailer's, S., Musset's, S., Traube's. Ar- gyll Robertson Pupil, a pupil that acts in accommodation but not to light, disclosed by the usual tests for accommodation and light, and present in locomotor ataxia. Atony, Intestinal. See S., Boas'. S.,Auenbrug- ger's, bulging of the epigastric region in cases of extensive pericardial effusion. S., Aufrecht's, short and feeble breathing heard just above the jugular fossa on placing the stethoscope over the trachea; it is noted in tracheal stenosis. S., Babinski's, diminu- tion or absence of the achilles tendon reflex in true sciatica as distinguished from hysteric sciatica. S., Baccelli's (aphonic pectoril- oquy), reverberation of the whispered voice, heard through the chest-wall; it is elicited by auscultating the whispered voice of the patient through the chest, and is present in pleural effusion. S., Baillarger's, pupillar. inequality in paralytic dementia. S., Bal- let's, ophthalmoplegia externa, characterized by the loss of all voluntary movements of the eyeball, with preservation of the automatic movements and integrity of the movements of the pupil. It is seen in hysteria and ex- ophthalmic goiter. S., Bamberger's, allo- cheiria; perception of a stimulus applied to the skin of one extremity at the corresponding place on the other extremity. S., Bard's, to differentiate between organic and con- genital nystagmus. In the former the oscilla- tions of the eyeball increase when the patient follows the physician's finger moved be^re his eye alternately from right to left and from left to right. In the latter the oscillations disappear under these conditions. S., Bar- eggi's. See Bareggi's Reaction. S., Bar- uch's, the resistance of the rectal temperature to a bath of 75 for 15 minutes, with friction; it is obtained by immersion in a bath of 75 F. in the presence of typhoid fever. S., Beaume's, retrosternal pain in angina pec- toris. S., Beccaria's, painful pulsating sen- sations in the occipital region during preg- nancy. S.,Bechterew's. 1. See Bechterew's Reaction. 2. Anesthesia of the popliteal space in tabes dorsalis. S., Becker's, spon- taneous pulsation of the retinal arteries in SIGN 877 SIGN exophthalmic goiter. S., Behier- Hardy's, aphonia, an early symptom in pulmonary gangrene. S M Bell's, Bell's Phenomenon, Bell-Bernhardt's Phenomenon, upward and outward rolling of the eyeball upon an attempt to close the eye of the af- fected side in peripheral facial paralysis. S., Berger's, an elliptic or irregular shape of the pupil sometimes seen in the early stage of tabes and paralytic dementia and in paralysis of the third cranial nerve. Bernhardt's Symptom, a subjective con- dition consisting of paresthetic and painful sensations on the outer and anterior aspect of the thigh, in the distribution of the external cutaneous nerve; it is in some cases dependent on displacement of the external cutaneous nerve. S., Bezold's, the appearance of an inflammatory swelling a short distance below the apex of the mastoid process is evidence of mastoid suppuration. S., Bieg's Entotic, when words are audible only on being spoken into an ear-trumpet connected with a catheter placed in the eustachian tube, but not through the ear-trumpet as ordinarily applied, there is a probable lesion of the malleus or incus, which interferes with conduction. Biermer's Change of Sound. See Gerhard? s Change of Sound in this table. S., Biernacki's, analgesia of the ulnar nerve at the elbow; it is observed in tabes dorsalis and paretic dementia. S., Bing's, let a vibrating tuning- fork be held on the vertex until it has ceased to be audible; then close either ear, and the fork will be heard again for a certain period. If this period of secondary perception is short- ened, there exists a lesion of the sound-con- ducting apparatus; if normal and yet deafness is present, the perceptive apparatus is in- volved. S., Bird's, a well-defined zone of dulness with absence of the respiratory sound in hydatid cyst of the lung. S., Boas', i. The presence of lactic acid in the gastric con- tents in cases of cancer of the stomach. 2. In cases of intestinal atony a splashing sound can be obtained on pressure upon the ab- dominal wall after the injection of a small quantity (200 to 300 Cc.) of water into the bowel. S., Bolognini's, on pressing with the tips of the fingers of both hands alternately upon the right and left of the abdomen of a patient who is lying on his back and whose abdominal muscles are relaxed by flexion of the thighs, a sensation of friction within the abdomen is perceived; it is noted in the early stages of measles. S., Bordier-Frenkel's. See S., Bell's. Borsieri's Line, in the early stages of scarlatina, a line drawn on the skin with the finger-nail leaves a white mark which quickly turns red and becomes smaller in size. Bouillaud's Metallic Tinkling, a peculiar clink sometimes heard to the right of the apex-beat in cardiac hypertrophy. S., Bouveret's, in intestinal obstruction; this is applicable only to the larger gut. Great distention of the cecum and a large elevation in the right iliac fossa. S., Boz- zolo's, visible pulsation of the arteries of the nares, said to occur in some cases of aneurysm of the thoracic aorta. Brach-Romberg Symptom. See S., Romberg's (1). S.,Braun- Fernwald's, an early sign of pregnancy con- sisting in an increased thickness of one-half of the body of the uterus and in the presence of a longitudinal median groove, these changes being dependent upon an unequal consistence of that organ. Bright-Beatty's Friction- sound, Bright's Friction-sound, the fric- tion-sound produced by inflammation of the pleura. S., Broadbent's, a visible retraction, synchronous with the cardiac systole, of the left side and back in the region of the eleventh and twelfth ribs in adherent pericardium. Brown-Sequard's Paralysis, hemiparaplegia with hemianesthesia of opposite side, existing in lesion of lateral half of spinal cord. S., Browne's (Crichton), tremor of the labial commissures and outer angles of the eyes in the early stage of paralytic dementia. S., Bryson's, diminished power of expansion of the thorax during inspiration; occasionally observed in exophthalmic goiter and neuras- thenia. S., Burton's, the blue line at junc- tion of teeth and gums in chronic lead-poison- ing. S., Callaway's, in dislocation of the humerus the circumference of the affected shoulder, measured over the acromion and through the axilla, is greater than that of the sound side. S.s of Cancer. See S., Boas' (1); (de) Morgan's Spots, in this table, S., Rommelaere' s, S., Rus?s, S., Semon's, S., S pie gelb erg's. S., Cardarelli's, the lat- eral movement of the trachea as an in- dication of aneurysm of the aorta. S. of Cardiac Hypertrophy. See S., Bouil- laud's. S., Castellino's. See S., Carda- relli's. S.,Cathelineau's. See S., Tourette's (Gilles de la). S. of Cerebral Hemorrhage. See S., Prevos?s. S., Charcot's, signe du sourcil. In facial paralysis the eyebrow is raised; in facial contracture it is lowered. S.,Charcot-Marie's. See S.. Marie's. S., Charcot-Vigouroux's. See S., Vigouroux's. Cheyne -Stokes' Respiration, a succession of respirations becoming progressively shorter and more shallow, then an intermission of varying duration, followed by progressive in- crease in depth and length of respirations; noticed in various affections in which the brain is implicated, such as cerebral edema and uremia. S. of Chlorosis. See S., Go- lonboff's. S., Chvostek's, sudden spasm of one side of the face, elicited by a slight tap upon the side of the face in postoperative tetany. S., Clark's (Alonzo), obliteration of the hepatic dulness due to tympanitic dis- tention of the abdomen; noticed on percussion in appendicitis and other peritoneal inflam- mations, and denoting the presence of the inflated bowel or of gas in front of the liver. S., Cleemann's, in fracture of the femur with shortening there is a wrinkle above the ligamentum patella? which disappears when the shortening is corrected by extension.

SIGN 878 SIGN S., Cling [Ger. Klebe]. See S., Gersuny's. S., Comby's, a form of stomatitis involving the buccal mucosa, diagnostic of incipient measles. There is slight swelling, and the mucous membrane becomes reddish, the superficial epithelial cells become whitish as if brushed over by a paint-brush. It may- occur evenly or in patches. Cf. Koplik's Spots in this table. Corrigan's Line, a pur- ple line at the junction of the teeth with the gums, seen in chronic copper-poisoning. Corrigan's Pulse, a forcible pulse-wave, which quickly recedes, elicited by finger or sphygmograph in aortic insufficiency. S. of Coxalgia. See S., Erichsen's. S., Crich- ton Browne's. See S., Browne's. S., Dal- rymple's, abnormal widening of the palpe- bral aperture, in exophthalmic goiter. S., Dance's, a depression about the right flank or iliac fossa, regarded by Dance as indicating invagination of the cecum. S., Davidsohn's, reflection of light through the pupil in trans- illumination by electric light in the mouth; indicative of health. S., Demarquay's, im- mobility or lowering of the larynx during deglutition and phonation; it is character- istic of tracheal syphilis. S.s of Dementia. See S., Baillarger's, S., Berger's, S., Bier- nacki's, S., Browne's. S. of Diabetes. See S., Unschuld's. Diaphragmatic Phenom- enon. See Diaphragmatic Phenomenon. . Dietl's Crises, sharp paroxysmal pains oc- curring in case of movable kidney, probably dependent on acute hydronephrosis from twisting of ureter. S. of Dislocation. See S., Dugas', S., Hamilton's. ■ S., Doane's (Wm. C), deafness in one ear in typhoid fever presages death; deafness in both ears is a good prognosis. Drummond's Whiff, a whiff heard at the open mouth, in aus- cultation during respiration, proceeding from the glottis, in aortic aneurysm. S., Du- chenne's, sinking in of the epigastrium during inspiration in cases of marked hydroperi- cardium or impaired movement of the diaphragm from pressure or paralysis. Du- chenne's Attitude, in paralysis of the trape- zium the shoulder droops; the shoulder- blade see-saws so that its internal edge instead of being parallel to the vertebral column becomes oblique from top to bottom and from without in. S. Dugas', in dislocation of the shoulder-joint the elbow cannot be made to touch the side of the chest when the hand of the affected side is placed on the op- posite shoulder. S., Duncan Bird's. See S., Bird's. S., Dupuytren's Eggshell, the sensation of a delicate crepitant shell (eggshell crackling) imparted on slight pressure in certain cases of sarcoma of long bones. Duroziez's Murmur, a double murmur oc- casionally heard by auscultation in the femoral artery, indicative of aortic incompetence. S. of Echinococcous Cyst. See S., Lenn- hoff's. Eitelberg's Test, if a large tuning- fork is held at intervals before the ear during 15 or 20 minutes, the duration of the percep- tion of the vibration, during these periods increases in case the ear is normal, but de- creases when a lesion of the. sound-conduct- ing apparatus exists. S., Ellis'. See Line, Ellis'. S. of Enteroptosis. See S., Stiller' s. S., Erb's. 1. Increase of the electric irrita- bility of the motor nerves in tetany. 2. Dul- ness on percussion over the manubrium sterni in akromegaly. Erben's Phenomenon, a temporary slowing of the pulse on bending, forward or attempting to sit down; it has been observed in neurasthenia. S., Erb-West- phal's. See S., Westphal's. S., Erichsen's, to differentiate coxalgia from sacroiliac disease; compression of the two iliac bones causes pain in the latter but not in the former affec- tion. S., Ewart's, in marked pericardial effusion the left clavicle is so raised that the upper border of the first rib can be felt with the finger as far as the sternum. Farre's Tubercles, superficial masses felt by palpa- tion on the surface of the liver in hepatic carcinoma. S., Filipovitch's, a saffron-like coloration of the prominent parts of palms of hands and soles of feet, seen in ty- phoid fever. S., First Rib. See S., Ewart's. Fisher's Brain-murmur, a systolic murmur over the anterior fontanel or in the temporal region of infants; heard in auscultation in rickets and other conditions. S., Fiske-Bry- son's. See S., Bryson's. S., Flindt-Kop- lik's. See Koplik's Spots in this table. Flint's Murmur, a second murmur fre- quently heard in auscultation at the apex; it has a rumbling quality, and may be presystolic, and is probably produced at the mitral orifice. It is indicative of aortic incompetence. Foerster's Shifting Type, variations in the field of vision, the peri- metric limits differing according as they are determined by moving the disc from the cen- ter outward or from without to the center; it exists in anesthesia of the retina, traumatic neuroses, etc. Fracture. See S., Clee- mann's, S., Hueter's, Morris' Test, in this table. S., Frederici's, perception of the heart- sounds over the whole abdomen in cases of perforative peritonitis, with escape of gas into the peritoneal cavity. S., Frenkel's, dimin- ished tone (hypotonia) of the muscles of the lower extremities in tabes dorsalis. Fried- reich's Respiratory Change of Sound, on percussion, the pitch of percussion-note becomes increased at the height of a deep inspiration in pulmonary tuberculosis and other conditions. S., Friedreich's, diastolic collapse of the cervical veins; noticed on pal- pation or inspection, in adherent pericardium. S., Fuerbringer's, a subphrenic abscess may be distinguished from a collection of pus above the diaphragm by the transmission, in case of the former, of the respiratory move- ments to a needle inserted into the abscess. S., Gangolphe's, in intestinal obstruction a serosanguineous effusion in the abdomen soon after strangulation has taken place. S. of Gangrene. See S., Behier -Hardy's. Gar- SIGN 879 SIGN diner-Brown's Test, in labyrinthine disease the patient ceases to hear the sound of a tuning-fork placed upon the vertex from half a second to several seconds before the exam- iner ceases to feel its vibrations. S., Garel's, absence of luminous perception on the affected side of the walls and sinuses about the mouth — antrum of Highmore; elicited by electric transillumination in disease of the antrum. Garland's S-curve. See Line, Ellis'. Gastrosuccorrhea. See S., Reich- mann's. Gelle's Test, the vibrations of a tuning-fork placed in contact with a rubber tube, the nozle of which is inserted into the meatus, are distinctly perceived when the air is compressed by pressure upon the bulb attached to the tube. This does not occur when the chain of ossicles is diseased. Ger- hardt's Change of Sound, a change of per- cussion-note according to the patient's posi- tion, whether upright, lying on the back, or on the side; due to changes in the form of the air-space and fluid contents of the thoracic cavity; it is found in pneumothorax and pulmonary tuberculosis. S., Gerhardt's. i. A systolic bruit heard between the mastoid process and spinal column in cases of aneurysm of the vertebral artery. 2. In- complete filling of the external jugular vein on the affected side, occasionally seen in thrombosis of the transverse sinus. 3. A band of dulness on percussion, superimposed upon the normal precordial dulness, about 3 cm. in width and extending toward the left clavicle; it is observed in cases of the per- sistence of the ductus arteriosus. 4. The absence of the movement of the larynx in dyspnea due to aneurysm of the aorta. In dyspnea from other causes the excursions of the larynx are extensive. S., Gersuny's, a peculiar sensation of adhesion of the mucosa of the bowel to the fecal mass while pressure is made with the tips of the fingers in cases of coprostasis. Syn., Cling sign. Giraldes' " Bonnet a poll," widening of the cranium in the frontal region in chronic hydrocephalus. S., Glasgow's, a systolic sound in the bron- chial artery, heard in latent aneurysm of the aorta. S. of Goiter, Exophthalmic. See S., Ballet's, S., Becker's, S., Bryson's, S., Jof- froy's (1), S., Mann's (Dixon), S., Mobius', S., Vigouroux's, S., Weiss'. S., Golonboff's, of chlorosis, an acute pain located directly over the spleen, and pain on percussion over the ends of the long bones, especially the tibias. Goodell's Law, "when the cervix is as hard as one's nose, pregnancy does not exist; when it is as soft as one's lips, preg- nancy is probable." S., Gould's Bowed- head, in retinitis pigmentosa or other dis- ease destroying the peripheral portion of the retina, the patient often bows the head low to see the pavement, in order to bring the image upon the functional portion of the retina. S., Gousset's, of phrenic neuralgia, a painful point always present and well denned to the right of the fourth or fifth chondrosternal articulation; it must not be confounded with the retrosternal pain of chronic aortitis. S., Gowers', intermittent and abrupt oscillations of the iris under the influence of light, previous probably to the total loss of the reflex; it is occasionally seen in tabes dorsalis. S., v. Graefe's, failure of the upper lid to follow the eyeball in glanc- ing downward, elicited in exophthalmic goi- ter by having the patient alternately rotate the eyes up and down. v. Graefe's Spots, certain spots near the supraorbital foramen, or over the vertebras, which, when pressed upon, cause a sudden relaxation of the spasm of the eyelids in cases of blepharofacial spasm. S., Grancher's, on auscultation in pulmon- ary condensation the expiratory murmur equals in pitch that of the inspiratory, evi- dencing obstruction to expired air. Gran- cher's Triad, the three symptoms charac- teristic of incipient pulmonary tuberculo- sis: weakened vesicular murmur, increased vocal fremitus, and skodaic resonance. S., Graves', an increase of the systolic impulse often noted in the beginning of pericarditis. S., Greene's (C. L.) Percussion, in percus- sion of the free cardiac border during full inspiration and again during forced inspira- tion, the patient either standing or sitting, it will be noticed that the border is displaced outward by the expiratory movement in cases of pleuritic effusion. S., Griesinger's. 1. An edematous swelling behind the mastoid process in thrombosis of the transverse sinus. 2. In thrombosis of the basilar artery, com- pression of the carotids produces symptoms of cerebral anemia (pallor, syncope, convul- sions). This is a sign of doubtful value, since it may also be caused by disturbances of the cerebral circulation resulting from cardiac and vascular lesions (especially arteriosclero- sis). S., Grisolle's, the early eruption of smallpox is distinguished from that of measles by the fact that the papules remain distinct to the touch even when the skin is tightly stretched. Gubler's Tumor, a prominence seen on the dorsum of the carpus by flexing the carpus in wrist-drop of chronic lead- poisoning, denoting probably some effusion into the synovial sacs. S., Guye's, aprosexia occurring in childhood with adenoid vegeta- tions of the nasopharynx. S., Guyon's, renal ballottement by palpation in floating kidney. S., Haab's. See Haab's Pupil Reflex. Hall's (Marshall) Facies, the prom- inent forehead and small features peculiar to hydrocephalus. Hamilton's Test, in dislocation of the shoulder-joint a ruler applied to the dislocated humerus may be made to touch the acromion and external condyle at the same time. S., Hardy- Behier's. See S., Behier-Hdrdy's. Heb- erden's Nodosities, hard nodules, usuallv on the distal joints of the fingers, dis- cernible by palpation in rheumatoid arthritis, usually in advanced life. S., Hegar's, a softening of the lower uterine segment, SIGN 880 SIGN elicited by the forefinger in the rectum and the thumb in the vagina, with pressure from above, and valuable as a sign of preg- nancy. S., Heim-Kreyssig's. See S., Kreyssig's. S., Heim-Sanders'. See S., Sanders'. S. of Hemiplegia. See S., Bab- inski's and Schaeffer's Reflex in this table. S., Heryng's, an infraorbital shadow ob- served on introducing an electric light into the mouth in empyema of the antrum of Highmore. S., Hick's (Braxton), inter- mittent uterine contraction noticed on pal- pation. Begins to be apparent at end of third month of pregnancy. May also be produced by any tumor that distends uterus. Hippocratic Facies, an anxious face, with pinched features and sunken eyes, produced by involuntary contraction of the facial muscles occurring in peritonitis and fatal diseases. Hippocratic Fingers, clubbing of the finger-tips, with incurvation of the nails, occurring in pulmonary tuberculosis and other wasting diseases. Hippocratic Succussion, a splashing sound obtained by shaking the body of the patient in pyopneumothorax and hydropneumothorax, and denoting the presence of air and fluid in the pleural cavity. S. , Hochsinger's, the existence of indicanuria in tuberculosis of childhood. S., Hoff- mann's, increase of the mechanic irritability of the sensory nerves in tetany. S., Hope's, double cardiac beat noted in aneurysm of the aorta. S., Howship-Romberg's. See S., Romberg's (i). S., Huchard's, the difference in the pulse between the standing and recum- bent posture is less in persons with arterial hypertension, and may even be the reverse of that of the normal condition. S., Huebl's, an early sign of pregnancy consisting in an abnormal thinness and compressibility of the lower segment of the uterus as compared with that part above the insertion of the sacro- uterine ligaments, the bimanual examination being carried out with one finger in the rectum. S., Hueter's, absence of transmission of osseous vibration in cases of fracture with fibrous interposition between the fragments. Hutchinson's Patch, a dull red discoloration of the cornea, due to ciliary injection in interstitial keratitis occurring in syphilis. Hutchinson's Teeth, the upper central per- manent incisor teeth are peg-shaped and notched on the cutting-edge in inherited syphilis. Hutchinson's Trio of Symptoms, notched teeth, interstitial keratitis, and otitis, denoting inherited syphilis. S. of Hydatid Cyst. See S., Rovighi's. S. of Hysteria. See S., Ballet's, S., Putnam's, S., Tourette's, S., Weiss'. S. of Intestinal Obstruction. See S., BouvereV s, S., Gangolphe's, S., Ger- suny's,S., Schlange's, S., v. Wahl's. S., Jac- coud's, prominence of the aorta in the su- prasternal notch in leukemia and pseudoleu- kemia. S., Jacquemier's, blue . coloration of the vaginal mucosa appearing about the twelfth week of pregnancy. S., Jacquemin's, violet color of the mucous membrane of vagina; appears about the fourth week of gestation, and due to venous congestion. Jadelot's Lines, various lines on the face of infants occurring in various diseased con- ditions. See Jadelot's Lines. S., Jaffe's, the flow of pus from a tube inserted into a subdiaphragmatic abscess is more abundant during inspiration than during expiration; if the collection is thoracic, the inverse holds true. Paralysis of the diaphragm prevents the manifestation of this sign. S., Joffroy's. i. Absence of facial contraction when the patient suddenly turns his eyes upward; seen in exophthalmic goiter. 2. Phenomene de la hanche. Rhythmic twitching of the glutei on pressure upon the gluteal region in cases of spastic paraplegia and sciatica. S., Jori- senne's, the pulse does not become accele- rated on changing from the horizontal to the erect position; an indication of pregnancy. S., Josseraud's, a peculiar loud, metallic sound, heard. over the pulmonic area, and preceding the friction-sound in acute peri- carditis. Justus' Test, transient reduction of hemoglobin following the administration of mercury by inunction or hypodermatic injection in syphilis. S., Keen's, the in- creased diameter through the leg at the malleoli, shown by measurement in Pott's fracture of the fibula. S., Kelley's, of pleu- ral effusion in children : a preference for lying upon the back or propped up high in bed and avoidance of bending toward or pressing upon the affected side. S., Kellock's, increased vibration of the ribs on sharply percussing them with the right hand, the left being placed flatly and firmly on the lower part of the thoracic wall, just below the nipple; it is elicited in pleural effusion. 6., Kennedy's, of pregnancy, the umbilical or funic souffle. S., Kernig's, contracture or flexion of the knee and hip-joint, at times also of the elbow, when the patient is made to assume the sitting posture; it is noticed in meningitis. S., Klebe [Ger.]. See S., Gersuny's. Kbnig's Symptom-complex. 1. Alternation, for a long period, of constipation and diarrhea, and irregular attacks of colic which are generally of short duration and terminate suddenly. During these attacks the abdomen is dis- tended, there exists frequently a visible peristalsis, and a loud gurgling is heard in the ileocecal region. These symptoms are char- acteristic of tuberculous stenosis of the cecum. 2. Blue-blindness in granular kidney. Kop- lik's Spots, minute bluish-white spots sur- rounded by a reddish areola, observed on the mucous membrane of the cheeks and lips during the prodromal stage of measles. 8., Kreyssig's, retraction of the epigastrium and the contiguous portions of the false ribs with each systole, in adherent pericardium. S., Krisowski's, of congenital syphilis, radiating lines about the mouth and the union of the hard palate with the posterior pharyngeal wall by fibrous tissue. S., Kussmaul's, swelling of the cervical veins during inspiration in SIGN 881 SIGN adherent pericardium and mediastinal tumor. S., Kiister's, the presence of a cystic tumor in the median line anterior to the uterus, disclosed by palpation and inspection; usually indicates ovarian dermoids. S. of Labyrinthine Disease. See Gardiner- Brown's Test in this table. Laennec's Perles, rounded gelatinous masses, the muc- ous molds of the smaller bronchial tubes, in the sputum in bronchial asthma. Laennec's Rale, a modified subcrepitant rale, percep- tible on auscultation in pulmonary emphy- sema caused by mucus in the bronchioles. S., Lancisi's, very feeble heart-beats, amounting to a trembling of the heart, perceived by palpation in grave myocar- ditis. S., Landou's, in diagnosis of malig- nant disease inability to grasp the uterus bimanually in the presence of slight ascites. S., Lasegue's. i. Incapacity of the anesthetic hysteric individual to move the extremity which he is prevented from seeing. 2. To differentiate sciatica from hip- joint disease: in the case of the former, flexion of the thigh upon the hip is painless or easily accomplished when the knee is bent. S., Lehman's, in the administration of chlo- roform, to prognosticate as to a ready or difficult anesthesia, if the eyelids closed by the anesthetizer reopen at once, wholly or in part, the anesthesia will be difficult. The eyes will remain closed from the beginning in those who take chloroform well. S., Lennhoff's, in cases of echinococcus-cyst on deep inspira- tion a furrow forms above the tumor between it and the edge of the ribs. S., Leyden's, in cases of subphrenic pyopneumothorax mano- metric observation shows that the pressure in the abscess cavity rises during expiration. The reverse was held by Leyden to occur in true pneumothorax. S., Litten's. See Dia- phragmatic Phenomenon. S., Lucas', disten- tion of the abdomen, an early sign of rickets. S., Macewen's, increased resonance on com- bined percussion and auscultation of the skull in certain gross lesions of the intracranial contents — e. g., in cerebral abscess or over- distended lateral ventricles. S., Magnan's, in chronic cocainism, hallucination of cuta- neous sensibility, characterized by a sensa- tion of foreign bodies under the skin, which are described as inert and spheric, varying in size from a grain to a nut, or as living things — worms, bugs, etc. S., Mann's, diminished resistance of the scalp to the gal- vanic current in traumatic neuroses. S., Mann's (Dixon), a disturbance of the nor- mal balance of the muscles in the two orbits, so that one eye appears to be on a lower level than the other; it is seen in exophthalmic goiter and other affections characterized by tachycardia. S., Mannkopf's, an increase in the frequency of the pulse, obtained by pressure on peripheral points in the presence of pain; it is not present in simulated pain. S., Marie's, S., Marie -Kahler's, tremor of the extremities or the whole body in exoph- 57 thalmic goiter. S., Mayor's, of pregnancy, the fetal heart-sounds. S.s of Measles. See S., Bolognini's, S., Comby's, Koplik's Spots, in this table, S., Meunier's. S., Meltzer's, normally, on auscultation of the heart (at the side of the xiphoid appendix) there is heard, after swallowing, a first sound produced by the flowing of fine drops, and six or seven seconds after, a glou-glou. According to Meltzer, the second sound fails in the case of occlusion or pronounced contraction of the lower part of the esophagus. S.s of Meningitis. See S., Kernig's, S., Roger's, S., Simon's, S., Squire's. S., Meunier's, of measles, a daily loss of weight noticed four or five days after con- tagion. This may amount to 50 Gm. daily, commencing five or six days before the ap- pearance of catarrhal or febrile symptoms. S., Meyer's, numbness of the hands or feet associated with formication. It is observed in the eruptive stage of scarlatina. S.s of Middle-ear Disease. See Politzer's Test and Schwabach's Test in this table. S., Mobius', inability to retain the eyeballs in convergence in exophthalmic goiter. Morgan's (de) Spots, bright red nevoid spots frequently seen in the skin in cases of cancer. Morris' Test, a rod, grad- uated from the center and provided with sliding pointers, is placed across the abdomen, so that its center corresponds to the median line of the body, and the pointers are moved along it until they reach the outer surface of the greater trochanter. In cases of fracture of the neck of the femur a discrepancy will be found on comparing the measurements on the two sides of the body. S., Miiller's, pulsation of the tonsils and soft palate in cases of aortic insufficiency. S., Murat's, pul- monary tuberculosis; vibration of the affected part of the chest with a sense of discomfort while talking aloud. S., Musset's (named from the poet de Musset, who presented the phenomenon), rhythmic movements of the head synchronous with the radial pulse, observed in persons with an aortic affection; it is considered a pathognomonic sign of an affection of the circulatory system. Mussey's (de) Point, M.'s Symptom, "bouton dia- phragm ati que," a point intensely painful on pressure at the intersection of a line continu- ous with the left border of the sternum and of another forming a prolongation of the tenth rib. It is noted in diaphragmatic pleurisy. S. of Myocarditis. See S., Lancisi's. S. of Myopia. See S., Weiss'. S. of Nephrolithiasis. See S., Thornton's. S.s of Neuralgia. See S., Gousset's, S., Seelig- muller's, S., Trousseau's. S.s of Neuras- thenia. See S., Bryson's, Erben's Phe- nomenon, in this table, S., Rosenbach's (2), S., Stiller's, S., Weiss'. S. of Neu- roses, Traumatic. See S., Rumpf's. S., Nothnagel's, paralysis of the facial mus- cles, which is less marked on voluntary • movements than on movements connected SIGN 882 SIGN with emotions. This symptom has been noticed in cases of tumor of the optic thala- mus. S. of Nystagmus. See S., Bard's. S., Objective, S., Physical, one apparent to the observer. S. of Occlusion. See S., Meltzer's. S., Oliver's, tracheal tugging, elicited by grasping the larynx between the thumb and finger and pressing upward in aneurysm of the aorta. S., Oppolzer's, on palpation the seat of the apex-beat is found to change with the alteration of the patient's posture in cases of serofibrinous pericarditis. S., Osiander's, of pregnancy, vaginal pul- sation. S., Palmoplantar. See S., Filip- ovitch's. S. of Palsy, S. of Paralysis. See S., Bell's, S., Berger's, Duchenne's Atti- tude, in this table, 6"., Joffroy's (2), S., Revilliod's. Parkinson's Facies, in paraly- sis agitans the face is expressionless, "wooden"; movements of the lips slow; eyebrows elevated. The whole expression is immobile and mask-like. Parkinson's Mask. See Parkinson' s Facies in this table. Parrot's Nodes, osteophytes of the skull, of syphilitic origin, noticeable on palpation in inherited syphilis. S., Parrot's, dilation of the pupil produced by pinching the skin of the neck in meningitis. S., Paul's, a feeble apex-beat with a forcible impulse over the body of the heart, obtained by palpation in pericarditis; significant of pericardial adhe- sions. S., Perez's, a loud friction -murmur heard over the sternum when the patient raises his arms, especially the left, over his head and lets them fall again ; it is noted in cases of aneurysm of the arch of the aorta and medi- astinal tumors. S.s of Pericardial Effu- sion. See S., Auenbrugger's, S., Ewart's, S., Rotch's, S., Sansom's (1), Sibson's Notch, in this table. S.s of Pericarditis. See S., Graves' , S., Josseraud's, S., Oppolzer's, S.,War- thin's. S. of Perigastritis. See S., Rosen- heim's. S. of Peritonitis. See S., Frederici's. S., Pfuhl's, S., P.-Jaffe's, in subphrenic pyo- pneumothorax the liquid issues from the exploratory puncture or incision with con- siderable force during inspiration, while the contrary occurs in true pneumothorax. S.s, Physical, the symptoms derived from auscul- tation, percussion, etc. S., Pinard's, after the sixth month of pregnancy a sharp pain upon pressure over the fundus uteri is fre- quently a sign of breech presentation. S., Pitres'. 1. "Signe du cordeau." The angle formed by the axis of the sternum and the line represented by a cord dropped from the suprasternal notch to the symphysis pubis indicates the degree of deviation of the ster- num in cases of pleuritic effusion. 2. Hypes- thesia of the scrotum and testis in tabes dorsalis. S.s of Pleural Effusion. See 5., Greene's, S., Kellock's, S., Litten's, S., Pitres' (1), S., Przewal 'ski's, S., Sieur's. S.s of Pleurisy. See S., Andral's, S., de Mus- sey's. S., Plumb-line. See S., Pitres' (1). S.s of Pneumothorax. See S., Leyden's, S., Pfuhl's, Politzer's Test, in cases of unilateral middle-ear disease associated with obstruction of the eustachian tube, the sound of a vibrating tuning-fork (C 2 ) held before the nares during deglutition is per- ceived by the normal ear only; if the tube is patulous, the sound sensation is frequently stronger in the affected ear. In unilateral disease of the labyrinth the tuning-fork is heard in the normal ear whether or not deglu- tition occurs. S., Porter's. See S., Oliver's. Pott's Boss, the projecting spinous process noticeable on palpation in Pott's disease or vertebral caries. S.s of Pregnancy. See S., Ahlj eld's, S., Beccaria's, Goodell's Law, in this table, S., Huebl's, S., Jacquemier's, S., Ken- nedy's, S., Mayor's, S., Osiander's, S., Schaef- er's, S., Rasch's, S., Reusner's, S., Rinmann's. S.,Prevost's, conjugate deviation of the eyes and head, which look away from the palsied extremities and toward the affected hemi- sphere; it is noted in cerebral hemorrhage. S., Przewalski's(B.), of pleurisy with effu- sion : narrowing of the intercostal spaces and increased rigidity of the intercostal muscles on the affected side. S., Putnam's, absolute increase of measurements from the anterior- superior iliac spine to the internal malle- olus; it is observed in hysteric hip disease. Quincke's Pulse or Symptom, blanching of the finger-nails at each diastole of the heart, occurring in aortic insufficiency, and indicat- ing very marked regurgitation. S., Quin- quaud's, of chronic alcoholism: the subject for examination is directed to hold the tips of the outstretched fingers of one hand perpen- dicularly to the outspread palm of the exam- iner and to press upon it with only moderate firmness. In the course of two or three seconds, if the person is addicted to alcohol, crepitation of the phalanges will be percep- tible, as if the bones of each finger impinged roughly upon each other. The sound ranges in intensity from a slight grating to crashing. S., Rasch's, fluctuation obtained by applying two fingers of the right hand to the cervix, as in ballottement, and steadying the uterus through the abdomen with the left hand. It depends upon the presence of the liquoi amnii, and is an early sign of pregnancy. Raynaud's Phenomenon, a white and cold condition of the fingers, alternating with burn- ing heat and redness, occurring in Raynaud's disease (q. v.), and showing vasomotor dis- turbance. S., Reichmann's, the presence in the stomach, before eating in the morning, of an acid liquid mixed with alimentary residues; it is indicative of gastrosuccorrhea and pyloric stenosis. S., Remak's, the pro- duction, by the pricking of a needle, of a double sensation, the second being painful; it is noted in tabes dorsalis. S. of Retinitis. See S., Gould's, Roth's Spots, in this table. S., Reusner's, marked pulsation of the uterine vessels felt in the posterior cul- desac during early pregnancy. S., Revil- liod's, "signe de l'orbiculaire," inability of the patient to close the eye of the SIGN 883 SIGN affected side only; it is observed in paral- ysis of the superior facial nerve. S. of Rickets. See S., Lucas' '. S., Rinmann's, of early pregnancy: slender cords radiating from the nipple; they are considered to be hypertrophic acini of the glands. Rhine's Test, if a vibrating tuning-fork is placed on the vertex, and then, before it has ceased to vibrate, is held before a normal ear, the vibra- tion is still distinctly perceived. The test is negative when a lesion exists. S., Ripault's, a change in the shape of the pupil on press- ure upon the eye, transitory during life, but permanent after death. Ritter's Tetanus, tetanus of a muscle produced in a healthy subject by suddenly breaking the circuit while a strong constant current is passing through a nerve. Ritter-Rollet Phenomenon, flex- ion of the foot by gentle electric stimulation. Extension of the foot by energetic stimula- tion; voltaic or faradic stimulation may be used. S., Roger's, subnormal temperature during the third stage of tuberculous menin- gitis, regarded by Roger as pathognomonic of the disease. S., Romberg's, i. Swaying of the body and inability to stand when the eyes are closed and the feet placed together; it is seen in locomotor ataxia, exophthalmic goiter, tabes dorsalis, hereditary cerebellar ataxia, etc. 2. Neuralgic pain in the course and distribution of the obturator nerve, pathognomonic of obturator hernia. S., Rommelaere's, diminution of the normal phosphates and chlorids of sodium in the urine is pathognomonic of cancerous cachexia. S., Rosenbach's. 1. Loss of the abdominal reflex in inflammatory intestinal diseases. 2. Tremor of the eyelids when the patient is asked to close them, often with insufficient closure of the lids. It is seen in neurasthenia. S., Rosenheim's, a friction -sound heard on auscultation over the left hypochondrium in fibrous perigastritis. Rosenthal's Hyper- acid Vomiting, the vomiting of very acid material, indicative of exaggerated secretion of HC1 in the gastric juice — Rossbach's dis- ease. S., Rosenthal's, the application of a strong faradic current to the sides of the vertebral column causes burning and stabbing pains in cases of spondylitis. S., Roser- Braun's, absence of pulsations of the dura in cases of cerebral abscess, tumors, etc. S., Rotch's, dulness on percussion in the right fifth intercostal space in pericardial effusion. Roth's Spots, white spots, resembling those of albuminuric retinitis, seen in the region of the optic disc and the macula in cases of septic retinitis. S., Roussel's, a sharp pain caused on light percussion, in the subclavicular region between the clavicle and the third or fourth rib, originating 3 to 4 cm. from the median line and extending to and beyond the shoulder and the supraspinal fossa; it is observed in incipient tuberculosis. S., Roux's, of sup- purative appendicitis: on palpation the empty cecum presents a special soft resistance comparable to that of a wet pasteboard tube.

S., Rovighi's, hydatid fremitus: a thrill ob- served on combined palpation and percussion in cases of superficial hydatid cyst of the liver. S., Rumpf s, fibrillar twitching of muscles in traumatic neuroses. S., Rust's, at every change of position of the body a patient suffer- ing from caries or carcinoma of the upper cervical vertebras supports his head with the hand. S., Sanders', undulatory character of the cardiac impulse, most marked in the epigastric region, in adherent pericardium. Sanger's Macula, macula gonorrhoica, a bright red spot marking the orifice of the duct of Bartholin's gland in cases of gonorrheal vulvitis. Sanger's Pupil-reaction, for the differential diagnosis of cerebral syphilis and tabes: in amaurosis and optic atrophy of cerebral syphilis the pupil-reflex to light may be preserved and even increased after a pro- tracted stay in the dark, which is never the case in tabes dorsalis. S., Sansom's. 1. Con- siderable extension of dulness in the second and third intercostal spaces in pericardial effusion. 2. A rhythmic murmur trans- mitted through the air in the mouth when the lips of the patient are applied to the chestpiece of the stethoscope ; it is heard in cases of aortic aneurysm. S., Sarbo's, analgesia of the peroneal nerve, occasionally observed in tabes dorsalis. S.s. of Scarlatina. See Bor- sieri's Line, in this table, S., Meyer's. S., Schaefer's. 1. Of pregnancy: a char- acteristic discoloration in stripes, reddish on a livid background, which appears in the neighborhood of the urethra or on the vestibule of the vagina. The stripes run for the most part crosswise or oblique. The condition is regarded as due to a vasomotor reaction dependent upon the life of the child, as the stripes disappear as soon as the child within the womb is dead. 2. Of hemiplegia: See Schaefer's Reflex. S., Schlange's, in cases of intestinal obstruction the intestine is dilated above the seat of ob- struction and peristaltic movements are absent below that point. Schonlein's Triad, pur- puric exanthem, rheumatic phenomena, and gastrointestinal disorders in purpura rheu- matica. S., Schuele's, vertical folds between the eyebrows, forming the Greek letter omega (omega melancholicum), frequently seen in subjects of melancholia. S., Schultze-Chvo- stek's. See S., Chvostek's. Schwabach's Test, the duration of the perception of a vibrating tuning-fork placed upon the cra- nium is prolonged beyond the normal in cases of middle-ear disease, but shortened when the deafness is due to a central cause. S.s of Sciatica. See S., Babinski's, S., Joffroy's (2), S., Lasegue's. S., Seeligmiiller, mydriasis on the affected side in cases of neuralgia. Seguin's Signal Symptom, the involuntary contraction of one muscle or group of muscles preceding the epileptic attack. S., Semon's, impaired mobility of the vocal cord in car- cinoma of the larynx. Sibson's Notch, the inward curve of the upper left border of pre- SIGN 884 SIGN cordial dulness in acute pericardial effusion. S., Sieur's, "signe du sou," a clear, metallic sound sometimes heard in cases of pleural effusion on percussing the chest in front with two coins and auscultating behind. S., Silex's, radial furrows about the mouth, and coincidentally in other parts of the face; a pathognomonic sign of congenital syphilis. S., Simon's, immobility or retraction of the umbilicus during inspiration, sometimes seen in tuberculous meningitis. Skeer's Symp- tom, a small circle that forms in the iris near the pupil in both eyes simultaneously in tuberculous meningitis. Skoda's Conson- ating Rales, bronchial rales heard through consolidated pulmonary tissue on ausculta- tion in pneumonia, caused by mucus in the bronchial tubes surrounded by consolidated structure. S., Skoda's, S., Resonance, S., Tympany, a tympanitic note on percussing the chest above a large pleural effusion or above the line of consolidation in pneumonia, heard when a pleural effusion extends up to the fourth rib or above, and indicating vicarious action of the portion of lung not involved (apex or upper lobe). S. of Smallpox. See S., Grisolle's. S., Smith's (Eustace), of bronchitis: a murmur audible over the sternum when the chin is drawn up. S. of the Sou. See S., Sieur's. Spence's Test, a tumor of the mammary gland can be distinguished from an inflammatory enlarge- ment by the absence, in the latter case, of any tumefaction, there being only the lumpy and wormy sensation of the swollen acini and ducts. S., Spiegelberg's, a sensation like that of passing over wet india-rubber, im- parted to the finger which presses on, and moves along, the affected part; it is noted in cancer of the cervix uteri. Spondylitis. See S., Rosenthal's. S., Squires' (G. W.), a rhythmic dilation and contraction of the pupil in basilar meningitis. S., Stairs, dif- ficulty in descending stairs; one of the early symptoms of locomotor ataxia. S., Steele's, exaggerated pulsation over the whole area of the cardiac region; it is noted in intra- thoracic tumor. S., Stellwag's, an appar- ent widening of the palpebral aperture, seen on retraction of upper eyelid, and occur- ring in exophthalmic goiter. S.s of Sten- osis. See S., Aujrecht's, S., Reichmann's, Traube's Phenomenon, in this table. S., Stiller's, marked mobility or fluctuation of the tenth rib in neurasthenia and enteroptosis. Syn., Costa fluctuans decima. S., Stokes', t. Violent throbbing in the abdomen to the right of the umbilicus on palpation occurring in acute enteritis. 2. Marked feebleness of the first heart-sound, which calls for alcoholic stimulation if it occurs during fevers. S., Straus', in facial paralysis from a central cause the hypoder- matic injection of pilocarpin causes no ap- preciable difference in the perspiration of the two sides, either as to time or quantity, whereas there is a marked retardation of the secretion on the affected side in severe pe- ripheral paralysis. S., Strauss', the admin- istration of fatty food by the mouth causes an increase in the amount of fatty constituents in the effusion of chylous ascites. S., Sub- jective, one recognized only by the patient. S.s of Syphilis. See S., Demarquay's, S., Justus', S., Krisowski's, S., Silex's, S., Weg- ner's. S.s of Tabes. See S., Bechterew's, S., Berger's, S., Biernacki's, S., Frenkel's, S., Gowers', S., Pitres' (2), S., Remak's, S., Romberg's (1), Sanger's Pupil-reaction, in this table, S., Sarbo's. Tache cerebrale, the appearance of a red line upon drawing the finger-nail over the skin, occurring in tuberculous meningitis, acute fevers, and other conditions. S., Tarnier's, the effacement of the angle between the upper and lower uterine segments, found on digital examination, occurring in pregnancy, and indicating inevitable abortion. S., Tchoud- novsky's, in cases of pneumoperitonitis with intestinal perforation a peculiar murmur heard on abdominal auscultation, at each respiratory movement, and in which the maximum intensity is situated at the surface of the perforation. S.s of Tetany. See Bechterew's Reaction, S., Erb's (1), S., Hoffmann's, S., Weiss'. S., Thornton's, violent pain in the flanks in nephro- lithiasis. S., Tourette's (Gilles de la), inversion of the ratio existing normally between the earthy phosphates and alka- line phosphates of the urine; it is found in paroxysms of hysteria. Traube's Phenom- enon, a double sound, systolic and diastolic, heard over peripheral arteries, especially the femoral, in aortic insufficiency, occasionally also in mitral stenosis, lead-poisoning, etc. S., Tresilian's, of mumps: the opening of Stenson's duct on the inner surface of the cheek, outside the second upper molar, be- comes a bright red papilla. S., Troisier's, enlargement of the left supraclavicular lymph-glands, an indication . of malignant disease of the intraabdominal region. S., Trousseau's, T.'s Phenomenon, muscular spasm, which continues as long as pressure is applied on the large arteries or on the nerve- trunk in tetany, showing heightened neuro- muscular irritability. Trousseau's Points apophysaires, points sensitive to pressure over the dorsal and lumbar vertebras in in- tercostal and lumboabdominal neuralgias. Trousseau's, Spots. See Tache cerebrale in this table. S.s of Tuberculosis. See Bareggi's Reaction, S., Grancher's, S., Hoch- singer's, S., Murat's, S., -Roussel's. S.s of Tumor. See S., Nothnagel's, S., Roser- Braun's, Spence's Test, in this table, S., Steele's. S.S of Typhoid. See Bareggi's Reaction, S., Doane's. S., Uhthoff's, the nystagmus of multiple cerebrospinal scler- osis. Ulnar Phenomenon, a condition of analgesia of the trunk of the ulnar nerve on one side, absent in the majority of general paralytics and mostly present in other insane ■• SIGNA 885 SILK patients. S., Unschuld's, a tendency to cramps in the calf of the leg; it is an early sign in diabetes. Valleix's Points, tender spots along the course of a nerve, noticeable on pressure in neuralgia. S., Vigouroux's, diminished resistance of the skin to electric stimulation in exophthalmic goiter. S., Vin- cent's. See Argyll Robertson Pupil in this table. S., Vohsen-Davidsohn's. See S., Davidsohn's. S., Voltolini-Her- yng's. See S., Heryng's. S., (von) Wahl's. i. Distention of the bowel (local meteorism) above the point at which there exists an obstruction. 2. A scrap- ing or blowing sound, synchronous with the cardiac impulse, heard over an arterial trunk immediately after the partial division, through injury, of the vessel. S., Warthin's, accentuation of the pulmonary sound in acute pericarditis. S., Weber's, paralysis of the oculomotor nerve of one side and hemi- plegia of the opposite side. S., Wegner's, in fetal syphilis the dividing line between the epiphysis and diaphysis of long bones, which under normal conditions is delicate and recti- linear, appears as a broad, irregular, yellowish line. S., Weiss, " facialis phenomenon," contraction of the facial muscles upon light percussion; it is noticed in tetany, neuras- thenia, hysteria, and exophthalmic goiter. S., Wernicke's. See Reaction, Hemianopic Pupillary. Westphal's Foot-phenomenon, ankle-clonus, obtained by suddenly flexing the foot on the leg in lateral sclerosis and various other conditions. Westphal's Para- doxic Contraction, the tonic contraction of the anterior tibial muscle caused by the pas- sive approximation of its extremities by rapid dorsal flexion of the foot, occurring in paralysis agitans (Westphal) and sclerosis of the poste- rolateral columns of the cord. S., Westphal's, abolition of the knee-jerk in locomotor ataxia, destructive lesions of the lower part of the cord, peripheral neuritis, etc. Westphal -Erb Symptom. Same as S., Westphal's. S., Williams', diminished inspiratory expansion on the left side in adherent pericardium. Williams' Tracheal Tone, a dull tym- panitic resonance, becoming higher pitched on opening the mouth, heard on percussion in pleural effusion, and arising from the vibration of air in a large bronchus sur- rounded by compressed lung. S., Win- trich's, change in the pitch on percussion when the mouth is opened and closed in tuberculosis of lung, and indicating a pulmo- nary cavity.


  • Signa (sig'-nah) [sign]. Mark. In prescrip- tion-writing, a term placed before the physi- cian's directions to the patient concerning the medicine prescribed ; abbreviated to S. or Sig.
  • Signaletic (sig-nal-et'-ik). Relating to signal- ization.
  • Signature (sig' -nat-ur) [sign]. 1. The part of the prescription that is to be placed on the label. 2. A distinguishing character. S., Doctrine of, a theory that the medicinal uses of plants or other objects can be determined from the signatures or peculiar characters.
  • Siguatera (sig-wah-te'-rah) [Sp., "fish-poison- ing"]. 1. The name given by Spanish colonists to a complex of symptoms that resulted from eating poisonous fishes indigen- ous to certain hot countries. 2. Poisoning from the ingestion of fresh food uninfected by bacteria, but in which the toxin is a leuko- main formed by the physiologic activity of the tissues.
  • Sikimin (sik'-im-in) [sikkim, a region of the Himalaya]. A poisonous principle derived from Illicium religiosum.
  • Silberol (sil'-ber-ol). See Silver Paraphenol- suljonate.

Silent Region of the Spinal Cord. The gray matter of the cord.


  • Silica (sil'-ik-ah) [silex, flint]. Silicon dioxid, Si0 2 , occurring in nature in the form of quartz, flint, and other minerals.
  • Silicate (sil'-ik-dt) [silica]. A salt of silicic acid.
  • Silicic Acid (sil-is'-ik) [silica], H 4 Si0 4 . A tetrabasic acid forming the silicates. See Sodium Silicate.
  • Silicon (sil'-ik-on) [silica]. A nonmetallic element occurring widely distributed in nature as silica, Si0 2 , and in the form of silicates. Atomic weight 28.2; symbol Si; valence iv. It resembles carbon in its chemic behavior. S. Carbid, a compound prepared by heating in an electric furnace silica and carbon in the presence of salt. Next to the diamond it is the hardest substance known. The pure salt forms colorless, transparent laminas of diamond-like luster. Its specific gravity is 3.22 and its index of hardness 9.5. S. Te- tracetate, Si(0 . C 2 H 3 0) 4 , acetoorthosilicic anhydrid, a substance occurring in prismatic crystals.
  • Silicosis (sil-ik-o'-sis) [silica]. A deposit of particles of silica in the tissues; specifically, a chronic fibroid condition of the lung or the bronchial lymphatic glands, produced by the inhalation of particles of silica.
  • Siliqua (sil-ik' -wah) [siliqua, a husk or pod; pi., siliqua]. Same as Silique. S. olivae, S. olivae externa, the nerve-fibers encircling the olive. S. olivae interna, dentoliva.
  • Silique (sil-ek') [siliqua, a husk or pod]. In biology, the slender, two-valved capsule of some Cruciferce.

Silk [ME.]. The simplest and most perfect of the textile fibers. It differs from all other fibers in that it is found in nature as a con- tinuous fine thread. Silk is the product of the silkworm(Bombyx mori), and is simply the fiber that the worm spins around itself for protection when entering the pupa or chry- salis state. The silk-fiber consists, to the extent of rather more than half its weight, of fibroin, C 15 H 23 N 5 6 , a nitrogenous principle. Covering this is the silk-glue, or sericin, C 15 - SILKWORM-GUT 886 SIMON'S POSTURE H 25 N 5 8 . The most important physical properties of the silk-fiber are its luster, strength, and avidity for moisture. Besides the true silk, we have several socalled "wild silks," the most important of which is the tusser silk, the product of the larva of the moth, Anther aa mylitta, found in India. The cocoons are much larger than those of the true silkworm, are egg-shaped, and of a silvery drab color. The cocoon is very firm and hard, and the silk is of a drab color. It is used for the buff-colored Indian silks, and latterly largely in the manufacture of silk plush. Other wild silks are the eria silk of India, the muga silk of Assam, the atlas or fagara silk of China, and the yama-mai silk of Japan. Silk has been used as a hemo- static. S., Epispastic, silk containing some vesicant. S. Floss, Dentists', untwisted filaments of fine silk prepared expressly for the purpose of cleaning the surfaces of the teeth, and used by some dentists for finishing the surfaces of fillings in the sides of teeth. S. Gelatin, a glutinous mass formed by boil- ing certain kinds of raw silk in water. It is used in bacteriology as a culture-medium for the majority of bacilli of water and air. S.-grass, pineapple fiber. S., Saddler's, a heavy silk used by saddlers and to some ex- tent in surgery. S., Tait's, cable twist; it differs from ordinary silk in containing the gums or animal matter imparted by the worm in the spinning process.

Silkworm-gut. The thread drawn from the silkworm killed when ready to spin the co- coon.


  • Silphologic (sil-fol-oj f -ik) [aiX(f>t), an insect; hbyoc, science]. Larval.
  • Silver. See Argentum. S. Arsenite, Ag 3 As0 3 , an alterative and antiseptic; used in skin diseases. Dose t^q^o g r - (0.0006-0.001 1 Gm.). S. -casein, a fine white powder, soluble in hot water, obtained from sodium casein by action of silver nitrate and alcohol. It is used in gonorrhea in 2 to 10% solutions. S. Chlorid, AgCl, a white powder, soluble in ammonium, potassium thiosulfate, or potassium cyanid. It is used as an antiseptic and a nerve-sedative. Dose ir-f-17 gr. (0.02-0.05-0.1 Gm.). Syn., Horn-silver; Luna cornea. S. Citrate, Ag 3 C 6 H 5 7 , a fine dry powder soluble in 3800 parts of water, used as a surgical antiseptic and disinfectant. Application 1 to 2 % ointment or 1 : 4000 solution. Syn., Itrol. S., Colloidal, a form of metallic silver consisting of heavy greenish- black particles of metallic luster which, when triturated with water, form a greenish-black fluid. It is used in the treatment of septic diseases, applied in the form of an ointment. Syn., Argentum colloidale; Argentum Crede; Collargol. S. Cyanid. See Argenti cyanidum under Argentum. S. Fluorid, AgFI, a brown, glassy, elastic solid, very soluble in water, discovered by Paterno in 190 1. It is used as an antiseptic. Syn., Tachiol. S.- fork Deformity, a peculiar deformity of the wrist and hand in Colles' fracture, resembling a fork. S. Gelatose, albargin. S. Ich- thyolate. See Ichthargan. S. Iodid. See Argenti iodidum under Argentum. S. Lac- tate, AgC 3 H 5 O s + H 2 0, a white, soluble powder, recommended as a surgical anti- septic. Injection in erysipelas 5 gr. (0.3 Gm.) to 3 t 3 q oz. (100 Cc). of water; as a wash, 1 teaspoonful of solution 1 : 50 in a glass of water. Syn., Actol. S. Nitrate. See Argenti nitras under Argentum. S. Nucleate, S. Nuc- leid. See Nargol. S. Oxid. See Argenti. oxidum under Argentum. S. Paraph enol- sulfonate, an external antiseptic. Syn., Silberol. S. and Potassium Cyanid, AgK- (CN) 2 , very poisonous white crystals, soluble in 4 parts of water at 20 C. or 25 parts of 85% alcohol. It is antiseptic and bacteri- cide. One part in 50,000 destroys anthrax bacilli. S.-protalbin. See Largin. S. Sulfocarbolate, S. Sulfophenate, a fine, crystalline powder containing about 28% of metallic silver; it is a noncorrosive anti- septic, used in eye diseases and wounds. S. Test for Glucose in Urine, add ammonia in excess to a strong solution of silver nitrate; add the urine and boil. In the presence of glucose a metallic silver mirror is deposited at the bottom of the tube. Aldehyd and tartaric acid give the same reaction. S. Thiohydrocarburosulfonate. See Ichthar- gan. S. Trinitrophenolate, a compound containing 30% of silver, used as an anti- septic on inflamed mucosas. Syn., Picratol. S. Vitellin. See Argyrol.
  • Simaba (sim-a'-bah) [native name in Guiana]. A genus of simarubaceous tropical trees. The seeds of S. cedron are antiperiodic and tonic. Dose of fluidextract 1-8 min. (0.06- 0.5 Cc). It contains, according to Tanret, the alkaloid cedronin and also cedrin. The bark also has tonic and febrifuge properties.
  • Simaruba (sim-ar-u'-bah). A genus of trees of the order Simarubacece. The bark of the root of S. officinalis has been used as a simple bitter.
  • Similia similibus curentur, Doctrine of. A sophism formulated by Hippocrates, later by Paracelsus ("simile similis cura, non contrarium"), and later, as one of the results of the reaction against the heroic measures of venesection and drastic medication, by Sam- uel Christian Friedrich Hahnemann, the apostle of homeopathy, whose doctrine that like is to be cured by like led naturally to the practice of isopathy (q. v.), according to which smallpox is to be treated by variolous pus, tapeworm by ingestion of proglottids, etc.

Simon's Posture. The dorsal posture with the legs and thighs flexed, the hips elevated, and the thighs abducted. S.'s Symptom, immobility or retraction of the umbilicus dur- ing inspiration, sometimes seen in tuberculous meningitis. S.'s Triangles, two roughly tri- angular areas covering — (1) the lower portion of the abdomen, the inner surface of the thigh to a point 10 to 12 centimeters below the SIMONART'S BANDS 887 SINUS pubes, and the inguinal region as far outward as the trochanter (abdominocrural or femoral triangle); .and (2) the axillary and pectoral regions and the inner surface of the arm (brachial triangle). They are frequently the seat of petechial or petechioerythematous rashes during the first three days of smallpox.

Simonart's Bands, S.'s Threads. Amniotic bands formed by drawn-out adhesions be- tween the fetus and the amnion where the cavity has become distended through the ac- cumulation of fluid.


  • Simple (sim'-pl) [simplex, simple]. Not com- plex; consisting of but one substance, or containing only one active substance; not compound.
  • Simples (sim'-plz) [simple]. A term for herbs having a medicinal value.

Sims' Depressor [J. Marion Sims, an American gynecologist]. An instrument for depressing the anterior vaginal wall. S.'s Posture, the semiprone position for vaginal operations. S.'s Speculum, the duckbill vaginal speculum for the perineum.


  • Simulation (sim-u-la' -shun) [simulare, to feign]. A feigning or counterfeiting.
  • Sinai (si'-nal). Relating to or situated within a sinus.
  • Sinalbin (sin-al'-bin). See under Mustard.
  • Sinamin (sin'-am-in), C 3 H 5 CN. Allyl cyana- mid, a substance obtained from crude oil of mustard.
  • Sinapin (sin'-ap-in) [ocvanc, mustard], C 16 - N 23 O s . A substance occurring as a sulfo- cyanate in white mustard.
  • Sinapis (sin-a' -pis) . Mustard. See Mustard.
  • Sinapism (sin' -ap-izm) [sinapis]. A mustard- plaster.
  • Sinapized (sin' -ap-izd) [sinapis]. Containing mustard.
  • Sinapol (sin'-ap-oT). A mixture recommended as an application for neuralgia, rheumatism, etc., said to consist of spirit of rosemary (1 : 15), 780 Gm.; castor-oil, 120 Gm.; menthol, 30 Gm.; essence of mustard, 30 Gm. ; aconitin, 0.4 Gm.
  • Sinapolin (sin-a p'-ol-in). Diallylurea, a sub- stance obtained from mustard oil by heating with water and lead oxid.
  • Sincalin (sing'-ka-lin). A base found in mus- tard and identified with cholin.
  • Sincipital (sin-sip' -it-al) [sinciput]. Pertain- ing to the sinciput.
  • Sinciput (sin' -sip-ut) [semi, half; caput, head]. The superior and anterior part of the head.
  • Sinew (sin'-u). A tendon (q. v.).
  • Singult (sin'-gult) [singultus, a sobbing]. A sob.
  • Singultous (sin- gulf -us). Relating to or af- fected with hiccup.
  • Sinigrin (sin'-ig-rin). A glucosid found in black mustard.
  • Sinistrad (sin' -is-trad) [sinister, left; ad, toward]. Toward the left.
  • Sinistral (sin' -is-tral) [sinister]. 1. On the left side. 2. Showing preference for the left hand, eye, foot, etc., for certain acts or functions.
  • Sinistrality (sin-is-tral'-it-e) [sinister]. The preference generally for the left hand, eye, foot, etc., in performing certain acts.
  • Sinistration (sin-is-tra' -shun) . 1. A turning to the left. 2. Sinistrality.
  • Sinistraural (sin-is-traw' -rat) [sinister; auris, ear]. Left-eared; the reverse is dextr aural.
  • Sinistrin (sin' -is-trin) [sinister]. A substance resembling dextrin, found in squill. S., Animal. See under Helicoproteid.
  • Sinistro- (sin-is-tro-) [sinister, left]. A prefix meaning left or toward the left side.
  • Sinistrocardial (sin-is-tro-kar' -de-al) [sinistro-; napd'ca, heart]. Having the heart to the left of the median line; the reverse is dextro car dial.
  • Sinistrocerebral (sin-is-tro-ser' -e-bral) . 1. Lo- cated in the left cerebral hemisphere. 2. Functionating preferentially with the left side of the brain; the reverse is dextrocerebral.
  • Sinistrocular (sin-is-trok'-u-lar). Left-eyed; the reverse is dextrocular.
  • Sinistrohepatal (sin-is-tro-hep' -at-al) [sinistro-; yizap, liver]. Having the liver to the left of the median line; the reverse is dextrohepatal.
  • Sinistromanual (sin-is-tro-man' -u-al) [sinistro-; mantis, hand]. Left-handed; the reverse is dextromanual.
  • Sinistropedal (sin-is-tro p'-ed-af) [sinistro-; pes, foot]. Left-footed ; the reverse is dextropedal.
  • Sinistrorse (sin'-is-trors) [sinistro-; vertere, to turn]. In biology, turning from right to left.
  • Sinistrosplenic (sin-is-tro-splen'-ik). Having the spleen to the left of the median line; the reverse is dextro splenic.
  • Sinistrotorsion (sin-is-tro-tor' -shun) [sinistro-; torquere, to turn]. A . twisting or turning toward the left; the reverse is dextr otorsion.
  • Sinistrous (sin'-is-trus). Awkward; unskilled; the reverse is dextrous, skilled, expert.
  • Sinus (si'-nus) [L., "a gulf or hollow"]. 1. A hollow or cavity; a recess or pocket. 2. A large channel containing blood, especially one containing venous blood. 3. A suppurating tract. Sinuses, Accessory, of the Nose, the maxillary, frontal, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinuses. S., Air-, a cavity within bones con- taining air, especially one communicating with the nasal passages. S., Aortic. See S. of Valsalva. S., Arlt's, a small depression, directed forward and outward, in the lower portion of the lacrimal sac; it is not constant. S., Cavernous, a large venous sinus extend- ing from the sphenoid fissure to the apex of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, communicating behind with the inferior and superior petrosal sinuses and receiving the oph- thalmic vein in front. S., Circular, a venous SINUS 888 SITOTOXICON sinus surrounding the pituitary body, and com- municating on each side with the cavernous sinus. S., Common, of the Vestibule. See Utricle (i). S., Goronary (of the heart), a large venous sinus in the transverse groove between the left auricle and left ventricle of the heart. S., Duncan's, the fifth ventricle. S., Ethmoid, the ethmoid cells. S., Frontal, one of the two irregular cavities in the frontal bone containing air and communicating with the nose by the infundibulum. S., Guerin's, the lacuna magna, situated in the mesial line of the upper wall of the urethra, near the external meatus. S. of the Heart, the chief cavity of either of the auricles. S., Inferior Longitudinal, a venous sinus which extends along the posterior half of the lower border of the falx cerebri and terminates in the straight sinus. S., Inferior Petrosal, a large venous sinus arising from the cavernous sinus running along the lower margin of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, and joining the lateral sinus to form the internal jugular vein. S. of Kidney, the prolongation inward of the hilum of the kidney. S. of the Larynx, the ventricle of the larynx. S., Lateral, a venous sinus which begins at the torcular herophili and runs horizontally on the inner surface of the occipital bone to the base of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, where it unites with the inferior pe- trosal sinus to form the internal jugular vein. S., Lieutaud's, the straight sinus. S., Littre's, the transverse sinus. Sinuses, Mastoid, the mastoid cells. S. of Mor- gagni, the interval between the upper border of the superior constrictor muscle and the basilar process of the occipital bone. S., Occipital, a small venous sinus in the at- tached margin of the falx cerebelli, opening into the torcular herophili. S., Petrosquam- osal. See Petrosquamosal Sinus. S. -phleb- itis, inflammation of one of the sinuses of the cranial cavity. S. pocularis. See Uterus masculinus. Sinuses, Precaval. See Ducts of Cuvier. S., Prostatic. See Uterus mascu- linus. S., Rhomboid, S. rhomboideus, the fourth ventricle of the brain. S., Sagit- tal, Inferior. See S., Inferior Longitudinal. S., Sphenoid, the air-space in the body of the sphenoid bone, communicating with the nasal cavity. S., Squamosopetrosal. See Petro- squamosal Sinus. S., Straight, a venous si- nus running from the inferior longitudinal si- nus along the junction of the falx cerebri and tentorium to the lateral sinus. S., Sup- erior Longitudinal, a venous sinus which runs along the upper edge of the falx cerebri, beginning in front at the crista galli and terminating at the torcular herophili. S., Superior Petrosal, a venous sinus run- ning in a groove in the petrous portion of the temporal bone, extending from the posterior part of the cavernous sinus to the lateral sinus. S., Terminal, S. terminalis, a vein that encircles the vascular area of the blastoderm, and empties either by one trunk, the anterior vitelline vein, into the left vitelline vein, or by two trunks into both vitelline veins. S. -thrombosis, thrombosis of the sinuses of the dura mater of the brain. It is usually septic in character, and is likely to lead to pyemia. The most frequent cause is disease of the middle ear. S., Transverse, a sinus uniting the inferior petrosal sinuses. S., Urogenital, the canal or duct into which, in the embryo, the wolffian ducts and the bladder empty, and which opens into the cloaca. S. of Valsalva, one of the pouch- like dilations of the aorta or pulmonary artery opposite the segments of the semilunar valves.
  • Sinusitis (si-nus-i'-tis). Inflammation of a sinus. S., Serous, S., Chronic Catarrhal. See Mucocele.
  • Sinusoidal (si-nus-oid'-aT). Pertaining to or derived from a sinusoid.
  • Sinusoids (si'-nus-oids) [sinus; eldoc, like- ness]. A system of relatively large spaces or tubes constituting the embryonic circulatory system in the suprarenal gland; also in the liver and the pronephron and mesonephron; the endothelial walls are in close apposition to the cells of the parenchyma, without the intervention of connective tissue.
  • Sionagra (si-on-a'-grah) [ocayojv, the jaw-bone; ay pa, a seizure]. Gout in the jaw-bone.
  • Siphon (si'-Jon) [o'c^wv, a tube]. A tube bent at an angle, one arm of which is longer than the other, for the purpose of removing liquids from a cavity or vessel.
  • Siphonoma (si-fon-o'-mah) [siphon; opta, tumor]. A tumor composed of fine tubes. Syn., Henle's tubular tumor.
  • Sirenomelus (si-ren-om' -el-us) [ostp-qv, mer- maid; fi&oc', a limb]. A form of monster in which the lower extremities are intimately fused, the feet being absent.
  • Sirolin (sir'-ol-in). Thiocol, 10%, in a syrup of orange bark. It is used in tuberculosis, bronchitis, and intestinal catarrh. Dose 3 or 4 teaspoonfuls (15-20 Cc.) daily.
  • Sirup (sir' -up). See Syrup.
  • Sisymbrium (sis-im' -bre-um) [owjjiftpcov, from oaf, a pig; [email protected], rainy, wet; a plant grow- ing in wet places where swine wallowed]. A genus of cruciferous plants. 5. officinale, wild mustard, singer's herb, is a European species, laxative, diuretic, and expectorant, and is employed in laryngeal catarrh and laryngitis. Dose 3 cupfuls a day of a decoction of 30 Gm. of the leaves, sweetened with 60 Gm. of a syrup of the drug made in the usual way.
  • Sitieirgia (sit-e-ir f -je-ah) [oacov, food; etpyecv, to shut out]. Sollier's term for hysteric ano- rexia.
  • Sitogen (si'-to-jen). A vegetable food-product intended to replace meat-extracts.
  • Sitomania (si-to-ma' -ne-ah) [olxoc, food; tiav'ca, madness]. 1. A periodic craving for food; periodic bulimia. 2. Sitophobia.
  • Sitophobia (si-to-fo'-be-ah) [olroc, food; 4>6fioc, fear]. Morbid aversion to food.
  • Sitotoxicon (si-to-toks' -ik-on) [a hoc, food; SITOTOXIN SKELETOTOPIC to£ckov, poison]. The active poisonous agent in sitotoxism; all sitotoxicons are not of bac- terial origin.
  • Sitotoxin (si-to-toks' -in) [see Sitotoxicon]. Any basic poison generated in vegetable food by growth of bacteria or fungi.
  • Sitotoxism (si-to-toks' -izm) [see Sitotoxicon]. Poisoning with vegetable food infected with molds and bacteria.
  • Situs (si'-tus) [L., "site"]. A position. S. viscerum inversus, an anomaly in which the viscera of the body are changed from the nor- mal to the opposite side of the body.
  • Sitzbath (sits' -bath) [Ger., Sitz, a seat; bath]. A hip-bath; a bath taken in a sitting pos- ture.

Sjoeqvist's Test for the Quantita- tive Estimation of Free HC1 in the Gastric Juice. It depends upon the action of barium carbon- ate on the acid of the secretion, the hydrochloric acid being estimated as barium chlorid by means of titration with a solution of potas- sium dichromate.


  • Skatol (skat'-ol) [oKaroc, gen. of oK Cervical verte- bras.





  • Bony Skeleton. — (Brubaker.) SKELETOTOPY 890 SKULL Skeletotopy (skel-et-ot'-o-pe) [skeleto-; totzoc, a place]. Waldeyer's term for the relation of an organ or part to the osseous skeleton of the whole organism. Cf. Holotopy; Idiotopy; Syntopy.

Skene's Glands. Two complex tubular glands in the mucosa of the female urethra opening by small ducts just within the meatus urinarius.

Skerljivo. See Scherlievo.


  • Skiagram (ski'-ag-ram) \onca, shadow; -j-pafifia, a writing]. The finished, printed roentgen-ray picture. Syn., Inductogram; Shadowgram.
  • Skiagrapher (ski-ag'-raf-er). An adept in 'ski- agraphy.
  • Skiagraphy (ski-ag'-ra-fe) [onia, shadow; ypa- SOLAR GANGLIONS 896 SOLUTION mended in epilepsy, tetanus, and convulsions of pregnancy. Dose 10-30 min. (0.6-1.8 Cc). It is also used as an abortifacient. 5. crispum, S. gayanum, and S. tomatillo are indigenous to Chili and Peru, and are used under the name oinatrix in inflammatory fevers, in typhus, etc. 6 1 . dulcamara, bittersweet, is indigenous to Europe and Asia, and contains dulcamarin and solanin. An extract from the young branches is employed as an alterant and diu- retic in dropsy, cutaneous diseases, and rheu- matism. Dose 5-20 gr. (0.32-1.3 Gm.j. S. insidiosum and S. paniculatum, jurubeba, are species of Brazil, and are alterative and anti- blennorrheic. Dose of fluidextract in gonor- rhea and syphilis 15-30 min. (0.9-1.8 Cc). S. nigrum, nightshade, is found in Europe, Asia, and America, is used as a diuretic and emetic, and externally as a cataplasm. 5. tuberosum is the potato, indigenous to Chili; it contains solanin, solanidin, solanein, and a small amount of tropein. The tubers contain the proteid tuberin.
  • Solar Ganglions (so'-lar) [solaris, from sol, the sun, so called because of the radiating nerves]. See under 5. Plexus. S. Plexus, a plexus con- sisting of a network of nerves and ganglions (solar ganglions), and situated behind the stomach and in front of the aorta and crura of the diaphragm. It receives the great splanchnic nerves and filaments from the right pneumogastric nerve, and supplies branches to all the abdominal viscera.
  • Solarization (so-lar-i-za' -shun) [sol, the sun]. The application of solar or electric light for therapeutic purposes.

Solayres' Obliquity. Lateral obliquity. De- scent of the child 's head by its occipitomental diameter into the oblique diameter of the pelvis.

Soldani's Solution for Glucose. Fifteen Gm. of copper carbonate dissolved in 1400 Cc. of water, to which is added 416 Gm. of potassium bicarbonate. A reduction of copper suboxid is obtained by heating the foregoing solution with a glucose solution.


  • Sole (sol) [AS.]. The plantar surface of the foot. S.-reflex. See Reflex, Plantar.
  • Solenoid (so' -len-oid) [aojX-qv, a pipe; eldoc, like- ness]. A spiral of conducting wire wound into a cylindric shape so that it is almost equivalent to a number of equal and parallel circuits ar- ranged upon a common axis; in therapeutics the name is applied to a large cage used for holding the patients in teslaization in such manner that they are not in direct communica- tion with the current.
  • Soleus (so-le'-us). A flat muscle of the calf. See under Muscle.
  • Solferino (sol-fer-e'-no) [an Italian city, the scene of a battle]. A synonym of Fuchsin.
  • Solicictus (so-lis-ik r -tus). Synonym of Heat- stroke.
  • Solid (sol'-id) [solidus, solid]. 1. Firm; dense; not fluid or gaseous. 2. Not hollow. 3. A firm body; a body the molecules of which are in a condition of strong mutual attraction.
  • Solidism (sol' -id-izm) [solid]. The theory that diseases depend upon alterations in the solids of the body.
  • Solitary (sol' -it-a-re) [solitarius, solitary]. Single; existing separately; not collected together. S. Bundle, a strand of nerve -fibers in the medulla. S. Follicles, S. Glands, minute lymphatic nodules in the mucous membrane of the intestine.
  • Sollunar (sol-lu' -nar) [sol, sun; luna, moon]. Influenced by or relating to the sun and the moon.

Solly's Arciform Band. See Rolando's Arci- form Fibers.


  • Solphinol (sol'-fe-nol). A mixture of borax, boric acid, and sulfurous alkalis; a white, crystalline, odorless powder, soluble in 10 parts of water or in 20 parts of glycerol. It is used as an antiseptic.
  • Solpugidae (sol-pu' -je-de) [solpuga, a venomous spider]. A group of spider-like arachnids hav- ing closer relationship to the scorpions than to the true spiders. Their bite is poisonous.
  • Solubility (sol-u-bil' -it-e) [solubilis, from solvere, to dissolve]. The state of being soluble.
  • Soluble (sol'-u-bl) [solubilis]. Capable of being dissolved.
  • Solutio (so-lu'-she-o). See Solution.
  • Solution (so -lu' -shun) [solutio, from solvere, to loosen]. 1. A separation or break, as solution of continuity. 2. The process of dissolving a solid or of being dissolved. 3. A liquid in which a substance has been dissolved. S., Burrow's, one consisting of alum, 5 parts; lead acetate, 25 parts; in 500 parts of water; used to wash old ulcers. S., Colloidal, one obtained by dip- ping bars of metal into pure water and pass- ing a heavy electric current from one bar to the other through the water. The metal under these conditions is torn off in a state of such fine division that it remains suspended in the water in the form of a solution. Syn., Pseudo solution. S. of Cresol, Compound {liquor cresolis compositus, U. S. P.), cresol, 500 Gm.; linseed-oil, 350 Gm.; potassium hy- droxid, 80 Gm.; water, to make 1000 Gm. S., Dobell's, one containing 2 dr. of borax, of sodium bicarbonate, 45 gr. phenol, oz. glycerol, and water to make one pint. S., Donovan's. See Arsenic I odid, Solution of Mercuric and of. S., Fowler's. See Fow- ler's Solution. S., Gowers', for use with the hemoglobin ometer : sodium sulfate, 104 gr.; acetic acid, 1 dr.; distilled water, 4 oz. S. Grammolecular, one in which each liter contains the weight of one atom or molecule of the active chemical expressed in grams. S., Harris' (Thos.), for the preservation of organic urinary sediments: potassium acetate, 60 Gm. ; chloroform, 10 Cc. ; distilled water, 1000 Cc. S.,Hayem's. See Hayem's Solution. S.,Herard's, sodium chlorate, 0.5 Gm.; potassium chlorid, 0.25 Gm.; sodium phosphate, 1.25 Gm.; sodium chlorid, 4.5 Gm. ; distilled water, 1000 Cc. S.s, Iso- tonic, such as are equal in osmotic pressure, SOLUTOL 897 SOMITE S.,Keyes', for use with the hemoglobinom- eter: "Take urine slightly phosphatic, easily obtainable after a meal, about 1020 sp. gr., and make of it a saturated solution with borax. Clouds of earthy phosphates are thrown down. Filtration yields a clear alkaline fluid of sp. gr. about 1030. One-half of water added will reduce the specific gravity to 1020 and the fluid is ready for use." S.,Labarraque's. See Labarraque's Solution. Solutio lithan- tracis acetonica, a solution of coal-tar 10 parts, in benzol 20 parts, and acetone 77 parts. It is employed in skin diseases. S., Loffler's, menthol, 10 Gm.; toluene, suf- ficient to make 36 Cc; creolin, 2 Cc; ferric chlorid solution, 4 Cc; alcohol, sufficient to make 100 Cc. S., MandPs, a gargle con- sisting of iodin, 6 gr.; potassium iodid, 20 gr.; glycerol, 6 dr.; water, 2 dr. S., Monsel's. See Monsel's Solution. S., Normal. See Normal Solution. S., Normal Saline. See Saline Solution. S., Potain's, for use with the hemoglobinometer: a mixture of a solution of gum acacia, sp. gr. 1020, 1 volume; equal parts of sodium sulfate and sodium chlorid in solution of sp. gr. 1020, 3 volumes. S., Potas- sium Silicate, a colorless, slightly turbid, syrupy liquid with alkaline reaction, consisting of 10 % of potassium silicate in water, K 2 Si0 3 - H 2 0. Solutio retinae, detachment of the retina. S., Saturated. See Saturated (1). S., Sherrington's, for use with the hemo- cytometer: methylene-blue, 0.1 Gm.; sodium chlorid, 1.2 Gm.; neutral potassium oxalate, 1.2 Gm. ; distilled water, 300 Cc. S., Test-, a standard solution. S., Thiersch's, a valu- able antiseptic wash for the nose, throat, or stomach, consisting of salicylic acid, 2 parts; boric acid, 12 parts; water, 1000 parts. S., Toisson's, for use with the hemocytometer: methyl-violet, 5 B, 0.025 Gm.; sodium chlorid, 1 Gm. ; sodium sulfate, 8 Gm. ; neutral glycerol, 30 Cc. ; distilled water, 160 Cc. S., Topfer's, a solution of dimethylamidoazo- benzol. S., Trunecek's. See Serum, Trune- cek's. S.s, Van't Hoff's Theory of, "The osmotic pressure of a substance in solution is the same as the gas pressure which would be f observed if the substance alone, in gaseous state, occupied the volume of the solution at the same temperature." S., Water-glass. See 5., Potassium Silicate. (For solutions not de- fined here see the qualifying word.) Solutol (sol-u'-tol) [solution]. An alkaline solu- tion of cresol in sbdium cresylate, used as a disinfectant.
  • Solvent (sol' -vent) [solvere, to dissolve]. 1. Capable of dissolving. 2. A liquid capable of dissolving.
  • Solveol (sol'-ve-ol). A neutral solution of cresol in sodium cresylate, used as a disin- fectant.
  • Solvine (soV-vin). One of a series of liquids ob- tained from certain oils by the action of con- centrated sulfuric acid ; it is a powerful solvent, and also possesses the property of dissolving the red corpuscles. 58 Somacule (so'-mak-ul) [dim. of ofia, body; Adj-of, science]. The study of anatomy and physi- ology of organized bodies; biology apart from psychology.
  • Somatome (so'-mat-om) [oaj/ia, body; roptrj, a cutting]. A transverse segment of an organ- ized body; a somite.
  • Somatopleure (so-maf '-o-plur) [otifia, body; rcXeupa, the side]. The body-wall.
  • Somatose (so'-mat-oz) [oajpta, body]. A pro- prietary albumose food-product. S.,Ferro-, S., Iron, a preparation of somatose containing 2 % of iron. Dose 75-150 gr. (5-10 Gm.) daily. S., Milk, a tasteless, inodorous food in the form of a powder prepared from milk with 5 % of tannic acid; used in chronic dis- eases of the digestive tract. Dose for adults 2 or 3 tablespoon fuls (30-45 Cc.) daily.
  • Somesthetic, Somaesthetic (so-mes-thet'-ik) [oajfia, body; a'iodrjocc, sensation]. Pertaining to general sensory structures. S. Area, Munk's Korperfuhlsphare, the region of the cortex in which the axons of the general sensory con- duction-path terminate. S. Path, the gen- eral sensory conduction-path leading to the cortex.
  • Somiology (so-mi-ol'-o-je) [owfia, body; Myof, science]. A term proposed by Rafinesque, 1814, as a common name under which to con- sider the phenomena of organic nature, now covered by the term biology. Syn., Organ- ology; Organomy.
  • Somite (so'-mit) [ocdpta, body]. 1 . A segment of the body of an embryo. 2. One of a series of SOMNAL 898 SOUL segments of the mesoblast on each side of the dorsal ridge of the embryo; a protovertebra; a protovertebral or mesoblastic somite.
  • Somnal (som'-nal) [somnus, sleep]. A crystal- line substance, a compound of chloral hydrate and urethane. It is diuretic and hypnotic. Dose 30- gr. (2 Gm.).
  • Somnambulance, Somnambulism (som-nam' - bu-lans, som-nam' -bu-lizm) [somnus, sleep; ambulare, to walk]. 1. The condition of half- sleep, in which the senses are but partially sus- pended; also sleep-walking, a condition in which the individual walks during sleep. 2. The type of hypnotic sleep in which the sub- ject is possessed of all his senses, often having the appearance of one awake, but whose will and consciousness are under the control of the hypnotizer. Somnambulism provoque, sleep-walking induced by mesmerism, hypno- tism, or " electrobiology. ' '.
  • Somnial (som'-ne-aV) [somniatio, dreaming]. Relating to dreams.
  • Somniculous (som-nik'-u-lus) [somnus, sleep]. Drowsy; sleepy.
  • Somnifacient (som-ne-fa' -shent) [somnus, sleep; facer e, to make]. 1. Producing sleep. 2. A medicine producing sleep.
  • Somniloquist (som-nil' -o-kwist). One given to talking during sleep.
  • Somnoform (som' -no-form) . An anesthetic con- sisting of ethyl chlorid, 60%; methyl chlorid, 35 %; ethyl bromid, 5 %.
  • Somnol (som'-nol). A synthetic product of chloral-urethane with a polyatomic alcohol radicle; used as a hypnotic and cerebral sedative. Dose 2-4 dr. (7.7-15.5 Cc).
  • Somnolentia (som-no-len' -she-ah) [L.]. Sleep- drunkenness, a condition of incomplete sleep in which a part of the faculties are abnormally excited, while the others are in repose.
  • Somnolescent (som-no-les'-ent) [somnus, sleep]. 1. Drowsy. 2. Inducing drowsiness.
  • Somnone (som' -non). A proprietary hypnotic said to contain opium, lupulin, and lactucar- ium. Dose 16-32 min. (1-2 Cc).
  • Somnopathist (som-nop' -ath-ist) [somnus, sleep; nadoc, disease]. One subject to hypnotic trance.
  • Symnopathy (som-nop' -ath-e). Hypnotic som- nambulism.
  • Somnos (som'-nos) [somnus, sleep]. A pro- prietary hypnotic formed by the chemic reaction between chloral hydrate and glycerol in certain proportions.
  • Sonometer (so-nom'-et-er) [sonus, a sound; fikrpov, a measure]. 1. An instrument for determining the pitch of sounds and their re- lation to the musical scale. 2. An instrument for testing hearing.
  • Sonorous (so-no'-rus) [sonus, sound]. Capable of producing a musical sound; of rales, low- pitched.

Soot -cancer, Soot -wart. Epithelioma of the scrotum; so called from its frequency in chim- ney-sweeps.


  • Sophistication (so-fis-tik-a'-shun) [ooJ)coxckoc, deceitful]. The adulteration or imitation of a substance.
  • Sopor (so'-por) [L.]. Sleep, especially the pro- found sleep symptomatic of a morbid con- dition.
  • Soporate (so'-por -at) [sopor]. To stupefy; to render drowsy.
  • Soporific (so-por-if -ik) [sopor; facere, to make]. 1. Producing sleep. 2. A remedy producing sleep.
  • Sorbefacient (sor-be-fa' -shent) [sorbere, to suck; facere, to make]. Promoting absorption.
  • Sordes (sor'-dez) [sordere, to be foul]. Filth, dirt, especially the crusts that accumulate on the teeth and lips in continued fevers. S. gastricse, undigested gastric debris. Syn., Saburra gastrica.
  • Sordid (sor'-did) [sordidus, dirty; filthy]. In biology, of a dull or dirty color.
  • Sordidin (sor'-did-in), C 16 H l8 7 or C 13 H 10 O 8 . A substance isolated from the lichen, Zeora sordida.

Sore. 1. Painful; tender. 2. An ulcer or wound. S., Delhi, S., Penjdeh, S., Natal. See Furunculus orientalis. S. Feet of Coolies, S.s, Water-. See Itch, Coolie. S. Mouth, Ceylon. See Aphtha tropica. S. Throat of Fothergill, ulcerative angina of severe scarlatina (scarlatina anginosa). S., Veld. See under Veld.

Soret's Band. An absorption band in the ex- treme violet end of the spectrum of blood; it is characteristic of hemoglobin.


  • Sorrocco (sor-ok'-o). Puna. An affection re- sembling sea-sickness, common in the high regions of South America.
  • Soson (so'-zon). Unaltered meat-albumin, 98.5%, in powder. It is odorless and palat- able.
  • Sostrum (sos'-trum) [sostron, a reward for sav- ing life]. A physician's fee.
  • Souffle (soo'-ft) [Fr.]. A blowing sound. S., Fetal, an inconstant murmur heard over the uterus during pregnancy, and supposed to be due to the compression of the umbilical cord. S., Funic, S., Funicular, a hissing sound, synchronous with the fetal heart-sounds, heard over the abdomen of a pregnant woman, and supposed to be produced in the umbilical cord. S., Placental, S., Uterine, a sound heard in the latter months of pregnancy, and caused by the entrance of blood into the dilated arter- ies of the uterus. S., Splenic, a sound said to be audible over the spleen in cases of malaria and leukemia.
  • Soul (sol) [ME., soule]. The moral and emo- tional part of man's nature. S. -blindness.

SOUND 899 SPACE See Blindness, Psychic, and Apraxia. S.- deafness, deprivation of all sensation of sound or reminiscence of it. S., Spinal, a supposi- titious consciousness present in the spinal cord. S., Stand's, according to the doctrine of George Ernst Stahl (i 660-1 734), the supreme, life-giv- ing, life-preserving principle, distinct from the spirit: when hindered in its operation, disease resulted; it governed the organism chiefly by way of the circulation. His doctrine was called animism, and was a reaction against the chemic and mechanic theories of the seven- teenth century.

Sound [sonus]. 1. The sensation produced by stimulation of the auditory nerve by aerial vibrations. 2. [Fr., sonder, to probe.] An in- strument for introduction into a channel or cavity, for determining the presence of con- striction, foreign bodies, or other morbid con- ditions, and for the purpose of treatment. S., Pulmonary. See Respiratory Murmur-.

Southern Fever. Synonym of Texas fever.

Southernwood. See Artemisia abrotanum.

Southey's Drainage-tubes. Small tubes em- ployed for draining away the fluid from limbs that are the seat of extensive anasarca.


  • Soymida (soi'-mid-ah) [Telugu name]. A genus of the Meliacece. S. febrifuga is an East Indian tree that furnishes rotun bark, introduced as a medicine in 1807 and used as a tonic and antiperiodic.
  • Sozal (so'-zal). See Aluminium Suljocarbolate.
  • Sozin (so'-zin) [ocb^ecv, to save; keep]. A de- fensive proteid occurring naturally in the ani- mal body. One capable of destroying micro- organisms is termed a mycosozin, one antagon- izing bacterial poisons, a toxo sozin.
  • Sozoborol (so-zo-bo'-roV). A mixture used in coryza said to consist of aristol, sozoiodol, and borates.
  • Sozoiodol, Sozoiodolic Acid (so-zo-i' '-o-dol, so-zo-i-o-dol'-ik) [acoC,£iv, to save; iodol\, C 6 H 2 I 2 (S0 3 H)OH. A crystalline, odorless powder used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and parasiticide, chiefly in the form of its salts, of which the following have been employed: sodium sozoiodol, potassium sozoiodol, zinc sozoiodol, and mercury sozoiodol. S., Lead, fine acicular crystals, sparingly soluble in water. S., Sodium. See Sodium Sozoiodo- late., Sozolic Acid (so-zo f -lik). See Aseptol.
  • Space (spas) [ME., from L., spatium, space]. A name given for purposes of description to sun- dry inclosed or semiinclosed places within or about the body. S., Anterior Perforated, a triangular space at the mesal side of the sylvian fissure. S., Arachnoid. See S., Sub- arachnoid, and S., Subdural. S., Axillary, the axilla. S.,Bogros',a space between the peritoneum above and the fascia transversalis below, in which the lower portion of the ex- ternal iliac artery can be reached without wounding the peritoneum. S., Bottcher- Cotugno's, S., Cotugno's, the saccus endo- lymphaticus of the internal ear. S., Breg- matic, the anterior fontanel. S. , Circumlen- tal, the interspace between the ciliary body and the equator of the lens. S.s, Cir cum vascular Lymph-, channels surrounding the blood- vessels and communicating with lymphatic vessels. S., Colles', the space beneath the perineal fascia containing the ischiocavernosus, transversus perinei, and bulbocavernosus, the bulbous portion of the urethra, the posterior scrotal (labial) vessels and nerves, and loose areolar tissue. S., Complemental (of pleura), the portion of the pleural cavity just above the attachments of the diaphragm which is not filled with lung during inspiration. S., Cor- neal, that between the corneal layers. S.s, Czermak's Interglobular, irregular branched spaces in the crusta petrosa and enamel of the teeth. S., Douglas'. See Culdesac, Douglas' . S., Epidural (of the spinal canal), a lymph- space between the spinal dura and the peri- osteum lining the canal. S. -feelings, Her- ing's term for the perceptions or inferences of space-relations resulting from the retinal image. S. of Fontana, one of the inter- communicating cavities in the spongy tissue occupying the angle between the cornea and the iris. S., Haversian, S., Medullary. See Havers' Spaces. S., Henke's Retro- visceral, the prevertebral space of the thorax which is continuous with the cervical space and is filled with areolar and fatty tissue. S.s, His' Perivascular, lymph-spaces sur- rounding the blood-vessels of the brain and spinal cord. S., Hypoprostatic, the space between the rectum and the prostate. S.s, Intercellular, cavities formed by the splitting or separation of the walls of adjoining cells. S., Intercostal, the space between two con- tiguous ribs. S., Intercrural. See S., Inter- peduncular. S.s, Interfascicular, spaces between the bundles in fibrous tissue. S., Interglobular, an apparent, irregular space in the interglobular substance of the dentin. S.s, Interlamellar, the spaces between the lamellas of the cornea. S., Intermesoblas- tic, the cavity between the visceral and parie- tal laminas of the mesoblastic plates of the embryo. S.s., Intermetatarsal, spaces between the metatarsal bones. S.s, Inter- muscular, in the popliteal region, the spaces between the quadriceps extensor and the posterior muscles of the thigh. S., Inter- osseous, the space between two parallel bones. S., Interparietal. See S., Virchow- Robin's. S., Interpeduncular, a diamond- shaped depression at the base of the brain, lying between the optic tracts and the crura cerebri. S., Interproximate, in dentis- try, the V-shaped space between the prox- imate surfaces of the teeth and the alveolar septum which is filled by the gum. S., In- tertunical. See S., Virchow-Robin' s. S., Intervaginal (of the optic nerve). See S., Subvaginal. S.s, Investing. See S., Lymph-. S., Ischiorectal. See Fossa, Ischiorectal. S., Kiernan's, an interlobular space of the liver. S., Kretzschmann's, a small pocket in the attic of the middle ear situated below SPACE 900 SPARTISM Prussack's space. S.s, Kuhnt's, the recesses of the posterior chamber; a series of radial spaces which communicate anteriorly with the posterior chamber of the eye and contain aqueous humor. S., Lacunar. See Lacuna. S.s, Lange's, the rhomboidal meshes of the reticular layer of the skin. S.s, Larrey's, spaces between the parts of the diaphragm at- tached to the sternum and those that are at- tached to the ribs. S., Lesshaft's, Lesshafti rhombus, a locus minoris resistentise existing in the region of the twelfth rib in some in- dividuals, which allows the pointing of an abscess or the protrusion of a hernia. It is bounded, in front, by the external oblique; behind, by the latissimus dorsi; above, by the serratus posticus inferior, and below, by the internal oblique. Syn., GrymfelV s trian- gle; Lumbocostoabdominal triangle; Spatium tendineum lumbale. S., Lymph-, a sinus or space through which lymph passes. S., Macewen's. See Macewen's Triangle,. S.s, Magendie's, imperfectly closed lymph- spaces formed by the separation of the arach- noid from the pia and corresponding to the cerebral sulci. S., Malacarne's. See Tari- nus' Space. S., Marrow-. See Canal, Medullary. S., Meckel's, a dural space in the gasserian ganglion. S., Nuel's. See NueVs Space. S., Pelvirectal. See Fossa, Ischiorectal. S., Perforated. See Perforated Space. S.s, Pericellular, lymph-spaces in the brain. S., Perichoroid, a lymph-space be- tween the sclera and the choroid. S., Peri- gastric, the cavity surrounding the stomach and other viscera. S., Perilenticular, the space surrounding the crystalline lens holding the zonule of Zinn. S.s, Perineu- ral, lymph-spaces between the lamellas of the perineurium. S., Perivascular. See S., Circumvascular Lymph-. S., Perivitelline. See S., Yolk-. S., Pituitary, the space be- tween the two cranial trabeculas wherein the hypophysis appears. S.s, Placental Blood-, the intervillous lacunas of the placenta. S.s, Pleuroperitoneal. See S., Intermesoblastic. S., Poiseuille's. See S., Lymph-. S., Pop- liteal, a lozenge-shaped space at the back of the knee and thigh. S., Posterior Perfor- ated, the depression just behind the albican- tia at the base of the brain. S., Posterior Triangular, the space lying above the clavi- cle and between the sternomastoid and the trapezius muscle and the occiput. S., Prevesical, a space lying immediately above the pubis and between the transversalis fascia and the posterior surface of the rectus abdom- inis. S., Prussack's (Alexander), the small space formed in the attic of the middle ear by the external ligament of the malleus above, the short process of the malleus below, the neck of the malleus internally, and Shrapnell's mem- brane externally. S., Quadrilateral, the anterior and posterior triangles of the neck taken together. S., Quincke's, the space be- tween the third and fourth lumbar vertebras. S., Rectovesical, the space between the blad- der and the rectum. S., Retzius'. See S., Prevesical. S., Schwalbe's, the subvaginal space of the optic nerve. S., Semilunar (of Traube). See Semilunar Space of Traube. S.- sense. i. The faculty by which the form of ob- jects is recognized. 2. A sense by which we judge of the relation of objects in space; it is a part of the sense of sight. S., Subarachnoid, the space between the arachnoid and the pia proper. It contains the cerebrospinal fluid. S., Subdural, the space between the dura and the arachnoid. Normally it contains only a capillary layer of fluid. S., Subvaginal, a lymph-space within the sheath of the optic nerve. S., Suprachoroid, the space between the velum interpositum and the fornix. S. of Tenon, a lymph-space between the sclera and the fascia of Tenon. S., Traube 's, a semilunar tympanic space overlying the stomach. See Semilunar. S.,v. Troeltsch's, two small pockets formed in the upper part of the attic of the middle ear by folds of mucous membrane. S., Uterorectal, S., Utero vesi- cal. See Culdesac, Douglas 1 . S., Virchow- Robin's, an adventitious lymph-space found between the coats of the cerebral capillaries. S., Visual, the visual field. S., Yolk-, the space formed by the retraction of the vitellus from the zona pellucida. S., Zang's, the space between the two tendons of origin of the ster- nomastoid in the supraclavicular fossa.
  • Spanemia (span-e'-me-ah) [oizavcc;, scarcity; alpta, blood]. Anemia.
  • Spaniocardia (span-e-o-kar' -de-ah) [onavcoc, seldom; napdca, heart]. Landois' name for bradycardia.

Spanish Fever. Synonym of Texas fever. S. Fly. See Cantharides. S. Windlass. See Windlass.


  • Spanopnea (span-op 1 '-ne-ah) \01xhvcc, scarcity; Tive'cv, to breathe]. Infrequency of respiratory action.
  • Sparadrap (spar' -a-drap) [sparadrapum]. A plaster spread upon cotton, linen, silk, leather, or paper.
  • Spargosis (spar-go' -sis) \oTtapyav, to be dis- tended]. 1. Enlargement of the breasts from accumulation of milk. 2. Elephantiasis.
  • Spartein (spar'-te-in). An alkaloid found in scoparius. S. Hydro chlorate, C 15 H 26 N 2 . 2HCI, colorless crystals, soluble in water or alcohol, used as is the sulfate. S. Hydroio- date, C 15 H 26 N 2 .HI, white needles t soluble in water or alcohol ; usage and dose the same as the sulfate. S. Sulfate, C 15 H 26 N 2 .H 2 S0 4 + 5H 2 (sparteincB sulphas, U. S. P.), bitter, colorless prisms, soluble in water or alcohol, boiling at 13 6° C. It is a heart stimulant and diuretic. Dose \-\ gr. (o. 01 1-0.022 Gm.); maximum dose \ gr. (0.032 Gm.) single; f-2 gr. (0.05-0.13 Gm.) daily. S. Triiodid, C 15 - H 26 N 2 I 3 , a black powder obtained from an ethereal solution of iodin and spartein; solu- ble in alcohol; usage and dosage the same as the sulfate.
  • Spartism (spar'-tizm). Poisoning from spartein; characterized by vomiting, somnolence, SPASM 901 SPECTACLES paralytic - like weakness, and accelerated pulse.
  • Spasm (spazm) [o7cao[i6c, spasm]. A sudden muscular contraction. S. of Accommoda- tion, spasm of the ciliary muscles, producing accommodation for objects near by. S., Car- popedal, a contraction causing flexion of the fingers and wrist or ankles and toes. S., Clonic, a spasm broken by relaxations of the muscles. S., Clonic, in the Area of the Nervus accessorius. Synonym of Torticollis, Spasmodic. S., Clonic, in the Area of the Portio dura. Synonym of Tic, Painless. S., Cynic. See Cynic Spasm. S., Degluti- tion, a paroxysm of rapid swallowing, noted by Young (1901) as a symptom of whooping- cough. S.s, Fatigue, Poore's term for a group of affections characterized by spasmodic contractions, either clonic or tonic, brought about by voluntary movement, the exciting cause being limited to some particular action. Syn., Business spasms; Coordinated business neuroses (Benedict); Functional spasms (Weir Mitchell); Handicraft spasms; Move- ment spasms; Occupation spasms; Pro- fessional spasms; Ger., Beschdftigungs Neu- rosen. S.s, Friedreich's. Synonym of Para- myoclonus multiplex. S.s, Function, S.s, Functional, S.s, Handicraft. See S.s, Fatigue, and Occupation-neurosis. S., Habit-, a spasm acquired from habit. S., Hammer. See Palsy, Hammer. S., Idiopathic Mus- cular. See Tetany. S., Laryngeal Con- genital, a peculiar stridor developing at birth, and disappearing after one or two years. S., Lock-, a form of writer's cramp in which the fingers become locked on the pen. S., Masticatory (of the face). See Trismus. S., Mimic, facial neuralgia. S.s, Movement. See S.s, Fatigue. S., Muscular, Idiopathic. See Tetany. S., Myopathic, one attending a disease of the muscles. S., Nictitating, S., Nodding. See Eclampsia nutans. S., Occupation, S., Professional. See S.s, Fatigue. S., Pan- tomimic. Synonym of Tic, Painless. S., Penman's. Synonym of Writers' cramp. S., Retrocollic, clonus of the deeper mus- cles of the back of the neck. S., Rom- berg's, masticatory spasm affecting the mus- cles supplied by the motor fibers of the fifth nerve. S., Saltatoric, S., Saltatory, S., Static Reflex. See under Saltatory. S., Telegraphist's, an affection described first by Onimus, 1875. See S.s, Fatigue. S., Tetanic. See 5., Tonic. S., Tonic, a spasm that persists without relaxation for some time.
  • Spasmo- (spaz-mo-) [oTtaapidc, spasm]. A prefix denoting pertaining to a spasm.
  • Spasmodermic (spaz-mo-der'-mik). Relating to a spasmodic affection of the skin.
  • Spasmodic (spaz-mod'-ik) [spasm]. Pertaining to or characterized by spasm. S. Spinal Paralysis. See Lateral Sclerosis.
  • Spasmodism (spaz' -mod-izm) [spasm]. Fleury's term for those nervous states that originate in medullary excitation.
  • Spasmoneme (spaz'-mo-nem) [spasmo-; vrj/ia, a thread]. The central reticulum or un- dulating bundle of fibrils eccentrically lo- cated in the peduncle of a stalked infusorian (Vorticella) and derived from the myonemes of the body.
  • Spasmophilia (spaz -mo-fil'-e- ah) [spasmo-; faXe'tv, to love]. A morbid tendency to con- vulsions.
  • Spasmotin (spaz-mo' -tin) . See Sphacelotoxin.
  • Spasmotoxin (spaz-mo-toks' -in) [spasmo-; zo£c- kov, poison]. 1. A ptomain-base of composition yet undetermined, obtained by Brieger from cultures of the tetanus germ, together with other unnamed toxins, one of which induced complete tetanus, with salivation and lacrima- tion. Spasmotoxin induces in animals violent clonic and tonic convulsions. See under Ptomain. 2. See Sphacelotoxin.
  • Spastic (spas'-tik) [anaaxcKoc, spastic]. Pertain- ing to or characterized by spasm; produced by spasm. S. Diplegia. See Paraplegia, Infantile Spasmodic. S. Paralysis. See Paralysis, Spastic.
  • Spasticity (spas-tis'-it-e) [spastic]. The state of being spastic.
  • Spathologic (spath-o-loj'-ik) [oTiodav, to go fast; Xofoc;, science]. Relating to rapid prolifera- tion of leukocytes.
  • Spatial (spa'-shal) [spatium, space]. Relating to space.
  • Spatula (spat'-u-lah) [L. ; dim. of spatha, a ladle]. A flexible blunt blade used for spreading ointments.

Spay [Gael., spoth]. To remove the ovaries.


  • Spearmint (s per' '-mint). See Mentha viridis.
  • Specialty (spesh'-al-te) [species]. The partic- ular branch pursued by a specialist.
  • Species (spe'-shez) [L.]. 1. A subdivision of a genus of animals or plants the individuals of which are either identical in character or differ only in unimportant and inconstant details. 2. A powder made from the leaves or other parts of various plants, and used to prepare a medicinal infusion.
  • Specific (spe-sif'-ik) [species; facere, to make]. 1. Of or pertaining to a species, or to that which distinguishes a thing or makes it of the species of which it is. 2. A medicine which has a distinct curative influence on an indi- vidual disease. 3. Produced by a single micro- organism, as a specific disease; in a restricted sense, syphilitic. S. Gravity. See Gravity, Specific. S. Heat. See Heat, Specific.
  • Specificity (spes-if-is'-it-e) [specific]. The quality of being specific.

S^ecilhxm. _(spe-sil'-um) [L.]. A probe.


  • Specimen (spes' -im-en) [L.]. An example; a sample. S. -cooler, a small water-cell im- mediately under the specimen in micropro- jection, to prevent injury from the heat of the radiant.
  • Spectacles (spek'-tak-lz) [spectaculum, a show, from spectare, to view]. A pair of lenses set in a frame, and used for the correction of optic defects of the eye.
  • Spectro- (spek-tro-) [spectrum]. A prefix mean- ing relating to the spectrum.
  • Spectrometer (spek - trom' -et- er) [spectro-; jxhpov, a measure]. An instrument for deter- mining the deviation of a ray of light produced by a prism or diffraction-grating, or for ascer- taining the wave-length of a ray of light.
  • Spectrometry (spek-trom'-et-re) [spectrometer]. The use of the spectrometer.
  • Spectrophone (spek'-tro-fon) [spectro-; TjV, a wedge]. A prefix de- noting pertaining to the sphenoid bone.
  • Sphenobasilar (sfe-no-bas'-il-ar) [spheno-; fiao eg, base]. Pertaining conjointly to the sphenoid bone and the basilar portion of the occipital bone.
  • Sphenoccipital (sfe-nok-sip'-it-al) [spheno-; oc- ciput]. Pertaining to the sphenoid and the occipital bones.
  • Spheno cephalus (sfe-no-sef'-al-us) [spheno-; K£(f)aXrj, head]. A variety of monster in which the two eyes are well separated, the ears united under the head, the jaws and mouth distinct, and the sphenoid bone altered in shape, so that it is analogous in form to what is found nor- mally in birds.
  • Sphenoethmoid (sfe-no-eth'-moid) [spheno-; ethmoid]. Relating to both the sphenoid and the ethmoid bones.
  • Sphenoid (sfe'-noid) [o$r\v, wedge; sldog, like]. 1. Wedge-shaped, as the sphenoid bone. 2.

SPHENOIDALE 904 SPHYGMO- The sphenoid bone. S. Bone. See Sphe- noidale under Bones, Table of. S. Sinus. See Sinus, Sphenoid.


  • Sphenoidale (sfe-noid-a^-le) [neuter of sphe- noidalis, sphenoid]. The sphenoid bone. S. basilare anterius, the anterior portion of the body of the sphenoid. S. basioposticum, the lower portion of the body of the sphenoid. S. laterale posterius, the lateral portion of the sphenoid. Sphenoidalia lateralia, the greater wings of the sphenoid.
  • Sphenoiditis (sfe-noid-i'-tis). Inflammation of the sphenoid sinus.
  • Sphenoidofrontal (sfe-noi-do-fron'-tal) [sphe- noido-; frontal]. Pertaining to the sphenoid and frontal bones.
  • Sphenoidoparietal (sfe-noi-do-par-i'-et-al) [sphenoido-; parietal]. Pertaining to the sphe- noid and parietal bones.
  • Sphenomaxillary (sfe-no-maks'-il-a-re) [sphe- no-; maxilla]. Pertaining to the sphenoid and maxillary bones, as the sphenomaxil- lary fossa. S. Fissure. See Fissure, Sphe- nomaxillary. S. Fossa, a triangular space at the angle of the sphenomaxillary and pterygomaxillary fissure. S. Ligament, a ligament extending from the inferior maxilla, near the inferior dental foramen, to the spin- ous process of the sphenoid bone.
  • Sphenoorbital (sfe-no-or' -bit-al) [spheno-; or- bit]. Pertaining to the sphenoid bone and the orbit.
  • Sphenopalatine (sfe-no-paV -a-tin) [spheno-; palatum, palate]. Pertaining to the sphenoid bone and the palate, as the sphenopalatine foramen.
  • Sphenoparietal (sfe-no-par-i' '-et-al) [spheno-; parietal]. Pertaining to the sphenoid and parietal bones.
  • Sphenopetrosal (sfe-no-pe-tro'-saV) [spheno-; nkxpa, rock]. Pertaining to the sphenoid bone and the petrous portion of the temporal bone.
  • Sphenotic (sfe-no'-tik) [spheno-; ode, ear]. A part of the sphenoid bone, existing as a dis- tinct bone in the fetus, and forming the parts adjacent to the carotid groove.
  • Sphenotribe (sfe'-no-trib) [spheno-; zp'cftecv, to rub]. An instrument for crushing the basal portion of the fetal skull.
  • Sphenotripsy (sfe'-no-trip-se) [see Sphenotribe]. Crushing of the fetal skull.
  • Sphere (sfer) [oacpa, a sphere], i. A ball or globe. 2. A space. S. of Attraction, a clear spot in the cell-plasma, outside and close to the nucleus of an ovum undergoing mitosis. It contains the centrosoma of Boveri, and is the center of the formation of the amphias- ters in karyokinesis (q. v.). S., Embryonic. See S., Segmentation-. S. -granule, a large granular corpuscle found in serous exuda- tions. S., Hearing, the area in the brain which is supposed to be the seat of hearing. It is in the temporal lobe. S., Motor, a region in the central nervous system which, when stimulated, gives rise to motion. S., Protoplasmic Primordial . See 5. , Segmenta- tion-. S., Segmentation-, a nucleated cell derived from division of the vitellus in the proc- ess of segmentation. S., Sensory, a sensory area of the central nervous system. S., Vitel- line, S., Yolk-, the mulberry-like mass of cells that results from the fission of the sub- stance of the ovum after fertilization. S., Yeast-, in biology, an aggregation of certain sprouting forms of the genus Mucor.
  • Spheric, Spherical (sfer'-ik, sfer' -ik-al) . Hav- ing the shape of or pertaining to a sphere. S. Aberration. See Aberratimi, Spheric.
  • Spherobacteria (sfe-ro-bak-te'-re-ah) [ca~cpa, sphere; bacteria]. The micrococci.
  • Spherometer (sfe-rom' -et-er) [ocfxfcpa, sphere; fihpov, a measure]. An instrument for deter- mining the degree of curvature of a sphere or part of a sphere, especially of optic lenses, or of the tools used for grinding them.
  • Sphincter (sfingk'-ter) [o a bristle]. A genus of bacteria characterized by flexible spiral fila- ments. See under Bacteria.
  • Spirofibrillas (spi-ro-fi-bril'-az) [spiro-; fibrilla, a small fiber]. The term applied by Fayod in his theory of the structure of protoplasm to supposed long, twisted, hollow fibrils con- stituting the protoplasm and nuclei of vegetal cells and uniting to form the spirospartas ( q. v.). Fayod asserts also that the blood- plasma consists of spirofibrillas and that they penetrate here and there into the hematoblasts. In this case Butschli holds it clear that Fayod has mistaken coagulation of fibrin for spirofibrillas.
  • Spirograph (spi'-ro-graf) [spiro-; ypd^ecv, to write]. An instrument for registering the movements of respiration.
  • Spirometer (spi-rom' -et-er) [spiro-; p.kxpov, a measure]. An instrument for measuring the quantity of air taken in and given out in forcible respiration.
  • Spirometry (spi-rom' -et-re) [see Spirometer}. The determination by means of the spirome- ter of the amount of air taken in and given • out during respiration.
  • Spiromonas (spi-ro-mo'-nas) [spiro-; uovac, a unit]. A genus of biflagellate monads or free- swimming animalcules established by Perty (1852), now referred to Bodo (Ehrenberg), Stein.
  • Spironeme (spi'-ro-nem) [spiro-; vr^ia, a thread]. A helical thread of cytophanes wrapped about the axoneme of the peduncle of a stalked infusorian.
  • Spirophore (spi'-ro-for) [spiro-; (f>kpecv, to bear]. An instrument for performing artificial respi- ration.
  • Spirospartas (spi-ro-spar'-taz) [spiro-; o7zaprrj, a rope]. The term applied by Fayod in his theory to twisted hollow strings the walls of which are formed by the twisting together of the fibrils or spirofibrillas. The cavities of the spirospartas and spirofibrillas are said to be filled in the normal condition by "granular plasma"; spirospartas pass from the proto- plasm into the nucleus and vice versa, and also may be traced frequently from one cell into a neighboring one, so that "the cell loses its value as a morphologic and physiologic unit." These results were obtained in vegetal cells, chiefly by injection with quicksilver, by which method Fayod believes he filled the cavities of the spirospartas and spirofibrillas with metal. Cf. Spirofibrillas.
  • Spirulina (spi-ru-li'-nah) [spirula, from spira, a coil]. A spiral microorganism of spindle shape.
  • Spissitude (spis'-it-ud) [spissare, to thicken]. The state of being inspissated.

Spitzka's Bundle. A tract of nerve-fibers which passes from the cerebral cortex through the pyramidal region of the cms cerebri to the oculomotor nuclei of the opposite side. S.'s Nucleus. See Nucleus, Spitzka's.

Spitzka-Lissauer's Tract. See Lissauer's Tract.

Spix's Spine. The bony spine at the inner border of the inferior dental foramen, giving attachment to the sphenomaxillary ligament.


  • Splanchnic (splangk'-nik) [onlaxxva, viscera]. 1. Pertaining to or supplying the viscera. 2. A remedy efficient in diseases of the bowels. S. Nerves, three nerves, the great, lesser, and least, or renal splanchnic, derived from the sympathetic system.
  • Splanchno- (splangk-no-) [aTzXayyva, viscera]. A prefix denoting pertaining to the viscera.
  • Splanchnology (splangk-nol'-o-je) [splanchno-; Xoyoc, science]. The branch of anatomy treating of the viscera.
  • Splanchnomegaly (splangk -no - meg' - al- e) [splanchno-; fiiyac, large]. Giant growth of the viscera.
  • Splanchnopleural (splangk-no - plu' - rat) [splanchno pleure]. Relating to the splanchno- pleure.

Splaxichnpr]v, diaphragm]. Pertaining to the spleen and the diaphragm.


  • Splenoptosis (splen-o-to' -sis) [spleno-; tzxgjoic, a falling]. Downward displacement of the spleen.
  • Splenorrhaphy (splen-or' -af-e) [spleno-; pafirj, suture]. Suture of the spleen.
  • Splenoscirrhus (splen-o-skir'-us) [spleno-; OK~cp- pog, hardness]. Cancer of the spleen.
  • Splenotomy (splen-of -o-me) [spleno-; rifivsev, to cut], i. The operation of incising the spleen. 2. Dissection of the spleen.
  • Splenule (splen' -ill). An accessory or rudi- mentary spleen.

Splint [Swedish, splint, a kind of spike]. A piece of wood, metal, or other material for keeping the ends of a fractured bone or other movable parts in a state of rest. S.-box. See Fracture-box. S., Desault's, one used in treating fracture of the thigh. S., Inter- dental, an appliance used in the treatment of fractured jaws. S., Mason's, one used in subsequent treatment of amputation at the elbow, allowing pronation and supination movements during healing. S., Poroplastic, a splint which can be softened with hot water and molded upon the limb, to harden and re- tain the shape when dried. S., Stromeyer's, one used to prevent stiffness of the joints in case of fracture. It consists of two hinged parts that can be fixed at any angle.


  • Splintage (splint' -a j). The application of splints.

Split -cloth. A bandage for the head with six or eight tails attached to a central part.


  • Spodogenous (spo-doj'-en-us) [oTzodoc, ashes; ■fEvvav, to produce]. Pertaining to or pro- duced by waste-material, as spodogenous enlargement of the spleen, a swelling of the spleen produced by the accumulation of the detritus of red corpuscles.
  • Spodophagous (spo-dof'-ag-us) [oizodoc, ashes; fyayziv, to eat]. Destroying the waste-material of the body.
  • Spodophorous (spo-dof'-or-us) [onodoc, ashes; (f>epscv, to bear]. Carrying or conveying waste- material.

SpoendePs Foramen. A small opening in the cartilaginous base of the skull between the ethmoid and the lesser wings of the sphenoid and the anterior ethmoid.


  • Spoke-shave (spok'-shav). A ring-knife, de- vised by Carmalt Jones, for use in rhinologic operations.
  • Spondyl-, Spondylo- (spon-dil-, spon-dil-o-) [onovduXoc, vertebra]. A prefix denoting per- taining to a vertebra.
  • Spondylarthritis (spon-dil-ar-thri'-tis) [spon- dyl-; apdpov, joint; exec, inflammation]. In- flammation of a vertebral articulation.
  • Spondyle (spon'-dil) [onovdufof, a vertebra]. A vertebra.
  • Spondylitis (spon-dil-i'-tis) [spondyle; exec, in- flammation]. Inflammation of a vertebra. S., Tuberculous, Pott's disease.
  • Spondylizema (spon-dil-i-ze'-mah) [spondyle; 'i^efia, a subsiding]. The settling of a vertebra into the place of a subjacent one that has been destroyed.
  • Spondylodidymia (spon - dil -o- did - im' -e- ah) [spondyle; diou/xoc, twin]. A form of somato- dymia in which the union is in the vertebras. Syn., Vertebradymia.
  • Spondylodymus (spon-dil-od' -im-us) [spondyle; duecv, to enter]. A twin monster united by the vertebras.
  • Spondylolisthesis (spon-dil-o-lis-the'-sis) [spon- dyle; okcad-qacc, a slipping]. Deformity of the spinal column produced by the gliding for- ward of the lumbar vertebras in such a manner that they overhang the brim and obstruct the inlet of the pelvis ; especially the separation of the last lumbar vertebra from, and its slipping forward on, the sacrum.
  • Spondylolisthetic (spon-dil-o-lis-thet'-ik). Per- taining to or caused by spondylolisthesis.
  • Spondylosis (spon-dil-o' -sis) [spondyle]. Ver- tebral ankylosis. S., Rhizomelic, spondy- lose rhizomelique ; Marie's term for a variety of arthritis deformans with ankylosis of the vertebras and arthritis of the hips and shoulders.
  • Sponge (spun]) [cnbyyoc, a sponge]. A marine animal of the class Porifera, having a porous, horny skeleton; also the skeleton itself, used as an absorbent. S.-bath, the application of water to the surface of the body by means of a sponge. S.s, Bernay's Aseptic, small circular discs of prepared cotton fiber which has been subjected to great pressure; when placed in water, they increase in size 12 to 15 times. They are recommended as controlling agents in nasal hemorrhage. S. -gatherer's- Dis- ease, a disease of divers due to a secretion of a species of Actinia found in waters where sponges grow. This viscid excretion causes at the point of contact upon the body a swell- ing and intense itching, followed by a papule surrounded by a zone of redness which later becomes black and gangrenous and forms a deep ulcer. S. -graft. See Graft, Sponge-. S.-tent. See Tent, Sponge-.
  • Spongework (spunj-zverk). Synonym of Spon- gio plasm.
  • Spongiform (s pun' -je- form) [sponge; forma, a form]. Resembling a sponge.
  • Spongin (spun'-jin) [sponge]. The horny sub- stance forming the skeletal fibers of the sponge.
  • Spongioblast (spun' -je-o-blast) [sponge; flaaxbc, a germ]. A variety of cell derived from the ectoderm of the embryonic neural tube, and forming later the neuroglia. S. of Inner Molecular Layer of Retina. See Cells, Amacrine.
  • Spongiocyte (spun'-je-o-sit) [sponge; kuxoc, a cell]. Fish's term for the glia or neuroglia cell. _ Spongiopilin (spun-je-o-pi' -lin) [sponge; Tt'cXoc, felt]. Felted or woven cloth into which tufts of sponge are incorporated and one side of which is coated with rubber; it is used as a poultice.
  • Spongiositis (spun-je-o-si'-tis). Inflammation of the corpus spongiosum.
  • Spongy (spun'-je) [sponge]. Having the texture of sponge. S. Portion of the Urethra, that con- tained in the corpus spongiosum of the urethra.
  • Spontaneous (spon-ta'-ne-us) [spons, will]. Voluntary; occurring without extraneous im*- pulse; automatic.

Spoon. An instrument consisting of an oval or circular bowl fixed to a handle; it is used in surgery to scrape away dead tissue, granula- tions, etc.

Spoonful. A spoon is full when the contained liquid comes up to but does not show a curve above the upper edge or rim of the bowl. A teaspoonful equals 5 Cc. ; a dessertspoonful, 10 Cc. ; a tablespoonful, 15 Cc.


  • Sporadic (spor-ad'-ik) [oTzopadcKoc;, scattered]. Scattered; occurring in an isolated manner. S. Cholera, cholera morbus.
  • Sporadoneure (spor-ad'-o-nur) [onopac, scat- tered; veupov, a nerve]. An isolated nerve-cell.
  • Sporangium (spor-an' '-je-um) [spore; ayyziov, a vessel; pi., sporangia]. In biology, a cap- sule producing or inclosing spores.
  • Spore (spor) [onopoc, seed]. A seed; a repro- ductive body of lower vegetable organisms, as of bacteria.
  • Sporidium (spor-id'-e-um) [spore; cdcov, a dim. ; pi., sporidia]. 1. In biology, a spore borne upon a promycelium. 2. A provisional genus of Sporozoa. S. vaccinale, Funck, a species of sporozoa occurring as: (1) small, spheric, highly refractive bodies (2-10 p.), of green color and* slow movement; (2) small refracting spheres inclosed in capsules; (3) morula masses or spore-casts. They can be cultivated and the culture produces typical vaccinia when inoculated in calves.
  • Sporif erous (spor-if'-er-us) [spore; ferre, to bear]. Spore-bearing.
  • Sporo- (spor-o-) [spore]. A prefix meaning re- lating to a spore or seed.
  • Sporoblast (spor'-o-blast) [sporo-; ftXaoTOf, a germ]. One of the four round bodies pro- duced by the process of endogenous cell-for- mation in a coccidium.
  • Sporocyst (spor'-o-sist) [sporo-; kuotic, a bag]. 1. The mother-cell of a spore. 2. That stage of a sporozoon resulting from the de- velopment of a sporoblast and in its turn giv- ing rise to two sporo zoits.
  • Sporogenesis (spor-o-jen' -es-is) [sporo-; ykvtotg, generation]. The development of spores; reproduction by spores.
  • Sporogony (spor-o g'-o-ne). 1. See Sporogen- esis. 2. A form of exogenous sporulation; an oocyst containing a sporont divides 'into four sporoblasts, which ripen into sporocysts and in turn divide into a crescentic nucleated body, the sporozoit. It occurs among coc- cidia. Cf. Schizogony.
  • Sporont (spor'-ont) [sporo-; wv, being]. 1. In bi- ology a gregarine without ah epimerite, as distinguished from a cephalont. 2. Schau- dinn's term for the single-celled contents of the coccidial oocyst. Cf. Schizont.
  • Sporophore (spor r -o-for) [sporo-; (pkpecv, to bear]. That portion of a fungus bearing the spores.
  • Sporoplasm (spor'-o-plazm) [sporo-; nAaooetv, to form]. The cytoplasm of the asexual re- productive cell.
  • Sporotheca (spor-o-the'-kah) [sporo-; Otjkt), a case]. 1. See Sporangium. 2. The envelop of the sporulating cell.
  • Sporozoa (spor-o-zo f -ah) [sporo-; Z,&ov, an animal]. A class of parasitic Protozoa sub- divided into the Gregarinidea, parasitic in vari- ous worms and arthropods; the Coccididea or oviform psorosperms, parasitic in the hepatic and intestinal epithelium of various mammals, including man; the Sarco sporidia, or tubuli- form psorosperms, parasitic in the muscles of various animals ; the Myxosporidia, the psoro- sperms of fishes; the Micro sporidia, the psorosperms of articulates.
  • Sporozoit (spor-o-zo'-it) [see Sporozoa]. The sickle-shaped, nucleated organism which re- sults from the division of a sporocyst among the sporozoa. Syn., Germinal rod (Ross, 1878); Zygotoblast(Ross, 1899); Gameto- blast (Lankester, 1900).
  • Sporozoon (spor-o-zo' '-on) [see Sporozoa]. In biology, a member of the Sporozoa.
  • Sporulation (spor-u-la'-shun) [spore]. The production of spores. S., Arthrogenous, the change of bacteria into resistant forms, which are capable of germinating again under favorable conditions.

Spot [ME.]. See Macule. S.s, Acoustic. See Maculce acusticce under Macula. S.S, Bitot's, xerosis conjunctivae; silver-gray, shiny, triangular spots on both sides of the cornea, within the region of the palpebral aperture, consisting of dried epithelium, flaky masses, and microorgan- isms. They are observed in some cases of hemeralopia. S., Blind (of Mariotte), the entrance of the optic nerve where the rods and the cones are absent. S., Blue (of the integument), a tegumentary spot over the sacral region characteristic of the Mongolian race; due to aggregations of long, spindle- shaped, and stellate cells in the cutis contain- ing pigment. It appears in the fourth month of fetal life and persists sometimes to the seventh year. S., Corneal, an opacity of the cornea; leukoma. S.s, Cribriform, the perforations of the fovea hemisphaerica for the passage of the filaments of the auditory nerve. Syn., Macula cribrosa. S. -disease. See Pebrine. S., Embryonic, the nucleolus of the ovum. S.s, Genital, nasal parts which show increased sensitiveness during men- struation. S., Germinal, S., Germ-. See S., Embryonic. S., Hectic, the bright flush on the cheeks of a person suffering from hectic fever. S.s, Koplik's. See Koplik's Spots under Sign. S.s, Lenticular. See SPOTTED FEVER 913 SQUAMOSPHENOID S.s., Rose. S., Light(on the membrana tympani), a cone of light on the anterior and inferior part of the tympanic membrane, with its apex directed inward. S., Mariotte's, the optic disc. S., Milk-, a spot found postmortem on the external surface of the visceral layer of the pericardium, usually over the right ventricle; it varies from one- half to one inch in diameter, and is of common occurrence in persons who have passed middle life. S.s, de Morgan's. See Morgan's (de) Spots under Sign. S., Mother's, nevus. S.s, Rose, a red papulous eruption forming spots the size of a small lentil, effaced by pressure of the finger and occurring mostly on the abdomen and loins during the first seven days of typhoid fever. They are due to inflammation of the papillary layer of the skin from invasion of typhoid bacilli. Syn., Typhoid roseola; Typhoid spots; Fr., Tache rosees lenticulaires. Cf . Tache bleudtre. S.s, Roth's. See Roth's Spots under Sign. S.s, Soldiers'. Same as Macula lutea. S., Sommering's. See Macula lutea. S.s, Sun. See Lentigo. S.s, Typhoid. See S.s, Rose. S. of Wagner, the embryonic spot. S.s, White, grayish or yellowish-white elevated spots from the size of a pin-head to that of a one-cent piece, of varying shape and distinct- ness of outline, often occurring on the ventricu- lar surface of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. S., Wine-, port -wine mark; straw- berry mark. S., Yellow. See Macula lutea.

Spotted Fever, i. Cerebrospinal fever. 2. Typhus.


  • Sprain (spran) [OF., ^espreindre, from L., ex- primere, to press out]. A wrenching of a joint, producing a stretching or laceration of the ligaments. S. -fracture, an injury in which a tendon together with a shell of bone is torn from its attachment.
  • Spray (spra). A liquid blown into minute par- ticles by a strong current of air. S.-cure, a form of douche applied by means of a spray- ing apparatus.

Sprengel's Deformity. See Deformation, SprengeV s.


Spring [ME.]. The first of the four seasons of the year; also, a device having resili- ency. S. Conjunctivitis. See Vernal Con- junctivitis. S. Fever, lassitude. S. -fin- ger, a condition in which there is an obstruction to flexion and extension of one or more fingers at a certain stage of these movements. It is due to injuries or may re- sult from inflammation of the tendinous sheaths. S.-halt, an involuntary convulsive movement of the muscles of either hind leg in the horse, by which the leg is suddenly and unduly raised from the ground and lowered again with unnatural force. S. -knee, a con- dition of the knee similar in general features to the condition known as spring-finger. Just before full extension of the joint is reached there is a slight hitch, and then the limb straightens itself with a sharp, rather painful 59 jerk. S. -ligament, the inferior calcaneosca- phoid ligament of the sole of the foot. S.- nail, a hangnail. S. Ophthalmia. See Vernal Conjunctivitis. S.-worm. See Ox- yuris venmicularis.


Spud [Dan., spyd, a spear]. 1. An instrument used in the detachment of the mucosa in flaps in operations necessitating the removal of bone. 2. A short flattened blade used to dislodge a foreign substance.


  • Spunk (spnngk). See under Agaric.
  • Spur (sper) [ME., spure]. 1. A sharp point or projection. 2. The angle made by any branch with the main blood-vessel. 3. In biology, a pointed, spine-like outgrowth, either of the integument or a projecting ap- pendage. 4. Ergot. S. -blind, myopic. S.- gall, a callous and hairless place on the side of a horse, caused by the use of a spur. S. of the Septum, an outgrowth of the nasal septum.
  • Sputum (spu'-tum) [spuere, to spit; pi., sputa]. The secretion ejected from the mouth in spit- ting. It consists of saliva and mucus from the nasal fossa and the fauces. In diseased conditions of the air-passages or lungs it may be purulent, mucopurulent, fibrinous, or bloody. S., jEruginous, sputum of a green color. S. crudum, the scanty, viscid ex- pectoration of the early stages of acute bron- chitis. S., Hailstone, spheric masses of sputum of the later stages of bronchitis. Sputa margaritacea. See S., Pearly. S., Mucopurulent, small lumps or pellets in a viscid, mucoserous fluid, seen in bronchitis. S., Nummular, a sputum characterized by round, coin-like masses; it is seen in pulmo- nary tuberculosis. S., Pearly, sputum con- sisting of small translucent pellets. S., Rusty, the dark-colored sputum of lobar pneu- monia, the color of which is due to the admix- ture of blood. S. Septicemia. See Septicemia, Sputum.
  • Squama (skwa'-mah) [L.]. A scale or scale- like mass, as the squama of the temporal bone. S. frontalis, the vertical portion of the frontal bone. S. occipitalis, the supra- occipital bone. S. temporalis, the squamosa.
  • Squamo- (skwa-mo-) [squama], A prefix de- noting relating to the squamous portion of the parietal or temporal bone.
  • Squamomandibular (skwa-mo-man-dib f -u-lar) . Relating to the squamosa and maxillary bone.
  • Squamoparietal (skwa-mo-par-i'-et-al) [squa- mo-; paries, wall]. Pertaining to the squam- ous portion of the parietal bone.
  • Squamosa, Squamosal (skwa-mo'-sah, skwa- mo'-sal). The squamous portion of the tem- poral bone.
  • Squamosphenoid (skvja-mo-sfe' -noid) [squamo-; sphenoid]. Pertaining to the squamous portion of the temporal bone and to the sphenoid bone.
  • Squamous (skwa'-mus) [squamosus, scaly], i. Of the shape of a scale, as the squamous portion of the temporal bone. 2. Scaly. S. Suture, the suture, between the squamous portion of the temporal bone and the frontal and parietal bones.
  • Squamozygomatic (skwa-mo-zi-go-mat f -ik) [squamo-; zygomatic]. Pertaining to the squa- mous and zygomatic portions of the temporal bone.

Square Lobe. 1. The lobus quadratus of the liver. 2. A lobe on the upper surface of the cerebellar hemisphere.


  • Squill (skwtt). The bulb of Urginea mari- tima (U. S. P.) or Urginea scilla (B. P.), of the order Liliacea. Squill (scilla, U. S. P., B. P.) contains several bitter principles, scillitin, scillipicrin, scillitoxin, and scillin, a carbohy- drate sinistrin, and other substances. It is expectorant, diuretic, and emetocathartic, and is used in dropsy and in croup. Dose 1-2 gr. (0.065-0.13 Gm.). S., Fluidextract of (fluidextr actum settles, U. S. P.). Dose 2-3 min. (0.13-0.2 Cc). S., Oxymel of (oxymel scilla, B. P.). Dose 1-2 dr. (4-8 Gm.). S., Pills of, Compound (pilula scilla composites, B. P.). Dose 5-10 gr. (0.32-0.65 Gm.). S., Syrup of (syrupus scilla, U. S. P., B. P.). Dose i dr. (2-4 Cc). S., Syrup of, Com- pound (syrupus scilla compositus, U. S. P.), hive-syrup. Dose 20-30 min. (1.3-2.0 Cc). S., Tincture of (tinctura scilla, U. S. P., B. P.). Dose 5-30 min. (0.32-2.0 Cc). S., Vinegar of (acetum scilla, U. S. P., B. P.). Dose 10-30 min. (0.65-2.0 Cc).
  • Squint (skwint). See Strabismus.

Squirting Cucumber. See Elaterium.

Sr. Symbol for strontium.

Ss. Abbreviation for semis, one-half.


  • Stabile (sta'-bil) [stabilis, from stare, to stand]. Not moving; fixed. S. Current, an electric current produced by holding the electrodes in a fixed position.

Staccato Speech. See Scanning.


  • Stachydrin (sta-kid'-rin), C 7 H 13 N0 2 . An al- kaloid from the bulb of Stachys palustris, form- ing colorless crystals which liquefy on ex- posure; soluble in water and alcohol; melt at 210 C.

Staderini's Nucleus. The nucleus inter- calatus, an aggregation of ganglion-cells situ- ated between the dorsal nucleus of the pneumo- gastric and the nucleus of the hypoglossal nerve.


  • Stadium (sta'-de-um) [L.]. Stage. S. acmes, the height of a disease. S. amphi- boles. See Stage, Amphibolic. S. annihila- tionis, the convalescent stage. S. augmenti, the period in which there is increase in the intensity of the disease. S. caloris, the period during which there is fever; the hot stage. S. decrementi, defervescence of a febrile disease; the period in which there is a de- crease in the severity of the disease. S. flori- tionis, the stage of an eruptive disease during which the exanthem is at its height. S. frigoris, the cold stage of a fever. See Stage, Algid. S. incrementi, the stage of increase of a fever or disease. S. staseos. See 5. acmes.

Staff. An instrument for passing into the blad- der through the urethra and used as a guide in operations for stricture.

Staff a [sta]' -ah). 1. The stapes. 2. A figure- of-8 bandage.


  • Stage (staj) [stare, to stand]. 1. A definite period of a disease characterized by certain symptoms ; a condition in the course of a dis- ease. 2. The horizontal plate projecting from the pillar of a microscope for supporting the slide or object. S., Algid, a condition characterized by subnormal temperature, feeble, flickering pulse, various nervous symp- toms, etc. It occurs in cholera and other diseases marked by exhausting intestinal dis- charges. S., Amphibolic, the stage of a dis- ease intervening between its height and its de- cline. S., Asphyxial, the preliminary stage of Asiatic cholera, marked by extreme thirst, muscular cramps, etc., due to loss of water from the blood. S., Cold, the rigor or chill of an attack of a malarial paroxysm. S., Expulsive (of labor), the stage which begins when dilation of the cervix uteri is complete and during which the child is expelled from the uterus. See Labor, Stages of. S., First (of labor), that stage in which the molding of the fetal head and the dila- tion of the cervix are effected. S., Hot, the febrile stage of a malarial paroxysm. S. of Invasion, the period in the course of a dis- ease in which the system comes under the influence of the morbific agent. S. of Latency, the incubation-period of an infec- tious disease, or that period intervening be- tween the entrance of the virus and the man- ifestations of the symptoms to which it gives rise. S., Placental (of labor), the period oc- cupied by the expulsion of the placenta and fetal membranes. S., Preemptive, the period of an eruptive fever following infection and prior to the appearance of the eruption. S., Second (of labor). See S., Expulsive. S., Sweating, the third or terminal stage of a malarial paroxysm, during which there is sweating. S., Third (of labor). See S., Placental.
  • Stagium (sta'-je-um). The sixth part of an ounce.

Stagnum chyli. Same as Receptaculum chyli.

Stahl's Ear. A congenital deformity of the ear which consists in a broadening of the helix, the fossa ovalis and upper part of the scaphoid fossa being covered.


  • Stahlian (stah'-le-an). An animist, a follower of the doctrine of George Ernst Stahl, Ger- man chemist, 1 660-1 734.
  • Stain (stan) [from distain, from dis, priv. ; lin- ger e, to color]. 1. A discoloration. 2. A pigment employed in microscopy to color the STAIN 915 STAIN tissues or to produce certain reactions. The common microscopic stains are hematoxylin, carmin, osmic acid, and the anilin dyes. S., Intra vitam, one that will act upon living material. S., Inversion, of Rawitz, a process in which, under the influence of a mordant, a basic anilin dye behaves as a plasma or acid dye. Table of Stains, Reagents, Reactions, Staining Methods, etc.: Ap- pended are those most important to students of medicine. For a full definition of all the stains, etc., in use in special and general branches, see the Illustrated Dictionary and the Dictionary of New Medical Terms. Acid Fuchsin, a diffuse stain, having a special affinity for axis-cylinders. A solution of 2 Gm. in 40 Cc. of 90 % alcohol and 160 Cc. of distilled water is employed. Wash out in 90% alcohol. Weigert stains sections of tissue hardened in Miiller's fluid in a saturated aqueous solution of acid fuchsin for from 1 to 24 hours, then rinses them quickly in water, immerses for a few minutes in a saturated solution of potassium hydroxid, 1 part, al- cohol, 10 parts. Wash thoroughly to remove the alkali, dehydrate, clear, and mount. This process differentiates the finer nerve-fibers in the spinal cord. Alcohol, an excellent fixing medium, suitable for all tissues except those of the central nervous system and those undergoing fatty infiltration or degeneration. It is also used to harden and preserve objects that have been fixed in other fluids. As a preservative it is not without defects, as it alters the structure of tissues by continuously dehydrating their albuminoids. Toluol, ether, and xylol are recommended as substitutes (Kultschitzky). As a fixing agent alco- hol is usually employed in gradually increas- ing strengths, beginning with 50 or 70 %. Alcohol, Absolute, one of the most pene- trating fixing agents, which has the advantage of preserving the structure of glands and of nuclei. It should be employed in large quan- tities. Hydration may be prevented by sus- pending in the alcohol strips of gelatin (Lo w- rie). After fixation, preserve the object in 90 % alcohol. Amyloid Reaction (in tissues having undergone amyloid degeneration). 1. With iodin: Dilute Lugol's solution wth dis- tilled water until it has the color of port-wine, and add 25 % of glycerol; in this stain the sections for 3 minutes, wash in water, and mount in glycerol. The amyloid substance is brown-red; the remaining tissues are light- yellow. (For permanent preparations see the method of Langhans for glycogen.) 2. With iodin-green : Stain for 24 hours in iodin-green (0.5 Gm. dissolved in 150 Cc. of distilled water) and wash in water. The amyloid masses are red-violet, the remaining tissues green. 3. With iodin and sulfuric acid: Place sections that have been treated with Lugol's solution (see Iodin Reaction in this table) in 1 % sulfuric acid. The brown of the amyloid substance becomes intensified or it changes to a violet or blue to green color.

4. With methyl-green : Stain for from 3 to 5 minutes in 1 % solution of the dye and wash in distilled water containing 1 % of hydrochloric acid. Amyloid substance violet, nuclei, green.

5. With methyl- violet: The process of stain- ing is the same as with methyl-green. The amyloid is purple-red, the remaining tissue blue. Anilin Oil, an important medium because of its ability to clear watery objects; it will even clear aqueous mediums without the intervention of alcohol, which sometimes renders it valuable as a penetrating medium prior to paraffin embedding. It is also used for clearing celloidin sections. Anilin Water (Ehrlich), shake up 3 Cc. of anilin oil with 97 Cc. of distilled water and filter. The filtrate should be clear. Used as a mordant for anilin dyes. It does not keep well, and should be freshly prepared. Apathy Cement, heat together, in a porcelain cap- sule, equal parts of hard " paraffin (6o° C. (140 F.) melting-point) and Canada balsam until the mixture assumes a golden tint and no longer emits vapors of turpentine. On cooling, this forms a firm mass, which for use is warmed and applied with a glass rod. This cement is suitable for closing glycerol mounts. Balsam -paraffin for Ceils (Julien), this substance consists of paraffin saturated with balsam-cement, and is prepared as fol- lows: Reduce commercial Canada balsam to a wax-like consistence by slow evaporation in a shallow tin pan over a low flame. Test by cooling a few drops from time to time. Melt slowly one-fourth pound of paraffin, with a melting-point above 45 C.(113 F.); add a lump of balsam-cement about the size of a marble, and then digest at gentle heat, stirring frequently, for about an hour. The appearance of a slight yellow tinge indicates the saturation of the paraffin by the balsam. When it is desired to prepare a cell, the balsam- paraffin is cautiously heated to the melting- point in a shallow porcelain capsule. These paraffin cells are suitable for dry or liquid mounts, excepting for the latter when Canada balsam, dammar, or oils are used as preserva- tives. The great advantage of the balsam- paraffin is its chemic indifference to the re- agents employed in the preservation mediums. Boston's Mixture (for the preservation of casts in urine), liquor acidi arsenosi ( U. S. P.), 1. oz. ; salicylic acid, J gr. ; glycerol, 2 dr. Dissolve by warming gently and add "whole tears" of acacia to saturation. Let the mixture settle, decant the supernatant liquid, and add a drop of formalin. Place a drop of urine containing casts on a slide, evaporate nearly to dryness, add a drop of the preservative, mix the two with a delicate needle, apply a cover-glass, and when the mount has hardened, seal with cement. Bre- mer's Method (for diabetic blood), fix the films for 6 minutes in the oven at 135 C. (275 F.). Stain for 3 minutes with 1 % solution of methyl- blue or with the Ehrlich-Biondi mixture. The yellow-green reaction of the erythrocytes STAIN 916 STAIN may also be obtained by using eosin, congo red, or biebrich scarlet in i % solution. Canada Balsam, evaporate the balsam in a water-bath to dryness, and dissolve in an equal volume of xylol, benzol, toluol, chloro- form, or turpentine. Filter through paper and keep in a "capped" bottle. If it gets too thick, dilute by adding more of the sol- vent employed. Carbolfuchsin, fuchsin, i Gm.; phenol, 5 Gm.; alcohol, 10 Gm.; dis- tilled water, 100 Gm. Celloidin, stated to be a preparation of pure pyroxylin. It is nonex- plosive and is soluble in ether and alcohol. Celloidin should be used in thin (2 %) and in thick (6 %) solutions. The object is thoroughly dehydrated in absolute alcohol, placed in a mixture of equal parts of ether and alcohol for from 12 to 24 hours, or longer if the object is large. It is then placed for 24 hours in a thin solution of celloidin (8 Gm. in 100 Cc. each of alcohol and ether), and transferred from this to a thick solution of celloidin (8 Gm. in 50 Cc. each of alcohol and ether). Select a cork or a piece of soft, dry wood, and dip it in the thick celloidin solution; when dry, place the prepared tissue upon it- and drop the thick celloidin solution upon this with a pipet until it is embedded in a jelly-like mass. Blocks or cylinders of glass or vulcanized fiber serve better than cork, as they sink in the liquids used. Harden in 90 % alcohol, and preserve in 70 % alcohol. When making sections, keep the knife and section wet with alcohol. Apathy advises previous smearing of the knife with vaselin, as it cuts better and is protected from the alcohol. Use bergamot oil to clear. Sections may be kept in from 60 to 80 % al- cohol. Chenzinsky's Stain (for blood), concentrated aqueous solution of methylene- blue and distilled water equal parts. To this is added an equal quantity of 0.5% solution of eosin in 60% alcohol. Stain blood-films ^ to 5 minutes. Red blood-corpuscles stain a rose-red, nuclei of leukocytes blue, and ma- larial parasites blue. Claudius' Method {for bacteria), stain in gentian or methyl- violet, after Gram (see Gram's Method in this table), differentiate in a saturated aqueous solution of picric acid diluted with an equal volume of water, decolorize in chloroform. Collodion, prepared by dissolving gun- cotton or soluble cotton in equal parts of 95 % alcohol and sulfuric ether; it is in every way as good as celloidin, and considerably cheaper. Conn's Method (for preserving cultures of bacteria as museum specimens). Inoculate 2 % agar slants and seal the tubes with paraffin and plaster-of-paris. In a few days the cul- tures cease growing and remain indefinitely unaltered. Copper Acetate, a solution of Gm. of copper acetate and 4 Gm. of mer- curic chlorid in 250 Cc. of glycerol and 1 Cc. of glacial acetic acid is used in preserving and mounting green algae. Corrosive Sublimate, a most excellent reagent, generally applicable, useful particularly for fixing glands and gland- ular structures. Saturated aqueous and al- coholic solutions are usually employed. The tissues turn white when fixed. All the cor- rosive sublimate must be washed out in iodin or the sections will be sprinkled with crystals of the salt. The hardening is completed in alcohol. Glass, wood, or platinum should be used in manipulating objects immersed in this reagent. Sections may be stained with any of the usual reagents. Cover-glass Preparations, such preparations are usually made in examining blood, sputum, or other fluid or semifluid substance. In the case of sputum, a tiny mass is placed on a cover- glass, another is pressed gently down upon this, and the two glasses are separated by sliding one over the other, the object being to secure a thin, even film on each glass. The film may also be spread with the edge of a cover-glass or with a platinum spatula. The preparations are then left to dry in air, or they may be dried by exposing them to a tem- perature of 120 for twenty minutes, or by passing them quickly thrice through the flame of a spirit-lamp or Bunsen burner. When dry, they are ready to stain. To ob- tain a cover-glass preparation of blood, cleanse the finger, prick the pad, wipe off the first drop of blood that exudes, touch the apex of the second drop with a cover-glass, spread in the manner described, and dry in air. Craig's Method (for obtaining the flagellated malarial Plasmodium), cleanse the ear or finger, also the slide and cover-glass, with alcohol. Make a puncture with a sterile needle and wipe away the first drops of blood. Gently breathe upon the slide and take up on it the blood from the summit of the second drop and immediately apply the cover-glass. The brief exposure to air and the moisture on the slide are said to hasten flagellation. Creasote, the prop- erties of this agent are similar to those of phenol. Beechwood creasote is a good clear- ing medium for celloidin sections. Czen- zynke's Double Stain, concentrated aqueous solution of methylene-blue, 40 Cc; 0.5 % solution of eosin in 70 % alcohol, 20 Cc. ; distilled water, 40 Cc. This is used to stain the blood, and colors the red corpuscles red, the leukocytes blue; also for Plasmodium malaria, the gonococcus, and the influenza bacillus of Pfeiffer and Canon. Dahlia- violet, a nuclear stain, recommended for demonstrating the granules in Ehrlich's mastzellen. Tissues hardened in alcohol are stained for several hours in a solution of dahlia- violet 2 Gm., in 90 % alcohol 25 Cc. Wash in alcohol until nearly colorless. Delafield's Hematoxylin, an excellent nuclear stain. Dissolve 4 Gm. of hematoxylin in 25 Cc. of absolute alcohol, and add 400 Cc. of a satur- ated aqueous solution of ammonium alum. Expose to light and air for 3 or 4 days; filter; add to the filtrate 100 Cc. each of glycerol and methyl-alcohol. Eau de Labarraque {sodium hypochlorite), rub up 20 Gm. of chlorinated lime in 100 Cc. of distilled water and mix with 40 Gm. of crystallized sodium STAIN 917 STAIN carbonate dissolved in the same quantity of water. Let the mixture stand for an hour and filter. This is used in the same way as Javelle water. With the aid of heat, chitin is dis- solved in either of the solutions in a short time (Loos). Chitinous structures, macerated for 24 hours or more in these solutions diluted with 4 to 6 volumes of water, become soft and transparent, and permeable to staining fluids, aqueous or alcoholic. This method is espe- cially applicable to nematodes and their ova. Ehrlich's Acid Hematoxylin, used for staining sections and in the mass. Dis- solve 1 Gm. of hematoxylin in 30 Cc. of alcohol and add 50 Cc. each of glycerol and water, alum in excess, and 4 Cc. of glacial acetic acid. Let the mixture ripen in the light until it ac- quires a deep-red color. Objects stained in it should be washed in undistilled water. Ehrlich's Anilin Gentian -violet, a mix- ture of 5 Cc. of a saturated alcoholic solution of gentian-violet and 100 Cc. of anilin water. Ehrlich-Biondi-Heidenhain Triple Stain, to 100 Cc. of a saturated aqueous solution of orange add, with continual agitation, 20 Cc. of a saturated, aqueous solution of acid fuchsin and 50 Cc. of a like solution of methyl-green; dilute with from 60 to 100 volumes of water. A drop on blotting-paper should form a spot bluish-green in the center, orange at the per- iphery; a red zone outside the orange in- dicates that the mixture contains too much fuchsin. From 6 to 24 hours is required to stain. Wash out in alcohol and clear in xylol. Chromatic elements are colored blue; cyto- plasm, violet or orange-red; karyoplasm, the same, but in lighter tones, and all the denser protoplasmic elements the same, but darker (Gilson). This is by far the best stain for photomicrography, except for connective tissue (Lindsay Johnson). A slightly acid re- action of the alcohol used for washing out will produce a relatively strong coloration by the methyl-green, while that by the fuchsin will be relatively pale; the opposite result will be obtained if the alcohol contains a trace of al- kali. The addition of very dilute acetic acid, until the red tint is markedly intensified, will restore the energy of the fuchsin, which is likely to decline after a time (Heidenhain). Ehrlich's Iodin Method, stain the fixed film in a syrupy solution of gum-arabic con- taining 1 % of Lugol's solution: leukocytes stained brown indicate a suppurative process. Ehrlich's Stains (for the granules of leuko- cytes) . 1. A cidophilous or eosinophilous mix- ture: Two parts each of indulin, aurantia, and eosin; glycerol, 30 parts. Suitable for staining sections and cover-glass preparations. This is also known as "Mixture C." 2. "Triacid" mixture: Dissolve — (a) 1 Gm. of orange-yellow (extra) in 50 Cc. of distilled water; (b) 1 Gm. of acid fuchsin extra in 50 Cc. of distilled water; (c) 1 Gm. of crystalline methyl-green in 50 Cc. of distilled water. Let the solutions settle. Then mix 11 Cc. of solution a with 10 Cc. of solution b; add 20 Cc. of distilled water and 10 Cc. of absolute alcohol; to this mixture add a mixture of 13 Cc. of solution c, 10 Cc. of distilled water, and 3 Cc. of absolute alcohol. Let the stain stand for one or two weeks before using. Farrant's Solution (Hamilton), make a saturated solution of arsenic trioxid in water by boiling; let it stand for 24 hours and filter. Then to equal quantities of water, glycerol, and arsenic trioxid solution add picked gum-arabic until a thick, syrupy fluid is obtained. In about a week filter slowly through frequently changed filter-paper. Flemming's Fluid. 1. Chromium trioxid, 0.2 Gm. ; glacial acetic acid, 0.1 Cc; water, 100 Cc. This is especially rec- ommended for fixing the achromatic spindle- fibers in nuclei. (2) Chromium trioxid ( 1 %), 45 Cc; 2% osmic acid, 12 Cc; glacial acetic acid, 3 Cc This fixes small pieces (2-3 mm. thick) in from a few to 24 hours, and is useful for fixing the figures in cell-division and for many other purposes. A weaker solution is also used: 1% osmic and glacial acetic acids, each, 100 Cc. The second formula is the one generally known as Flemming's fluid. Frankel-Gabbet Method (for tubercle bacilli), the dried and fixed preparation is placed for 10 minutes in a solution consisting of fuchsin, 1 part; alcohol, 10 parts; phenol, 5 parts; dis- tilled water, 100 parts; then dried with filter- paper and placed for 5 minutes in a second solution of methylene-blue, 2 parts; sulfuric acid, 25 parts; distilled water, 100 parts; it is then washed and dried. If the stain has been successful, the preparation will have a faint blue color. In the case of sections, dehydrate with alcohol; clear and mount. A good and quick method. Futcher-Lazear Method (for the malarial parasite), fix the film for one minute in a mixture of 10 Cc. of 95% alcohol and 2 drops of formalin; wash, dry, and stain for 15 seconds in carbolthionin, prepared by mixing 20 Cc. of a saturated so- lution of the dye in 50 % alcohol and 100 Cc. of 2 % aqueous solution of phenol. Gentian- violet. 1. (Concentrated alcoholic.) Gentian- violet, 25 Gm.; absolute alcohol, 100 Cc. 2. (Aqueous.) Gentian-violet, 1 Gm.; 90% alcohol, 20 Cc; distilled water, 80 Cc A nuclear stain, prepared by dissolving 0.5 Gm. of the dye in 80 Cc. of distilled water, 20 Cc. of 90% alcohol, and 1 Cc of glacial acetic acid. Stains in 5 minutes. Dissolved in indifferent mediums it may be used for staining intra vitam, and in acid solutions colors the nuclei of fresh tis- sues. It may be used according to Gram's method. Glycerin- jelly, soak in 150 Cc. of distilled water 25 Gm. of gelatin for two hours, and add 3 Cc. of phenol and 175 Cc. of glycerol; heat for 15 minutes and filter through spun glass. Wrap the cork of the bottle in which the jelly is preserved in linen dipped in dilute phenol. For use, melt it in hot water, place a drop on the section, upon which gently press a cover-glass. Glychemalum, hem- atein, 0.4 Gm. (rubbed with a few drops of STAIN 918 STAIN glycerol until it dissolves); alum, 5 Gm.; glycerol, 30 Cc. ; distilled water, 70 Cc. (Mayer). Gold Chlorid, recommended for tracing nerve-endings in fresh tissues and for staining connective tissue and cartilage-cells. Place small pieces of tissue, \ inch square, in from 0.5 to 1 % solution of commercial gold chlorid in distilled water. Keep in the dark, and when the tissue has become yellow, wash in distilled water. Then expose to the light in 50 Cc. of water containing 2 drops of acetic acid for 48 hours, or until the tissue acquires a purple tint. Mount in glycerol. Gold- horn's Stain (for blood), preparation of the solution of polychrome methylene-blue. Solution A (Merck's medicinal methylene- blue: Grubler's methylene-blue rectified, and methylene-blue: — Koch): Dissolve 2 Gm. methylene-blue in 300 Cc. warm water. Add to this 4 Gm. lithium carbonate, shaking con- stantly. Heat .in an evaporating dish on a water-bath, the water touching the dish. Stir the solution occasionally. Remove in 15 to 20 minutes. Do not filter. Set aside for several days. Then add dilute acetic acid (5 %) until the solution is only faintly alkaline. Solution B: A 0.1% aqueous solution of eosin. Fix blood-films in methyl-alcohol for 15 seconds. Wash in running water. Stain in solution B for 7 to 30 seconds. Wash. Stain in solution A for 30 seconds to 2 minutes. Wash thoroughly in running water. Dry by agitating in air, not between filter-paper. The eosin may be added to the methyl-alcohol (enough to make a o. 1 % solution) ; or solution B may be added to solution A (1:4), but this easily produces a precipitate (the neutral stain). These give good results. Mixtures of methyl-alcohol, eosin, and polychrome methylene-blue give poor results. The depth of the chromatin stain depends on the length of staining. To stain the chromatin of half-grown malarial parasites ij to 2 minutes is necessary, while the chromatin of the hyaline forms stains in 10 seconds. Repeated staining may improve the chromatin violet. To do this the blood- film may be stained with solution B for 5 seconds, with solution A for 10 seconds. Golgi's Method (for the restoration of over- hardened tissue), wash in a half-saturated solution of copper acetate until it yields no precipitate, and return for 5 or 6 days to Golgi's mixture (see below). The tissue will then take the silver and the sections can be mounted in thickened cedar oil under a cover- glass. Golgi's Mixture, potassium dichro- mate (3.5% solution), 54 Cc; osmic acid (2 %), 6 Cc. Gonococcus, the gonococci are seen in the pus-cells grouped around the nucleus. Watery solutions of anilin dyes, preferably methylene-blue, stain the cocci intensely. Gram's Method, heat for from 2 to 5 minutes, or stain cold for from 20 to 30 minutes (tubercle bacilli, 12 to 24 hours), in saturated solution of gentian-violet anilin water; rinse quickly in absolute alcohol; transfer to Gram's solution (1 to ij minutes), in which the specimen turns black; wash in alcohol until the black color vanishes and a pale-gray color appears; dry and mount in Canada balsam. The decolorization may be hastened by adding 3 % nitric acid to the alcohol and then washing in pure alcohol. All the tissue-cells are decolorized by this method, while the bacteria are stained a deep blue. The cells may be subsequently stained with a watery or alcoholic solution of Bismarck brown for from 2 to 5 minutes, then washed in absolute alcohol until the section is yellowish- brown. This method is of diagnostic value, as certain bacteria are stained, others decolor- ized, by it. The bacteria that are stained by Gram's method are: tubercle bacillus; Fraenkel-Weichselbaum pneumococcus; Streptococcus pyogenes; streptococcus of ery- sipelas; Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus, albus, vitreus, and flavus; anthrax bacillus; bacillus of hog erysipelas. The bacteria that are decolorized by Gram's method are: Typhoid bacillus; gonococcus; Friedlander 's capsule bacillus; Koch's comma bacillus; glanders bacillus, and the spirillum of relaps- ing fever. Botkin advises washing the pre- paration in plain anilin water before decolor- izing in the iodin solution. Modifications of Gram's Method: 1. Gunther's modification: Transfer from the iodin-potassium-iodid so- lution to alcohol, then to a mixture of alcohol, volume, and nitric acid, 3 volumes, and from this again into alcohol. 2. Nicolle's modifica- tion: Decolorize in a mixture of alcohol, 2 volumes, and acetone, 1 volume. 3. Rib- bert's modification: Decolorize in alcohol con- taining 10% of' acetic acid. 4. Weigert's modification: The sections, stained with gen- tian-violet or methyl-violet, are not transferred to alcohol from the iodin solution, but are laid upon slides and covered with anilin oil. This is removed with blotting-paper, and followed by xylol and xylol-balsam. The anilin oil dehydrates and differentiates. Grenadier's Alcoholic Borax-carmin, dissolve 4 Gm. of borax in 100 Cc. of distilled water; add 3 Gm. of carmin, warm, and dilute with 100 Cc. of 70% alcohol. Filter before using, and transfer the tissue from the stain directly into alcohol acidulated with from 4 to 6 drops of hydrochloric acid, in which it should remain until it acquires a bright, transparent appear- ance. This solution is used for staining in bulk and gives a splendid color. Gruber and Durham's Method (for the agglutination of typhus and cholera bacilli), place a drop of immunization serum on a cover-glass, and be- side it a drop of equal size of the culture, as finely divided as possible. Mix and examine on a slide with a ground cell. In doubtful t cases put the preparation in the oven for from 15 to 30 minutes. Haffkine's Bouillon (for the culture of the bacilli of bubonic plague), 1^ chop 1 kilo of goat's flesh and heat it at a pressure of 3 atmospheres for 6 hours in dilute hydrochloric acid. Filter, neutralize, dilute with water to 3 liters, and sterilize. Haffkine's STAIN 919 STAIN Prophylactic, inoculate a flask containing 3 liters of 'Haffkine's bouillon with a pure culture of pest bacilli; when the stalactite growth develops, shake the flask until the colony sinks to the bottom, and when the growth reappears, shake again; when the stalactite culture forms the third time, heat to 6o° C. (140 F.) for 3 hours. Decant the clear fluid and preserve in hermetically sealed tubes. Dose 16-32 min. (1-2 Cc.) injected beneath the skin. Harris' Carboltoluidin, dissolve 1 or 2 Gm. of toluidin-blue in a saturated solution of phenol. Before staining treat the sections with water; stain for from 5 minutes to 24 hours, wash, and differentiate in glycerol-ether (Griibler) diluted 15 times with water or in acidulated alcohol; after from 5 to 15 minutes wash in alcohol. Eos in in alcohol may be used as a counterstain. In this case omit the differentiation and stain for from § to 2 minutes and wash in alcohol. Harris' Hematoxylin, dissolve 1 Gm. of hematoxylin in 10 Cc. of alcohol and add to 200 Cc. of a saturated aqueous solution of alum; heat to boiling and add 0.5 Gm. of mercuric oxid; when the solu- tion turns a dark purple, remove from the flame and cool quickly. For use dilute to the color of port-wine with aqueous so- lution of alum. Haixg's Phloroglucin Fluid. One of the most rapid decalcifying agents, and without injurious action on the tissue- elements, with the exception of blood. It is prepared as follows: Warm slowly and carefully 1 Gm. of phloroglucin in 10 Cc. of pure nitric acid, and to the resulting ruby- colored solution add 50 Cc. of distilled water. If a larger quantity is desired, add nitric acid and water to the foregoing proportion until the volume measures 300 Cc, the limit of the protective influence of the phloroglucin. Pre- viously to being brought into this fluid the tissues should be well fixed. Fetal bones and those of lower vertebrates are decalcified in half an hour. Older and harder bones re- quire several hours. When decalcification is completed, wash in running water for two days. The sections stain well. Another formula, useful for teeth when rapid action is necessary, consists of phloroglucin, 1 Gm.; nitric acid, 5 Cc; 95% alcohol, 70 Cc; dis- tilled water, 30 Cc. The function of the phloroglucin is to protect the organic tissue- elements against the action of the acid. Hei- denhain's Fluid, saturate hot 0.5 % sodium chlorid solution with mercuric chlorid. Hel- ler's Method. 1. For the osmication of medullated nerve-fibers: Harden the tissue in Muller 's fluid. Stain the sections in 1 % os- mic acid — in the oven for 10 minutes, at room- temperature for a half-hour; wash in water; reduce in 5 % pyrogallic acid for a half-hour, oxidize in 2.5% potassium permanganate for from 3 to 5 minutes, decolorize in 2 % ox- alic acid for from 3 to 5 minutes. 2. For mounting objects for sectioning: Pin a piece of paper about the cork or block so that it projects and forms a trough into which the celloidin can be poured around the object. Harden in the vapor of alcohol by sus- pension in a closed cylinder containing a few centimeters of alcohol. Hemosiderin, amorphous yellow to black-brown iron-con- taining fragments occurring in thrombi or hemorrhagic infarcts. In sections of ma- terial hardened in alcohol or formalin, treated for a few minutes with a 2 % aqueous solution of potassium ferrocyanid and examined in glycerol containing 0.5 % of hydrochloric acid, the pigment appears in the form of dark-blue granules. Hermann's Fluid, a modifica- tion of Flemming's fluid. Platinum chlorid is used instead of chromium trioxid; in other respects the formulas are alike. His' Med- ium (for the differential culture of the typhoid bacillus). 1. The tube culture -medium: trit- urate 5 Gm. of agar, 80 Gm. of gelatin, 5 Gm. of beef-extract, and 5 Gm. of salt; add a liter of water and enough hydrochloric acid or soda solution to produce a reaction of 1.5 % of normal acid, using phenolphthalein as the indicator. Clear with 1 or 2 eggs beaten in 25 Cc. of water; add 10 Gm. of glucose, boil for 25 minutes, and filter through absorbent cotton. 2. For the plate-culture use 10 Gm. of agar, 25 Gm. of gelatin, 5 Gm. each of beef- extract and salt, and 10 Gm. of glucose. The medium must contain not less than 2 % of nor- mal acid. The typhoid bacillus alone has the power of clouding these mediums. Hof- bauer's Method (for staining the iodinophil granules of leukocytes), dry the film and stain 1 minute in a solution of iodin, 1 part, potassium iodid, 3 parts, and water, 100 parts, brought to a syrupy consistence by the ad- dition of gum-arabic. Remove the excess of the stain with filter-paper to prevent diffuse coloring. Iodin -alcohol, alcohol, 90 %, to which enough tincture of iodin is added to impart the color of port- wine. See also Zenker 's fluid in this table. Iron Hematoxy- lin, sections are treated with a weak aqueous solution of ferric acetate, washed in water, and stained in 0.5 % aqueous solution of hema- toxylin. A blue-black or black-brown stain is obtained. This process is recommended by Biitschli for staining sections of protozoa jx thick. Another method is as follows: Treat sections for from hour to 2 or 3 hours with a 1.5 to 4 % solution of ferric ammonium sulfate; wash in water, and stain for from 1 to 12 hours in an aqueous solution of hem- atoxylin, about 0.5 %. Rinse with water and treat again with the iron solution. As soon as differentiation is complete, wash for 15 minutes in running water and mount. The results vary according to the duration of the treatment with the iron and hematoxylin solutions; short baths give a blue preparation, in which the nuclear structures are highly differentiated; prolonged baths give * black preparations, showing connective-tissue fibers and red blood-corpuscles black, central and polar bodies intensely black, cytoplasm STAIN 920 STAIN sometimes colorless, sometimes gray, in which case cell-plates and achromatic spindle-fibers are stained. Microorganisms are sharply stained. Tenner's Stain (for blood). Pre- paration of the neutral stain: In an open beaker mix equal parts of i . 2 or 1 . 2 5 % aqueous solution of eosin (Griibler), 1% aqueous so- lution of methylene-blue med. (Griibler). Let stand for 24 hours. Filter. Dry the precipitate obtained. Wash the precipitate with distilled water and dry again. The stain- ing solution: For use dissolve 0.5 Gm. of the precipitate in 100 Cc. pure methyl-alcohol (Merck "for analysis"). Jenner gives no particular method of fixation. Staining: Stain in the solution for 1 to 3 minutes, cover- ing with a watch-crystal. Pour off stain quickly and rinse in water until film is pink (5 to 10 seconds). Staining reaction: Leu- kocytes: nuclei, blue; granules, neutrophil, red; granules, basophil, dark violet; granules, eosinophil, brilliant crimson; malarial para- sites, bacteria, and filaria, blue. Karyokine- sis. Place small pieces of tissue hardened in strong Flemming's solution in an alcoholic solution of safranin (2 Gm. to 60 Cc.) for from 24 to 48 hours. Wash for a few minutes in water, and carry to acidulated absolute alcohol (10 drops of acetic acid to 100 Cc.) for from I to 1 minute. When thick clouds of color are no longer given off, carry to ab- solute alcohol. After 1 or 2 minutes clear and mount. Leishman's Stain (for blood). Preparation of the neutral stain. Solution A: The solution of polychrome methylene- blue. A 1 % aqueous solution of methylene- blue med. (Griibler) is made alkaline with 0.5% Na 2 C0 3 . This is heated for 12 hours at 65 ° C, and then allowed to stand for 10 days before use. Solution B: A 0.1% aqueous solution of eosin (extra BA Griibler). Equal parts of solutions A and B are mixed in an open vessel and allowed to stand for 5 or 6 hours, with occasional stirring. The precipi- tate formed is collected on a filter, washed with water, dried, and powdered. The stain- ing solution: Dissolve 0.1 Gm. of the dry precipitate in 100 Cc. pure methyl-alcohol (Merck "for analysis"). To stain: Four drops of the solution are poured on the blood- film, and allowed to stain for minute. With- out pouring off the stain, 6 to 8 drops of dis- tilled water are added and the mixture is al- lowed to stain for 5 minutes. Wash gently. Put a few drops of water on the blood-film for minute. Then dry and mount. Staining reactions : Red blood-corpuscles stain pale pink or greenish; lymphocytes: nuclei, dark ruby red; protoplasm, pale blue; mononu- clears : nuclei, ruby red; protoplasm, pale blue; polymorphonuclear neutrophils: nuclei, ruby red; granules, red; "coarse-grained eosino- phils": nuclei, ruby red; granules, pale pink; basophils: nuclei, red; granules, purplish black; blood-platelets stain deep ruby red; malarial parasites : nuclei, chromatin portion, ruby red; cytoplasm, blue. Lithia-water.

Saturated aqueous solution of lithium car- bonate 1 Cc, and distilled water 30 Cc, used as an intermediate agent in staining micro- organisms. Living Cells. Young larvas of Amphibia are the best objects for the study of cells intra vitam. Place the larvas of Sala- mandra in a watch-glassful of water contain- ing 5 to 10 drops of a solution of 1 part curara in 100 parts each of water and glycerol. From I to 1 hour's immersion is required for curarization. It is not necessary to wait un- til the larvas are motionless : they may be re- moved as soon as their movements have be- come slow. The gills and the caudal fin may then be studied. The tail may be excised from the living animal and studied for some time in 1 % salt solution or other indifferent medium. The adult animal offers for study the thin, transparent bladder. Larvas may be bred from adults, if well fed with aquatic worms, and supplied with a vessel of water. The larvas will be deposited in the water. The cytoplasm of living cells may be stained with methylene-blue, dahlia, or gentian- violet dissolved in water or in an indifferent - liquid. Loeb's Method (for producing ar- tificial parthenogenesis). Place the unferti- lized eggs of sea-urchins in sea-water con- taining magnesium chlorid in the proportion of 5000 (^n MgCl) to 5000 Cc. of water. After 2 hours restore them to normal sea- water. The eggs form normal gastrulas and plutei. Loeffler's Methylene-blue. Add 30 Cc of a concentrated alcoholic methylene- blue solution to 100 Cc. of a solution of caustic potash (0.01:100). Filter before using. Loeffler's Stain (for flagella). Mix 10 Cc of 20 % solution of tannin, 5 Cc. of saturated so- lution of ferrous sulfate, and 1 Cc. of aqueous or alcoholic solution of fuchsin, methyl-violet, or "Wollschwarz." For typhoid bacilli add Cc of 1 % solution of soda; for Bacillus subtilis add 30 drops; for bacilli of malig- nant edema, 36 drops; for cholera bacilli add 1 drop of sulfuric acid to the soda solution; for- Spirillum rubrum, drops. McCrorie's Method (for flagella). Stain the cover-glass preparation in warmed mix- ture of equal parts of a saturated solution of night blue, a 10% solution of tannin, and a 10% solution of alum. Mallory's Method. 1. For neuroglia: Fix for 4 days in 10% formalin, then for 4 days in a saturated solution of picric acid; after this mordant for 4 days in 5 % solution of am- monium bichromate at 37 C. Stain the sec- tions for 2 minutes in 1 % aqueous solution of acid fuchsin, rinse, and treat for 2 minutes with 1 % aqueous solution of phosphomolybdic acid; wash in two changes of water and stain for 2 minutes in a mixture of water-soluble anilin blue, 0.5 Gm.; orange G, 2 Gm.; oxalic acid, 2 Gm.; and water, 100 Cc; wash in water and dehydrate in alochol. Result : con- nective tissue, blue; neuroglia, deep red; ganglion-cells and axis-cylinders, light red. 2. For neuroglia: Fix the tissues after the STAIN 921 STAIN method given in No. i, and treat the sections for 15 minutes with a 0.5 aqueous solution of potassium permanganate, and after washing for the same time with 1 % solution of oxalic acid, wash, and stain in hematoxylin pre- pared by dissolving 0.1 Gm. of the dye in a little hot water, and when cool adding water up to 80 Cc, 20 Cc. of 10% aqueous solution of phosphotungstic acid, and last 0.2% of hydrogen dioxid. Wash in water, dehydrate in alcohol, clear in oil of origanum, and mount in balsam. Nuclei, neuroglia, and fibrin blue ; axis-cylinders and ganglion-cells pale pink; connective tissue deep pink. 3. For con- nective tissue: Fix in Zenker's fluid or sub- limate and stain the sections for 2 minutes in 0.1% aqueous solution of acid fuchsin. For further treatment see No. 1. Result: fibrous tissue, mucus % amyloid and hyaline sub- stances, blue; nuclei, cytoplasm, elastin, fibrin, neuroglia, and axis-cylinders, red; erythrocytes and myelin sheaths, yellow. 4. For nuclei and fibrin: Stain sections of tis- sue fixed in any medium except formaldehyd for 3 minutes in 10% aqueous solution of ferric chlorid; drain and dry and stain for 3 minutes in a 1 % aqueous solution of hema- toxylin; wash and differentiate in a 0.25% solution of ferric chlorid. Result: nuclei, dark blue; fibrin, gray to dark blue. In sub- limate preparations the erythrocytes are green- ish gray; connective tissue, pale yellow. 5. For staining Amcebce coli in tissues: Use al- cohol material and treat the sections for from 5 to 20 minutes with saturated aqueous solu- tion of thionin; wash, and differentiate for from 30 to 60 seconds in 2 % aqueous solution of oxalic acid; wash, dehydrate, clear, and mount in the usual way. Mallory's Phos- phomolybdic-acid Hematoxylin. Mix 10 % solution of phosphomolybdic acid, 1 part; hematoxylin, 1 part; water, 100 parts; chloral, from 6 to 10 parts. Expose to sunlight for a week. Filter before using and save the used portions. Stain sections for from 10 minutes to an hour; wash in 40 to 50 % alcohol, chang- ing it 2 or 3 times. Dehydrate and mount. If the solution does not stain readily, add a little hematoxylin. The stain is blue, and in its general effect similar to nigrosin. It is recommended for preparations of the central nervous system. Mallory-Wright Method ([or staining tubercle bacilli). Stain lightly in alum -hematoxylin, then for 2 or 3 minutes in steaming hot carbolfuchsin; decolorize for 30 seconds in acid alcohol. Marchi's Method. Used to demonstrate early degeneration of nerves, prior to sclerosis. After hardening in Miiller's fluid place the tissue in a large quantity of a mixture of Miiller's fluid, 2 parts; 1% osmic acid, 1 part. The degen- erated fibers are stained black; the normal are yellow or uncolored. Mayer's Carm- alum. Take 1 Gm. of carminic acid, 10 Gm. of alum, and 200 Cc. of distilled water; heat the mixture and filter, adding an anti- septic to keep it clear. The fluid is light red in color, shading toward violet, and is said to have good penetrating powers, even in osmium preparations, and to be better than alum-car- min for staining in toto. Mayer's Carm- alum and Indigo -carmin. Dissolve 0.1 Gm. of indigo-carmin in 50 Cc. of distilled water or of 5 % alum solution; add 1 volume of indigo-carmin solution to 4 volumes of carm- alum. Mayer's Hemalum. An excellent stain for large objects. It consists of two solutions — one of hematein, or ammonium hematein, 1 Gm., dissolved by the aid of heat in 50 Cc. of 90% alcohol; the other of alum 50 Gm. and distilled water 1 liter. The solutions are mixed, left to cool, and then filtered. A crystal of thymol may be added to prevent the formation of mold. For most purposes it is advisable to dilute this stain with water or alum solution. Hemalum plus 2 % glacial acetic acid gives a more precise nuclear stain. Mayer's Hemalum and In- digo-carmin. Add 1 volume of a 0.05 % aqueous solution of indigo-carmin to 4 vol- umes of hemalum. Mayer's Paracarmin. Dissolve carminic acid, 1 Gm., aluminium chlorid, 0.5 Gm., calcium chlorid, 4 Gm., in 100 Cc. of 70 % alcohol, with or without heat. Filter, after precipitation, and the solution will have a clear red color. Suitable for stain- ing bulky objects with large cavities, such as Salpa. Methylene -blue. An important re- agent, which gives a specific stain for lymph- spaces and intercellular cement, closely re- sembling gold and silver impregnation, for medullated nerves, and for plasma-cells. It also stains intra vitam, and is a specific re- agent for the axis-cylinders of sensory nerves in living animals (Ehrlich). Small and per- meable aquatic organisms may be stained during life by adding to the water containing them enough of the dye to give it a very pale tint. Nerve-tissue may be stained by in- jecting the dye into the vascular system of a living, narcotized animal, or by removing the organ and immersing it in the solution. From 0.5 to 1% solutions in physiologic salt solu- tion are employed for this purpose. The color is not permanent, but may be fixed by ammon- ium picrate. Parker fixes the color by dehy- drating in a solution of mercury bichlorid, Gm., in methylol 5 Cc. ; washing in a mixture of 2 parts of the methylol and sublimate solu- tion, 1 part pure methylol, 3 parts xylol. The object is then placed in xylol for 4 or 5 days, when it is ready to mount or embed. Mayer's albumin should not be used to fix sections to the slide, as it discharges the color. A solu- tion of 0.25 Gm. in 90% alcohol, 20 Cc, and distilled water, 80 Cc, is used for tissue-stain- ing. A 1% and a saturated alcoholic (15 Gm. to 100 Cc.) solution are used for stain- ing microorganisms. Methyl-green. This is chiefly used as a nuclear stain for fresh or recently fixed tissues; it is also a reagent for amyloid degeneration (Heschl), giving a vio- let color. Use 0.5 Gm. of methyl-green in 20 Cc. of 90 % alcohol, 80 Cc. of distilled water, STAIN 922 STAIN and i Cc. of acetic acid. Stain the tissue for 5 minutes, wash in acidulated water, dif- ferentiate in 90% alcohol, and dehydrate. The nuclein reaction depends on the presence of acetic acid. Arnold recommends a dilute solution of methyl-green containing 0.6% sodium chlorid for staining cells and nuclei. Bizzozero has observed that the elements of blood and pus, also ciliated epithelium and spermatozoa, do not stain with methyl-green if the cells are highly alkaline : if the alkalin- ity is diminished, they are dyed violet; if the cells are acid, they are colored green. Carnoy regards methyl-green as the best stain for nucleoli. Methyl-violet. A good chro- matin stain. Dissolve 0.5 Gm. in 200 Cc. of distilled water and 5 Cc. of glacial acetic acid. Stain sections for 20 minutes, wash in distilled water, and then in equal parts of glycerol and water. Mount in Farrant's medium. This is also a reagent for tissues undergoing amy- loid degeneration. The amyloid substance stains pink. 1. (Alcoholic.) Methyl-violet, 25 Gm.; absolute alcohol, 100 Cc. 2.(Aque- ous.) Methyl-violet, 1 Gm.; alcohol, 20 Cc. ; distilled water, 80 Cc. Muchematein. A specific stain for mucin. 1 . Pulverize 0.2 Gm. of hematin with a few drops of glycerol and then add 0.1 Gm. of aluminium chlorid, 40 Cc. of glycerol, and 60 Cc. of water. 2. Dis- solve 0.2 Gm. of hematin and 0.1 Gm. of aluminium chlorid in 100 Cc. of 70 % alcohol. Two drops of nitric acid may be added. Muci- carmin. A specific stain for mucin. Rub Gm. of carmin in a mortar with 0.5 Gm. of aluminium chlorid and 2 Cc. of distilled water; heat for 2 minutes, until the light-red color changes to dark; stir and add a little 50 % alco- hol; when dissolved, make up to 100 Cc. with 50% alcohol, and after 24 hours filter. For use dilute tenfold with water or with 50 % alco- hol. Miiller's Berlin Blue. Precipitate a strong solution of Berlin blue with 90 % alco- hol. The fluid is neutral and the precipitate finely divided. Mulleins Fluid. This agent is very extensively used, as it penetrates well and hardens evenly. It has the following composition : potassium dichromate, 2.5 parts; sodium sulfate, 1 part; water, 100 parts. The addition of a little camphor, chloral, thymol, or naphthalene will prevent the formation of mold. The time required for hardening de- pends on the size of the object. This fluid di- luted to 0.2% is used as a macerating agent. Nissl's Method (for ganglion-cells). 1. Stain sections of tissue hardened in 10% for- malin or in graded alcohols in hot concen- trated aqueous fuchsin solution. 2. Stain in hot 0.5 % methylene-blue ; when cool, transfer to a mixture of anilin (20 parts) and 90 % alco- hol (200 parts) ; then treat with origanum oil, then with benzin, and mount in solution of colophonium in benzin. 3. Mount the hard- ened tissue on cork (without embedding), cut sections and stain them in hot Nissl's methy- lene-blue ; treat with the anilin-alcohol mixture, then with cajeput oil, then as in 2. Nissl's Methylene-blue. Methylene-blue (B pat- ent), 3.75 parts; Venice soap, 1.75 parts; dis- tilled water, 1000 parts. Nitric Acid. An ef- ficacious agent, which causes no swelling and does not attack the tissue-elements. It is used in 1 and in 10 % solution, the latter for large, hard bones, the former for young bones. The specimens should previously have been fixed in absolute alcohol, and the decalcifying fluid changed daily. They must be removed as soon as decalcification is complete or they will become discolored. They are then washed in running water for two hours and preserved in alcohol, which should be renewed in a few days. Nocht's Stain (for blood). Original method : Unna's polychrome methylene-blue is neutralized with dilute acetic acid. Solution A : 1 Cc. of this neutralized polychrome methy- lene-blue is mixed in a watch-crystal with a saturated aqueous solution of ordinary methy- lene-blue until its red color disappears and the solution becomes blue. Solution B : Dilute 3 or 4 drops of 1 % aqueous solution of eosin with 1 or 2 Cc. water. Add solution A drop by drop to solution B until B is dark blue; a precipitate has then been formed. In this mixture blood-films are to be stained for sev- eral hours up to 24 hours. Fix films in alco- hol or by heat. Subsequent modification: Solution A: The polychrome methylene- blue solution. To a 1 % aqueous solution of methylene-blue add 1 or 0.5 % Na 2 C0 3 . Heat at 50 C. to 6o° C. (i22°-i4o° F.) for several days. Solution B: Dilute 2 or 3 drops of % aqueous solution of eosin with 1 or 2 Cc. water. To solution B add solution A drop by drop until the mixture is dark blue and has lots its eosin tint. To stain, float blood-films face down on this mixture for from 5 to 10 minutes. Normal Salt Solution. Sodium chlorid, 6-7.5 Gm.; distilled water, 1000 Cc. Used in the study of living structures. Paraf- fin Infiltration and Embedding. The initial step in this process consists in the in- filtration of the object with a clearing agent; that is, by some substance which is a solvent of paraffin. It is then immersed in melted paraffin until it is thoroughly saturated. The paraffin should be kept just at the melting- point and should be renewed if the object is large. The duration of the bath depends on the size of the object. When this second step in the process is completed, embed in paraffin, as in simple embedding. To prevent crystal- lization of the paraffin the embedded object should be quickly cooled, which may be done by floating it in the containing receptacle on cold water. Phenol and Xylol. A mixture of 1 part of phenol and 3 parts of xylol is used to clarify celloidin sections, which may be taken from 70 % alcohol, and do not require further dehydration. A layer of previously heated copper sulfate in the bottom of the bottle will keep the mixture free from water. Pianese Double Stain. Prepare a sat- urated solution of nigrosin in a saturated alcoholic solution of picric acid; mix 2 STAIN 923 STAIN volumes of this with i volume of anilin water and evaporate in open air. The crys- tals deposited are dissolved in absolute alco- hol, and from this solution green crystals are obtained soluble in alcohol, ether, and water. For tissues, make a 2% solution in alcohol; for microorganisms, in water. Stain sec- tions first in lithium-carmin, treat with acid alcohol, wash, and immerse in an alcoholic so- lution of picronigrosin until they assume a brown hue. Decolorize in oxalic acid. Nuclei are stained red; plasma, dark -yellow; cartilage, yellow; connective tissue, pale green; elastic fibers, violet. Picric Acid. A fixing agent of great penetration, and, there- fore, especially suitable for the preparation of chitinous structures. A saturated solution is employed. The time required for fixation varies from a minute to a day, and depends on the size of the object. Wash out in alcohol and stain in alcoholic solutions. Picric Al- cohol. A saturated solution of picric acid in 50% alcohol. Picronigrosin. A solu- tion of 1 Gm. of picric acid in 100 Cc. of dis- tilled water with the addition of 1 Gm. of nigrosin. ■ Plehn's Method. 1. For the study of the living malarial parasite: Place a drop of fluid paraffin on a slide and a drop on a cover-glass; take up the drop of blood on the latter and so place it on the slide that the blood is between the drops of paraffin. Ex- amine on a warm stage. The addition of a drop of methylene-blue will stain the living organisms. 2. For malarial films fixed in absolute alcohol: Stain for 5 minutes in a mixture of concentrated aqueous solution of methylene-blue, 60 Cc, 0.5% solution of eosin in 75 % alcohol, 20 Cc, distilled water, 20 Cc, and 20% potash lye, 12 drops. Poly- chrome Methylene-blue. A reddish-violet dye sometimes present as an impurity in com- mercial methylene-blue, or that develops in old, ripened, or alkaline solutions of methy- lene-blue. It is used for staining cell-granules. 'See Unna's Method. Potassium Perman- ganate (Du Pleiss). Useful for the study of isolated and very contractile cells, as sper- matozoa. It is said to kill more rapidly than any other agent, 2 % osmic acid not excepted. A saturated aqueous solution is used. It is also used for washing out overstaining with carmin, and in 1 % solution as a mordant for anilin dyes (Henneguy) and for reducing sil- ver impregnations. Rosenberger's Method.

1. For staining blood: Fix the films by heat or in absolute alcohol or alcohol and ether and stain in a mixture of 10 Cc. of a saturated aqueous solution of methylene-blue, 4 Cc. of a saturated aqueous solution of phloxin, 6 Cc. of 95 % alcohol, and 12 Cc of distilled water.

2. For staining the tubercle bacillus: The es- sential point in this process is the use of sweet spirit of niter for bleaching; it is also mixed with alcoholic solutions of methylene-blue, malachite green, Bismarck brown, and gen- tian-violet. Safranin. Pfitzner's formula: Safranin (Griibler's), 1 part; absolute alco- hol, 100 parts; water, 200 parts. Flemming uses a concentrated alcoholic solution diluted one-half with water. Babes' formula: (a) Equal parts of a concentrated alcoholic and a concentrated aqueous solution; (b) water, 100 parts; anilin oil, 2 parts; safranin, in excess. The latter may be used according to the method of Gram, and is recommended for the demonstration of mitotic figures. Scheele's Green Mass. (a) Mix 80 Cc. of a saturated solution of potassium arseniate and 50 Cc. of glycerol, (b) Take 40 Cc. of a saturated solution of copper sulfate and 50 Cc. of glycerol. Combine the two solutions with three volumes of the vehicle. Sub- stantive Staining. A histologic stain ob- tained by direct absorption of the pigment from the solution in which the tissue is im- mersed. Dyes that combine directly with the substance acted on are called substantive dyes. Subtractive Staining. A socalled theory of Heidenhain's, based on the hypothe- sis that a general stain satisfies the affinities of some cell-structures, that hold it in subsequent treatment with specific dyes, while the other structures give up the general stain and then take the specific stain. Sudan III. A selec- tive stain for fat. Prepare a saturated solu- tion in 95 % alcohol, dilute two-thirds with 50 % alcohol, and filter. Stain sections for from 5 to 10 minutes, wash for about the same time in 60 or 70 % alcohol, and mount in glycerol. Small oil-drops yellow, large ones orange. For staining the fat-granules in the elements of tissues undergoing fatty degeneration use the undiluted stain. The tissue may be fixed in Midler's fluid or cut fresh on the freezing microtome. Thionin. The uses and tech- nic are the same as for methylene-blue. A saturated solution in 50 % alcohol diluted with 5 volumes of water is used for staining. Thoma's Method (for the numeration of leukocytes). Dilute the blood in the propor- tion of 1 : 10 with water containing 0.3 % anhy- drous acetic acid. This dissolves the colored blood-cells. Unna's Hematoxylin. A con- stant half-ripe stock solution. Hematoxylin, Gm.; alum, 10 Gm.; alcohol, 100 Cc; water, 200 Cc. ; sublimed sulfur, 2 Cc. If the sulfur is added 2 or 3 days after preparing the hematoxylin solution, it will arrest oxidation and the stain will be ready for use at this stage. The oxidation of alum-hematoxylin solutions can be instantaneously accomplished by adding a little neutralized hydrogen dioxid. Unna's Method. For collagen: 1. Stain sections of alcohol material for 5 minutes in strong so- lution of polychrome methylene-blue, then for 15 minutes in neutral 1 % solution of orcein in absolute alcohol; wash in alcohol; berga- mot; balsam. Collagen, dark red; nuclei, blue; granules of mast-cells, carmin red; cytoplasm of plasma-cells, blue. 2. Stain sections for 20 seconds in 1 % solution of water-blue(Wasserblau) ; wash and stain for 5 minutes in neutral aqueous 1 % solution of safranin; wash in water and then treat with STAIN 924 STAIN absolute alcohol until the blue color reappears; collagen, sky-blue; nuclei, red; cytoplasm, violet. 3. For collagen, elastin, and smooth muscle: Stain with hot orcein for 10 minutes, wash in dilute alcohol, stain with hematein for 10 minutes, and treat for a few seconds with acid alcohol; wash, and place in a 2 % solution of acid fuchsin for 5 minutes, in saturated aqueous solution of picric acid for 2 minutes, then in saturated alcoholic solution of picric acid for 2 minutes; absolute alcohol; oil; balsam. Elastin, brown-red; collagen, red; muscle-fibers, yellow with gray-violet nuclei. 4. For elastin and smooth muscle: Stain as in 3, substituting polychrome methylene-blue for hematein and 1 % potassium permanga- nate for the acid alcohol. Elastin, brown-red; collagen, decolored; muscle-fibers, violet. 5. For smooth muscle: Stain sections for 10 minutes in polychrome methylene-blue ; wash, and fix in 1 % red prussiate of potash ; dif- ferentiate in acid alcohol for 10 minutes; ab- solute alcohol; oil; balsam. The collagen is decolored. 6. For keratphyalin: Overstain in hematoxylin, treat for 10 seconds with 0.5 % solution of potassium permanganate, and wash in alcohol; or place the stained sections in 33 % solution of iron sulfate for 10 seconds, or in 10% solution of iron chlorid. 7. For epithelia: Stain sections for 10 minutes in neutral aqueous 1 % solution of water blue ; wash, and stain for 10 minutes in 1 % solution of orcein. Or overstain sections of alcohol material in polychrome methylene-blue and differentiate in Unna's glycerol-ether mixture (Griibler) ; or in a mixture of alcohol, 10 parts ; xylol, 15 parts; anilin, 25 parts; and transfer to xylol; or in a mixture of xylol, 30 parts; alcohol, 20 parts; then transfer to xylol and then to anilin containing alum to saturation (agitated and filtered before using). 8. For plasma-cells and mast-cells. Apply the methods for epithelia.(For the demonstration of bacteria in epithelia see the methods for stain- ing microorganisms.) 9. For overcoming the decoloration of bacteria in the process of dehy- drating in alcohol: Transfer the section from the decolorizing fluid to the slide, remove as much as possible of the water by means of filter-paper, and then heat the slide over flame until the section is dry; when cold, mount in balsam. Waldeyer's Method (for the fixing and decalcification of bone). Fix the fresh ob- ject in chromium trioxid (1:600); decalcify in a mixture of chromium trioxid (1:200) 100 Cc. and nitric arid 2 Cc. Wash thoroughly and harden in alcohol. Weigert's Dif- ferentiating Fluid. Borax, 2 Gm.; potas- sium ferricyanid, 2.5 Gm.; distilled water, 200 Cc. Used after hematoxylin. Weigert's Method. 1. For fibrin: Make celloidin sec- tions and stain one minute in Weigert's fibrin stain (5% solution of gentian-violet, 4.4 Cc; 96% alcohol, 6 Cc; anilin oil, 1 Cc). Dry with unsized printing paper and add a drop of Gram's solution saturated with iodin. Most of the stained parts are decolorized. Re- move the iodin with printing paper; clear in equal parts of anilin oil and xylol, renewing it until all the water is removed. The water gives the section a white appearance. Dry with filter-paper, wash well with xylol, and mount in xylol balsam. 2. For neuroglia: Fix for 8 days in the following mixture: dis- solve 2.5 Gm. chrome alum in 100 Cc. water, by heat, and while hot add 5 parts each of acetic acid and pulverized copper acetate, when cold, 10 parts of formalin. Embed in celloidin. Treat the sections for 10 minutes with 0.3% solution of potassium permanga- nate, wash in water, and reduce in the follow- ing : 5 parts each of chromogen and formic acid in 100 parts of water, to which, after filtering, add 10 parts of a 10 % solution of sodium sul- fite. After 3 hours transfer to 5 % chromogen and after 24 hours stain in the following: saturate hot 75 % alcohol with methyl-violet, decant when cold, and to each 100 Cc. add 5 Cc. of 5 % aqueous solution of oxalic acid; differentiate in a saturated solution of iodin in 5 % solution of potassium iodid ; decolorize in a mixture of equal volumes of anilin and xylol, wash in xylol, and mount in balsam. 3. Without decolorizing: Tissues hardened in Miiller's fluid and alcohol are embedded in celloidin, and then put into a mixture of equal parts of a 10 % solution of sodium-potassium tartrate and a cold saturated solution of copper acetate, which is kept at from 38 to 40 C. (86°-io4° F.). They are next placed in a half-saturated solution of copper acetate at the same temperature for 48 hours. The blocks, rinsed in water, may be kept in 80% alcohol and cut at any time. The staining fluid is composed of 1 part of an alcoholic hem- atoxylin solution (1 : 10) and 9 parts of a sat- urated solution of lithium carbonate; this fluid is to be freshly made. Stain for from 4 to 1 2 hours ; wash, dehydrate in 90 % alcohol, and clear in anilin xylol (2:1), then in pure xylol, and mount in xylol balsam. The ad- vantage of the method is the clearness with which the fine medullated fibers are distin- guished from the cells and other parts, and it is less tedious than the old method. Wright's Stain (for blood). Preparation of the neutral stain. Solution A : Make a o . 5 % aqueous so- lution of the NaHC0 3 , being careful to bring all the salt into solution before going on to the next step. Then add 1 % of methylene-blue (Griibler's methylene-blue, "Bx," "Koch," or "Ehrlich's rectified"). Steam this in an Arnold sterilizer for 1 hour after steam is up. Cool. Solution B: 0.1% aqueous solution of eosin (Griibler, "yellowish, soluble in water"). Add solution B to solution A until the mixture becomes purple, a metallic scum forms on the surface, and a finely granular black precipitate appears in suspension. (About 500 Cc. of solution B to 100 Cc. of solution A.) Filter off the precipitate. Do not wash it. Dry. Preparation of the staining solution. Make a saturated solution of the precipitate in pure methyl-alcohol (0.3 Gm. in 100 Cc methyl- STAIN 925 STAPHYLOANGINA alcohol). Filter, and add an additional 25 % of the original volume of methyl-alcohol used. This prevents precipitation of the stain on the film. Cover the film with the stain for 1 minute. Without pouring off the stain add water drop by drop until the mixture is trans- lucent at the edges and a yellowish metallic scum forms on the surface. Stain in this di- luted stain for 2 to 3 minutes. Wash in dis- . tilled water until the film becomes pink. Dry between filter-papers. Staining reactions: Lymphocytes: nuclei, dark purplish-blue; cytoplasm, robin's-egg blue; large mononu- clears: nuclei, blue; cytoplasm, pale blue; polymorphonuclear neutrophils: nuclei, blue; granules, reddish -lilac; eosinophils: nuclei, blue; granules, blue; mastzellen: nuclei, blue to purplish; granules, dark blue or purple; myelocytes: nuclei, dark blue or lilac; gran- ules, dark or reddish-lilac; blood-platelets stain blue or purplish; malarial parasites: nuclei, chromatin portion, lilac-red to black; cytoplasm, blue. Xylol. Used for paraffin and celloidin sections. It causes shrinkage if the sections are not thoroughly dehydrated. Zenker's Fluid. Dissolve 25 Gm. potas- sium dichromate, 10 Gm. sodium sulfate, and 50 Gm. mercuric chlorid in 1000 Cc. warm distilled water. At the time of using add to each 20 Cc. 1 Cc. of glacial acetic acid. Fix the tissue for from 24 to 48 hours; wash for 24 hours in running water. Harden in the dark in the ascending series of alcohols. For the removal of the precipitate add to the 90 % alcohol enough tincture of iodin to impart the color of port-wine, and repeat the addition daily until the color does not fade. Pre- serve in 90 % alcohol. Ziehl-Neelsen Method. Float the cover-glass preparation upon Ziehl's carbolfuchsin; heat until vapor arises (about 3 to 5 minutes), wash in water, and decolorize in 15 % nitric or 5 % sulfuric acid, then in 60 to 80% alcohol to remove the remnant of color. Wash well, dry, and mount in balsam. In the case of tissue-sections, stain cold for 15 minutes and decolorize as detailed; upon removal from the alcohol' counterstain with methylene-blue; wash, dehydrate, clear, and mount.


  • Stalagmometer (stal-ag-mom 1 '-et-er) [orakaypLoc, a dropping; fikzpov, a. measure]. An instru- ment for measuring the number of drops in a given volume of liquid.
  • Stalagmometry (stal-ag-mom' -et-re) [stalag- mometer]. A method of diagnosis based upon the determination of the relative degree of surface tension or capillarity possessed by the body -fluids.
  • Stammer (stam'-er) [AS., stamur, stammering]. To speak interruptedly or with hesitation.
  • Stammering (stam'-er -in g). Interrupted or hesitating speech. S. Bladder. See Blad- der, Stammering.
  • Stamper (stamp' -er). A name for one affected with locomotor ataxia, from the stamping gait incident to it.
  • Standard (stan'-dard) [extendere, to spread out].

Something used for comparison. S. Solu- tion, a solution containing a definite quantity of a reagent.


  • Stannate (stan'-at). A salt of stannic acid.
  • Stannic (stan'-ik) [stannum]. Containing tin as a tetrad element. S. Acid, H 2 Sn0 3 . A gelatinous white precipitate which, on drying, forms a translucent vitreous mass. It is dibasic.
  • Stanniferous, (stan-if -er-us) [stannum; ferre, to bear]. Yielding or containing tin.
  • Stannite (stan'-it). Tin sulfid; bell-metal.

Stannius' Experiments. 1. Separation by a ligature of the sinus venosus from the remain- der of the frog's heart causes the latter to re- main distended in diastole, while the former continues its rhythmic pulsations. Mechanic excitation of the auricle or ventricle produces a single contraction, which is repeated only when a new stimulus is applied. 2. If a ligature is placed around the groove divid- ing the auricles from the ventricle, there oc- curs a rhythmic contraction of the ventricle, while the auricles remain quiescent.


  • Stannous (stan'-us). Containing tin as a biva- lent element.
  • Stannum (stan'-um) [L.]. Tin. See Tin.
  • Stapedectomy (sta -pe- dek r -to- me) [stapes; iKTo/xrj, excision]. Excision of the stapes.
  • Stapedial (sta-pe'-de-al) [stapes]. 1. Shaped like a stirrup. 2. Relating to the stapes.
  • Stapediovestibular (sta-pe-de-o-ves-tib' -u-lar) [stapes; vestibulum, vestibule]. Relating to the stapes and the vestibule.
  • Stapedius (sta-pe' -de-us) [stapes]. See under Muscle.
  • Stapes (sta'-pez) [L., "a stirrup"]. The stirrup- shaped bone of the middle ear, articulating with the incus and the fenestra ovalis.
  • Staphisagria (staf-is-ag'-re-ah) [oxalic, a dried grape; aypcoc, wild]. Stavesacre. The staph- isagria of the U. S. P. is the ripe seed of Delphinium staphisagria, of the order Ranun- culacece. It contains the alkaloids delphinin, C^H^NOj, delphinoidin, C 4? H e8 N 2 7 , del- phisin, C^HjgNgC^, and staphisagrin, C 32 H 33 - N0 5 . It has been used locally as an applica- tion in rheumatism, and as an ointment to des- troy lice and itch-mites. S., Fluidextract of (fluidextr actum staphisagria, U. S. P.). Dose 1 min. (0.06 Cc).
  • Staphyle (staf'-i-le) [oza^uX-q, a bunch of grapes]. The uvula.
  • Staphylinopharyngeus (sta}-il-i-no-far-in'-je- us) [staphyle; pharynx]. The palatopharyn- geus. See under Muscle.
  • Staphylinus (staf-il-i 1 '-nus) [staphyle]. 1. Pal- atal. 2. See. S. medius. S. externus, the tensor palati. S. internus, the levator palati. S. medius, the azygos uvulae muscle- See under Muscle.
  • Staphylitis (staf-il-i' -tis) [staphyle; exec, in- flammation]. Inflammation of the uvula.
  • Staphylo- (staf-il-o-) [ara(f>uXrj, uvula]. A pre- . fix denoting pertaining to the uvula.
  • Staphyloangina (staf-il-o-an-ji' -nah) . Walsh's term for pseudomembranous inflammations STAPHYLOCOCCEMIA 926 STATICS of the throat due to infection by staphylo- cocci.
  • Staphylococcemia (staf-il-o-kok-se' -me-ah) [staphylococcus; al/ia, blood]. A morbid con- dition due to the presence of staphylococci in the blood.
  • Staphylococcia (staf-il-o-kok' -se-ah). Gen- eral infection with staphylococci.
  • Staphylolysin (staf - il - ol' - is - in) [staphylo- coccus; Xuecv, to loose]. Neisser and Wechs- berg's name for a hemolysin produced by Staphylococcus aureus and 5. albus.
  • Staphyloma (staf-il-o'-mah) [ora(f>uAojp:a, a defect in the eye]. A bulging of the cornea or sclera of the eye. S. sequatoriale, S. aequatoris, S., Equatorial, staphyloma of the sclera in the equatorial region. S., Anterior. See Keratoglobus. S. corneae, a bulging of the cor- nea due to a thinning of the membrane with or without previous ulceration. S. , Posterior, S. posticum, a backward bulging of the sclerotic coat at the posterior pole of the eye. S., Scarpa's, posterior staphyloma; staphy- loma of the posterior segment of the sclera. S. uveale, thickening of the iris. Syn., Iridon- cosis.
  • Staphylomycosis (staf-il-o-mi-ko'-sis) [staphy- lococcus; mycosis]. A morbid condition due to staphylococci.
  • Staphyloplasmin (staf-il-o-plaz'-min) [staphy- lococcus; plasmin]. Staphylococcus toxin.
  • Staphyloplasty (staf -il-o-plas-te) [staphylo-; nXaooeiv, to mold]. A plastic operation for the closure of cleft palate.
  • Staphylorrhaphy (staf-il-or'-a-fe) [staphylo-; pacfyrj, suture]. Suture of a cleft palate.
  • Staphylostreptococcia (staf-il-o-strep-to-kok' - se-ah). Infection by both staphylococci and streptococci.
  • Staphylotomy (staf -il-ot-o-me) [staphylo-; zofj.7), a cutting], i. The operation of incising or removing the uvula. 2. The operation of incising a staphyloma.
  • Staphysina (staf-is-i'-nah) [oza(f)(c, a dried grape]. A product obtained by Thompson from the seeds of Delphinium staphisagria.

Star [ME., starre]. In biology applied to various radiate structures, granules, cells, groups of cells, or organisms. S. -anise. See Illicium. S.-cells, endothelial cells of vessels, first described by Kupffer, and regarded as nervous elements on account of their shape and thin, elongated processes, but afterward shown to belong to the endothelial tissues ; they have the power of inclosing various granules. Syn., Kupffer' s cells. S., Daughter-. See Di- aster. S.-grass. SeeAletris. S.s of Verheyn, the star-shaped figures formed by the stellate veins of the kidney, beneath the capsule.

S.s, Winslow's, capillary whorls which form the beginning of the vorticose veins of the cho- roid. Syn., Stellce vasculosce winslowii.

Starblind [AS., stcerblind]. Half blind; blink- ing.

Starch [AS., stearc, stiff]. A carbohydrate widely distributed in the vegetable kingdom, occurring in peculiar concentrically marked granules or grains. When heated with water, the granules swell up, burst, partially dissolve, and form starch paste. The soluble portion is called granulose, the insoluble is cellulose. Iodin produces a characteristic blue coloration with starch. The most important varieties of starch are : potato-starch, leguminous starch, wheat-starch (amylum, U. S. P., B. P.), sago- starch, rice-starch. S., Animal. 1. See Gly- cogen. 2. See Bodies, Amylaceous. S.,Corn-. See Corn-starch. S. -enema, an enema con- sisting of starch-water. S., Glycerite of. See Arnyli, Glyceritum, under Amylum. S., Iodized, iodid of starch, a dark powder contain- ing 2 % of iodin; a disinfectant and internal and external antiseptic. Dose 3-10 gr. (0.2- 0.66 Gm.). S., Soluble, a white powder ob- tained by heating starch and glycerol and add- ing strong alcohol during the cooling; it is used as an emulsifier. Syn., Amylodextrin. S.- water, a mixture of wheat-starch and water, used chiefly as an emollient enema.


  • Starter (start'-er) [ME., starten, to start], A pure culture of bacteria employed to start some particular fermentation, as in the ripen- ing of cream.
  • Starvation (star-va'-shun) [AS., steorfan, to die]. Deprivation of food; the state produced by deprivation of food.
  • Stasimetry (stas-im' -et-re) [stasis; pthpov, a measure]. Bitot's term for the estimation of the consistence of soft organic bodies.
  • Stasimorphy (stas'-e-mor-fe) [stasis; fJ-op^-fj, form]. Deviation from the normal from arrest of development.
  • Stasis (sta'-sis) [ozaocc, from corhvac, to stand]. A standstill of the current of any of the fluids of the body, especially of the blood.
  • Stasophobia (stas-o-fo'-be-ah) [stasis; 6/?of, fear]. Fear of standing upright.
  • Static (stat'-ik) [azarcKoc, causing to stand]. At rest; pertaining to matter or force at rest or in equilibrium. S. Breeze, a method of ad- ministering static electricity, consisting in the withdrawal of a static charge from a patient by means of a pointed electrode. S. Elec- tricity. See Electricity, Static.
  • Statice (stat'-is-e) [orauKTj, an astringent herb]. A genus of plants of the order Plumbaginece. S. antarctica and S. brasiliensis, baycuru or guaycura, South American species, are used to produce uterine contractions. 5. gmelini, a species indigenous to southern Russia, is used as a gargle and in diarrhea. S. limonium grows upon the coasts of Europe and North America; the plant, seed, and root are used as astringents.
  • Statics (stat'-iks) [see Static]. The science re- lating to forces in a condition of equilibrium.
  • Stationary (sta'-shun-a-re) [see Station]. Stand- ing still; not moving. S. Air, the amount of air which is constantly in the lungs during normal respiration.
  • Statocyst (stat'-o-sist) [orarbg, standing; koouc, cyst]. One of the vestibular sacs of the lab- yrinth which is supposed to act as the nervous mechanism on which static equilibrium de- pends.
  • Statometer (stat-om' -et-er) [oraroc, standing; likrpov, a measure]. An instrument for meas- uring the degree of exophthalmos.
  • Status (sta'-tus) [L.]. A state. S. arthrit- icus, the nervous manifestations preceding an attack of gout. S. cribrosus, a scarcely macroscopic sieve-like condition of the brain or nerve-substance, due to absorption of mi- nute vessels; observed in autopsies. Fr., Etat crible. S. epilepticus, a condition in which epileptic attacks occur in rapid succession, the patient not regaining consciousness during the interval. S. gastricus, gastritis. S. lymph- aticus, Paltauf's name for a condition of unstable equilibrium, coma, convulsions, and vomiting accompanying hyperplasia of the persisting thymus. Syn., Lymphatism; Lymphotoxemia; Status thymicus. S. pra^sens, the state of a patient at the time of examina- tion. S. thymicus. See S. lymphaticus. S. typhosus. See Typhoid State. S.vermino- sus. See Helminthiasis.
  • Stauroplegia (staw-ro-ple' -je-ah) [oraopoc, crossed; 7^77 pj, a stroke]. Crossed hemi- plegia.
  • Staxis (staks'-is). See Stillicidium.
  • Steapsin (ste-ap' -sin) [arkap, fat]. A ferment assisting in the saponification of the fats and found in the pancreatic juice.
  • Stearate (ste'-ar-dt) [stearin]. A salt of stearic acid. Glycerol stearate is called stearin (q. v.).
  • Stearin (ste'-ar-in) [orkap, fat], C 3 H 5 03(C 18 H35- 2 ) 3 . A compound of stearic acid and glyceryl occurring in the harder animal fats, especially in tallow. It crystallizes in white, pearly scales.
  • Stearone (ste'-ar-on) [arkap, fat], C 35 H ;0 O. A volatile liquid obtained by partial decomposi- tion of stearic acid.
  • Stearopten (ste-ar-op' -ten) [arkap, fat; nrr]vbc, winged; volatile]. The crystalline substance occurring naturally in solution in a volatile oil.
  • Steatite (ste'-at-it). See Talc. v Steatitis (ste-at-i'-tis) [orkap, fat]. Inflamma- tion of the fatty tissues.
  • Steato- (ste-at-o-) [orkap, fat]. A prefix mean- ?■ ing fatty.
  • Steatocele (ste'-at-o-sel) [steato-; k^tj, tumor], A swelling formed by a collection of fatty matter in the scrotum.
  • Steatoma (ste-at-o' -mah) [steato-; 6p.a, tumor].

1. A sebaceous cyst. 2. A lipoma. S., Miiller's, a lipofibroma.


  • Steatopygia (ste-at-o-pij'-e-ah) [steato-; nuyi], buttock]. Enormous fatness of the buttock, common among the women of some African tribes.
  • Steatopygous (ste-at-o p'-ig-us) [see Steato- pygia]. Characterized by excessive develop- ment of the buttocks.

Steel. A form of iron holding an intermediate position between cast iron and wrought iron, and containing from 0.5 to 1.5 % of carbon. S., Tincture of. See Ferric Chlorid, Tinc- ture of. S., Wine of. See Ferric Citrate, Wine of.

Steep. 1. A name for rennet. 2. To stand in water for making an infusion.


  • Stegomyia (steg-o-mi'-e-ah) [ortyavbc, covered; (j.u'ca, a fly]. A genus of Culicidce founded by Theobald, represented in most tropical and subtropical countries ; one species occurring in the warmer parts of southern Europe. The adults are usually very vicious biters, both by day and night. According to the experiments of the American Commission on Yellow Fever S. fasciata is the agent which spreads the germs of this disease. S. fasciata, Fabricius (1805), a very distinct and common species, easily distinguished by the thoracic ornament- ation and by the last hind tarsal joint being white. It is almost cosmopolitan, but does not appear to occur in cold regions. It is one of the most troublesome and annoying of mosquitos; the bite is very irritating. Both male and female bite. It is the intermediate host of the hematozoon Filaria Bancroftii, which also occurs in Culex fatigans, Wide- mann, and in Anopheles. The yellow-fever parasite is disseminated by this gnat. Syn., Brindled or Tiger mosquito.
  • Stellate (stel'-dt) [stella, a star]. Star-shaped.

Stellwag's Sign. Absence or diminution in frequency of the winking movements of the eyelids and abnormal width of the palpe- bral aperture; it is seen in exophthalmic goiter.


  • Stenion (sten'-e-on) [orevbc, narrow]. A crani- ometric point at the extremity of the smallest transverse diameter in the temporal fossa.
  • Steno- (sten-o-) [orevoc, narrow]. A prefix meaning narrow or constricted.

Steno's Duct. See Stenson's Duct.


  • Stenocardia (sten-o-kar' -de-ah) [steno-; mpdca, heart]. Angina pectoris.
  • Stenocephalous (sten-o-sef -al-us) [steno-; STENOCEPHALY 928 STERIFORM K£(f)aXrj, head]. Having a head narrow in one or more of its diameters.
  • Stenocephaly (sten-o-sef'-al-e) [see Stenoceph- alous]. Narrowing of the head in one or more of its diameters.
  • Stenochasmus (sten-o-kas'-mus) [steno-; ib-op-a, a chasm]. Lissauer's term applied to a skull in which a line drawn from the point upon the rostrum of the sphenoid where it is included between the alae vomeris, to the center of the posterior nasal spine and to the basion, inter- sects with an angle of 74 to 94°.
  • Stenochoria (sten-o-ko'-re-ah) [steno-; %(bpog, space]. Narrowing; stenosis.
  • Stenodont (sten'-o-dont) [steno-; ddbuc, tooth]. Provided with narrow teeth.

Stenon's Duct. See Stenson's Duct.


  • Stenonian, Stenonine (sten-o'-ne-an, sten'-o- nen). Named for Nicholas Stenson (latin- ized Stenonianus), a Danish anatomist, 1638- 1686. < Stenopaic (sten-o-pa' -ik) [steno-; dnrj, an open- ing]. Pertaining to or having a narrow slit; applied to lenses that allow the passage of rays only through a narrow slit.
  • Stenosin (sten'-o-sin), AsCH 3 3 Na 2 2H 2 0, di- sodic methylarsenate, discovered by Baeyer; said to be a nontoxic arsenical salt. Dose eg. 1 to 5 times daily.
  • Stenosis (sten-o'-sis) [orevoc, narrow]. Con- striction or narrowing, especially of a channel or aperture, as aortic stenosis, mitral stenosis, etc. See Signs, AufrechVs, Konig's Symptom-complex. S., Dittrich's, stenosis of the conus arteriosus.
  • Stenotic (sten-ot'-ik) [stenosis]. Characterized by stenosis; produced by stenosis.
  • Stenson's (Steno 's) Duct. The duct of the parotid gland. S.'s Experiment, temporary ligation of the aorta of the rabbit immediately below the point at which the renal arteries are given off, for the purpose of cutting off the blood-supply of the lower por- tion of the spinal cord. S.'s Foramens, the incisive foramens which transmit the anterior palatine vessels. S.'s Veins, the venae vorti- cosae of the choroid.
  • Stentorophonous (sten-tor-of '-on-us) [Irivrcop, a loud-voiced Greek in the Trojan war; (jxovr), sound]. Having a loud voice.
  • Stephanion (stef-an'-e-on). See under Cranio- metric Point.
  • Steppage-gait (step'-aj-gat). The peculiar high-stepping gait seen in tabes dorsalis and certain forms of multiple neuritis.
  • Stercobilin (ster-ko-bi' '-lin) [stercus, dung; bilis, bile]. A coloring-matter found in feces, and identical with hydrobilirubin.
  • Stercoraceous (ster - ko - ra' - shus) [stercus]. Fecal; having the nature of feces; containing feces as, stercoraceous vomiting.
  • Stercoremia (ster-ko-re'-me-ah) [stercus; olp.a, blood]. A condition of the blood resulting from arrest of intestinal excretion and the absorption of toxic matters from the feces.
  • Stercorin (ster'-ko-rin) [stercus]. An extractive from the feces resembling cholesterin.
  • Stercus (ster'-kus) [L., "dung"]. Feces.
  • Stere (ster) [orepeoc, solid]. A measure of 1000 liters; a kiloliter.
  • Stereo- (ster-e-o-) [orepebc, solid]. A prefix meaning solid or relating to solidity.
  • Stereoagnosis (ster -e-o-ag-no' -sis). See Astere- ognosis Stereognosis (ster-e-o g-no' -sis) [stereo-; yvebocc, knowledge]. The faculty of recognizing the nature and use of objects by contact and hand- ling them. Cf. A stereoagnosis.
  • Stereognostic (ster-e-o g-no s'-tik) [see Stereog- nosis]. 1. Pertaining to the cognition of soli- dity, or tridimensional forms. 2. Recogniz- ing by sense of touch.
  • Stereograph (ster'-e-o-graf) [stereo-; ypafyztv, to write]. Of Broca, an instrument used to make outline drawings of parts of the cranium.
  • Stereometer (ster-e-om' -et-er) [stereo-; \xkzpov, a measure]. An apparatus for the determi- nation of the specific gravity of liquids, porous substances, powders, etc., as well as solids.
  • Stereometry (ster-e-om' -et-re) [see Stereometer]. 1. The determination of the specific gravity of substances. 2. The measurement of vol- ume.
  • Stereophoroscope (ste-re-o-for' -o-skop) \stereo-; (frkpecv, to carry; oKonelv, to see]. A stereo- scopic zoetrope, an instrument for producing a series of images apparently in motion.
  • Stereoplasm (ste'-re-o-plazm) [stereo-; xkaooecv, to mold]. The solid part of the protoplasm of cells.
  • Stereoscope (ste'-re-o-skop) [stereo-; oKOTie'tv, to see]. An instrument by which two similar pictures of the same object are made to overlap so that the reflected images are seen as one, thereby giving the appearance of solidity and relief.
  • Stereoscopic (ste-re-o-skop'-ik) [stereoscope]. Pertaining to stereoscopy. S. Vision, binoc- ular vision. See Stereoscope.
  • Stereoscopy (ste-re-os'-ko-pe) [stereoscope]. The use of the stereoscope. Stereostroboscope (ster -e-o- stro' -bo- skdp) [stereo-; orpoftoc, a twisting; OKonuv, to view]. An apparatus for the experimental study of points moving in three dimensions.
  • Stereotics (ster-e-ot'-iks). Lesions or deform- ities affecting the harder portions of the body. Stereotypy (ster-e-ot'-o-pe) [stereo-; ru-xog, a type]. Morbid persistence of a volitional im- pulse when once started. Steresol (ster'-e-sol). A liquid said to be an alcoholic solution of gum lac, benzoin, tolu balsam, phenol, oil of ginger, and saccharin. It is used in diphtheria and skin diseases. Steriform(ster'-e-jorm). An almost taste- less and odorless powder consisting essentially of sugar of milk and 5% of formaldehyd. S. Chlorid, a mixture of formaldehyd, 5 parts; ammonium chlorid, 10 parts; pepsin, 20 parts; STERILE 929 STETHOPHONOMETER and milk-sugar, 65 parts. S. Iodid, formal- dehyd, 5 parts; ammonium iodid, 10 parts; pepsin, 20 parts; and milk-sugar, 65 parts.
  • Sterile (ster'-il) [sterilis, barren]. 1. Not fer- tile; not capable of reproducing. 2. Free from microorganisms or spores.
  • Sterility (ster-iV -it-e) [sterile]. The condition of beingsterile. S., Facultative. 1. Atermsug- gested by Koch, of the University of Bonn, to designate a procedure which he has devised for preventing the possibility of conception for any length of time, without permanently depri- ving the subject of procreative power. He forms two folds of mucous membrane, one at the anterior, the other at the posterior, lip of the external orifice of the uterus. These act as valves permitting the outflow of the menstrual fluid and preventing the entrance of the sperm- atozoa. By removing the folds fertility may be restored. 2. Ludwig Pineus' term for sterility in women induced artificially by de- stroying the capacity of the endometrium as an organ of nidation by means of uterine atmocausis.
  • Sterilization (ster-il-i-za' -shun) [sterile]. The act of rendering anything sterile; the destruc- tion of microorganisms, particularly by means of heat. S., Intermittent, a method of sterili- zation in which an interval of time is allowed to elapse between the several heatings, giving an opportunity for any spores present to de- velop into adult microorganisms, in which form they readily succumb to the action of heat.
  • Sterilizer (ster' -il-i-zer) [sterile]. An apparatus for destroying the microorganisms attached to an object, especially by means of heat.
  • Sterisol (ster' -is-ol) . A preparation containing sugar of milk, 2.98 parts; sodium chlorid, 0.672 part; potassium phosphate, 0.322 part; formaldehyd, 0.520 part; water, 95.506 parts. Used as an antiseptic in infectious diseases.
  • Sternal (ster'-nal) [sternum]. Pertaining to the sternum.

Sternberg's Disease. The tuberculous form of pseudoleukemia.


  • Sterno- (ster-no-) [sternum]. A prefix denoting connection with the sternum.

$ternochondTOSca.pu.laxis{ster-no-kon-dro-skap- u-la'-ris) [sterno-; %6vdpof, cartilage; scap- ula]. An inconstant muscle arising from the sternum and the first costal cartilage and ex- tending to the upper border of the scapula.


  • Sternoclavicular (ster-no-kla-vik'-u-lar) [ster- no-; clavicle]. Pertaining to the sternum and the clavicle.
  • Sternocleidomastoid (ster-no-kli-do-mas'-toid) [sterno-; uhlc, key; mastoid]. Pertaining to the sternum, the clavicle, and the mastoid process, as the sternocleidomastoid muscle. See under Muscle.
  • Sternocoracoid (ster-no-kor' -ak-oid) . Relating to the sternum and the coracoid.
  • Sternocostal (ster-no-kos'-tal) [sterno-; costa, a rib]. Pertaining to the sternum and the ribs. 60 Sternodymia (ster-no-dim' -e-ah) [sterno-; • d'jecv, to enter]. A form of somatodymia in which the union is in the sternums.
  • Sternodynia (ster-no-din' -e-ah) [sterno-; dduvq, pain]. Sternalgia; pain in the sternum.
  • Sternohyoid (ster-no-hi'-oid) [sterno-; hyoid]. Pertaining to the sternum and the hyoid bone, as the sternohyoid muscle. See under Muscle.
  • Sternomastoid (ster-no-mas' -toid) . Relating to the sternum and the mastoid process of the temporal bone.
  • Sternoomphalodymia (ster-no-om-fal-o-dim '-e- ah) [sterno-; 6ii<^>aldg, a navel; duecv, to enter]. A form of somatodymia in which the union is in both the sternal and umbilical regions.
  • Sternopagus (ster-no p' -a g-us) [sterno-; Ttayoc, fastened]. A double monster the parts of which are united at the sternum.
  • Sternopericardiac (ster-no-per-e-kar' -de-ak) . Relating to the sternum and the pericardium.
  • Sternothyroid (ster-no-thi'-roid) [sterno-; thy- roid]. Pertaining to the sternum and the thyroid cartilage, as the sternothyroid muscle. See under Muscle.
  • Sternotracheal (ster-no-tra' -he-al) [sterno-; trachea]. Pertaining to the sternum and the trachea.
  • Sternotrypesis (ster -no-tri-pe' -sis) [sterno-; rpuxTjocc, a boring]. Perforation of the ster- num.
  • Sternoxiphoid (ster-no-zi'-foid). Relating to or connecting the sternum and the xiphoid process.
  • Sternum (ster'-num) [oripvov, breast-bone]. The flat, narrow bone in the median line in the front of the chest, composed of three portions — the manubrium, the gladiolus, and the ensiform or xiphoid appendix.
  • Sternutation (ster -nu-ta' -shun) [stemutatio, a sneezing]. The act of sneezing.
  • Sternutatory (ster-nu'-tat-o-re) [see Sternuta- tion]. 1. Producing sneezing. 2. An agent that causes sneezing.
  • Stertor (ster' -tor) [L., "a snoring"]. Sonorous breathing or snoring; the rasping, rattling sound produced when the larynx and the air- passages are obstructed by mucus.
  • Stertorous (ster' -to -r us) [stertor]. Character- ized by stertor, as stertorous breathing.
  • Stetheniia, Stethaemia (steth-e'-me-ah) [axffioc, chest; alfia, blood]. An accumulation of blood in the pulmonary vessels.
  • Stetho- (steth-o-) [ozfjdoc, chest]. A prefix de- noting pertaining to the chest.
  • Stethograph (steth'-o-gra}) [stetho-; ypascv, to write]. An instrument recording the respira- tory movements of the chest.
  • Stethometer (steth-om' -et-er) [stetho-; /nirpov, a measure]. An instrument for measuring the degree of expansion of the chest.
  • Stethonoscope (steth-on' -o-skop) [stetho-; gko- 7i£~cv, to view]. An apparatus for use in auscul- tation which may be attached to a binaural stethoscope.
  • Stethoparalysis (steth-o-par-al' -is-is) . Paral- ysis of the muscles of the chest.
  • Stethophonometer (steth -o-fo- nom' -et- er) STETHOPHONOMETRY 930 STIMULIN [stetho-; (frcowfj, sound; pizpov, a measure]. An instrument for measuring the phenomena elicited by auscultation.
  • Stethophonometry (steth-o-jo-nom'-et-re) [see Stetho phonometer]. The determination of the intensity of the acoustic phenomena as- sociated with the lungs and heart.
  • Stethoscope (steth'-o-skop) [stetho-; onoiztiv, to view]. An instrument for ascertaining the con- dition of the organs of circulation and respi- ration by the sounds made by these organs. It consists of a hollow tube, one end being placed over the locality to be examined, the other at the ear of the examiner. The binaural stethoscope consists of a Y-shaped tube, the flexible branches being applied each to an ear of the listener. S., Differential, one deter- mining the time rather than the quality of the sounds heard, so that murmurs at two localities may be compared.
  • Stethoscopic (steth-o-skop'-ik). Pertaining to or detected by means of the stethoscope.
  • Stethoscopy (steth-os'-ko-pe) [see Stethoscope]. Examination with the aid of the stethoscope.
  • Sthenic (sthen f -ik) [odivoc, strength]. Strong; active. S. Fever, a form of fever marked by high temperature, quick and tense pulse, and highly colored urine.
  • Stibiated (stib' -e-a-ted) [stibium, antimony]. Containing antimony.
  • Stibiation (stib-e-a'-shun). Excessive use of antimonials.
  • Stibine (stib' -en). Antimony sulfid.
  • Stibogram (stib'-o-gram) [ox'iftoc, a beaten path; ypappa, a writing]. A record of footsteps.
  • Stichochrome (stik'-o-krom) [pil^og, a row; Xptipa, color]. Applied by Nissl to a somato- chrome nerve-cell in which the chromophilic substance is arranged in strias running in the same direction and usually parallel with the contour of the cell-body, partly also with the surface of the nucleus. Cf. Arkyostichochrome.

Sticking Plaster. Adhesive plaster.

Stiff-neck Fever. Epidemic cerebrospinal men- ingitis.


  • Stigma (stig'-mah) [ox'cypa, a point; pi., stig- mata], i. A small spot or mark, especially a spot of hemorrhage in the palm or sole cor- responding to the nail-marks of Christ, occur- ring in hysteric persons. 2. Any one of the marks or signs characteristic of a condition; generally used in the plural, as hysteric stig- mata. 3. That part of a pistil which receives the pollen. Stigmata, Conn's, minute gaps in the interalveolar walls of the normal lung. S. , Giuffrida-Rugieri's, of Degeneration, the absence or incompleteness of the glenoid fossa. S. of Graafian Follicle, the point where the blood-vessels of the walls are absent and where it finally ruptures. Stigmata, Malpighi's, the orifices of the capillary veins that join the branches of the splenic vein at right angles. Stigmata maydis, zea mays. See under Zea. Stigmata ovariorum, small cicatrixes seen in the ovaries after the escape of the ovums.
  • Stigmatic (stig-mat'-ik) [stigma]. Pertaining to a stigma.
  • Stigmatization (stig-mat-i-za 1 '-shun) [stigma]. The formation of stigmata.
  • Stilet, Stilette (stil-ef) [Ft., dim. of stilus, a point]. 1. A small, sharp-pointed instru- ment inclosed in a cannula. 2. A wire passed into a flexible catheter.

Still-birth. The birth of a dead child.

Still-born. Born lifeless.

Stiller's Sign. Marked mobility or fluctuation of the tenth rib in neurasthenia and entero- ptosis.


  • Stillicidium (stil-is-id'-e-um) [stilla, a drop; cadere, to fall down]. The flow of a liquid drop by drop. S. lacrimarum, overflow of tears from obstruction of the canaliculus or nasal duct; epiphora. S. narium, coryza.

Stilling's Bundle. See Krause's Respiratory Tract. S.'s Canal. 1. The central canal of the spinal cord. 2. See Canal, Hyaloid. S.'s Cells, S.'s Columns. See Cells, Stilling' 1 s. S.'s Fibers, the association fibers of the cerebellum. S.'s Fleece , the meshwork of fibers formed around the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum. S.'s Gelatinous Sub- stance, the gelatinous substance surrounding the central canal of the spinal cord. S.'s Nu- cleus. 1. The nucleus ruber of the subthal- amic region. 2. The nucleus of the hypo- glossal nerve in the fourth ventricle. S.'s Raphe, a narrow band connecting the pyra- mids of the oblongata. S.'s Sacral Nu- cleus, an island of ganglion-cells in the region of the spinal cord. S.'s Scissors of the Brain, the supposed resemblance to the out- line of a pair of scissors seen in a horizontal section of the brain through the thalamus, nu- cleus ruber, and the nucleus dentatus cerebelli.

Stilling-Clarke's Cells. See Column o; Clarke.


  • Stillingia (stil-in' -je-ah) [after Benjamin Still- ingfleet, an English botanist]. A genus of plants of the order Euphorbiacece. The still- ingia of the U. S. P. is the root of S. sylvatica, queen's root or queen's delight, and is used as an alterative in syphilis, scrofula, diseases of the skin, etc. S., Fluidextract of (fluidex- tr actum stillingice, U. S. P.). Dose \-i dr. (2-4 Cc).
  • Stimulant (stim'-u-lant) [stimulus, a goad]. 1. Stimulating. 2. An agent that cause, stim- ulation. S., Cardiac, one that increases the heart's action. S., Cerebral, one that exalts the action of the cerebrum. S., Diffusi one that has a prompt but transient effo, twist; rifivetv, to cut]. An instrument shaped like a corkscrew, used to secure union in the opera- tion for the radical cure of hernia.
  • Strepto- (strep-to-) [orpsxroc, twisted]. A pre- fix signifying twisted.
  • Streptoangina (strep-to-an-ji'-nah). A pseudo- membranous deposit in the throat due to strep- tococci (J. E. Walsh). Cf. Diphtheroid (2).
  • Streptobacteria (strep-to-bak-te' '-re-ah) [strepto-; Panxriptov, bacterium]. Short, rod-shaped bacteria forming chains.

Streptococcal, Streptococcic, Streptococcous {strep-to-kok'-al, -ik, -us). Relating to or due to streptococci.


  • Streptococcemia (strep-to-kok-se'-me-ah) [strep- tococcus; aljxa, blood]. The presence of strep- tococci in the blood.
  • Streptococcus (strep-to-kok'-us) [strepto-; KOKnog, a kernel]. See under Bacteria. S.- angina, angina due to streptococci. S.- curve, the remitting temperature-curve in hectic fever, supposed to depend upon the streptotoccus (Petruschky).
  • Streptocolysin (strep-to-kol'-is-in) [streptococ- cus; Xuetv, to loose]. A hemolysin produced in cultures of streptococci.
  • Streptocyte (strep' -to-slt) [strepto-; kutoc, cell]. A cell presenting a twisted appearance or pc- curring with others in twisted chains; a strep- tococcus.
  • Streptomycosis (strep-to-mi-ko'-sis) [strepto- coccus; (iUKfjc, fungus]. Infection with strep- tococci.
  • Streptopus (strep' -to-pus) [strepto-; nouc; foot]. Twisted stalk, a genus of liliaceous plants. S. distortus is indigenous to Europe and America, and is used in infusion as a gar- gle.
  • Streptosepticemia (strep-to-sep-tis-e'-me-ah) . Septicemia due to invasion of streptococci.
  • Streptothrical (strep-to-thrik'-al). Relating to or due to members of the genus Streptothrix.
  • Streptothrix (strep' -to-thriks). See Cladothrix under Bacteria.
  • Stretcher (strech'-er). A cot or litter for carry- ing the sick.
  • Stria (stri'-ah) [L.]. A streak or white line. S.s, Acoustic, S., Auditory, transverse white lines on the lower part of the floor of the fourth ventricle, which unite with the audi- tory nerve-roots. Striae gravidarum, the at- rophic strias observed upon the abdomen in pregnant women. S„, Hensen's. See Mem- brane, Krause's. S.s, Lancisi's, Strias longitudinales, long, slightly elevated lines on the upper surface of the corpus callosum. Striae medullares. See S.s, Acoustic. S. medullaris, a band of white matter adjacent to the taenia thalami (Barker). S. medullaris thalami, an oblique furrow on the superior aspect of the thalamus. Striae musculares, the transverse markings of striated muscles. Striae, Schreger's, Schreger's lines. S. ter- minalis, taenia semicircularis.
  • Striate, Striated (stri'-dt, stri'-d-ted) [stria]. Striped. S. Body, the corpus striatum. S. Muscle. See under Muscle, and Muscular Tissue.
  • Striation (stri-a'-shun) [stria]. 1. The state of being striated. 2. A striated structure. S., Tabby-cat. See Tabby-cat Striation.

Striatum. See Stratum. S. oriens. See Stratum oriens.


  • Stricture (strik'-tur) [strictura, from stringere, to draw tight]. A narrowing of a canal from ex- ternal pressure, or as a result of inflammatory or other changes in its walls. S., Cicatricial, a stricture due to cicatricial tissue. S., Func- tional. See S., Spasmodic. S., Imperme- able, S., Impassable, one not permitting the passage of an instrument. S., Irritable, one in which the passage of an instrument causes great pain. S., Organic, one due to structu- ral changes in or about a canal. S., Spas- modic, one due to muscular spasm.
  • Stricturotome (strik' -tu-ro- torn) [stricture; rkjivscv, to cut]. An instrument for dividing a stricture.
  • Stricturotomy (strik-tu-rot'-o-me) [see Stric- turotome]. The operation of incising a stric- ture.
  • Stridor (stri'-dor) [stridere, to make a creaking sound]. A peculiar, harsh, vibrating sound produced during expiration. S., Laryn- geal, Congenital. Respiratory croaking (in babies).
  • Stridulous (strid' -u-lus) [stridor]. Character- ized by stridor. S. Laryngismus. See Laryngismus stridulus.
  • Stringent (strin'-jent) [stringere, to bind]. Binding.
  • Striocellular (stri-o-sel'-u-lar). Relating to or composed of striated muscle-fiber and cells.
  • Stripe (strip) [ME., stripe, a stripe]. A streak; a discolored mark. S., Bergmann's, the conductor sonorus, one of the striae medul- lares often seen running obliquely forward and to the side. Ger., Klangstab. S., Gennari's. SeeBaillarger's Layer. S.s of Retzius, dark lines extending more or less parallel to the free surface of the tooth, due to inequalities in growth and density of the enamel. S., Vicq d'Azyr's. See Baillarger's Layer.
  • Strobilus (strob'-il-us) [strobilus, a pine-cone]. The tape-worm.
  • Stroboscope (stro'-bo-skdp) [orp6(3oc, a twisting; oKone'cv, to view]. An instrument by which a series of slightly different pictures presented rapidly in succession is made to appear as a continuous object in motion; a zoetrope. S., Direct, one in which the figures and slits re- volve in the same direction; a phenakistoscope. S., Reverse, one in which the figures and slits revolve in opposite directions; a de- dalum.
  • Stroboscopic (strob-o-skop'-ik) [stroboscope]. Pertaining to the stroboscope.
  • Stroke (strok). A sudden attack; the word is used colloquially for apoplexy and paralysis.
  • Stroma (stro'-mah) [ovpajfia, abed]. The tissue forming the framework for the essential part of an organ. S., Cancer, the fibrous-tissue element of a cancer. S., His', the trabecular framework of the mammary gland. S. of Rol- let, an insoluble, spongy network forming the structure of an erythrocyte, within the inter- stices of which is embedded a soluble, finely granular substance, the hemoglobin.
  • Strombodes jenneri (strom-bo 1 '-dez jen'-er-i). A name proposed by Sjobring for the micro- organism of vaccinia.

Stromeyer's Cephalhematocele. See under Cephalhematocele. S.'s Splint. See Splint, Stromeyer's.


  • Strongylus (stron' -pl-us) [oxpoxyuXoc, round]. A genus of nematode worms found in the lower animals, and occasionally in man.
  • Strontia (stron' -she-ah). Strontium oxid.
  • Strontium (stron' -she-um) [after Strontian, in Scotland]. A metallic element belonging to the group of alkaline earths. It has a specific gravity of 2.5, an atomic weight of 86.94, and a valence of two. Symbol Sr. S. Acetate, 2Sr(C 2 H 3 2 ) 2 + H 2 0, a white crys- talline powder, soluble in water, used as an anthelmintic. Dose f-§ gr. (0.016-0.05 Gm.). S. Arsenite, Sr(As0 2 ) 2 +4.H 2 0, a white pow- der, soluble in water, used as an alterative and tonic in skin diseases and malarial con- ditions. Dose jq— ys gr. (0.002-0.004 Gm.). S. Bromid (strontii bromidum, U. • S. P.), SrBr 2 .6H 2 0, has been used in epilepsy, diabetes, gastrectasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and lithemia. Dose 15-30 gr. (1-2 Gm.). S. and Caffein Sulfonate, (C 8 H 9 N 4 2 .S0 3 ) 2 - Sr, soluble in water,. used as a diuretic. Syn., Symphorol strontium. S. Glycerinophos- phate, a white powder, soluble in water, containing 26-27% °f phosphoric acid. S. Iodid (strontii iodidum, U. S. P.), SrI 2 -.6H 2 0, is used like the other oxids. S. Lactate, Sr(C 3 H 5 3 ) 2 .3H 2 0, is used in nephritis, al- buminuria, rheumatism, and gout. Dose 10-30 gr. (0.65-2.0 Gm.). S. Loretinate (basic), Sr . I . O . C 9 H 4 N . SO s , fine, bright needles, slightly soluble in water, decomposed at 300 C. S. Loretinate (normal), Sr(I.OH.- C 9 H 4 N.S0 3 ) 2 .H 2 0, orange-red, prismatic crystals, sparingly soluble in water. S. Oxid, strontia, SrO, strontium combined with oxygen. S. Phosphate, Sr 3 (P0 4 ) 2 , a white powder, devoid of taste, soluble in acids; used as a nutritive and tonic. Dose 10—30 gr. (0.65-2.0 Gm.). S. Salicylate (strontii salicylas, U. S. P.), Sr(C 7 H 5 3 ) 2 2H 2 0, white crystals, soluble in water; used in gout, chorea, etc. Dose 10-40 gr. (0.65-2.6 Gm.). Strophanthin (strof-an'-thin) [strophanthus] Strophanthinum (U. S. P.), C 20 H 34 O ]0 . A. toxic alkaloid, soluble in water and alcohol, de- rived from strophanthus. Dose 3"jjo~2Tro gr. (0.0002-0.0003 Gm.). S. Tannate, a yel- lowish, amorphous powder containing 59% of strophanthin, soluble in water; used as a heart tonic. Dose i\Q~i~o g r - (0.0004- 0.001 Gm.).
  • Strophanthus (strof-an'-thus) [ozpofoc, a twisted band; avdoc, flower]. A genus of plants of the order Apocynaceoe, some of the species of which are used for the preparation of arrow- poison in Africa. The strophanthus of the U. S. P. is the ripe seed of S. kombe; it contains a crystalline glucosid, strophanthin, and an alkaloid, inein. Strophanthus is a muscle- poison, but in small doses is a cardiac and per- haps a vascular stimulant. It is used in the same cases as digitalis. S., Tincture of (tinctura strophanthi, U. S. P., B. P.). Dose 5-15 min. (0.32-1.0 Cc).
  • Strophantism (stro - fan' - tizm). Poisoning from strophanthin; the symptoms resemble those of digitalism.
  • Strophulus (stroj'-u-lus) [orpofoc, a twisted band]. A form of miliaria occurring in in- fants. Syn., Red gum; Tooth-rash. S. pru- riginosus, an eruption occurring in children, and characterized by disseminated, intensely itching papules.
  • Structural (struk'-tu-ral) [structura, structure]. Pertaining to or affecting the structure.

Struempell's Disease. 1. Poliencephalitis. 2. Chronic ankylosing inflammation of the vertebral column. S.'s Type of Spastic Paralysis, the hereditary, familiar form of spastic spinal paralysis.

Struempell-Leichtenstern's Disease. Acute encephalitis of infancy.


  • Struma (stru'-mah) [L.]. 1. Scrofula. 2. Goiter. Strumae lipomatodes aberratae renis, Grawitz's term for a group of new- growths of kidney, usually benign, but, at times, serving as the foci of origin of malig- nant tumors. Regarded by some pathologists as endotheliomas, by others as adrenal rests (Cf. under Rest). Grawitz includes here: Renal adenoma (Klebs, Sabourin) ; alveolar renal adenoma(Weichselbaum and Green- ish) ; adenoma carcinomatodes renis (Klebs) ; angioma cavern osum renis; myxolipoma telangiectodes incapsulatum renis utrisque; myxoma lipomatodes renis; myxoma renis; strumae suprarenales (Virchow).
  • Strumiprival, Strumiprivous (stru-mi-pri' - val, -vus) [struma; privare, to deprive]. Deprived of the thyroid; due to removal of the thyroid; thyroprival.
  • Strumous (stru'-mus) [struma]. Scrofulous.

Struve's Test for Blood in Urine. To the urine, previously treated with ammonia or caustic potash, add tannin and acetic acid until the mixture has an acid reaction. In the presence of blood a dark precipitate is formed. When this is filtered and dried, the hemin crystals may be obtained from the dry residue by adding ammonium chlorid and glacial acetic acid.


  • Strychnin (strik'-nin) [see Strychnos]. Strych- nina (U. S. P.), C 21 H 22 N 2 2 . One of the alkaloids of nux vomica. Dose ^otV S r - STRYCHNIN 936 STURM'S FOCAL INTERVAL (o.ooi 1-0.0033 Gm.); hypodermatically in chronic alcoholism, ^"T^" gr. (0.003-0.006 Gm.). S. Acetate, C 21 H ?2 N 2 2 .C 2 H 4 2 , small white crystals, soluble in 96 parts of water. Use and doses the same as the alkaloid. S. Arsenate, C 21 H 22 N 2 2 .As 2 5 , a white, crystalline powder with bitter taste, soluble in 14 parts of cold water, 5 parts of hot water. It is used as a tonic and alterative in tuber- culosis, malaria, etc. Dose sV~ Te g r - (0.001- 0.004 Gm.); hypodermatically, 0.5% in liquid paraffin; of this 4-15 min. (0.25-0.9 Cc.) daily. S. Arsenite, (C 21 H 22 N 2 2 ) 2 As 2 3 , a white, crystalline powder, soluble in 10 parts of boiling water. It is tonic, alterative, and antiperiodic. Dose 5 ~ i 6 gr. (0.001-0.004 Gm.); subcutaneous dose 4-15 drops of a 0.5% solution in liquid paraffin. S. Bisac- charinat e , S . -diorthosulf amin -benzoate , used as is the arsenite. S. Camphorate, C 21 H 22 N 2 O 2 .C 10 H 16 O 4 , small white crystals or crystalline powder soluble in water, used as is the alkaloid. S. Citrate, C 21 H 22 N 2 2 . C 6 H 8 7 , white crystals, soluble in water; usage and dosage the same as the alkaloid. S. Ferri- citrate, iron and strychnin citrate. S. Hy- drid, obtained by the action of metallic sodium on strychnin in a boiling alcoholic solution and differing in physiologic action from strychnin; it may, therefore, be used as a physiologic antidote in strychnin-poisoning. S. Hydrobromate, C 21 H 22 N 2 2 .HBr, white acicular crystals, soluble in 32 parts of water, used as a tonic and sedative. Dose 3V" rV gr- (0.002-0.005 Gm.). S. Hydrochlorate, C 21 .H 22 N 2 2 .HC1+ 3H 2 0, white needles, solu- ble in 50 parts of water at 22 C. Usage and doses the same as the alkaloid. S. Hydroiodate, C 21 H 22 N 2 2 .HI0 3 , white crystals, soluble in water. Used as is the alkaloid. S.Hypophosphite, a white powder, used as a tonic in tuberculosis. Dose -gV" tV g r - (0.002-0.005 Gm.). S. with Iron and Quinin Citrate, iron and quinin citrate with strychnin; greenish-brown, transparent scales, soluble in water, and containing 3.4% of pure strychnin. It is tonic and antiperiodic. Dose 3-7 gr. (0.2-0.45 Gm.). S. Lactate, C 2l H 22 N 2 2 . C 3 H 6 3 , a white, crystalline pow- der, soluble in water. Usage and dosage the same as the alkaloid. S. Nitrate {strychnines nitras, U. S. P.), C 2 iH 22 N 2 02,- NH0 3 , silky needles, soluble in 50 parts of water, 60 parts of alcohol, or 2 parts of boiling water or alcohol. Usage and dosage the same as the alkaloid. S. Oleate, a mixture of strychnin in oleic acid, soluble in ether and oleic acid; it is used in the external admin- istration of strychnin. S.-orthosulfamin- benzoate. See '5. Saccharinate. S. Phenol- sulfate. See 5. Sulfocarbolate. S. Phos- phate, <;C 21 H 22 N 2 2 ) 2 H 3 P0 4 +9H 2 0, a white, crystalline powder, soluble in water. Usage and dosage the same as the alkaloid. S. Saccharinate, C 21 H 22 N 2 2 .C 6 H 4 (S0 2 )(CO)- NH, a true salt of strychnin and saccharin; a white, sweet powder, used in all cases where the alkaloid is indicated in doses one-third larger. S. Salicylate, C 21 H 22 N 2 2 .C,H fi 3 , a white powder, soluble in water, recommended in rheumatism and chorea. Dose about the same as the alkaloid. S. Sulfate(strych- nines sulphas, U. _ S. P.), (C 21 H 22 N,0 2 ) 2 .H 2 - S0 4 +5H 2 0, white, odorless, very bitter prisms, which effloresce in dry air; soluble in 50 parts of water, 109 parts of alcohol, 2 parts of boiling water, or 8.5 parts of boiling alcohol; melt at 200 C. The action differs but slightly from the alkaloid. Dose y a " ~ia g 1 "- (0.002-0.005 Gm.). S, Sulfocarbolate, S. Sulfophenate, a white, crystalline powder, soluble in water or alcohol. S. and Zinc Hydroiodate,C 2i H 22 N 2 2 .HI.ZnI 2 , small white crystals, soluble in water.
  • Strychninism (strik' -nin-izm) [strychnin]. The state of being under the influence of strych- nin.
  • Strychnize (strik' -nlz) . To bring under the influence of strychnin.
  • Strychnos (strik 1 '-nos) [oxpuyyog, the nightshade]. A genus of the Loganiacece. S. icaja is found in the Gaboon region; it contains strychnin in the bark, leaves and root. From the stem the arrow-poison, tarfa, toomba, M'boundou, n'caza, icaja, or akanga, is prepared. The seeds of S. ignatii (St. Ignatius' beans) of the Philippines act in the same manner as nux vomica, but contain more strychnin and less brucin than it does. S. potatorum is indigenous to the East Indies. The seeds, nirmali, chillij, chilbing, are used largely to clear muddy water. They contain no strych- nin nor brucin, and are used as a remedy in diabetes and gonorrhea. The fruit is em- ployed in dysentery. The bark of S. pseudo- quina, of South America, contains no poisonous alkaloid, but a bitter substance, and is used as a substitute for quinin. S. tieute is a species of Java; from the root-bark the Javanese ar- row-poison, upasradju ortschetsik, containing 1.5 % strychnin and a little brucin, is prepared. The seed and leaves contain 1.4% of strychnin and only traces of brucin. S. toxifera, of Guiana, furnishes curara.

Stub-thumb. Abbreviation and clubbing of the phalanx of the thumb.

Stump [Icel., stumpr, stump]. The portion of a limb or other part left attached to the body after an amputation.

Stun [AS., stunian, to make a din]. To render temporarily insensible, as by a blow.


  • Stupe (stup) [stupa, tow]. A cloth used for applying heat or counterirritation ; especially a cloth wrung out of hot water and sprinkled with a counterirritant as turpentine-stupe.
  • Stupor (stu'-por) [L.]. A state of partial un- consciousness from which the individual can be roused.

Sturm's Focal Interval. The interval be- tween the principal focal lines of a cylindric lens.

'< J STUTTERING 937 SUBCONJUNCTIVAL Stuttering (stut'-er-ing) [Icel, stauta, to stutter]. A hesitation in speech due to an inability to enunciate the syllables without repeated efforts.


  • Style, Stylet (stil, sti-let') [ozukoc, pillar]. i. A probe. 2. A wire inserted into a cath- eter or cannula in order to stiffen the instru- ment or to perforate the tissues.
  • Stylo- (sti-lo-) [otuXoc, pillar]. A prefix de- noting pertaining to the styloid process of the temporal bone.
  • Stylohyoid (sti-lo -hi' -oid) [stylo-; hyoid]. 1. Pertaining to the styloid process of the tem- poral bone and the hyoid bone, as the stylo- hyoid muscle. See under Muscle. 2. Per- taining to the stylohyoid muscle.
  • Styloid (sti'-loid) [oruXoc, pillar; eldoc, like]. Resembling a stylus.
  • Stylomastoid (sti-lo-mas' '-toid) [stylo-; mas- toid]. Pertaining to the styloid and mastoid processes.
  • Stylomaxillary (sti-lo-maks f -il-a-re) [stylo-; maxilla]. Pertaining to the styloid process and the maxilla.
  • Stylus (sti'-lus) [L., "a stake"]. A pointed instrument for making applications.
  • Stype (step or sti-pe) [Ft.; otutzt), stiffness]. A tampon or pledget, especially such as is used in producing local anesthesia.
  • Styphage, Stypage (ste-fahzh, ste-pahzh). The production of local anesthesia by an applica- tion made with a stype. S., Bailly's, a revul- sive, the application of cotton pledgets wet with methyl chlorid.
  • Styptic (stip'-tik) [otuttukoc, astringent]. 1. Checking hemorrhage by contracting the blood-vessels. 2. An agent that checks hem- orrhage by causing contraction of the blood- vessels.
  • Stypticin (stip f -tis-in) . See Cotarnin Hydro- chlorate.
  • Styracin (sti'-ra-sin). See under Styrax.
  • Styracol (sti'-ra-kol). Guaiacol cinnamate, C 6 H 4 (OCH 3 )C 9 H 7 2 . It is given internally in catarrhal offections of the digestive tract and in pulmonary tuberculosis.
  • Styrax (sti'-raks) [avupa^, storax]. Storax; a balsam obtained from the inner bark of Liquidambar orientalis, or oriental sweet-gum. It contains a volatile oil, styrol, several resins, an amorphous substance called storesin, cinnamic acid, and styracin (the cinnamate of cinnamyl). It is stimulant, expectorant, and antiseptic, acting like benzoin and tolu, and is used in bronchial affections and catarrh of the urinary passages. Externally it is an antiseptic and parasiticide. It is a constituent of friars' balsam. Dose 5-20 gr. (0.32-1.3 Gm.).
  • Styrol (sti'-rol), C„H 8 . Cinnamene; phenyl- ethylene. A colorless, highly refractive liquid hydrocarbon, obtained by heating styracin with calcium hydrate.
  • Styrone (sti'-ron) [styrax]. Cinnamic alcohol, C 9 H 10 O. S. Crystals, S., Crystallized, cinnamic alcohol.

Sub- [L.]. A prefix denoting under or beneath; in chemistry, a prefix denoting — (1) the lower of two compounds of the same elements; (2) a basic salt.


  • Subacetate (sub-as' -et-dt) [sub-; acetum, vin- egar]. A basic acetate.
  • Subacid (sub-as'-id) [sub-; acidum, acid]. Moderately acid.
  • Subacidity (sub-as-id'-it-e) [subacid]. A con- dition of moderate 'acidity.
  • Subacromial (sub-ak-ro' -me-al) [sub-; acro- mial]. Below the acromion.
  • Subacute (sub-ak-uf) [sub-; acutus, sharp]. Moderately acute.
  • Subagitatrix (sub-aj-it-a'-triks) [L.]. One who practises tribadism.
  • Subancestral (sub-an-sest'-ral). Not in the direct line of descent.
  • Subaponeurotic (sub-ap-on-u-rot'-ik) [sub-; aponeurosis]. Beneath an aponeurosis.
  • Subarachnoid (sub-ar-ak'-noid) [sub-; arach- noid]. Beneath the arachnoid membrane, as the subarachnoid space.
  • Subarcuate (sub-ar'-ku-at) [sub-; arcus, an arc]. Slightly arcuate.
  • Subatloidean (sub-at-loid'-e-an). Located be- neath the atlas.
  • Subatomic (sub-at-om' -ik) . Underlying atoms.
  • Subaudition (sub-aw-dish'-on) [sub-; audire, to hear]. . The act or ability of comprehending what is not expressed.

Having a cephalic index from 8o° to 84 .


  • Subcalcarine (sub-kal' -ka-ren) [sub-; calcarine]. Situated beneath the calcarine fissure, as the subcalcarine convolution. S. Convolution, a narrow convolution ventrad of the cuneus and lying between the collateral and calcarine fissures.
  • Subcapsular (sub-kap'-su-lar) [sub-; capsula, capsule]. Beneath a capsule.
  • Subcarbonate (sub-kar'-bon-at) [sub-; carbonate]. A basic carbonate.
  • Subclavian (sub-kla' -ve-an) [sub-; clavis, key]. Lying under the clavicle, as the subclavian artery.
  • Subcollateral (sub-kol-at'-er-al) [sub-; collateral]. Ventrad of the collateral fissure of the brain. S. Gyrus, a convolution connecting the oc- cipital and temporal lobes.
  • Subconjunctival (sub-kon-jungk-ti r -val) [sub-; conjunctiva]. Situated beneath the con- junctiva.
  • Subconsciousness (sub-kon' -shus-nes) [sub- conscious]. Imperfect consciousness; that state in which mental processes take place without the mind being distinctly conscious of its own activity.
  • Subcoracoid (sub-kor' -ak-oid) [sub-; coracoid]. Situated below the coracoid process.
  • Subcortical (sub-kor' -tik-al) [sub-; cortex]. Be- neath the cortex.
  • Subcranial (sub-kra' '-ne-aT) [sub-; Kpavcov, cra- nium]. Situated beneath the cranium.
  • Subcrepitant (sub-krep' -it-ant) [sub-; crepitate, to make a crackling noise]. Almost crep- itant, as subcrepitant rale. See Rale, Sub- crepitant.
  • Subcrepitation (sub-krep-it-a'-shun). An in- distinctly crepitant sound.
  • Subculture (sub-kul'-tur) [sub-; culture]. In bacteriology, a secondary culture made from a primary culture.
  • Subcutaneous (sub-ku-ta'-ne-us) [sub-; cuta- neous]. Beneath the skin; hypodermatic.
  • Subcuticular (sub-ku-tik'-u-lar) [sub-; cutis, skin]. Beneath the epidermis, as a subcuticu- lar suture.
  • Subcutine (sub-ku'-ten). Paraphenolsulfonate of paraamidobenzoic ethyl ester; small acicular crystals melting at 195. 6° C; soluble in 100 times its weight in water. Its solutions can be sterilized. It is recommended as a local anes- thetic.
  • Subdiaphragmatic (sub-di-a-frag-mat'-ik) [sub-; diaphragm]. Under the diaphragm.
  • Subduction (sub-duk' -shun) [sub-; ducere, to lead]. Maddox's term for deorsumduction.
  • Subdural (sub-du'-ral) [sub-; dura]. Beneath the dura.
  • Subencephalon (sub-en-sef '-al-on) [sub-; ifukcfiaXov, brain]. The medulla oblongata, pons, and corpora quadrigemina taken to- gether.
  • Subendocardial (sub-en-do-kar' -de-al) [sub-; endocardium]. Beneath the endocardium.
  • Subendothelium (sub-en-do-the' -le-um). The layer of connective-tissue cells between the mucosa and the epithelium of the bladder, intestine, and bronchi.
  • Subendymal (sub-en' -dim-at). Beneath the ependyma.
  • Subepithelial (sub-ep-e-the'-le-al) [sub-; epithe- lium]. Situated under an epithelial surface.
  • Suberin (su' -ber-in) . See Cutin (1).
  • Subese (sub'-ez) [sub-; ed'ere, to eat]. Underfed; thin; the opposite of obese.
  • Subfalciform (sub- fal'-se- form) [sub-; falca, a sickle]. Somewhat sickle-shaped.
  • Subfascial (sub-fash' -e-al) [sub-; fascia]. Be- neath the fascia.
  • Subfebrile (sub-feb'-ril) [sub-; febris, fever]. Slightly febrile.
  • Subflavor (sub-fla'-vor). A secondary or sub- ordinate flavor.
  • Subflavous (sub-fla'-vus) [sub-; flavus, yellow]. Somewhat yellow. S. Ligament, the liga- ment of yellowish elastic material found be- tween the laminas of adjacent vertebras.
  • Subgallate (sub-gal' -lat). A basic salt of gallic acid. S., Bismuth. See Dermatol.
  • Subgemmal (sub-jem'-al). Beneath a taste-bud.
  • Subgeneric (sub-jen-er'-ik). Relating to a sub- genus.
  • Subgenus (sub-je'-nus). A subordinate genus, a subdivision of a genus higher than a species.
  • Subglenoid (sub-gle'-noid) [sub-; glenoid]. Be- neath the glenoid fossa, as subglenoid dislo- cation of the humerus.
  • Subhyaloid (suk-hi'-al-oid). Beneath the hy- aloid membrane of the eye.
  • Subhyoid (sub-hi'-oid) [sub-; hyoid]. Beneath the hyoid bone. S. Bursa, a bursa lying between the thyrohyoid membrane and hyoid bone and the conjoint insertion of the omo- hyoid, sternohyoid, and stylohyoid muscle. Syn., B oyer's bursa.
  • Subiculum (sub-ik' -u-lum) [subex, a layer]. The uncinate convolution.
  • Subinflammation (sub-in-flam-a'-shun) [sub-; inflammation], A slight degree of inflam- mation.
  • Subintrance (sub-in' -trans) [subintrare, to enter secretly]. Anticipation of recurrence.
  • Subintrant (sub-in' -trant). Entering secretly; applied to malarial fevers in which a new paroxysm begins before the termination of the preceding one.
  • Subinvolution (sub-in-vo-lu' -shun) [sub-; invo- lutio, a rolling up]. Imperfect involution. S. of the Uterus, the imperfect contraction of the uterus after delivery.
  • Subiodid (sub-i'-o-did). That iodid of a series having the least iodin.
  • Subjacent (sub-ja' -sent) [sub-; jacere, to lie]. Lying beneath.
  • Subject (sub'-jekt) [sub-; jacere, to throw]. 1. An individual that serves for purposes of ex- periment or study, or that is under observation or treatment. 2. A cadaver.
  • Subjective (sub-jek'-tiv) [subject]. 1. Pertain- ing to the individual himself. 2. Of symptoms, experienced by the patient himself, and not amenable to physical exploration. S. Sen- sation, one not caused by external stimuli.
  • Subjectivity (sub-jek-tiv' -it-e) [subjicere, to throw under]. Illusiveness.
  • Subjectoscope (sub-jek'-to-skdp). An instru- ment for examining subjective visual sensa- tions.
  • Subkatabolism (sub-kat-ab'-ol-izm). Katabolic stasis, a condition marked by inactivity, devitalization, and premature senility of the cells due to suboxidation, excessive strain, fatigue, etc.
  • SUBLAMIN 939 SUBSCAPULAR Sublamin (sub' -lam-in) . A soluble compound of mercury sulfate and ethylenediamin con- taining 43 % of mercury. It is used as a dis- infectant and intramuscularly in syphilis. Dose 2-6 dr. (7.7-23.3 Cc.) of 1 % solution in normal salt solution.
  • Sublatio (sub-la' -she-o) [L.]. Removal. S. retinae, detachment of the retina.
  • Sublimate (sub' -lim-at) [sublimare, to lift up high]. A substance obtained by sublimation. S., Corrosive, mercuric chlorid. See Mer- cury Bichlorid.
  • Sublimation (sub-lim-a' -shun) . The vapor- ization and condensation of a volatile solid.
  • Sublime (sub-lim') [see Sublimate']. 1. To sub- ject to sublimation. 2. To undergo subli- mation.
  • Sublingual (sub-lin'-gwal) [sub-; lingua, tongue]. 1. Lying beneath the tongue. 2. Pertaining to the parts lying beneath the tongue.
  • Sublinguitis (sub-lin-gwi'-tis) [sub-; lingua, tongue; ate, inflammation]. Inflammation of the sublingual gland.
  • Sublobular (sub-lob' -u-lar) [sub-; lobule]. Sit- uated beneath a lobule. S. Veins, the rad- icles of the hepatic veins, situated at the base of a cluster of lobules.
  • Subluxation (sub-luks-a'-shun) [sub-; luxation]. Incomplete luxation.
  • Submammary (sub-mam' -a-re) [sub-; mamma, breast]. Situated beneath the breast.
  • Submarginal (sub-mar' -jin-al) [sub-; margin]. Situated near the border or margin.
  • Submarine (sub' -mar-en) [sub-; marine]. A dental term applied to conditions and ma- terials in the treatment and management of which the parts are filled with the fluids of the mouth.
  • Submaxillary (sub-maks' -il-a-re) [sub-; max- illa]. 1. Lying beneath the lower maxilla, as the submaxillary gland. 2. Pertaining to the submaxillary gland.
  • Submaxillitis (sub-maks-il-i'-tis). Inflamma- tion of the submaxillary gland.
  • Submental (sub-men' -tat) [sub-; mentum, chin]. Situated under the chin.
  • Submerge (sub-merf) [sub-; mergere, to dip]. To place under the surface of a liquid.
  • Submersion (sub-mer' -shun) [submerge]. The • act of submerging; the condition of being under the surface of a liquid.
  • Submesaticephalic (sub-mes-at-e-sef-a'-lik) . Having a cephalic index of 75° to 7 6°.
  • Submorphous (sub-mor' -jus) [sub-; [J-opcfyfj, form]. Having the characters both of a crystalline and of an amorphous body; ap- plied to calculi.
  • Submucous (sub-mu'-kus) [sub-; mucous]. Sit- uated beneath a mucous membrane.
  • Subnasal (sub-na'-zal) [sub-; nasus, nose]. Situated below the nose. S. Point. See under Craniometric Point.
  • Subnitrate (sub-ni'-trat) [sub-; nitrate]. A basic nitrate.
  • Subnormal (sub-nor'-mal) [sub-; norma, rule]. Below normal.
  • Subnucleus (sub-nu' -kle-us) [sub-; nucleus]. Any one of the smaller groups of cells into which a large nerve-nucleus is divided by the passage through it of nerve-bundles.
  • Suboccipital (sub-ok-sip'-it-al) [sub-; occiput]. Situated beneath the occiput.
  • Suboxid (sub-oks'-id) [sub-; 6£uc, acid]. One of two oxids containing the less oxygen.
  • Subpapular (sub-pap' -u-lar). Indistinctly pap- ular.
  • Subparietal (sub-par-i' -et-al) [sub-; paries, wall]. Situated beneath the parietal bone, convolution, or fissure.
  • Subpatellar (sub-pat-el' -ar) [sub-; patella, knee- cap]. Situated beneath the patella.
  • Subpeduncular (sub-pe-dung' -ku-lar) [sub-; pe- dunculus, peduncle]. Situated beneath a peduncle.
  • Subpericardial (sub-per-e-kar'-de-al) [sub-; pericardium]. Situated beneath the peri- cardium.
  • Subperiosteal (sub-per-e-os' -te-al) [sub-; peri- osteum]. Beneath the periosteum.
  • Subperitoneal (sub-per-e-ton-e'-al) [sub-; peri- toneum]. Beneath the peritoneum.
  • Subpersonal (sub-per'-son-al). Having indi- viduality in a very slight degree.
  • Subphrenic (sub-Jren'-ik). Synonym of Sub- diaphragmatic.
  • Subplantigrade (sub-plant' -e-grad). Incom- pletely plantigrade, walking with the heel slightly elevated.
  • Subpleural (sub-plu'-ral) [sub-; pleura]. Be- neath the pleura.
  • Subpontine (sub-pon' -tin) [sub-; pons]. Be- neath the pons.
  • Subpreputial (sub-pre-pu' -she-al) [sub-; pre- putium, prepuce]. Beneath the prepuce.
  • Subpubic (sub-pu'-bik) [sub-; pubes, pubis]. Situated beneath the pubic arch or symphysis.
  • Subpulmonary (sub-puV -mon-a-re) [sub-; pul- mo, the lung]. On the ventral side of the lungs.
  • Subretinal (sub-ret 1 '-in-aT) [sub-; retina]. Be- neath the retina.

Subsalt. A basic salt.


  • Subscapular (sub-ska p f -u-lar) [sub-; scapula]. 1. Beneath the scapula, as the subscap- SUBSCAPULARS 940 SUBTROCHLEAR ular muscle, or subscapularis. 2. Pertaining to the subscapular muscle.
  • Subscription (sub-skrip' -shun) [sub-; scribere, to write]. That part of a prescription con- taining the directions to the pharmacist, in- dicating how the ingredients are to be mixed and prepared.
  • Subseptal (sub-sep'-tal). Situated below a septum.
  • Subseptate (sub-sep'-tat) [sub-; septum, a hedge]. Partially divided.
  • Subserous (sub-se'-rus) [sub-; serous]. Beneath a serous membrane.
  • Subsibilant (sub-sib' -il-ant). Having a sound like muffled whistling.
  • Subspinous (sub-spi' -nus) [sub-; spine]. 1. Beneath a spine. 2. Beneath the spinal column.
  • Substage (sub'-stdj). The parts beneath the stage of a microscope,including the diaphragm, condenser, illuminator, and other accessories.
  • Substance (sub'-stans) [substantia, substance].

1. The material of which anything is com- posed. 2. A tissue. S., Alible, the portion of the chyme which is utilized for nourishing the body. S., Alimentary, an article of food. S., Basis, the intercellular or ground- substance. S., Cell-, cell-protoplasm. S., Contractile. 1. Living protoplasm which has the property of contracting. 2. The con- tractile portion of a muscular fiber. S., Cor- tical, the peripheral portion of an organ, situated just beneath the capsule. S., Gray. See Substantia cinerea. S., Ground-, the homogeneous matrix or intracellular substance of a tissue in which the cellular elements and fibers are embedded. S., Haptophorous, a toxoid. S., Immune, the immune body. S., Interfilar. See Enchylema. S., Inter- stitial. 1. The connective tissue of an organ.

2. Achromatin. S., Intertubular, the matrix of dentin in which the dentinal canals are placed. S., Intervertebral, the interverte- bral discs. S., Living, protoplasm. S., Medullary. 1. The part of an organ constituting its central in contradistinction to its peripheral or cortical portion. 2. The tissue forming the medulla, as in bone. S., Parietal, the matrix of the cartilage. S. of Rolando. See Substantia gelatinosa. S., Rollet's Secondary. See Disc, Inter- stitial. S., Rovidas' Hyaline,' a nucleo- proteid, insoluble in water, forming a large proportion of the constituents of pus-cor- puscles. It expands into a tough, slimy mass when treated with a 10 % common salt solution. It is soluble in alkalis, but quickly changed by them. S., Sarcous, the substance of a sarcous element. S. of Schwann, White, the medullary sheath of a nerve-fiber. S. sen- sibilisatrice, Bordet's name (1899) for the intermediate body. S. , Stilling's Gelatinous, the gelatinous substance surrounding the central canal of the spinal cord. S., Sup- porting, a supporting tissue, as the neu- roglia and connective tissue. S., White Reticular, the reticulated layer of white tissue on the anterior half of the uncinate con- volution.


  • Substandard (sub-stand 1 '-ard). Below the stand- ard requirements.
  • Substantia (sub-stan'-she-ah) [L.]. Substance. S. alba, the white fibrous tissue of the brain and nerves. Syn., Alba. S. cinerea, the gray matter of the nervous system. S. corticalis. See Substance, Cortical. S. fer- ruginea. Synonym of Locus cinereus. S. fusca. See Locus niger. S. gelatinosa, a peculiar gelatinous tissue found in the spinal cord near the tip of the posterior horn. Syn., Substance of Rolando. S. glomerulosa, the cortical substance of the kidney. S. grisea, the gray matter of the spinal cord. S. grisea centralis. See Entocinerea. S. nigra, the locus niger. S. perforata lateralis, the anterior perforated space of the brain. S. perforata posterior, the posterior perforated space of the brain. S. propria, the essential tissue of a part; especially the middle layer (lamina propria) of the tympanic membrane. S. reticularis alba. See Substance, White Reticular.
  • Substernal (sub-stur'-naT) [sub-; sternum]. Be- neath the sternum.
  • Substitution (sub-stit-u' -shun) [sub-; statuere, to place]. The replacement of one thing by another. In chemistry, the replacing of one or more elements or radicles in a compound by other elements or radicles.
  • Subsulfate (sub-sul' -fat) [sub-; sulfur]. A basic sulfate.
  • Subsultory (sub-sul'-tor-e) [sub-; saltire, to leap]. Leaping; twitching.
  • Subsultus (sub-sul'-tus) [see Subsultory]. A jerking or twitching. S. clonus. See S. tendinum. S. tendinum, involuntary twitch- ing of the muscles, especially of the hands and feet, seen in low fevers.
  • Subsylvian (sub-sil'-ve-an). Beneath the syl- vian fissure.
  • Subtep. (sub'-tep). Abbreviation of subtepidus, lukewarm.
  • Subternatural (sub-ter-nat'-u-ral) [subter, be- low; natura, nature]. Below what is natural.
  • Subthalamic (sub-thal-am'-ik) [sub-; OaXafxoc, thalamus]. Beneath the optic thalamus.
  • Subthyroideus (sub-thi-roid' -e-us) . An anom- alous bundle of fibers uniting the inferior and lateral thyroarytenoid muscles.
  • Subtrochanteric (sub-tro-kan-ter'-ik) [sub-; tro- chanter]. Below the trochanter.
  • Subtrochlear (sub-trok' -le-ar) [sub-; trochlear]. Beneath the trochlea.
  • Subungual (mb-un'-gn'al) [sub-; unguis, nail]. Beneath the nail.
  • Suburethral (sub-u-re' -thrdt) [sub-; urethra]. Beneath the urethra.
  • Subvaginal (siib-vaj'-in-aT) [sub-; vagina, sheath]. Beneath a sheath. S. Space, the space beneath the sheath of dura mater sur- rounding the optic nerve.
  • Subvertebral (sub-ver 1 '-te-braV) [sub-; vertebra]. Beneath a vertebra.
  • Subvitrinal (sub-vit'-rin-aT). Beneath the vit- reous humor.
  • Subzonal (sub-zo'-nal) [sub-; ^^r t , zone]. Beneath the zona pellucida.
  • Subzygoniatic (sub-zi-go-mat'-ik) [sub-; zy- goma]. Below the zygoma.
  • Succagog, Succagogue (suk'-ag-og) [succus, juice; dyajyoc, a leading]. A drug which stimulates the secretory function.
  • Succedaneous (suk-se-da'-ne-us) [succedere, to take the place of]. Relating to or acting as a succedaneum.
  • Succedaneum (suk-se-da'-nc-um) [see Succe- daneous]. A substitute. S., Caput. See Caput succedaneum.
  • Succenturiate (suk-sen.-tu'-re-at) [succentu- riare, to receive as a substitute]. Accessor)'.
  • Succinate (suk'-sin-di) [succinum, amber]. A salt of succinic acid.
  • Succinonitril (suk-sin-o-ni'-tril). Ethylene cyanid, C 4 H 4 X 2 , a crystalline body.
  • Succinum (suk-si'-num) [L.]. Amber, a fossil resin found in the alluvial deposits of Central Europe, and thought to be derived from an extinct species of pine. It contains a volatile oil, oleum succini, used in hysteria, whoop- ing-cough, amenorrhea, and locally as a rubefacient in chronic rheumatism, whoop- ing-cough, and infantile convulsions. Dose 5-15 min. (0.32-1.0 Cc). Unof.
  • Succinylchinin (suk-sin-il-kin'-in) , r -rr ^COO.CooH^X.O A quinin ester, ^ 2M ^COO.C^H, ? X 2 0.

crystallizing in white needles, readily soluble in alcohol and ether. Melts at 97 C; taste unpleasant and bitter.


  • Succorrhea, Succorrhoea (suk-or-e' -ali)[succus; ptiv, to flow]. An excessive flow of a secre- tion. S., Pancreatic, a pathologic increase of the pancreatic juice when the secretory innervation of the gland is exaggerated.
  • Succory (suk'-or-e). The chicory, Cicho- rium inly bus. See Chicory.
  • Succuba (suk'-u-bah) [sub-; cumbere, to lie]. A female demon formerly believed to consort with men in their sleep. Cf. Incubus (2).
  • Succus (suk'-us) [L.]. 1. A vegetable juice. 2. An animal secretion. S. anisi ozonatus. See Hanoi. S. entericus, the intestinal juice, secreted by the glands of the intestinal mucous membrane. It is thin, opalescent, alkaline, and has a specific gravity of ion.

Its chief function is probably to act as a dil- uent. It contains an amylolytic and a pro- teolytic ferment. S. gastricus, the gastric juice. S. olutkombul, the glutinous sap of the bark of A broma an gust a. S . pancreaticus, the pancreatic juice.


  • Succussion (suk-ush' -un) [succutere, to shake up]. A shaking, especially of the individual from side to side, for the purpose of deter- mining the presence of fluid in a cavity or hollow organ of the body. S. -sound, S.- splash, the peculiar splashing sound heard when the patient is shaken in hydropneumo- thorax or pyopneumothorax, or in cases of dilated stomach containing fluid.
  • Sucholoalbumin (su-ko-lo-al'-bu-min) [06c, swine; '/oAr n bile; albumin]. A poisonous proteid classed among the albumoses obtained from cultures of the bacillus of hog chol- era.
  • Sucholotoxin (su-ko-lo-toks'-in) [ouc, swine; '/o)J h bile; rof.'/cov, poison]. A feebly toxic base obtained by de Schweinitz from cultures of swine-plague bacillus. Cf. Susotoxin.
  • Suckling (suk'-ling) [sugere, to suck]. A suckling child; a nursling.
  • Sucramin (su-kram'-in). The ammoniacal salt of saccharin. A sweetening agent dif- fering from saccharin in its insolubility in the solvents of that substance. .
  • Sucrate (su'-krdf). A chemic combination containing sucrose.
  • Sucrol (su'-krol). See Dulcin.
  • Suction (suk'-shun) [snctio, a sucking]. The act of sucking. S. -plate, in dentistry, a plate constructed so as to be held in place by atmospheric pressure.
  • Sudamen, Sudamina (su-da'-men, su-dam'- in-ah) [sudor, sweat]. An eruption of trans- lucent, whitish vesicles, due to a noninflam- matory disturbance of the sweat-glands, consisting in a collection of sweat in the ducts of the sweat-glands or beneath the epidermis, and occurring in fevers and profuse sweating. Sudarnina crystallina. See Miliaria alba.
  • Sudan (su-dan'), C^.H^N^O. A diazo-compound from alphanaphthalamin with naphthol, a brown powder used as a stain, soluble in alcohol, ether, fats, and oils. Syn., Pigment brozL-n. S. Ill, CoJIjg^O, a diazo-compound from amidoazobenzene and betanaphthol; a brown powder, soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, petroleum ether, oils, . and fats. S. Yellow G, C 12 H 10 N 2 O 2 , a diazo-compound from anilin and resorcinol; a brown powder used as a stain, soluble in alcohol, fats, and oils.
  • Sudation (su-da' '-shun) [sudor]. The act of sweating.
  • Sudatorium (su-dat-o'-re-um) [sudor]. 1. A hot-air bath. 2. A room for the adminis- tration of a hot-air bath.
  • Sudol (su f -dol). A preparation used to check excessive sweating, said to consist of wool-fat and glycerol with 30% of formaldehyd and oil of wintergreen.

See Miliaria. S. cruentus. Synonym of Hematidrosis. S. nocturnus, night-sweat. S. sanguinosus. See Hematidrosis. S. uri- nosus. See Uridrosis.


  • Sudoral (su'-dor-al) [sudor]. Pertaining to or characterized by sweating.
  • Sudoresis (su-dor-e'-sis). Excessive sweating.
  • Sudoriferous (su-dor-if -er-us) [sudor; ferre, to bear]. Producing sweat.
  • Sudorific (su-dor-if -ik) [sudor; facere, to make], i. Inducing sweating. 2. An agent inducing sweating.
  • Sudoriparous (su-dor-if -ar-us) [sudor; parere, to beget]. Secreting sweat.
  • Suet (su'-et) [sebum, suet]. The internal fat of the abdomen of the sheep or cattle. S., Mutton- (sevum prceparatum, U. S.P., B. P.), consists of stearin, palmitin, and olein, and is used as an emollient and in the preparation of ointments.
  • Suffocation ( suf-o-ka f -shun) . Interference with the entrance of air into the lungs by means other than external pressure on the trachea.

Suffocative Catarrh. Capillary bronchitis.


  • Suffumigation (suf-u-mig-a' -shun) [suffu- migatio]. 1. The act of fumigating from underneath. 2. A substance used for fumi- gation.
  • Suffusion (suf-u'-zhun) [sub-; fundere, to pour]. A spreading of a liquid over a surface; an extensive superficial extravasation of blood.
  • Sugar (shoog'-ar) [ME., suger, sugar]. The generic name of a class of sweet carbohy- drates. See Saccharum. Chemically, sugars are divided as follows: cane-sugar, C 12 H 22 - O n ; glucose (grape-sugar or starch-sugar), C 6 H 12 6 ; lactose, sugar 0} milk; and inosit, a variety found in certain muscular tissues and in the juice of asparagus. S., Acorn, quercite. S., Beet-, saccharose obtained from species of Beta, especially the common beet, Beta vulgaris. S., Date-, sugar from the fruit of Phcenix dactylijera. S., Dia- betic, glucose. S., Fruit-, levulose. S., Grape-, glucose in the solid state. S. -house Eczema, an eczema sometimes observed in laborers employed in sugar refineries. S., Invert. See Invert-sugar. S. of Lead, plumbi acetas. S., Left -rotating, levulose. S., Leo's. SeeLaiose. S. of Malt, maltose. S., Maple, saccharose obtained from the sugar-maple. S., Meat, inosit. S., Mu- cin, levulose.
  • Sugarine (shoog'-ar -en). Methylbenzol-sulfinid, a compound said to have 500 times greater sweetening power than sugar.
  • Sugent (su'-jent) [sugere, to suck]. Sucking; absorbent.
  • Suggestible (sug-jes' -tib-l) [suggestion]. Amen- able to suggestion.
  • Suggestion (sug-jes' -chun) [suggerere, to suggest, from sub, under; gerere, to bring]. 1. The artificial production of a certain psychic state in which the individual experiences such sensations as are suggested to him or ceases to experience those which he is in- structed not to feel. 2. The thing suggested. S., Posthypnotic, the command to do cer- tain acts given the subject while in the hyp- notic stage, and causing him to execute these acts after his return to his normal con- dition. S., Self-, a suggestion conveyed by the subject from one stratum of his per- sonality to another without external inter- vention. S. -therapy, treatment of dis- ordered states by means of suggestion.
  • Sulcate (sul'-kdt) [sulcus]. Furrowed; grooved.
  • Sulcus (sul'-kus) [L.; pi. sulci]. A furrow or groove ; applied especially to the fissures of the brain. See under Fissure. 2. A furrow on the mesal or ventricular surface of the brain. S. ad aquaeductum vestibuli. See Fossa, Sulciform. S., Cacuminal, in comparative neurology, one beginning at the lateroceph- alic angle of the flocculus and curving around in a direction caudodorsomesad usually fuses with its opposite from the other pileum. S. centralis. See Fissure of Rolando. S., Culminal, in comparative neurology, one dividing the culmen from the central lobe and extending laterad to the mesal border of the middle cerebellar peduncle. S., Ecker's, the anterior or transverse occipital sulcus, usually joined to the horizontal part of the interparietal sulcus. S., Floccular, in com- parative neurology, a sulcus separating the flocculus from the pileum and from the sur- face of the middle cerebellar peduncle. It arises just dorsad of the auditory nerve and extends dorsocaudoventrad in the form of a loop to the caudal limit of the flocculus. S., Furcal, in comparative neurology, a sulcus just caudad of the culmen, forming a land- mark of division between the horizontal and vertical branches of the stem of the arbor of the cerebellum. S. habense, the furrow along the dorsomesal angle of the thalamus just dorsad of the habena. S. , Hippocampal, a constant fissure of the cerebrum extending from the splenium to near the tip of the tem- poral lobe; it is collocated with the hippocam- pus major. Syn., Hippocampal fissure. S. horizontalis cerebelli. See S., Peduncular. S. hypothalamicus. See Aulix. S., In- terfloccular, in lower mammals a deep sulcus dividing the parafiocculus into two lobes, the supraflocculus dorsad and the mediflocculus ventrad. S., Intraparietal, that dividing the superior from the inferior parietal lobule. S. li mi tans, the fissure between the striatum ' and the thalamus. S., Monro's. See Mon- ro's Sulcus. S., Nodular, in comparative neurology, one apparently representing the central fissure and separating the nodule of the cerebellum from the uvula. S., Peduncular, of Wilder, a groove on the inner edge of the crus cerebri lodging the third nerve. Syn., Oculomotor furrow. S. prfficlivalis. See S. } Furcal. S., Precentral, one situated SULFALDEHYD 943 SULFUR in front of the fissure of Rolando and running nearly parallel with it. S., Pyramidal, in comparative neurology, one arising just cau- dad of the peduncular sulcus and extending caudodorsomesad in the form of a crescent; it divides the tuberal and pyramidal lobes. S., Reil's, the sulcus in the bottom of the sylvian fissure, separating the insula from the remainder of the hemisphere. S. Spi- ralis, the grooved extremity of the lamina spiralis of the cochlea. S. tubse eusta- chii, S. tubarius, a depression on the pe- rtosa for the cartilaginous part of the eusta- chian tube. Syn., Groove for the eustachian tube; Semicanalis tuba eustachii. S. tympanicus, a furrow on the concave sur- face of the tympanic plate for attachment of the membrana tympani. S., Uvular, in comparative neurology, one marking the boundary of the pyramidal lobe, arising at the caudal angle of the flocculus and extending caudoventromesad. S., Vertical. ' Same as S., Precentral. S., Waldeyer's, the sulcus spiralis of the cochlea.
  • Sulfaldehyd (sidf-aV -de-hid) [sulfur; aldehyd]. An oily liquid of repulsive odor produced by the action of hydrosulfuric acid on acetic aldehyd; it is a hypnotic.
  • Sulfaminol (sul-fam' -in-ol) [sulfur; amin], C 12 H 9 SN0 2 . Thioxydiphenylamin, a powder obtained by the action of sulfur on the salts of methoxydiphenylamin. It is used as an antiseptic in diseases of the antrum and frontal sinuses and in laryngeal tuberculosis. S.-creasote, an 8% solution of sulfaminol in creasote, soluble in alcohol; used as an anti- septic in rhinolaryngology. S.-eucalyptol, an 8% solution of sulfaminol in eucalyptol, soluble in alcohol; used in the same way as is sulfaminol-creasote. S.-guaiacol, an 8% solution of sulfaminol in guaiacol, soluble in alcohol; used as is sulfaminol-creasote. S.- menthol, an 8% solution of sulfaminol in menthol, soluble in alcohol; used as is sulfam- inol-creasote. S. Salicylate, 8% of sulfam- inol with salicylic acid, used in rheumatism. Dose 3-6 gr. (0.2-0.4 Gm.).
  • Sulfate (sul'-fat) [sulfur]. A salt of sulfuric acid.
  • Sulfhydrate (sulf -hi' -drat) [sulfur; uocop, water]. A compound of a base with the univalent radicle, sulfhydryl, SH.

Sulfhydric Acid. Used improperly as a syn- onym of sulfureted hydrogen.


  • Sulfid (sul'-fid) [sulfur]. A compound of sul- fur with an element or basic radicle.

Sulfin. See Aureolin.


  • Sulfite (sid'-fit) [sulfur]. A salt of sulfurous acid.
  • Sulfo- (sul-fo-) [sulfur]. A prefix denoting containing sulfur.
  • Sulfoazotized (sid-fo-az'-o-tizd). Containing sulfur and nitrogen.
  • Sulfobenzid (sul-fo-ben'-zid), Ci 2 H 10 SO 2 . A crystalline substance obtained from benzene by action of fuming sulfuric acid; soluble in ether; melts at 129 C, boils at 376 C. Syn., Diphenylsulfone.
  • Sulfocarbol (sul-fo-kar' -boT) . See Acid, Sulfo- carbolic.
  • Sulfocarbolate (sul-fo-kar r -bo-lat) [sulfur; car- bolic]. A salt of sulfocarbolic acid.
  • Sulf ocarbonated (sul-fo-kar' -bon-a-ted) . Con- taining sulfur and carbonic acid.
  • Sulfocarbonilid (sul-fo-kar-bon-iV -id), C l3 H 12 - N 2 S. A crystalline substance obtained from anilin by action of alcohol and carbon disulfid with heat; soluble in alcohol and ether, melts at 153 C. Syn., Thiocarbonilid.
  • Sulfocarbonism (sid-fo-kar'-bon-izm). Poison- ing by carbon disulfid through ingestion of some substance containing it or through inhalation of the fumes in manufactures (caoutchouc, etc.); marked by narcosis, with fall of temperature, convulsive chills, odor of radish on the breath, and in severe cases with peripheral paralysis, general anesthesia, and muscular atrophy.
  • Sulf of on (sid'-fo-fon). A mixture of zinc sul- fid and calcium sulfate.
  • Sulfonal (sul'-fo-naf) [sidfur], C : H ]6 S 2 4 . Diethylsulfon-dimethylmethane, a crystalline substance soluble in 15 parts of boiling water and about 450 parts of cold water. It is used as an hypnotic in insomnia from func- tional causes. Dose 10-40 gr. (0.65-2.6 Gm.).
  • Sulfonalism (sul-fon'-al-izm). A group of symptoms said to be occasioned by the pro- longed administration of sulfonal.
  • Sulfonate (sul'-fon-dt). A salt of sulfonic acid.
  • Sulfonation (sid-fon-a! -shun). In chemistry the introduction of a sulfo-group in place of aromatic hydrogen atoms.
  • Sulf one thylmethane (sul-fon-eth-il-me' -thane) . Sulphonethylmethanum (U. S. P.), C S H 1S S 2 4 . A product of the oxidation of mercaptol. Dose 15 gr. (1 Gm.).
  • Sulfonmethane (sul-fon-me' -thane) . Sulphon- methanum (U. S. P.), C 7 H 16 S 2 4 . Dose 15 gr. (1 Gm.).
  • Sulf oparaldehyd (sul - fo - par - al' - de - hid), (C 4 H 4 S 2 ) 3 . A crystalline substance, soluble in alcohol, insoluble in water; recommended as a hypnotic. Syn., Trithialdehyd.
  • Sulfophenol (sul-fo-fe'-nol). See Acid, Sulfo- carbolic.

Sulfosalicylic Acid. See Acid, Sulfo salicylic.


  • Sulfosot (sul'-fo-sot). Potassium creasote sul- fonate. It is antituberculous. Dose 5-20 gr. (0.3-1.3 Gm.) several times daily.
  • Sulfovinic Acid (sul-fo-vi'-nik), C 2 H 5 .HS0 4 , ethylsulfuric acid, a monobasic acid formed by the action of sulfuric acid on alcohol.
  • Sulfoxism (sul-foks'-izm). Poisoning with sulfuric acid.
  • Sulfur (sul'-fur) [L., probably from Skt., culvdri, sulfur], A nonmetallic element SULFURARIA 944 SUPERCILIARY found native in volcanic regions (volcanic sulfur), and occurring combined with several metals, especially iron and copper, in the form of sulfids, called iron and copper pyrites. Sulfur can exist in various allotropic forms. The ordinary sulfur is a yellow, brittle solid, having a specific gravity of 2.07 and an atomic weight of 31.83. Symbol S. Its val- ence is two or six. Sulfur combines with oxygen to form sulfurous oxid (sulfur di- oxid), S0 2 , and sulfuric oxid (sulfur trioxid), S0 3 , which by uniting with water form cor- responding acids — sulfurous acid, H 2 S0 3 , and sulfuric acid, H 2 S0 4 . Other acids are also formed: hyposulfurous acid, H 2 S0 2 , thiosulfuric acid, H 2 S 2 3 , and a series of acids termed thionic acids, viz., H 2 S 2 6 , H 2 S 3 6 , H 2 S 4 O , and H 2 S 5 6 . Sulfurous oxid, S0 2 , is employed as a disinfectant by fumigation. With hydrogen sulfur forms the offensively smelling gas, hydrogen sulfid (hydrosulfuric acid or sulfureted hydrogen), H 2 S. With metals and other bases it forms sulfids. Sulfur is laxative and diaphoretic. It has been used in hemorrhoids, chronic rheumatism, gout, and locally in diphtheria and in various diseases of the skin, especially acne and scabies. S.-alcohol, mercaptan. S., Balsam of, a solution of sulfur in linseed- oil. S. Dioxid. See Sulfur. S. Iodid (sulphuris iodidum, U. S. P., B. P.), S 2 I 3 , employed in various skin diseases. From it is prepared unguentum iodidi (B. P.). S., Milk of. See S., Precipitated. S. Ointment (unguentum sulphuris, U. S. P., B. P.), an ointment prepared from washed sulfur. S., Precipitated (sulphur pracipi- tatum, U. S. P., B. P.). Dose 1-3 dr. (4-12 Gm.). S., Ruby. See Arsenic Di- sulfid. S., Spirit of, sulfuric acid. S., Sub- limed (sulphur sublimatum, U. S. P., B. P.), a fine yellow powder, having a slight char- acteristic odor, and a faintly acid taste. Dose 1-3 dr. (4-12 Gm.). Syn., Flowers of sulfur. S. Trioxid. See Sulfur. S., Vegetable. See Lyco podium. S., Washed (sulphur lotum, U. S. P.), a fine yellow powder with- out odor or taste. Dose \ dr.-oz. (2-16 Gm.).
  • Sulfuraria (sul-fu-ra'-re-ah). A sediment of the San Filippo Springs, used in skin diseases. A yellow powder, containing sulfur, 32.96%; calcium sulfid, 36.55%; organic substances, 13.44%; silica and strontium sulfate, 1.07%.
  • Sulfurated (sul'-fu-ra-ted) (sulfur]. Com- bined with sulfur.
  • Sulfuration (sul-fu-ra' -shun) [sulfur]. The act of dressing, anointing, or impregnating with sulfur.
  • Sulfuret (sul f -fu-ret). A sulfid. S., Golden, a sulfuret of antimony obtained by precipi- tating antimonic acid by sulfureted hydrogen.
  • Sulfureted (sul-fu-ret'-ed) [sulfur]. Combined with sulfur. S. Hydrogen. See under Sulfur.
  • Sulfureus (sul-fu'-re-us). 1. Used by Mayon (1679) and early chemists in the sense of combustible, as those substances capable of burning were supposed to contain a "sulfur" which gave them that property. 2. See Sulfurous.
  • Sulfuric (sul-fu'-rik) [sulfur]. Combined with sulfur; derived from sulfur trioxid, S0 3 . S. Acid. See Acid, Sulfuric, and Sulfur.
  • Sulfuricity (sul-fu-ris'-it-e). The state of being sulfurous.
  • Sulfurize (sul'-fu-rlz). To impregnate with sulfur.
  • Sulfurous (sul-fu'-rus or sul'-fu-rus) [sulfur]. 1. Of the nature of sulfur. 2. Combined with sulfur; derived from sulfur dioxid, S0 2 . S. Acid. See Acid, Sulfurous, and Sulfur.
  • Sulphocalcine (sul-fo-kal'-sen). A proprietary antiseptic and solvent said to contain calcium oxid, washed sulfur, benzoboric acid, extract of pancreas, and oils of wintergreen and eucalyptus; used as a gargle or spray in diphtheria.
  • Sulphogen (sul'-fo-jen). A proprietary anti- ferment said to consist of sulfur, magnesia, aromatics, and the active principle of Genista. It is indicated in gastritis, dyspepsia, etc.
  • Sulphume (sul'-fum). A proprietary prep- aration said to be "liquid sulfur." Sulphur. See Sulfur and its derivatives.
  • Sulphurine (sul'-fu-ren). A preparation of some of the higher sulfids of sodium and potassium with sulfur.
  • Sumbul (sum' -but). Musk-root. The sumbul of the U. S. P. is the dried rhizome and root of an undetermined plant, probably of the family Umbelliferce. It contains angelic acid, C 5 H 8 2 , and a little valerianic acid, C 5 H ]0 O 2 . It is used as a nervine in neurasthenia, hys- teria, and in anemia, chronic bronchitis, etc. Dose \-2 dr. (2-8 Gm.). S., Extract of (extr actum sumbul, U. S. P.). Dose 4 gr. (0.25 Gm.). S., Fluidextract of (fluidex- tr actum sumbul, U. S. P.). Dose 30 min. (2 Cc). S., Tincture of (tinctura sumbul, B. P.). Dose 20 min.-i dr. (1.3-4.0 Cc).

Summer-complaint. See Cholera infantum.

Summer-rash. Lichen tropicus.

Sunburn. Superficial inflammation of the skin caused by exposure to the sun.

Sunstroke. Insolation.


  • Super- (su-per-) [L., "above" or "upon"]. A prefix denoting above, upon, or excessive.
  • Superalbal (su-per-al'-baV). Situated in the upper part of the substantia alba.
  • Supercerebral (su-per-ser'-e-bral). In the superior part of the cerebrum.
  • Superciliary (su-per -sil' -e-a-re) [super-; cilium, eyelash]. Pertaining to the eyebrow. S. Entropion, incurvation of hairs of the eye- brow against the conjunctiva, SUPERCILIUM 945 SUPPURANT Supercilium (su-per-siV -e-um) [L.]. The eye- brow.
  • Superduct (su'-per-dukt). To elevate; to lead upward.
  • Superduction (su-per-duk' -shun) . Maddox's term for sursumduction.
  • Superdural (su-per-du'-rat). Lying in the upper part of the dura.

Excessive evacuation.


  • Superextension (su-per-eks-ten'-shun) [super-; extendere, to extend]. Excessive extension.
  • Superfecundation (su-per-fe-kun-da'-shun) [su- per-; fecundus, fertile]. The fertilization of more than one ovum of the same ovulation resulting from separate acts of coitus.
  • Superf etation (su-per-fe-ta'-shun) [super-; fetus]. A fertilization of an ovum when there is 'another from a previous ovulation in the uterus.
  • Superficial (su-per-fish'-al) [super-; fades, face]. Confined to or pertaining to the surface.
  • Superficialis (su-per-fish-e-a' -lis) [L.]. i. Su- perficial. 2. A superficial part, as super- ficialis voice, a superficial branch of the radial artery.

Superfunction [su-per- funk' '-shun). Excessive action of an organ or structure.


  • Supergenual (su-per-jen'-u-al) [super-; genu, knee]. Situated above the knee.
  • Superhumeral (su-per-hu'-mer-aV). Borne upon the shoulders; situated above the shoul- ders.
  • Superimpregnation (su-per-im-preg-na' -shun). i. See Superfetation. 2. Polyspermy, the piercing of the ovum by several sperm-cells.
  • Superincumbent (su-per-in-kum' -bent) [super-; incumber e, to lie upon]. Lying or resting upon something else.
  • Superior (su-pe'-re-or) [comparative of superus, high]. Higher; denoting the upper of two parts.
  • Superlabia (su-per-la' -be-ah) [super-; labium, a lip]. The clitoris.
  • Superligamen (su-per-lig' -am-en) [super-; lig- amen, a bandage]. An outer bandage to hold a surgical dressing in place.
  • Supernormal (su-per-nor'-mal). Pertaining to a faculty or phenomenon which is beyond the level of ordinary experience; pertaining to a transcendental world.
  • Supernumerary (su-per-nu' -mer-a-re) [super-; numerus, a number]. Existing in more than the usual number.
  • Superolateral (su-per-o-lat'-er-al). Located in the upper part of the side of a structure.
  • Superoxygenation (su-per-oks-e-jen-a'-shun) . Excessive oxygenation. 61 Superpetrosal (su-per-pet-ro' '-sal) . Situated on the upper part of the petrosa. Superphosphate (su-per-fos'-fat). An acid phosphate. Supersalt (su'-per-sawlt). An acid salt. Supersaturate (su-per-sat'-u-rat) [super-; sat- urare, to saturate]. To saturate to excess; to add more of a substance than a liquid can dissolve. Supersensitive (su-per-sen' -sit-iv) . Abnormally sensitive. Superspinatus (su-per-spi-na'-tus). In veter- inary anatomy an extensor of the humerus which has no exact analog in man. Supertension(su-per -ten' -shun). See Hyper- tension. Superversion (su-per-vur' -shun) . See Sur sum- version. Supination (su-pin-a' '-shun) [supinus, on the back]. 1. The turning of the palm of the hand upward. 2. The condition of being supine. Supinator (su'-pin-a-tor). See under Muscle. Supine (su-pin') [supinus, on the back]. Lying on the back face upward or palm upward. Suplagalbumin (su-plag-aV -bu-min). See Su- choloalbumin. Suplagotoxin (su-plag-o-toks'-in). See Su- cholotoxin. Supplemental (sup-le-men' -tal) [supplere, to complete]. Additional. S. Air. See under Respiration. Suppository (sup-oz' -it-o-re) [suppositorium, from sub-, under; ponere, to place]. A solid medicated compound designed to be intro- duced into the rectum, urethra, or vagina. Its consistence is such that while retaining its shape at ordinary temperatures, it readily, melts at the temperature of the body. The basis of most suppositories is oil of theo- broma. For urethral suppositories a mix- ture of gelatin and glycerol is used. The only suppositories that are official are the glycerol supposi- t o r i e s (suppositoria glycerini, U. S. P.). See under Glycerin. S., Tannic-acid, one part of tannin to five parts of cacao- butter. Suppression (sup-resh'- un) [suppressio, a keeping back]. A sudden cessation of secretion, as sup - pression o f the urine or of the menses. Suppurant (sup' -u- Supernumerary Thumb. — rant) [suppuration]. 1. Promoting suppu- nn agent promoting suppura- tion.

{Moullin.) ration. 2. An SUPPURATION 946 SUPRASPINOUS Suppuration (sup-u-ra'-shun) [subpurare, to form pus]. The formation of pus.


  • Suppurative (sup'-u-ra-tiv) [suppuration]. i. Producing pus. 2. An agent that favors suppuration.
  • Supra- (su-prah-) [L., "above"]. A prefix signifying upon or above.
  • Supraacromial (su-prah-ak-ro' -me-at) [supra-; acromion]. Situated above the acromion.
  • Supraauricular (su-prah-aw-rik' -u-lar) [supra-; auricle]. Above the external ear. S. Point. See under Craniometric Point.
  • Suprachoroid (su-prah-ko'-roid) [supra-; cho- roid]. Above the choroid or the choroid plexus.
  • Suprachoroidea (su-prah-ko-roid'-e-ah). The choroid layer next to the sclera.
  • Supraclavicular (su-prah-kla-vik' '-u-lar) [su- pra-; clavicle]. Above the clavicle.

Supracondylar ,Supracondyloid Ow-/>ra/z-&0w'- dil-ar, su-prah-kon'-dil-oid) [supra-; condyle]. Above a condyle.


  • Supracostal (su-prah-kos' '-tal) [supra-; costa, a rib]. Above the ribs.
  • Supracotyloid (su-prah-kof -il-oid) [supra-; cotyloid]. Above the cotyloid cavity.

Supragenual. See Supergenual.


  • Supraglottic (su-prah-glot'-ik) [supra-; ylrnxxig, glottis]. Above the glottis.
  • Suprahepatic (su-prah-hep-at'-ik). Above the liver. S. Veins, the hepatic veins.
  • Suprahyoid (su-prah-hi'-oid) [supra-; hyoid]. Above the hyoid bone.
  • Supralabialis (su-prah-la-be-a'-lis). See Leva- tor labii superioris under Muscle.
  • Supraliminal (su-prah-lim' -in-aV) [supra-; limen, threshold]. Lying above the threshold. S. Consciousness, the empiric self of common experience.
  • Supramalleolar (su-prah-mal-e' -o-lar) [supra-; malleolus]. Above a malleolus.
  • Supramammary (su-prah-mam'-a-re) [supra-; mamma, breast]. Above the mammas.
  • Supramarginal (su-prah-mar'-jin-al) [supra-; margin]. Above an edge or margin, as the supramarginal convolution of the brain.
  • Supramastoid (su-prah-mas' -toid) [supra-; mas- toid]. Above the mastoid process of the tem- poral bone.
  • Supramaxillary (su-prah-maks' '-il-a-re) [su- pra-; maxilla]. Pertaining to the superior maxilla.
  • Supramental (su-prah-men'-taF) [supra-; men- turn, chin]. Above the chin.
  • Supraobliquus (su-prah-ob-li'-ku-us) [supra-, obliquus, slanting]. Coues' name for the obliquus superior muscle of the eye.
  • Supraoccipital (su-prah-ok-sip'-it-aT) [supra-; occiput]. 1. Above the occipital bone. 2. The upper part of the occipital bone.
  • Supraomphalodymia (su-prah-om-Jal-o-dim' - e-ah) [supra-; d/u^aXSc, navel; duecv, to enter]. A form of somatodymia in which the union is in the superior umbilical region.
  • Supraorbital (su-prah-or' -bit-al) [supra-; orbit]. 1. Above the orbit, as the supraorbital nerve. 2. Pertaining to the supraorbital nerve.
  • Suprapatellar (su-prah-pat-el'-ar) [supra-; pa- tella]. Above the patella.
  • Suprapelvic (su-prah-pel'-vik) [supra-; pelvis]. Above the pelvis.
  • Suprapineal (su-prah-pin' -e-dt) [supra-; pineal]. Above the pineal gland.
  • Suprapontine (su-prah-pon' -tin) [supra-; pons, a bridge]. Above or in the superior part of the pons.
  • Suprapubic (su-prah-pu'-bik) [supra-; pubis]. Above the pubes.
  • Suprarenaden (su-prah-ren' '-ad-en). A prepa- ration made from the suprarenal capsules; used in Addison's disease, neurasthenia, etc. Dose 15-23 gr. (1. 0-1.5 Gm.) daily.
  • Suprarenal (su-prah-re' -nal) [supra-; ren, the kidney]. 1. Above the kidney, as the suprarenal capsule. 2. Pertaining to the suprarenal capsule. S. Body, S. Capsule, a small triangular organ situated above the kidney, and consisting of an external or cor- tical and an internal or medullary portion. The cortex consists of polygonal cells dis- posed in three layers — the zona glomerulosa, zona jasciculata, and zona reticularis. Fi- brous septums, derived from the capsule, extend into the organ and separate the groups of cells. The medulla contains cords and networks of polygonal cells, and in its center ganglion -cells and nonmedullated nerve-fibers. The function of the suprarenal body is not definitely known — it is believed to bear some relation to pigment production. S. Epithelioma. See Grawitz's Tumor. S. Rests. See Rests, Adrenal.
  • Suprarene (su'-prah-ren). A suprarenal cap- sule.
  • Suprarennin (su-prah-ren' -in) . A synonym of Epinephrin.
  • Suprascapular (su-prah-skap' '-u-lar) [supra-; scapula]. Above or in the upper part of the scapula.
  • Supraspinal (su-prah-spi' -nal) [supra-; spine]. Above a spine.
  • Supraspinatus (su-prah-spi-na'-tus) [supra-; spine]. Above the spine, as the supraspi- natus muscle. See under Muscle.
  • Supraspinous (su-prah-spi' -nus) [see Supra- spinatus]. Above the spinous process of SUPRASTERNAL 947 SUSPENSION the scapula or of a vertebra. S. Fossa, the triangular depression above the spine of the scapula.
  • Suprasternal (su-prah-ster' -nal) [supra-; ster- num]. Above the sternum.
  • Suprasylvian (su-prah-siV -ve-an). Above the sylvian fissure.
  • Supratemporal (su-prah-tem' '-po-ral) [supra-; temporal]. Above the temporal region.
  • Supratrochlear (su-prah-trok'-le-ar) [supra-; trochlea]. Above the trochlea or pulley of the superior oblique muscle.
  • Supraturbinal (su-prah-tur'-bin-al). The su- perior turbinate bone.
  • Supravaginal (su-prah-vaj'-in-al) [supra-; vagina], i. Above a sheath; on the outside of a sheath. 2. Above the vagina.
  • Supraverge (su' -prah-ver]) [supra-; vergere, to incline]. To diverge in a vertical plane.
  • Supravergence (su-prah-ver '-jenz). The abil- ity of the two eyes to diverge in a vertical plane; an ability measured by a prism of 2°-3°. Syn., Sursumvergence. S., Right, the ability to overcome prisms, base down, before the right eye, or base up before the left eye.
  • Sura (su'-rah) [L.]. 1. The calf of the leg. 2. A form of toddy made in western Africa from the sap of the oil-palm.
  • Sural (su'-ral) [sura]. Pertaining to the calf of the leg.
  • Surcingle (sur'-sin-gl) [super-; cingulum, a belt]. The tail of the corpus striatum.
  • Surculus (sur' -ku-lus) [L., "a twig, shoot"; pi., surculi]. In biology, a sucker. Sur- culi fellei, the ductules conveying the bile to the hepatic ducts.
  • Surdity (sur'-dit-e) [surdus, deaf]. Deaf- ness.
  • Surdomutitas (sur-do-mu' -tit-as) [surdus; mu- tus, mute]. Deaf-mutism.
  • Surexcitation (sur -eks-i-ta' -shun) [super-; exci- tatio, a rousing]. Excessive excitement.
  • Surface (sur' -fas) [Ft., surface]. 1. The ex- terior of a body. 2. The face or faces of a body; a term frequently used in anatomy in the description of bones. S., Fixation, a curved surface the points of which occupy in the two monocular fields positions which are identical horizontally, regardless of ver- tical disparity. S., Labial, the surface of a tooth-crown which is toward the lips. S.- wells, those which obtain their supply from the subsoil water.
  • Surgeon (sur'-jun) [see Surgery]. One who practises surgery.
  • Surgeonry (sur f -jun-re) . The practice of a surgeon.
  • Surgery (sur'-jer-e) [OF., cirurgie, from #e//0, hand; epyecv, to work]. The branch of medicine dealing with diseases requiring operative procedure. S., Antiseptic, the application of antiseptic methods in the treat- ment of wounds. S., Major, that in which the operations are important and involve risks to life. S., Minor, that part of surgery including procedures not involving danger to life, as bandaging, the application of splints, dressings, sutures, counterirrita- tion, cauterization, and bloodletting. S., Plastic, repair of defects by transference of tissue.
  • Surgical (sur' -jik-aT) [surgery]. 1. Pertaining to surgery. 2. Produced by surgical opera- tions. S. Kidney, suppuration of the kidney due to disease of the genitourinary tract. S. Neck (of the humerus), the constricted part of the shaft below the tuberosities, so called because it is a common seat of fracture.
  • Surinam Bark (su'-rin-am). The bark of Andira retusa, used as an anthelmintic.
  • Surinamin (su-rin-am' -in) . An alkaloid found by Huttenschmid, 1824, in the bark of Andira retusa. It forms fine, gleaming needles, without taste or odor and of neutral reaction, soluble in water, and with anthelmintic action. Syn., Andirin; Geoffroyin.
  • Surons (su'-rons). Skins which have served the purpose of carrying drugs, especially from South America.
  • Surra (soor'-rah) [native Indian name]. An epizootic pernicious anemia in horses, mules, and camels due to Trypanosoma evansi.
  • Surrenal (sur -re' -nal) [supra-; ren, the kidney]. 1. Suprarenal. 2. A suprarenal gland.
  • Sursumduction (sur-sum-duk' -shun) [sursum, up; ducere, to lead]. 1. The power of the two eyes of fusing two images when one eye has a prism placed vertically before it. 2. See Supravergence. 3. A movement of either eye alone upward. S., Right, the absolute power that the right eye has to rotate upward.
  • Sursumvergence (sur-sum-vur'-jenz) [sursum; vergere, to bend]. The turning of the eyes upward; supravergence.
  • Sursumversion (sur-sum-ver' -shun) [sursum; vertere, to turn]. The movement of both eyes up.

Surumpe. The name in the Andes for hyper- esthesia of the retina observed at great altitudes.


  • Survivorship (sur-vi' -vor-ship) [super; vivere, to live]. In medical jurisprudence the prob- ability of a certain individual having survived others when all concerned were in the same accident and all were killed.
  • Susceptivity (sus-sep-tiv'-it-e) [suscipere, to undertake]. The state or quality of being susceptible.
  • Suscitability (sus-si-ta-biV '-it-e) [suscitare, to lift up]. The quality of being easily roused or excited.
  • Suscitation (sus-si-ta' -shun) . The act of ex- citing.
  • Susotoxin (su-so-tok'-sin) [sus, pig; to$ckov, poison], Ci H 26 N 2 . A ptomain found in cultures of the bacillus of hog cholera.
  • Suspension (sus-pen' -shun) [sub-; pendere, to hang]. Hanging; a mode of treatment of tabes dorsalis and other nervous diseases, SUSPENSORY 948 SUTURE in which the patient hangs by the neck, chin, and shoulders.
  • Suspensory (sus-pen' -so-re) [see Suspension]. i. Serving for suspension, as suspensory ligament, suspensory bandage. 2. A de- vice for suspending a part.
  • Sustentaculum (sus-ten-tak' -u-lum) \susten~ tare, to support]. A support. S. tali, a process of the os calcis supporting the as- tragalus.
  • Susurrus (su-su'-rus) [L.]. A soft murmur.
  • Sutural (su'-tu-raT) [suture]. Pertaining to a suture.
  • Suture (su'-tur) [sutura, from suere, to sew]. 1. A line of joining or closure, as a cranial suture. 2. A stitch or series of stitches used in closing the lips of a wound. S., Arcuate, S., Basilar, the junction between the basilar surface of the occipital bone and the posterior surface of the body of the sphenoid. S., Billroth's, the buttonhole stitch. S., Biparietal. See S., Sagittal. S., Blatin's, a modification of Gely's in which one needle and two threads of different colors are used. S., Buried, one completely covered by and not involving the skin. S., Catgut, one in which the material employed is catgut. S., Chainstitch, the sewing ma- chine stitch. S., Circular, one that is applied to the entire circumference of a divided part, as the intestine. S., Cobbler's, one made by arming a needle with two threads. S., Continuous, S., Glover's, one in which the thread passes across the wound continually in the same direction, and is tied only at the beginning and end. S., Coronal, the union of the frontal with the parietal bones trans- versely across the vertex of the skull. S., Cranial, the line of union of two or more cranial bones. S., Cross, the applica- tion of two single stitches to a T-wound. S., Czerny's, for intestinal wounds, one in which the needle is passed from the serous surface through the wound, down to, but not including, the mucous membrane, and through the wound on the opposite side, and out on the serous surface. S., Czerny-Lembert, the application of Lembert sutures after the Czerny sutures are in place. S., Dry, one carried through adhesive-plaster strips applied to the lips of the wound. S., Ethmo- frontal, the union between the frontal and ethmoid bones. S., Ethmolacrimal, the union between the lacrimal and eth- moid bones. S., Ethmosphenoid, the union between the sphenoid and ethmoid bones. S., Ford's Friction -knot, a square knot is tied for the first stitch, then the needle is passed as for a single-knot stitch, turning the thread twice around the needle instead of once. The last stitch is a square knot. S., Ford's Single-knot, the needle is passed through the divided tissues and, without cut- ting the thread, a square knot is tied. For the second stitch the thread is held or thrown so that the needle will emerge in a loop, and when it is drawn through, a single knot will be formed. S., Ford's Square -knot, the same steps are taken as for the single-knot, and for the second stitch pass the needle under the thread connecting the knots in the opposite direction from which the needle was inserted into the tissues. S., The Four Masters', a suture of the intestine used in the thirteenth century in which the trachea of a goose was used as a means of support and the ends of the severed intestine brought into position on it and sutured with four interrupted stitches which did not include the trachea. S., Frontal, a suture which at birth joins the two frontal bones from the vertex to the root of the nose, but which after- ward becomes obliterated. S . , Frontomalar , the union between the malar and frontal bones. S., Frontomaxillary, the union between the superior maxillary and frontal bones. S., Frontonasal, the union between the nasal and frontal bones. S., Fronto- parietal. See S., Coronal. S., Fronto- sphenoid, the union between the wings of the sphenoid bone and the frontal bone. S., Frontotemporal, the union between the frontal and temporal bones. S., Grad's Method of,. in suturing a wound it consists in placing in each turn of the knot a releasing pull thread. S., Granny -knot, a single- knot stitch is formed and the needle is passed in the opposite direction from which it was inserted under the thread in forming a square knot. S., Grieg Smith's, a modification of Appolito's method, which removes the neces- sity of the insertion of a foreign substance in the lumen of the gut. S., Harelip, S., Twisted, one in which the edges of the wound are transfixed with pins and approximation secured by twisting or wrapping the ends of the pins with thread. S., Intermaxillary, the union between the superior maxillary bones. S., Internasal, the union between the nasal bones. S., Interparietal. See S., Sagittal. S., Interrupted, one of a series of sutures passed through the margins of the wound, and each of which is tied separately. S., Jugal. See S., Sagittal. S.,Kalt. See Stitch, Sclerocorneal. S., Lamb- do id, the union between the two superior borders of the occipital bone and the parietal bones. S., Larry's, a double glovers' stitch, with threads of a different color. S., Lem- bert 's, an intestinal suture for wounds in which the needle is passed transversely to the wound through the peritoneal and muscular coats, and out again on one side of the wound, and then carried across the wound and made to penetrate the two outer coats as before. S., Lewis', a modification of the right-angle stitch. S., Longitudinal. See S., Sagittal. S., Marcey's, the cobbler-stitch used for hernia. S., Mastooccipital. See S., Occip- itomastoid. S., Mastoparietal. See S., Parietomastoid. S., Mattress, a continuous suture which is made back and forth through both lips of a wound. S., Maxillolacrimal, the union between the lacrimal and superior -- SUTURE 949 SUTURE Suture of Le Dentu.

Tendon-suture of Le Fort.


Lembert's Suture.

Sutures for Immediate Gastrostomy.

Sutures for Immediate Gastrostomy.

SUTURE 950 SUTURE Halsted's Plain Quilt-suture.

Bouisson's Suture.

Dupuytren's Suture.

Gely's Suture, Emmet's Suture.

SUTURE 951 SUTURE ^"^^mir-fi" Continuous Suture.

Quilted Sutures.


SUZANNE'S GLAND 952 SYCORETIN maxillary bones. S., Mediofrontal. See S., Frontal. S., Metopic. See S., Frontal. S., Mitchell-Hunner's, the application of a quilted suture to the mesenteric border of the gut. S., Nasofrontal, the frontonasal suture. S., Nasomaxillary, the union between the superior maxillary and nasal bones. S., Occipital. See S., Lambdoid. S., Oc- cipitomastoid, the union between the mastoid portion of the temporal bone and the occipital bone. S., Occipitoparietal. See S., Lamb- doid. S., Palatine, the union between the palate bones. S., Palatine Transverse. See S., Palatomaxillary. S., Palatomaxillary, a suture between the palatal processes of the os palatinum and the superior maxilla. S., Parallel, a continuous subcuticular suture. S., Parietomastoid, the union between the mastoid portion of the temporal bone and the parietal bone. S., Petrooccipital, the union between the occipital bone and the petrous portion of the temporal. S., Petro- sphenoid, the union between the great wing of the sphenoid bone and the petrous portion of the temporal. S., Pin-. See S., Hare- lip. S., Quill-, S., Quilled, one in which a doubled thread is passed and tied over quills or pieces of a soft catheter. S., Quilted, one similar to a mattress suture. S., Re- laxation-, one introduced some distance from the wound-margin, carried through its depths, and made to emerge at some distance on the opposite side, to relieve the tension of the wound-sutures proper. S., Sagittal, the union between the superior borders of the parietal bones. S., Sclerocorneal, of Kalt. See Stitch, Sclerocorneal. S., Shotted, one in which both ends of the suture are passed through a perforated shot, which is then tightly compressed. S., Spheno- malar, the union between the malar bone and the great wing of the sphenoid. S., Sphenopalatine, a cranial suture between the sphenoid and palatine bones. S., Sphenoparietal, the union between the greater wing of the sphenoid bone and the parietal bone. S., Sphenotemporal, the union be- tween the temporal and the sphenoid bone. S., Squamoparietal, S., Squamosal, the union between the squamous portion of the tem- poral bone and the parietal bone. S., Squamosphenoid, the union between the great wing of the sphenoid and the squamous portion of the temporal bone. S., Subcu- ticular, a buried, continuous suture in which the needle is passed horizontally into the true skin back and forth until the wound is closed. S., du Verger's, a modification of the four masters' ; he used only two stitches, both of which included the foreign support. S., Watson's, a glovers' stitch uniting the gut over a cannula of fish-glue. S., Weber's, a fine groove or suture on the inner surface of the nasal process of the superior maxilla. S., Wormian, Anterior, the upper part of the lambdoid suture. Suzanne's Gland. A mucous gland found in the floor of the mouth close to the median line.

Swallowing. Deglutition.

Swallow's-nest. The nidus hirundinis.

Swamp -sassafras. The Magnolia glauca, the bark of which is aromatic and diaphoretic.


  • Sweat (swet) [AS., swat]. The secretion of the sudoriferous glands, consisting of a transparent, colorless, aqueous fluid, holding in solution neutral fats, volatile fatty acids, cholesterin, traces of albumin and urea, free lactic acid, sodium lactate, sodium chlorid, potassium chlorid, and traces of alkaline phosphates. S., Bloody. See Hematidrosis. S., English. See Sweating - sickness. S. -gland, one of the small glands secreting the sweat, situated in the true skin and subcutaneous areolar tissue, consisting of a convoluted tube from which the excretory duct passes outward through the skin. In its passage through the epidermis the duct is more or less spiral. S., Picardy. See Sweating-sickness.

Sweating-sickness. An infective, febrile epi- demic disorder, characterized by a rapid course and profuse perspiration. It was prevalent in England at the end of the fifteenth and first half of the sixteenth century. Syn., English sweat; Miliaria; Picardy sweat; Sudor anglicus; Fr., Suette miliaire; Ger., Schweissfreisel.

Swediaur's Disease. See Albert's Disease.

Swedish Movements . Certain systematic gym- nastic exercises intended to exercise and de- velop the human body, and affect function, nutrition, etc.

Sweet. Having a taste like that of sugar or honey.

Sweetbread, i . The pancreas. 2. The thymus.


  • Swelling (swel'-ing) [ME., swellen, to swell]. Any morbid enlargement, inflation, tumor, or protuberance! S., Albuminous. See S., Cloudy. S., Blennorrhagic (of the knee), the enlargement of the knee which occurs in gonorrheal synovitis. S., Cloudy, a swelling of cells due to disturbed nutrition. S., Glassy, amyloid degeneration. S., Lacteal, a swelling of the breast due to obstruction of the lacteal ducts. S., Sommering's Crystalline, an annular swelling formed in the lower part of the capsule, behind the iris, after extraction of the crystalline lens. S., White. 1. A disease of the bones which causes them to dilate as if distended by pres- sure from within. 2. A tumor, usually of the wrist or ankle, due to caries. Syn., Hydrar- throsis.

Swine-fever. Hog cholera.

Swine Plague. An infectious disease of swine, due to the bacillus of swine plague.

Swoon. Syncope.


  • Sycoceryl (si-ko-ser'-il). Applied to an alcohol the acetate of which is a constituent of sy- coretin. S. Hydrate, sycoceryl aldehyd.
  • Sycoretin (si-ko-re f -tin) [oukov, fig; icqpbc, wax]. A resin found in 1855 in Ficus rubiginosa, of New South Wales.
  • Sycosiform (si-ko' -se-form) [sycosis; forma, form]. Resembling sycosis.
  • Sycosis (si-ko' -sis) [oumoocc, a fig-like excrescence on the flesh]. An inflammatory disease affecting the hair-follicles, particularly of the beard, and characterized by papules, pustules, and tubercles, perforated by hairs, together with infiltration of the skin and crusting. S. parasitaria, S., Parasitic, barber's itch, a disease of the hair-follicles, usually affecting the region covered by the beard, and due to the presence of the tricho- phyton fungus.

Sydenham's Chorea. See Chorea, Syden- ham's. S.'s Cough. See Cough, Syden- ham's.

Syllabic Utterance. Scanning speech.

Sylvester's Method. See under Artificial Res- piration.


  • Sylvian (sil'-ve-an). Described by the anato- mist Sylvius (1478-1555). S. Angle, the angle formed by the posterior limb of the sylvian fissure with a line perpendicular to the superior border of the hemisphere. S. Aqueduct. See Aquceductus sylvii. S. Artery, the middle cerebral artery, lying in the fissure of Sylvius. S. Fissure. See Fissure of Sylvius. S. Fossa, S. Valley, the depression which appears on the surface of the brain about the end of the second month of fetal life and afterward becomes the sylvian fissure. S. Vein, one of the veins of the con- vexity of the brain, which courses at first along the fissure of Sylvius and then ascends across the hemisphere. S. Ventricle, the fifth ventricle.
  • Sylviduct (sil'-ve-dukt). The aqueduct of Sylvius., Sym- (sim-). The same as Syn-.
  • Symbiosis (sim-be-o'-sis). See Commensal- ism.
  • Symblepharon (sim-blef -ar-on) [ouv, together; pkk(f>apov, the eyelid]. Adhesion of the eye- lids to the eyeball. S., Anterior, when the edge of the lid is adherent. S., Posterior, when the adhesion is at the conjunctival fold. S., Total, when the entire lid is adherent.
  • Symblepharopterygium (sim-blef -ar-o-ter-ij'- e-um). A variety of symblepharon in which a cicatricial band resembling a pterygium connects the lid and the eyeball.

Syme's Amputation, S.'s Operation. Am- putation at the ankle-joint.


  • Symmelus, Symelus (sim'-el-us) [ouv, together; fieloc, a limb]. A species of monster charac- terized by imperfect development of the pelvis and lower extremities with more or less intimate fusion of the latter.
  • Symmetric, Symmetrical (sim-et'-rik, sim-et'- rik-af) [oufxp.erp'ca, proportion]. Pertaining to or exhibiting symmetry. S. Gangrene*. See Sphaceloderma.

1. Pertaining to or produced by sympathy.

2. Conveying sympathy or sympathetic im- pulses, as the sympathetic system. S. Gang- lions. See under 5. System. S. Irri- tation, irritation of an organ arising from irritation of another related organ, as sym- pathetic irritation of one eye from irritation of the other. S. Nerve. See 5. System. S. Ophthalmia, inflammation of one eye arising subsequent to inflammation of the other eye. S. Plexuses. See under 5. System. S. System, a system of ganglions (sympathetic ganglions) forming a chain from the cranium to the end of the spinal column, connected together by nerve- fibers, and supplying the viscera and blood- vessels. At intervals the sympathetic nerves and ganglions form plexuses (sympathetic plexuses) .


  • Sympatheticectomy (sim-pa-thet-e-sek' -to-me). Excision of parts of the sympathetic nerve.
  • Sympatheticotonic (sim-path-et-ik-o-ton'-ik) . Applied to migraine caused by tonic contrac- tion of the arteries due to overaction of the sympathetic.
  • Sympathicotripsy (sim - path -ik-o- trip' - se) [sympathy; zpcftstv, to crush]. In treatment of mental diseases, crushing of the superior cervical ganglion.
  • Sympathism (sim'-path-izm). Susceptibility to hypnotic suggestion.
  • Sympathist (sim'-path-ist). One who is sus- ceptible to hypnotic suggestion.
  • Sympathy (sim' -path-e) [ouv, together; nadog, suffering]. The mutual relation between parts more or less distant, whereby a change in the one has an effect upon the other.
  • Symperitoneal (sim-per-it-on-e'-al) [syn-; peri- toneum]. Connecting artificially two parts of the peritoneum.
  • Symphiocephalus (sim-fi-o-sef -al-us) [syn-; u£tv, to grow; KsefxxXr], the head]. A twin monster with the union in the head.
  • Symphorol (sim'-for-ol) [syn-; rj, a seam]. Suture of a divided symphysis.
  • Symphysiotomy (sim-fiz-e-of -o-me) [symphysis; rofirj, a cutting]. The operation of dividing the symphysis pubis for the purpose of in- creasing the diameters of the pelvic canal and facilitating labor.
  • Symphysis (sim'-fiz-is) [ouv, together; cfruecv, to grow]. The line of junction of two bones. S. cartilaginosa, synchondrosis. S. lig- amentosa, syndesmosis. S. mandibulae, S. menti, the central vertical ridge upon SYMPIESOMETER 954 SYNCARYOSIS the outer aspect of the lower jaw, showing the line of union of the two halves. S. pubis, the line of junction of the pubic bones.
  • Sympiesometer (sim-pe-es-om'-et-ur) [ouv, to- gether; izceoic;, a squeezing; petpov, a measure]. An apparatus for estimating pressure.
  • Symplocarpus foetidus (sim-plo-kar' -pus fet'- id-us). Dracontium fcetidum, or skunk-cab- bage, the rhizome of which is stimulant, antispasmodic, and narcotic, and has been used in asthma, chronic rheumatism, chorea, hysteria, etc. Dose 10-20 gr. (0.65-1.3 Gm.).
  • Symplocos (sim'-plo-kos) [oup.izXoK.oc, twined]. A genus of the Styracece. The leaves of S. alstonia, a tree of South America, are used as mate and also as a digestive and diaphoretic. S. platyphylla, sweetleaf, is indigenous to the southern United States and South America; the root bark is used in intermittent fever. S. racemosa is indigenous to India, and fur- nishes a red coloring-matter and lodh-bark, used in plasters. It contains lotourin, colloturin, and lotouridin. 5. tinctoria, sweet- leaf, of South Carolina, contains in its sweet leaves a yellow coloring-matter. The root is used as a digestive.
  • Symptom (simp' -torn) [ouv, together; nxcbpa, a falling]. The change in a patient occurring during disease and serving to point out its nature and location. See Sign. S., Ac- cessory, S., Assident, a minor symptom. S., Accidental, one intervening in the course of a disease without having any con- nection with it. S. -complex, the en- semble of symptoms of a disease. See also Syndrome. S. -complex, Avellis', paralysis of one-half of the soft palate, associated with a recurrent paralysis on the same side. S.- complex, Benedikt's, tremor of one side of the body, in part or wholly, and oculomotor paralysis of the other side. S. -complex, Bernhardt-Roth's. See Bernhardt' s Pares- thesia. S. - complex, Erb - Goldflam's. See Erb's Disease. S. -complex, Escher- ich's. See Pseudotetanus. S.-complex, Friedmann's Vasomotor, a train of symp- toms following injury to the head, consisting of headache, vertigo, nausea and intolerance of mental and physical exertions and of gal- vanic excitation; it is occasionally associated with ophthalmoplegia and mydriasis. These phenomena may subside and recur with greater intensity, with fever, unconsciousness, and paralysis of the cranial nerves, ending in fatal coma. They are probably due to an encephalitis of slow development with acute exacerbations. S.-complex, Hoppe-Gold- flam's. See Erb's Disease. S.-complex, Putnam-Dana's, combined sclerosis of the lateral and posterior columns of the spinal cord. S.-complex, Roth's. See Bern- hardt' s Paresthesia. S.-complex, Wilk's. See Erb's Disease. S.s, Concomi- tant, accessory phenomena occurring in connection with the essential phenomena of a disease. S., Constitutional, S., Gen- eral, one produced by the effect of the disease on the whole body. S., Dissociation-. See Dissociation-symptom. S., Equivocal, one of doubtful significance. S., Local, one indicating the concentration of a disease in a certain part of the body. S., Objective, one observed by the physician. S. , Rational, a subjective symptom. S., Signal, the first disturbance of sensation preceding a more extensive convulsion, as the aura heralding an attack of epilepsy. S., Sub- jective, one observed only by the patient. S. turpitudinis, nymphomania.
  • Symptomatic (simp-tom-at'-ik) [symptom]. 1. Pertaining to or of the nature of a symp- tom. 2. Affecting symptoms, as symp- tomatic treatment. S. Anthrax. See Black- leg.
  • Symptomatology (simp - torn -at-oV -0- je) [symptom; Xoyog, science]. The science of symptoms; the symptoms of disease taken together as a whole.
  • Sympus (sim'-pus) [ouv, together; xouc, foot]. A monster in which there is a coalescence of the lower limbs.
  • Syn- (sin-) [ouv, together]. A prefix signifying with or together.
  • Synadelphus (sin-ad-el f -fus) [syn-; ddeXcpoc, brother]. A monster having eight limbs with but one head and trunk.
  • Synalgia (sin-aV-je-ah) [syn-; aXyoc, pain]. Pain felt in a distant part from an injury or stimulation of another part.
  • Synanthema (sin-an' -them-ah) [ouvavdecv, to blossom together]. A group of efflorescences on the skin.
  • Synapse (sin-ap f -se). See Synapsis.
  • Synapsis (sin-ap'-sis) [syn-; anxecv, to clasp]. The anatomic relation of one neuron with another. The intertwining of the terminal arborizations of the neurons by means of which nerve-impulses may pass from one to another. Syn., Synapse.
  • Synarthrodial (sin-ar-thro'-de-aV) [synarthrosis]. Pertaining to or of the nature of a synar- throsis.
  • Synarthrophysis (sin-ar-thro-fi f -sis) [syn-; ar- throsis; 6eev, to grow]. Progressive anky- losis of the joints.
  • Synarthrosis (sin-ar-thro' -sis) [syn-; apdpov, a joint]. A form of articulation in which the bones are immovably bound together without any intervening synovial cavity. The forms are sutura, in which processes are interlocked; schindylesis, in which a thin plate of one bone is inserted into a cleft of another; and gom- phosis, in which a conic process is held by a socket.
  • Syncaryosis (sin-kar-e-o'-sis) [syn-; mpuov, a nut]. A term proposed by His for syncytial formation or the growth of the multinuclear giant-cells.
  • Synchondrosis (sin-kon-dro'-sis) [syn-; xovopoc, a cartilage]. A joint in which the surfaces are connected by a growth of cartilage. S., Sacroiliac, the union between the sacrum and the ilium.
  • Synchondrotomy (sin-kon-drot'-o-me) [syn-; Xovdpoc, cartilage; zi/Jtvecv, to cut]. A divi- sion of the cartilage uniting bones, especially of that of the symphysis pubis.
  • Synchronous (sin' -kro-nus) [syn-; %pbvoc, time]. Occurring at the same time.
  • Synchysis scintillans (sin'-kis-is sin' -til-lanz) [ouyxuocc, a mixing together]. The presence of bright, shining particles in the vitreous humor of the eye.
  • Synclonus (sin'-klo-nus) [syn-; kXovoc, clonus], i. Clonic movements occurring simultaneous- ly in several muscles. 2. A disease thus char- acterized, as chorea.
  • Syncopal (sin'-ko-pal) [syncope]. Pertaining to or characterized by syncope.
  • Syncope (sin'-ko-pe) [syn-; kotzxuv, to strike or cut]. Swooning or fainting, a partial or complete temporary suspension of the func- tions of respiration and circulation from cerebral anemia. S., Local, sudden pallor and insensibility of a part.
  • Syncyanin (sin-si' -an-in). A blue pigment elaborated by Bacillus cyanogenus.
  • Syncytial (sin-sit'-e-af) [see Syncytium]. Per- taining to a syncytium.
  • Syncytioma (sin-sit-e-o'-mah) [syncytium; op.a, a tumor]. A tumor composed of syncytial tissue. S. malignum, malignant degen- eration of the villi of the chorion. See Deciduoma malignum.
  • Syncytium (sin-sit'-e-um) [syn-; kutoc, a cell]. 1. A mass of protoplasm with numerous nuclei. 2. The collection of epithelial cells forming the outermost covering of the cho- rionic villi.

Syndactylia, Syndactylism, Syndactyly (sin-dak-til' -e-ah, sin-dak' -til-izm, sin-dak'- til-e) [syn-; oaKXufoc, finger]. Adhesion be- tween fingers or toes; webbed fingers; webbed toes.


  • Syndesmitis (sin-dez-mi'-tis) [oovdeojioc, a ligament; czic, inflammation]. 1. Inflam- mation of a ligament. 2. Conjunctivitis.
  • Syndesmography (sin-dez-mog'-ra-}e) [syn- desmos; ypafetv, to write]. The branch of anatomy treating of ligaments.
  • Syndesmosis (sin-dez-mo'-sis) [syndesmos]. A form of articulation in which the bones are connected by ligaments.
  • Syndesmotomy (sin-dez-mot'-o-me) [syndes- mos; zepLvecv, to cut]. 1. Dissection of the ligaments. 2. The division of a liga- ment.
  • Syndrome (sin'-drom) [ouv, together; dpopiof, a running]. The aggregate symptoms of a disease; a complex of symptoms. See Symptom-complex. S., Basedow's, tachy- cardia, flashes of heat, sweating crises. S., Brissaud-Marie's, hysteric glossolabial hemi- spasm. S. of Brown-Sequard. See Brown- Sequard' s Paralysis under Sign. S., Char- cot's, intermittent claudication, an affection connected with arteriosclerosis of the lower extremities. S., Cotard's, "delire chronique des negations." A form of paranoia charac- terized by delusions of negation, with sen- sory disturbances and a tendency to suicide. S., Dercum's, adiposis dolorosa. S., Du- chenne's, labioglossolaryngeal paralysis. S., Duckworth's, complete stoppage of res- piration several hours before that of the heart in certain cerebral diseases attended by intracranial pressure. S., Dupre's, menin- gism; pseudomeningitis. S., Erb's. Syn- onym of Asthenic bulbar paralysis. S., Gaston's, anesthetic prurigo sometimes ob- served in cases of alcoholism. S., Jackson's, associated paralysis of the soft palate and larynx, accompanied by paralysis of the trapezius, sternomastoid, and one-half of the tongue. S., Levulosuric. See S., Ma- rie-Robinson's. S., Marie -Robinson's, a variety of diabetes with melancholia, insomnia, impotence, and the presence in the urine of a levulose that disappears rapidly on the suppression of carbohydrates. S., Millard- Gubler's. See Gubler's Hemiplegia. S. of Pierre Marie, hypertrophic osteoarthro- pathy. S., Potain's, dyspepsia and dilation of the right ventricle with accentuation of the pulmonary sound, observed during the digestive process in cases of gastrectasis. S., Riegel's, the association of tachycardia with troubles simulating asthma. S., Ro- senbach's, a variety of paroxysmal tachy- cardia consisting in the association of cardiac, respiratory, and gastric troubles. S., Stokes'. See Adams-Stokes' Disease. S. temporanea di Gubler. See Gubler's Hemiplegia. S., Turner's, a congenital state of general tissue debility, resulting in relaxation and displace- ment of various organs, such as splanch- noptosis, varicocele, uterine displacements, etc. S. of Weber, paralysis of the oculo- motor nerve of one side and of the extremities, the face and the hypoglossal nerve of the other side. It is usually due to a lesion lim- ited to the inferior and inner part of one cerebral peduncle. S., Weil's, unilateral hyperesthesia of the muscles, nerve-trunks, and bones, sometimes seen in cases of pul- monary tuberculosis. Synechia (sin-e-ki'-ah or si-ne'-ke-ah) [ouv, to- gether; execv, to hold]. A morbid union of parts; especially, adhesion of the iris to a neighboring part of the eye. S., Annular, S., Circular, exclusion of the pupil. S., Anterior, adhesion between the iris and transparent cornea. S., Posterior, adhesion between the iris and crystalline lens. Syn., Ptosis diplopia. S., Total, adhesion of the entire surface of the iris to the lens.
  • Synectenterotomy (sin-ek-ten-ter-of -o-me) [syn- echia; enterotomy]. The division of an intestinal adhesion.
  • Synergic (sin-er' -jik) [synergy]. Pertaining to synergy.
  • Synergist (sin'-er-jist) [synergy]. An agent cooperating with another.
  • Synergy (sin'-er-je) [syn-; 'kpyov, work]. The cooperative action of two or more agents (synergists) or organs.
  • Synesis (sin'-e-sis) [ouveocc, a coming together]. Faculty of comprehension, intelligence, sa- gacity.
  • Synesthesia (sin-es-the' '-ze-ah) [syn-; dlodi]occ, sensation]. A secondary sensation or sub- jective impression accompanying an actual perception.
  • Synetion, Synaetion (sin-e' '-shun) [syn-; ah'ca, cause]. A cause which cooperates with another to produce disease.
  • Syngenesis (sin-jen'-es-is) [syn-; ykvzotc, gen- eration], i. The theory that the embryo is the product of the union of the male and female elements; also the theory that the embryo contains within itself the germs of all future generations developed from it. 2. Reproduction by union of male and fe- male elements.
  • Syngenetic (sin-jen-et'-ik) [see Syngenesis]. Propagated by means of both parents.
  • Syngignoscism (sin-jig' -no-sizm) [syn-; ycy- vihoecv, to know]. Hypnotism, so termed from the agreeing of one mind with another.
  • Synizesis (sin-iz-e' -sis) [syn-; "c^ttv, to sit]. Closure. S. pupillae, closure of the pupil.
  • Synkinesis (sin-kin-e'-sis) [syn-; ncvqcrcc, move- ment]. Involuntary movement taking place in one part of the body synchronously with or in consequence of a voluntary or reflex movement in another part.
  • Synocha, Synochus (sin'-o-kah, sin'-o-kus) [syn-; '&%£&, to hold on]. Any continued fever.
  • Synorchism (sin-or'-kizm) [syn-; bpx^c, testicle]. Partial or complete fusion of the two tes- ticles.
  • Synosteophyte (sin-os'-te-o-fit) [syn-; ooxkov, a bone; cfiuzov, a growth]. Congenital bony ankylosis. Syn., Synostosis congenita.
  • Synosteotome (sin-os' -te-o-tom). A knife for the dissection of joints.
  • Synostosis (sin-os-to'-sis) [syn-; ooxkov, bone]. A union of normally separate bones by osseous material. S. congenita. See Syn- osteophyte. S., Tribasilar, shortening of the base of the skull and consequent curvature of the basal parts of the brain; a cause of imbecility.
  • Synostotic (sin-os-tot'-ik) [synostosis]. Per- taining to or of the nature of synostosis.
  • Synotus (sin-o'-tus) [syn-; ouc, ear]. A monster characterized by fused ears.
  • Synovia (sin-o'-ve-ah) [syn-; wov, an egg]. The clear, alkaline, lubricating fluid secreted within synovial membranes.
  • Synovial (sin-o' -ve-al) [synovia]. Pertaining to the synovia. S. Bursa. See Bursa, Synovial. S. Membrane. See Membrane, Synovial. S. Sheath, a synovial membrane which lines the cavity attached to a bone and through which a tendon glides.
  • Synovitis (sin-o-vi'-tis) [synovia; cue, inflam- mation]. Inflammation of a synovial mem- brane. S., Acute Suppurative, a very acute purulent form, of rheumatic or traumatic origin, leading to ankylosis. Syn., Anthropyo- sis empyema articuli; Pyarthrosis. S. hyper- plasia, S. hyperplastica granulosa, S. hyperplastica laevis, S. hyperplastica pan- nosa, arthritis fungosa.
  • Synteretics (sin-ter-et'-iks) [ouvxypslv, to watch closely]. Hygiene.
  • Synthesis (sin'-thes-is) [ouv, with; xcdrjvac, to place]. In chemistry, the artificial forma- tion of a compound by combining its constitu- ents.
  • Synthetic (sin-thet'-ik) [synthesis]. Pertaining to or produced by synthesis.
  • Synthetism (sin'-thet-izm) [synthesis]. The sum of operations and means necessary for reducing a fracture and holding the parts in position.
  • Synthol (sin'-thot). A chemically pure syn- thetic substitute for alcohol. It is colorless and nonirritant.
  • Syntonin (sin'-to-nin) [ouvxovoc, contracted]. An acidalbumin obtained by the action of dilute hydrochloric acid upon the myosin of muscle.
  • Syntopic (sin-top' -ik) [ouv, together; xoizoc, place]. Applied by Waldeyer to a topographic description which points out the relation of a part or organ to the viscera or soft parts of the organism.
  • Syntopy (sin'-to-pe). The relation of an organ or part to the viscera of the organism. Cf. Holotopy; Idiotopy; Skeletopy.
  • Syntoxoid (sin-toks'-oid) [syn-; xo^ckov, poison; eldoc, likeness]. A toxoid having the same affinity as toxin for antitoxin.
  • Syntrophus (sin'-tro-fus) [syn-; xpo6c, a nurse]. A congenital disease.
  • Synulodynia (sin-u-lo-din'-e-ah) [ouvouXojocc, a scarring over; oduvq, pain]. Pain in a cicatrix.
  • Syphilicoma (sif - il - ik - o' - mah)[ syphilis; fcofieiv, to take care of]. A hospital for syph- ilitics.
  • Syphilid, Syphilide (sif'-il-id) [syphilis]. Any disease of the skin due to syphilis. Syphilids may be erythematous, macular, acneiform, lenticular, squamous, vesicular, pustular, bullous, tubercular, rupial, etc. S., Sec- ondary, any syphilid occurring during the secondary stage of syphilis. S., Tertiary, any syphilid occurring during the tertiary stage of syphilis.

Syphilidologist. See Sy philologist.


  • Syphilin (sif'-il-in). See Syphilitoxin.
  • SYPHILIS 957 SYRINGENIN Syphilis (sif-il-is) [origin obscure]. A chronic infectious disease, characterized by a variety of structural lesions of which the chancre, the mucous patch, and the gumma are the most distinctive. A spirochete which has been found in the lesions has been accepted as the cause. The disease is generally acquired in sexual congress, hence its earliest manifesta- tions appear upon the genital organs, but any abraded surface of the body, if brought in contact with the syphilitic poison, may give entrance to the infection. The earliest lesion of acquired syphilis is the chancre, initial sclerosis, or primary sore, which appears after a period of incubation varying from two to three weeks. It is usually a reddish- brown papule with an ulcerated central spot, and has a slight serous or purulent discharge. Taken between the fingers it is found to have a peculiar cartilaginous hardness. Microscopically it consists of an accumulation of round cells, epithelioid cells, with, perhaps, a giant-cell here and there. The blood-vessels present a hyperplasia of the intima, to which in part the induration of the chancre is due. Very soon after the appearance of the chancre the nearest lymph- atic glands become enlarged and indurated — the indolent buboes of syphilis. The mu- cous patch, condyloma latum, moist papule, or mucous tubercle is located upon mucous membranes, at mucocutaneous junctions, or where two skin surfaces are in habitual contact, and is a flat, scarcely elevated patch, generally covered by a whitish pellicle. The gumma or gummy tumor is a rounded nodule, varying in size from the dimensions of a pea to those of a small apple. Its favorite seats are the periosteum of flat bones, the membranes of the brain, the liver, spleen, and testicle. It is usually soft, and contains in its interior a gelatinous "gummy" material. Another important though not distinctive lesion pro- duced by syphilis is a diffuse sclerosis of the blood-vessels, especially of the parenchymatous organs. The clinical course of syphilis is generally divided into three stages: the primary {primary syphilis), characterized by the presence of the chancre and of the indolent bubo; the secondary (secondary syphilis), by the mucous patch, cutaneous eruptions, sore throat, and general enlargement of the lymphatic glands; the tertiary (tertiary syph- ilis), by the gumma and by severe skin-lesions. Between the appearance of the chancre and the secondary manifestations a period of six weeks usually elapses. The tertiary phe- nomena follow the secondary after a stage of quiescence of variable length. Syphilis also bears an important, but as yet obscure, re- lation to certain diseases of the nervous system, such as locomotor ataxia and paretic dementia. S., Congenital. See S., Hereditary. S. d'emblee, the invasion of syphilis without a local lesion. S., Extragenital, that in which the first lesion is situated elsewhere than on the genital organs. S., Hereditary, syphilis transmitted from parent to offspring. See Cones' Law; Sign, Demarquay's, Hutch- inson's, Krisowski' s, Silex's, Wegner's. S. insontium, syphilis of the innocent, i. e., syphilis acquired in an innocent manner, or nonvenereal syphilis. S., Justus' Blood- test in. See Justus' Test. S., Marital, syphilis acquired in lawful wedlock. S., Non- venereal. Synonym of S. insontium. S. ceconomica, a form of syphilis insontium in which the disease is acquired through eating and drinking or household utensils, or by in- cidental contact with syphilitic persons. S., Pulmonary, a rare disease which is either he- reditary or follows the initial attack after from 10 to 20 years or longer. Two forms may be differentiated — a chronic interstitial indurative process and a growth of gummas. S. tecb> nica, syphilis acquired in following one's occupation, as by physicians, midwives, nurses. S., Venereal, syphilis acquired in illegitimate sexual intercourse. S., Vis- ceral, syphilis of the viscera — the lesions are either inflammatory or gummatous.
  • Syphilitic (sif-il-it'-ik) [syphilis']. Pertaining to or affected with syphilis.
  • Syphilitoxin (sif-il-e-toks'-in) [syphilis; to£ckov, poison]. The supposed specific virus of syphilis.
  • Syphilization (sif -il-i-za* - shun) [syphilis]. 1. Inoculation with syphilis, especially in- oculation for the purpose of conferring im- munity to future attacks. 2. The state pro- duced by inoculation with syphilis.
  • Syphilogenesis, Syphilogeny (sif-il-o-jen'-e-sis, sif -il-o j' -en-e) [syphilis; ytvvav, to produce]. The origin or development of syphilis.
  • Syphilographer (sif-il-og'-ra-fer) [see syphil- ography]. One who writes on syphilis.
  • Syphilography (sif - il - og' - ra - fe) [syphilis; ■fpafecu, to write]. A treatise on syphilis.
  • Syphiloid (sif -il-oid) [syphilis; etdoc, like]. 1. Resembling syphilis. 2. A disease re- sembling syphilis.
  • Syphilologist (sif-il-ol'-o-jist) [syphilis; Xoyoc, science]. A specialist in the treatment of syphilis.
  • Syphiloma (sif -il-o' -mah) [syphilis; 6/J.a, tumor]. 1. A syphilitic gumma. 2. A term * introduced by Ernst Wagner as a substitute for gumma.
  • Syphilophobia (sif -il-o- fo' -be -ah) [syphilis; 4>6ftoc, dread]. 1. A condition in which the patient imagines himself to be infected with syphilis. 2. A morbid dread of syphilitic infection.

Syriac Ulcer. Synonym of Diphtheria.


  • Syringe (sir'-inj) [oupif^, a pipe]. An appa- ratus for injecting a liquid into a cavity.
  • Syringenin (sir-in' -jen-in) [Syringa, a genus of shrubs]. C^H^Og + H 2 0. A dissociation product of syringin by action of dilute acids; a clear, rose-red, amorphous mass, soluble in alcohol, insoluble in water and ether, SYRINGIN 958 SZABO'S TEST Syringin (sir-in'-jin) [Syringa]. A crystalline glucosid obtained from Syringa vulgaris, Ci 7 H 24 9 + H 2 0, white, tasteless, acicular crystals, soluble in alcohol and hot water, boils at 19 1° C. It is antipyretic and anti- periodic; used in malaria. Syn., Lilacin; Ligustrin.
  • Syringious (sir -in- je' -us) [oupcy$, a tube]. Fistulous.
  • Syringitis (sir-in- ji'-tis) [syrinx; exec, inflam- mation]. Inflammation of the eustachian tube.
  • Syringomyelia (sir-in-go-mi-e'-le-ah) [syrinx; jnueXoc, marrow]. A condition characterized by the presence of cavities in the substance of the spinal cord. It is believed to be the result of faulty development either affecting the central canal, so that the latter remains in an embryonal condition, and sends a diverticulum into the posterior portion of the cord, which may become constricted off, or groups of embryonal neuroglia-cells remain in the neighborhood of the central canal or in the posterior portion of the spinal cord and in later life take on active development and form a gliomatous tumor. The degen- eration of the latter then gives rise to cavities in the cord. Syringomyelia occurs usually between the ages of 20 and 30, and is character- ized by progressive atrophy of the muscles, especially of the upper extremity, by loss of the pain-sense and temperature-sense, with preservation of the tactile and muscular sense (the socalled "dissociation symptom"), and by vasomotor and trophic changes in the skin, joints, etc. Syn., Myelosyringosis. S., Grasset-Rauzier's Type of, a form with marked sudoral and vasomotor symptoms. S., Schlesinger's Type of, the dorsolumbar type.
  • Syringomyelocele ( sir -in - go -mi' -el -o- sel ) [syrinx; fiuekoc, marrow; nothca, cavity]. A form of spina bifida in which the protruding mass consists of membranes and nerve-sub- stance, and the cavity of which communicates with the central canal of the spinal cord.
  • Syringotome (sir-in' -go-tom) [syrinx; rifivscv, to cut]. An instrument for incising a fistula.
  • Syringotomy (sir-in-got'-o-me) [syrinx; zofir), a cutting]. The operation of cutting a fistula, especially a fistula in ano.
  • Syrinx (sir'-ingks) [oupcy^, a tube]. The eustachian tube.
  • Syrup (sir' -up) [syrupus, syrup]. 1. A con- centrated solution of sugar in water (syrupus, U. S. P., B. P.). 2. A preparation composed of a solution of a medicinal substance in syrup. S., Dusart's, a preparation having for its chief ingredient ferric phosphate. Dose \-2 dr. (2-8 Cc).
  • Syrupy (sir'-up-e) [syrup]. Resembling a syrup.
  • Syssarcosis (sis-ar-ko'-sis) [ouv, together; oap^, flesh]. The union of bone by the interposition of muscular tissue.
  • Syssomus (sis-so'-mus) [ouv, together; ocop.a, body]. A double monster joined by the trunks.
  • System (sis' -tern) [ouorf)fxa, from ouv, together; lozavac, to stand]. 1. A methodic arrange- ment. 2. A combination of parts into a whole, as the digestive system, the nervous system. 3. The body as a whole. S.,Bertillon. See under Identification ; also Bertillonage. S., Centimeter-gram-second, the system based- upon the use of the centimeter, gram, and second as units of length, mass, and time respectively. S., Galton. See under Identi- fication. S. -disease, S.-lesion, a disease of the cerebrospinal axis affecting a tract of nerve-fibers or nerve-cells having com- mon anatomic relations and physiologic properties. S., Havers', the concentric ar- rangement of the bony lamellas, usually eight or ten in number, around a haversian canal. S. , Pedal, a ganglionic system of the brain. S., Portal, the system of veins collecting the venous blood from the digestive tract.
  • Systematic (sis-tem-at'-ik) [system]. Pertain- ing to or affecting a system.
  • Systemic (sis-tem'-ik) [system]. 1. Of or per- taining to a system. 2. Pertaining to the whole organism.
  • Systole (sis'-to-le) [ouv, together; oxkXXecv, to place]. The contraction of the heart.
  • Systolic (sis-tol'-ik) [systole]. Pertaining to the systole; occurring during systole.
  • Syzygium (siz-ij'-e-um) [ou^uycoc, yoked]. A genus of East Indian trees, of which S. jambo- - lanum is used in diabetes.

Szabo's Test for Hydrochloric Acid in the Contents of Stomach. Mix together equal parts of 0.5 % solutions of ammonium sulfo- cyanid and sodic-ferric tartrate. This makes a pale yellow liquid, which changes to brown- ish-red on the addition of a solution containing HC1.

959 TAENIA T. An abbreviation of tension and temperature.


  • Tabacosis (tab-ak-o'-sis) [tabacum]. A state of poisoning produced by the excessive use of tobacco.
  • Tabatiere anatomique (tahb-aht-e-ar ahn-aht- om-ek) [Ft., "anatomic snuff-box"]. The depression at the base of the thumb between the tendons of the extensor primi and extensor secundi internodii pollicis.

Tabby-cat Striation. Peculiar markings oc- curring on muscles that have undergone extreme fatty degeneration, especially seen in the heart muscle.


  • Tabefaction (tab-e-fak'-shun) [tabefacere, to melt]. Wasting; emaciation. ' Tabella (ta-bel'-ah) [L.]. A troche.
  • Tabes (ta'-bez) [L.]. A wasting or consumption. The word is generally used as a synonym of Tabes dorsalis. T. dolorosa, a form in which pain is the dominating feature. T. dorsalis, locomotor ataxia, a disease de- pendent upon sclerosis of the posterior col- umns of the spinal cord. The symptoms are lightning-pains; unsteadiness and inco- ordination of voluntary movements, ex- tending to the upper extremities; disorders of vision, among others the Argyll Robertson pupil; cutaneous anesthesia; girdle-sense; abolition of the patellar reflex; diminution of sexual desire; disturbance of the sphinc- ters. T , Hereditary. See Friedreich's Disease. T. mesenterica, tuberculous dis- ease of the mesenteric glands in children, with progressive wasting. T., Spasmodic, lateral sclerosis of the spinal cord.
  • Tabetic (tab-et'-ik). i. Affected with tabes; of or pertaining to tabes. 2. Pertaining to or affected with tabes dorsalis.
  • Tabic (tab'-ik). See Tabetic.
  • Tabid (tab' -id). See Tabetic.
  • Tablature (tab' -lat-ur) [tabula, a table]. Sepa- ration into tables, as exemplified in the frontal, parietal, and occipital bones.
  • Table (ta'-bl) [tabula]. 1. A flat-topped piece of furniture, as an operation table, exam- ining table. 2. A flat plate, especially one of bone, as a table of the skull.

Tablespoon. A large spoon, holding about 15 Cc. or 4 fluidrams.


  • Tablet (tab' -let) [table]. A lozenge; a troche.
  • Tabloid (tab'-loid) [table; eldoc, like]. A flat troche.
  • Tacamahac (tak ' - am - a - hak) [Mexican]. A resin produced by various trees.
  • Tache (tahsh) [Ft.]. A spot. Taches blanches, certain white spots described by Hanot as occurring on the liver, especially on its convex surface, in infectious diseases. Microscopically they present a leukocytic infiltration and bacteria. T. bleuatre, a spot of a delicate blue tint, sometimes ob- served on the skin of typhoid-fever patients. T. cerebrale, T. meningeale, the red line made when the finger-nail is drawn over the skin ; due to vasomotor paresis and occurring especially in meningeal irritation.
  • Tachetic (tak-et'-ik) [tache]. Relating to the formation of reddish-blue or purple patches (taches).
  • Taenia (tak'-e-ah) [tachi, an ant, so called by the Galibis because they harbor ants]. A genus of shrubs and trees of the Gentianacece. The r(4ot of T. guianensis, a species of Brazil and Guiana, is used as. is gentian and also as an antipyretic and prophylactic against malaria. Dose of tincture 1 or 2 drops.
  • Tachiol (tak'-e-oV). A modification of silver fluorid; employed as a surgical antiseptic in solution of 1 : 1000 to 1 : 100 and in ophthalmic practice.
  • Tachy- (tak-e-) [raxbc, swift]. A prefix meaning swift.
  • Tachycardia (tak-e-kar' -de-ah) [tachy-; napo'ca, heart]. Excessive rapidity of the heart's action. T., Essential, that occurring in paroxysms, and due to functional disturbance of the cardiac nerves.
  • Tachygraphy (tak-ig'-raf-e) [ra^o, swift; ypa6{xa, a growth]. Any morbid growth or tumor of the tarsus.
  • Tarsoplasty (tar'-so-plas-te) [tarso-; TrXaoaecv, to form]. Plastic surgery of the eyelid.
  • Tarsorrhaphy (tar-sor' -a-Je) [tarso-; pacf>rj, su- ture]. The operation of sewing the eyelids together for a part or the whole of their extent.
  • Tarsotomy (tar-sot'-o-me) [tarso-; to/xtj, a cut- ting]. 1. The operation of cutting into the tarsus. 2. Tarsectomy.
  • Tarsus (tar'-sus) [xapobc, tarsus]. 1. The instep, consisting of the calcaneus, talus, cuboid, naviculare pedis, internal, middle, and external cuneiform bones. 2. The cartilage of the eyelid, called the tarsal cartilage, a dense connective tissue forming the support of the lid.
  • Tartar (tar' -tar) [Low L., tartarum, from Ar., durd, dregs]. 1. A hard mineral deposited on the inside of wine-casks, and consisting mainly of acid potassium tartrate (cream of tartar). 2. A hard incrustation on the teeth, consisting of mineral and organic mat- ter. T., Cream of (potassii bitartras, U. S. P.). See Potassium Bitartrate. T. Emetic, antimony and potassium tartrate. See under Antimony.
  • Tartarated (tar'-tar-a-ted) [tartar]. Containing tartar. T. Antimony, tartar emetic.

Tartaric Acid. See Acid, Tartaric.


  • Tartrate (tar'-trat). A salt of tartaric acid.
  • Tartrated (tar'-tra-ted). Containing tartar; combined with tartaric acid.
  • Tartrophen (tar'-tro-fen). A combination of phenetidin and tartaric acid.
  • Taste (tast). 1. The sensation produced by stimulation of special organs in the tongue (taste-organs) by soluble bodies. 2. The faculty by which these sensations are appre- ciated. T., After-, a secondary taste per- ceived after the immediate taste has ceased. T.-bud, an oval, flask-shaped body, em- bedded in the epithelium of the tongue, and serving the sense of taste.
  • Tattooing (tah-too'-ing) [Tahitian]. The pro- duction of permanent colors in the skin by the introduction of foreign substances, such as carbon, india-ink, etc., a common TAURIN 963 TELEDIASTOLIC practice among sailors. T. of the Cornea, a method of hiding leukomatous spots. T., Electrolytic, the electrolytic treatment of angioma or nevus by means of a negative electrode carrying from 10 to 20 needles.
  • Taurin (taw'-rin) [taurus, bull], C 2 H 7 NS0 3 . Amidoethylsulfonic acid, a crystalline de- composition-product of bile. See Lang.
  • Tautomeric (taw-to-mer'-ik). 1. Exhibiting tautomerism; a qualification applied to compounds to which two different structural formulas may be rightly attributed. 2. Ap- plied to neurons of the cinerea of the spinal cord, the axons of which pass into the white matter of the cord on the same side in which they are located.
  • Tautomerism (taw-tom' -er-izm) [rauzo, same; fj.ipoc, a share]. The attribution of two different formulas to one compound.
  • Taxis (taks'-is) [z6£t£, from xaooecv, to arrange]. An arranging; a manipulation, especially manipulation for the reduction of hernia. T., Bipolar, the replacement of a retroverted uterus by upward pressure through the rectum and drawing the cervix down in the vagina.

Tay's Choroiditis. Choroidal degeneration, characterized by irregular yellowish spots visible around the macula lutea, and thought to be due to an atheromatous condition of the arteries. Syn., Choroiditis guttata sen- ilis.

T-bandage. See under Bandage.

Te. Symbol for tellurium.


  • Tea (te) [Chinese]. 1. The dried leaves of Thea chinensis, of the order Ternstromiaceoe, used for preparing a beverage, also called tea. 2. Any vegetable infusion used as a beverage.

Teale's Amputation. See Operation, Teale's.

Tears. The secretion of the lacrimal gland.


  • Tease (tez) . To tear a tissue into its component parts with needles.

Teaspoon. A small spoon holding about 4 Cc. or 1 dr.


  • Teat (tet). A nipple.
  • Technic, Technique (tek'-nik, tek-nek') [re^vr), art]. The method of procedure in operations.
  • Technocausis (tek-no-kaw' -sis) [rexvy, art > nauotc, a burning]. Mechanic cauterization, in counterdistinction to that produced by chemicals.
  • Tecnology (tek-noV -o-je) [xkuvov, a child; Xoyoc, study]. The study or scientific knowl- edge of childhood, its hygiene, diseases, etc.
  • Tectocephaly (tek-to-sef -al-e) [tectum, a cover; K£(f>aXrj, head]. The state of having a roof- shaped skull.
  • Tectology (tek-tol'-o-je) [ztuxaiv, a builder; Xbfoc, science]. Structural morphology.
  • Tectorial (tek-to' -re-al) [tectorium]. Serving as a roof or covering. T. Membrane. See Membrana tectoria.
  • Tectorium (tek-to 1 '-re-um) [L.]. 1. A covering. 2. See Membrana tectoria.

Teel Oil. See Sesamum, Oil of.


Teething [AS., toth, tooth]. The eruption of the first teeth in an infant; dentition.

Teevan's Law. Fracture of a bone occurs in the line of extension, not in that of compression.


  • Tegmen (teg'-men) [tegere, to cover]. A cover. T. mastoideum, the roof of the mastoid cells. T. tympani, the roof of the tympanic cavity.
  • Tegmental (teg-men' -tal) [tegmen]. Pertaining to the tegmentum. T. Nucleus, the red nucleus. See Nucleus, Tegmental.
  • Tegmentum (teg-men' -turn) [tegmen]. A cover- ing; specifically, the dorsal portion of the cms cerebri and pons varolii. T. auris, the membrana tympani.
  • Tegmin (teg'-min). A white, aseptic substance used as is collodion, in sealing small wounds that do not require drainage; it is said to consist of an emulsion of wax, acacia, water, zinc oxid, and lanolin.
  • Tegument (teg'-u-ment) [tegmen]. The in- tegument.
  • Tegumentary (teg-u-ment'-a-re) [tegmen]. Re- lating to the skii\ or tegument.

Teichmann's Crystals. Hemin crystals. T.'s Test for Hemin, to the dry residue placed on a slide a small crystal of sodium chlorid is added and a cover-glass laid over it. A few drops of glacial acetic acid are allowed to flow in under the cover-glass, and the whole is heated gently so as not to boil the liquid. On cooling, rhombic crystals of hemin (Teich- mann's crystals) will be found. If no crystals appear after the first warming, warm again, and, if necessary, add more acetic acid.


  • Teichopsia (ti-kop'-se-ah) [x£~cjog, wall; o\6?ioocg, inflam- mation]. Inflammation of the tendons.
  • Tela (te'-lah) [L.]. A web or tissue. T. cho- roidea, the membranous roof of the third and fourth ventricles of the brain. T. vas- culosa, the choroid plexus.
  • Telangiectasis (tel-an-je-ek'-ta-sis) [xihoc, end; dyrelov, a vessel; 'inxaoic, a stretching]. Dilation of groups of capillaries or smaller blood-vessels.
  • Telangiectatic (tel-an-je-ek-tat'-ik). Pertain- ing to or characterized by telangiectasis.
  • Telangiectoma (tel-an-je-ek-to'-mah) [see Telan- gioma]. Birthmark; simple nevus.
  • Telangioma (tel-an-je-o'-mah) • [xkXoc, end; dfjfelov, a vessel; b/jta, tumor]. A tumor composed of dilated capillaries.
  • Telangiosis (tel-an-je-o'-sis) [zkXoc, end; dfyelov, a vessel]. Disease of the capillaries or minute blood-vessels.
  • Telediastolic (tel-e-di-as-tol'-ik) [xkXoc, end; diastole]. Relating to the last phase of a diastole.
  • TELEGONY 964 TENDINOUS Telegony (tel-eg'-on-e) [rkXog, end; yovq, semen]. The influence of the paternal seed upon the offspring of a woman or animal by a later husband or male.

Telegrapher's Cramp. See Occupation-neu- rosis.


  • Telelectrotherapeutics (tel-e-lek-tro-ther-ap-u'- tiks) \yfjXe, afar; electrotherapeutics']. The treatment of hysteric paralysis by a series of electric discharges near the patient without actual contact.
  • Teleneurite (tel-e-nu' -rit) [reXoc, end; veipov, nerve]. One of the terminal filaments of the main stem of an axis-cylinder process.
  • Teleneuron (tel-e-nu' -r on) [see Teleneurite]. The neuron forming the terminus of an impulse in a physiologic act involving the nervous system.
  • Teleorganic (tel-e-or-gan'-ik) [rihoc, complete; organic]. Necessary to organic life.
  • Teleotherapeutics (tel-e-o-ther-ap-u'-tiks) [zfjXe, afar; therapeutics]. Suggestive therapeutics.
  • Telepathy (te-lep' '-ath-e) [rrjXe, afar; izaQog, disease]. The action, real or supposed, of one mind upon another when the two persons are separated by a considerable distance ; thought-transference.
  • Telephic (tel-ef -ik) . Malignant; incurable; relating to a telephium.
  • Telephium (tel-ef -e-um) [Telephus, son of Hercules, whose wound received from Achil- les did not heal]. An old inveterate ulcer.

Tellicherry Bark. The bark of Wrightia zeylanica; it is used in dysentery.


  • Telluric (tel-lu'-rik) [tellus, earth]. Derived from the earth.
  • Tellurism (teV -u-rizm) [see Telluric]. Tel- luric miasm; influence of the soil as a cause of disease.
  • Tellurium (tel-u' -re-um) [see Telluric]. A non- metallic element of bluish-white color, having a specific gravity of 6.23, a quantivalence of two or six, an atomic weight of 126.6. Symbol Te.
  • Telodendron (tel-o-den' -dron) [reXoc, end; div- opov, tree]. One of the minute bulbous expan- sions terminating the arborization of an axon.
  • Telolecithal (tel-o-les' -ith-al) [ykXog, end; Xent- 60c, yolk]. Of an ovum, having a relatively large mass of food-yolk placed eccentrically.
  • Telolemma (tel-o-lem'-ah) [ziXoc, end; Xiaua, husk]. The membrane covering the eminence of Doyere, or the point of entrance of a motor nerve into a muscular fiber.
  • Telophase (tel'-o-faz) [xeXoc, end; ^aacc, an appearance]. The final phase of any process, as that of karyokinesis.
  • Temperament (tern 1 ' -per-am-ent) [L., temper- amentum]. A term applied to mental dis- position and physical constitution of an individual, as the bilious, lymphatic, nervous, and sanguine temperaments.

Temperature item' -per-a-tur) [L., temperaturd]. The degree of intensity of heat of a body, especially as measured by a scale termed a thermometer. T., Absolute, that reckoned from the absolute zero of temperature, esti- mated at — 2 73 C. T., Normal, the tem- perature of the body in a state of health, i. e., 98. 6° F. T. -sense, the sense by which differences in temperature are appreciated, consisting of a sense for cold (cryesthesia) and a heat-sense (thermoesthesia) . These are represented on the surface by different nerve- endings, the socalled cold and hot points.


  • Temple (tem'-pl) [tempus, time]. The portion of the head behind the eye and above the ear.

Temporal item' -po-raT) [temple]. Pertaining to the temple, as the temporal bone, the tem- poral artery.


  • Temporalis (tem-po-ra' -lis) [temporal]. The temporal muscle.
  • Temporization (tem-po-riz-a'-shun) [tempus, time]. The expectant treatment of disease.
  • Tempore- (tem-po-ro-) [temple]. A prefix de- noting pertaining to the temple.
  • Temporoauricular (tem-po-ro-aw-rik' -u-lar) [temporo-; auricular]. Pertaining to the tem- poral and auricular regions of the head.
  • Temporofacial (tem-po-ro- fa'-shal) [temporo-; fades, face]. Pertaining to the temple and the face.
  • Temporomalar (tem-po-ro-ma'-lar) [temporo-; mala, cheek]. Pertaining to the temporal and malar bones.
  • Temporomastoid (tem-po-ro-mas'-toid) [tem- poro-; mastoid]. Pertaining to the temporal and mastoid regions of the skull.
  • Temporomaxillary (tem-po-ro-maks' -il-a-re) [temporo-; maxilla]. Pertaining to the tem- poral region and the upper jaw.
  • Temporooccipital (tern - por -o-ok- sip' -it-aT) [temporo-; occiput]. Pertaining to the temple and the occiput.
  • Temporoparietal (tem-po-ro-par-i' -et-aV) [tem- poro-; paries, wall]. 1. Pertaining to the temporal and parietal bones. 2. Pertaining to the temporal and parietal lobes of the brain.
  • Temporosphenoid (tem-po-ro-sfe' -noid) [tem- poro-; sphenoid]. Pertaining to, or in re- lation with, the temporal and sphenoid bones.
  • Temporozygomatic (tem-po-r o-zi- go-mat' -ik) . Relating to a temple and a zygoma.
  • Temulence (tem'-u-lens) [temulentia, inebriety]. Inebriety; drunkenness.
  • Temulin (tem'-u-lin). The narcotic principle of Lolium temulentum.
  • Tenacious (te-na'-shus) [tenax, tough]. Tough; cohesive.
  • Tenacity (te-nas'-it-e) [tenacitas]. Toughness.
  • Tenaculum (ten-ak' -u-lum) [tenere, to hold]. A hook -shaped instrument for seizing and holding parts.
  • Tenalgia (ten-al'-je-ah). See Tenodynia.
  • Tenax (te'-naks) [L.]. Oakum especially pre- pared for surgeons' use.
  • Tendinoplasty (ten' -din-o-plas-te) [tendo, a ten- don; Ttlaoouv, to form]. Plastic surgery of tendons.
  • Tendinous (ten' -din-us) [tendon]. Pertaining to or having the nature of tendon.
  • TENDO 965 TENT Tendo (ten'-do) [L.]. A tendon. T. achillis, the common tendon of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles inserted into the heel. T. cal- caneus. See T. achillis. T. oculi, T. pal- pebral. See Ligament, Palpebral Internal.
  • Tendomucoid (ten - do - mu' - koid) . A mucin found in tendons.

Tendon [tendere, to stretch]. A band of dense fibrous tissue forming the termination of a muscle and attaching the latter to a bone. T., Central, the aponeurosis in the center of the diaphragm. T. -reflex, a reflex produced by stimulating the tendon of a muscle. T., Reindeer, tendon from the neck of the rein- deer; used as ligatures. T. -spindles. See Corpuscles, Golgi's.


  • Tendo vaginal (ten - do - vaj' - in - al) [tendon; vagina, a sheath]. Relating to a tendon and its sheath.
  • Tenectomy (ten-ek' -to-me) . See Tenonectomy.
  • Tenesmus (ten-ez'-mus) [xt'cvtcv, to strain]. A straining, especially the painful straining to empty the bowels or bladder without the evacuation of feces or urine.
  • Tenia (te'-ne-ah) [tcenia, tape-worm]. A tape- worm. See Tape-worm. T. -toxin, the toxin produced by tape-worms and to which the pathologic changes wrought in the intestine are partly due.
  • Teniacide (te'-ne-as-ld) [tenia; ccedere, to kill], i. Destructive of tape-worms. 2. An agent that destroys tape-worms.
  • Teniafuge (te' -ne-af-uj) [tenia; Jugare, to drive]. 1. Expelling tape-worms. 2. An agent that expels tape-worms.

Tennesson's Acne. A disseminate variety of acne cornea.

Tennis-arm, Tennis-elbow. A strain of the elbow, said to be frequent in tennis-players.


  • Tennysin (ten'-is-in). An alkaloid occurring in brain tissue.
  • Teno- (ten-o-) [rivcov, tendon]. A prefix mean- ing pertaining to a tendon.
  • Tenodynia (ten-o-din'-e-ah) [teno-; bduvq, pain]. Pain in a tendon.
  • Tenomyotomy (ten-o-mi-oV -o-me) [teno-; my- otomy]. Abadie's operation to enfeeble one of the recti muscles, consisting of incising the lateral parts of its tendon near its sclerotic insertion and removing a small portion of the muscle on each side.

Tenon's Capsule. A fibroelastic membrane surrounding the eyeball. It is covered by a continuous layer of endothelial plates, and corresponds to a synovial sac. T.'s ■ Fascia. See Tenon's Capsule. T.'s Space, the lymph-space existing between the sclerotic and Tenon's capsule.


  • Tenonectomy (ten-on-ek' -to-me) [teno-; eKtopLv^ excision]. Excision of a portion of a tendon. ' Tenonitis (ten-on-i'-tis). Inflammation of Ten- on's capsule.
  • Tenonometer (ten-on-om' -et-er) [teno-; jikrpov, a measure]. An instrument for measuring the tension of the eyeball.
  • Tenontagra (ten-on-ta' '-grah) [teno-; dypa, seiz- ure]. Gout in the tendons.
  • Tenontitis (ten-on-ti' -tis) [teno-; ncc, inflam- mation]. Inflammation of a tendon.
  • Tenontography (ten-on-tog 1 '-ra-fe) [teno-; ypdjxbv, a growth]. A bony or cartilaginous growth on a tendon.
  • Tenoplasty (ten' -o-plast-e) [teno-; nXaooecv, to form]. Plastic surgery of a tendon.
  • Tenorrhaphy (ten-or' -a-fe) [teno-; pacf>r), suture]. The uniting of a divided tendon by sutures.
  • Tenostosis (ten-o s-to' -sis) [teno-; dozeov, a bone]. Ossification of a tendon.
  • Tenosuture (ten-o-su' -tur) . Same as Ten- orrhaphy.
  • Tenosynovitis (ten-o-sin-o-vi'-tis) [teno-; syn- ovia; cxtc, inflammation]. Inflammation of a tendon and its sheath.
  • Tenotome (ten'-o-tom) [teno-; ri/ivecv, to cut]. A knife for performing tenotomy.
  • Tenotomy (ten-ot'-o-me) [see Tenotome]. The operation of cutting a tendon.
  • Tension (ten' -shun) [tendere, to stretch]. 1. The act of stretching; the state of being stretched. 2. In electricity, the power of overcoming resistance. T. of Gases, the tendency of a gas to expand on account of the mutual re- pulsion of its molecules. T., Intraocular, the pressure of the ocular contents upon the sclerotic coat. It may be estimated by means of an instrument called a tonometer, or by palpation with the fingers, and is recorded by symbols as follows : Tn = normal tension ; T + 1, T + 2,T+ 3, indicate various degrees of increased tension, and T — 1, T — 2, T — 3, corresponding degrees of decreased tension.
  • Tensity (ten'-sit-e) [see Tension]. Tenseness, the condition of being stretched.
  • Tensive (ten'-siv). Giving the sensation of stretching or contraction.
  • Tensor (ten'-sor) [see Tension]. A stretcher; a muscle that serves to make a part tense. See under Muscle.
  • Tensure (ten'-shur). Tension, a stretching or straining.

Tent [L., tenia]. A plug of soft material, as lint, gauze, or other material that increases in volume by the absorption of water; it is used chiefly for dilating an orifice and for keeping a wound open. T., Laminaria, a tent made of sea-tangle. T., Sponge, a tent made of compressed sponge, used for dilating the os TENTATIVE 966 TERPINOL uteri. T., Tupelo, one made of the wood of the root of the water-tupelo.


  • Tentative (ten' -ta-tiv) [tentare, to try; to prove]. Empiric; experimental.

Tenth Cranial Nerve. The pneumogastric or vagus nerve.


  • Tentorium, T. cerebelli (ten-to' -re-urn) [L., "a tent"]. The partition between the cerebrum and the cerebellum formed by an extension of the dura mater.
  • Tenuate (ten'-u-dt) [tenuis, thin]. To make thin.
  • Tenuity (ten-u'-it-e). Thinness; the condition of being thin.
  • Tephrosis (tef-ro' -sis) [recfrpoc, ashen]. Incin- eration.
  • Tepid (tep'-id) [tepidus, warm]. About blood- heat.
  • Tepidarium (tep - id - a' - re - urn) [tepid]. A warm bath.
  • Tepopote (te-po'-po-te). The twigs of Ephedra antisyphilitica; used in venereal diseases.
  • Teramorphous (ter-ah-mor' -fus) [teras; popcf)T), form]. Of the nature of a monstrosity.
  • Teras (te'-ras) [zipac, a monster; pi., terata]. A monster.
  • Teratic (ter-at'-ik) [teras]. Monstrous.
  • Teratism (ter'-at-izm) [teras]. An anomaly of conformation, congenital or acquired.
  • Teratogeny (ter-at-oj'-en-e) [teras; yevvav, to beget]. The formation or bringing forth of monsters.
  • Teratoid (ter'-at-oid) [teras; eldoc, like]. Re- sembling a monster. T. Tumor, a complex tumor due to the growth of tissue embryo- logically misplaced.
  • Teratology (ter-at-ol'-o-je) [teras; Xoyoc, science]. The science of malformations and monstrosi- ties.
  • Teratoma (ter-at-o'-mah) [teras; opa, tumor]. A tumor containing teeth, hair, and other material not found in the part wherein it grows, and resulting from an embryonic misplacement of tissue or from the inclosure of parts of a rudimentary fetus.
  • Teratosis (ter-at-o' -sis) [teras]. A congenital deformity.
  • Terchlorid (ter-klo'-rid) [ter, three; xkoopbc, green]. Synonym of Trichlorid.
  • Terebene (ter'-eb-en) [repiftivdoc, terebinth- tree]. Terebenum (U. S. P.), C 10 H lfi . A hydrocarbon obtained by the oxidation of oil of turpentine by means of sulfuric acid. It is soluble in alcohol, and is used in bron- chitis, dyspepsia, and diseases of the genito- urinary tract. Dose 5-10 min. (0.32-0.65 Cc). T. Glycerol, a mixture of terebene, 4 parts; glycerol, 7 parts; and water, 1 part, shaken together and exposed until the separated glycerol remains turbid when allowed to stand. It is used as an application to purulent wounds.
  • Terebinth (ter'-e-binth) [see Terebene]. 1. The turpentine-tree, Pistacia terebinthus, which yields Chian turpentine. 2. Turpentine.
  • Terebinthinate (ter-eb-in' -thin-dt) [see Tere- bene], 1. Containing turpentine. 2. A mem- ber or derivative of the turpentine group.
  • Terebinthinism (ter-e-bin' -thin-izm). Poison- ing with oil of turpentine.
  • Terebration (ter-eb-ra' -shun) [see Terebrant]. The operation of boring.
  • Teremorrhu (ter-e-mor'-u) [terebene; morrhua, the cod]. A proprietary preparation of pure terebene and cod-liver oil.
  • Teres (te'-rez) [ter ere, to rub]. 1. Round, as. the ligamentum teres. 2. A muscle having a cylindric shape, as teres major, teres minor. See under Muscle.
  • Terete (ter-ef) [teres]. Cylindric. T. Emin- ence, a slight thickening of the funiculus teres on the floor of the fourth ventricle. T. Funicle. See Funiculus teres.

Ter in die [L.]. Three times daily.

Term [zip pa, a limit]. A limit; the time during which anything lasts.


  • Terma (ter'-mah) [see Term]. The layer of gray matter between the corpus callosum and the optic commissure.
  • Terminad (ter'-min-ad) [see Term]. Situated in or toward the terminus.
  • Terminal (ter'-min-al) [see Term]. Pertain- ing to the end; placed at or forming the end.
  • Ternary (ter'-na-re) [ter, three times]. Of chemic compounds, made up of three elements or radicles.
  • Teroxid (ter-oks'-id) [ter, three; oxid]. A tri- oxid.
  • Terpene (ter' -pen) [a modified form of terebene]. One of a number of hydrocarbons having the formula Ci H 16 , and contained in many volatile oils. T. Hydro chlorate, artificial camphor, C 10 H 16 .HC1; obtained from dry pinene by the action of dry chlorin in the cold. It is used as an internal antiseptic in tuberculosis a*nd to check the flow of saliva; externally, it is used with phenol in skin dis- eases.
  • Terpenism (ter'-pen-izm). Poisoning by ter- pene from internal use or inhalation; marked by abdominal pain, vomiting, inflammation of bladder and kidneys, bronchitis, paroxysms of asphyxia, and collapse. The urine has the odor of violets.
  • Terpin (ter' -pin), C 10 H 16 (H 2 O) 2 H 2 O.. A dia- tomic alcohol obtained from turpentine; used in bronchial and pulmonary diseases to facil- itate expectoration. T. Hydrate (terpini hydras, U. S. P.), C 10 H 20 O 2 +H 2 O, a colorless, crystalline substance used as an expectorant and diuretic. Dose as expectorant 3-6 gr. (0.2-0.4 Gm.); diuretic, 10-15 g r - (0.65-1.0 Gm.) several times daily.
  • Terpinol (ter'-pin-ol) [terpin; oleum, oil], Ci - H ls O. A substance formed by boiling terpin TERRA 967 TESTICLE and terpin hydrate with aqueous mineral acids; used as is terpin.
  • Terra (ter'-ah) [L.]. Earth. T. alba, white clay. T. japonica, catechu. T. ponderosa, baryta or barium sulfate.
  • Terrain-cure (ter-an(g)-kur) [Ft.]. A method of treatment consisting in mountain-climbing, dietetics, etc., for plethora, corpulence, neu- rasthenia, chlorosis, incipient pulmonary tu- berculosis, etc.

Terralin iter' -al-in) . An ointment-vehicle con- sisting of calcined magnesia, kaolin, silica, glycerol, and an antiseptic. It can be readily removed from the skin by water.


  • Terrol (ter'-ol). A residue from petroleum; it is used as a substitute for cod-liver oil.

Terroline iter'-ol-en). A variety of petroleum- jelly.


  • Tersulfate (ter-suV-fat) [ter, thrice; sulfate]. A salt in which the base is united with three sulfuric acid radicles.
  • Tertian (ter' -she-an) [tertius, third]. Recur- ring every other day, as tertian fever, a form of intermittent fever.
  • Tertiary (ter'-she-a-re) [tertian]. Third in order. T. Syphilis. See under Syphilis.
  • Tertipara (ter-tip' -a-rah) [ter, three times; pa- rere, to bear]. A woman who has been in labor three times.
  • Tescalama (tes-kal-am'-ah). The milky juice of Ficus nymphceifolia, a tree of Mexico and South America. It is used in plasters- Tesla Currents (tes'-lah) [Nikola Tesla, elec- trician]. Rapidly alternating electric currents of high tension; they were applied therapeuti- cally by d' Arson val.
  • Teslaization (tes-la-iz-a' -shun) . The thera- peutic application of Tesla currents. Syn., A rsonvalization.

Tessellated ites' -el-a-ted) [tessellatus, from tes- sella, a small square stone]. Formed into little squares; checkered. T. Epithelium, flat- tened epithelial cells joined at their edges.

Test [testum, a crucible], i. A trial. In chem- istry, a characteristic reaction which distin- guishes one body from others. 2. The re- agent for producing a special reaction. T., Bremer's Color-. See Bremer's Method under Stain. T., Kowarski's, for sugar in the urine. Shake in a test-tube 5 drops of phenylhydrazin with 10 drops of strong acetic acid, add 1 Cc. of saturated sodium chlorid solution and 2 Cc. or 3 Cc. of urine, and heat for 2 minutes; then cool slowly. If the amount of sugar present is as high as 0.2 %, characteristic crystals will form in a few min- utes; if less, the formation of crystals will re- quire a longer time — 5 to 30 minutes. T., Lebbin's, for Formaldehyd in Milk. Boil a few Cc. of the suspected milk with 0.05 Gm. resorcinol, to which half, or an equal volume of a 5 % solution of sodium hydroxid is added. In the presence of formaldehyd the yellow solution changes to a fine red color, which becomes more apparent on standing. T., Lipliawsky, for diacetic acid in the urine.


  • Two solutions are needed: (a) a 1 % solution of paramidoacetophenon with addition of 2 Cc. of concentrated HC1 shaken thoroughly; (b) a 1 % aqueous solution of potassium nitrite; 6 Cc. of the first is mixed with 3 Cc. of the second, an equal volume of urine added, and a drop of ammonia. To 10 drops to 2 Cc. of this mixture add 15 to 20 Cc. of concentrated HC1, 3 Cc. of chloroform, and 2 to 4 drops of iron chlorid solution. If the test-tube is corked and gently but repeatedly inverted, in the presence of diacetic acid the chloroform will show a characteristic violet color — the deepness of the color depending upon the amount present. T.-meal, one given for the purpose of studying the secretory power of the stomach. Those in most com- mon use are Germain See's: 60 to 80 Gm. of chopped beef, free from fat and fibrous tissue; 100 to 150 Gm. of white bread; a glass of water. The contents of the stomach are removed in two hours. Ja- worski's: 1 or 2 hard-boiled eggs and 100 Cc. of distilled water at room-temperature; after 45 minutes of quiet 100 Cc. of distilled water; 5 minutes later the contents of the stomach are aspirated. Riegel's: sl plate of soup; 150 to 200 Gm. of beefsteak; 50 Gm. of potato-puree; a small roll; or, 300 Cc. of clear broth; 150 Gm. of beefsteak (fillet); 50 Gm. of mashed po- tatoes; 35 Gm. of white bread. T., Noth- nagel's. See NothnageVs Test. T. -paper, paper impregnated with a chemic reagent, and used for detecting the presence of certain substances or conditions which cause a change in the color of the paper. T., Reach's, for test- ing the secretory functions of the stomach with- out use of the stomach-tube. It consists in administration of capsules of barium iodid and bismuth subiodid from which iodin is set free only through the action of HC1; then test the sputum for iodin. If the reaction occurs in 80 minutes, the individual is normal; earlier action indicates hyperacidity; late, occurrence, hypoacidity. T. Solution. See Standard Solution. T.-tube, a cylinder of thin glass closed at one end, used in various chemic procedures. T. -types, letters or fig- ures of different sizes to test acuteness of vision. Those most commonly employed are Snellen's test-types, a series of letters which at proper distances subtend an angle of five minutes.
  • Testa (tes'-tah) [L.]. A shell. T. ovi, egg-shell. T. praeparata, crushed and powdered oyster- shell.
  • Testaden (tes' -tad-en). A preparation from the testes of the bull. Used in affections of the spinal cord and in nervous troubles. Dose 92-123 gr. (6-8 Gm.) daily.
  • Testibrachium (tes-te-bra'-ke-um) [testis; bra- chium, arm]. The process connecting the cerebellum with the testis of the brain; the superior peduncle of the cerebellum.
  • Testicle (tes'-tik-T) [testiculus, dim. of testis]. See Testis (1). T., Irritable, neuralgia of the testicle. T., Undescended, the condition .

TESTICULAR 968 TETRAMETHYL-PUTRESCIN in which a testicle remains either in the pelvis or in the inguinal canal.


  • Testicular (tes-tik' -u-lar) [testicle]. Pertaining to the testicle. T. Juice, a juice extracted from the testicles of animals, and used in the treatment of various nervous conditions.
  • Testidin (tes'-tid-in). An alcoholic extract prepared from the testes of the bull.
  • Testin (tes' -tin). A sterilized extract of the testes of the ram; used in nervous debility, impairment, etc.
  • Testis (test' -is) [L.; pi., testes'], i. One of the two glandular bodies in the scrotum that se- crete the semen. 2. One of the posterior pair of tubercles of the corpora quadrigemina. T., Descent of, the passage of the testes through the inguinal canal into the scrotum. T. muliebris, the ovary.
  • Tetanic (tet-an'-ik) [tetanus]. 1. Pertaining to or resembling tetanus. 2. Producing tetanus.
  • Tetaniform (tet-an' -e-form) [tetanus; forma, form]. Resembling tetanus.
  • Tetanilla (tet-an-iV '-ah) [tetanus]. Tetany.
  • Tetanin (tet'-an-in) [tetanus], C^H^N^. A ptomain obtained from cultures of the bacillus of tetanus in beef -broth and from the tissues of patients suffering from tetanus. It produces symptoms of tetanus in the lower animals.
  • Tetanization (tet-an-i-za' -shun) [tetanus]. The production of tetanus or of tetanic spasms.
  • Tetano- (tet-an-o-) [tetanus]. A prefix meaning relating to tetanus.
  • Tetanoid (tef-an-oid) [tetano-; elSoc, resem- blance]. Resembling tetanus.
  • Tetanolysin (tet-an-oV -is-in) [tetano-; Xuecv, to loose]. The hemolytic toxin of tetanus.
  • Tetanomotor (tet-an-o-mo' -tor) [tetano-; mo- tor, a mover]. An instrument for stimulating a nerve mechanically and producing tetanus of the supplied muscle.
  • Tetanospasmin (tet-an-o-spaz'-min). A toxin produced by the tetanus bacillus to which tetanic convulsions are due.
  • Tetanotoxin (tet-an-o-toks'-in) [tetano-; xo^ckov, poison], C 5 H n N. A poisonous ptomain ob- tained from cultures- of the bacillus of tetanus. It produces tremor, then paralysis and violent convulsions.
  • Tetanus (tet'-an-us) [tkzavoc, from refoecv, to stretch]. 1. An infectious disease character- ized by tonic spasm of the voluntary muscles, an intense exaggeration of reflex activity, and peculiar convulsions. It is due to the ba- cillus of tetanus and has a period of incubation of from ten to twelve or more days. The first symptom is usually trismus or lockjaw, which is soon followed by spasms of the other muscles. The poison may enter through a wound (traumatic tetanus); at times no point of entrance is discoverable (idiopathic tetanus). 2. A tense, contracted state of a muscle, especially when caused experimentally. T., Cephalic, a form which has been observed to follow a wound of the head, especially one near the eyebrow. Trismus and facial paralysis occur on the side of the injury, there is dysphagia, and death frequently results. T., Hydrophobic, tetanus characterized by violent spasm of the muscles of the throat. T., Idiopathic. See under Tetanus. T. neonatorum, that due to infection of the umbilicus or the circumcision - wound. T., Puerperal, that following labor. T., Trau- matic. See under Tetanus.
  • Tetany (tet'-an-e) [tetanus]. A disease charac- terized by intermittent, bilateral, painful, tonic spasms of the muscles, especially of the upper extremities. It is most common in young adults, but may occur in others. The cause appears to be a toxic agent. It occurs in connection with typhoid fever, gastrointestinal inflammation, in rickets, dilation of the stom- ach, and after extirpation of the thyroid gland.
  • Tetmil (tef -mil). Ten millimeters.
  • Tetra- (tet-rah-) [rerpa, four]. A prefix mean- ing four.
  • Tetraallyammonium-alum (tet-rah-al-e-am-o- ne-um-al'-um), N(C 3 H 5 ) 4 .A1 5 (S0 4 ) 3 + i2H 2 0. A uric -acid solvent.
  • Tetrabasic (tet-rah-ba'-sik) [tetra-; fiaaic, base]. Having four atoms of replaceable hydrogen.
  • Tetrabrachius (tet - rah - bra' -he- us) [tetra-; ftpaxccuv, arm]. A monster having four arms.
  • Tetracetate (tet-ras'-et-at). A combination of a base with four molecules of acetic acid.
  • Tetracheirus (tet-rah-ki'-rus) [tetra-; %^p, hand]. A monster with four hands.
  • Tetrachlorid (tet-rah-klo'-rid) [tetra-; chlorid]. A binary compound consisting of an element or radicle and four chlorin-atoms.
  • Tetracid (tet-ras'-id) [tetra-; acid]. Having four atoms of hydrogen that are replaceable by acid radicles.
  • Tetracoccus (tet-rah-kok'-us) [tetra-; kokkoc, berry]. A micrococcus occurring in groups of four.
  • Tetrad (tet'-rad) [rhpa, four]. An element having an atomicity of four.
  • Tetragon, Tetragonum (tef -rag-on, tet-rah- go'-num). A four-sided figure. Tetra- gonum lumbale, an irregular, rhomboid space in the lumbar region beneath the apo- neurosis of the latissimus dorsi, bounded externally by the dorsal margin of origin of the obliquus externus muscle, internally by the margin of the sacrospinalis, above by the serratus posticus inferior, and below by the upper margin of the obliquus internus. , Tetraiodoethylene (tet-rah-i-o-do-eth' -il-en) . See Diiodoform.
  • Tetramazia (tet-rah-ma'-ze-ah) [tetra-; pa^bc, breast]. The presence . of four breasts or mammary glands.
  • Tetramethyl-putrescin (tet-rah-meth-il-pu- TETRANITRIN 969 THAUMATROPE tres'-in), CTI^Ng. A crystalline base derived from putrescin, having very poisonous proper- ties.
  • Tetranopsia (tet-ran-op' -se-ah) [tetra-; cupcc, vision]. A contraction of the field of vision limited to one quadrant.
  • Tetrapus (tef '-rah-pus) [tetra-; r.ouc, foot], i. Having four feet. 2. A monster having four feet.
  • Tetrascelus (tet-ras 1 -el-us) [tetra-; oksXoc, leg]. A monster having four legs.
  • Tetraster (tet-ras' -ter) [tetra-; aaxr t p, a star]. A karyokinetic figure characterized by an ar- rangement of four stars, due to a fourfold division of the nucleus.
  • Tetratomic (tet-rat-om'-ik) [tetra-; atom]. 1. Containing four atoms. 2. Having four atoms of replaceable hydrogen.
  • Tetronal (tef -ron-aV) [zhpa, four], CgH^Cv Diethylsulfondethylmethane, a hypnotic re- sembling sulfonal. Dose 10-20 gr. (0.65- 1.13 Gm -)- Tetroxid (tet-roks'-id) [tetra-; oxid]. A binary compound composed of a base and four atoms of oxygen.
  • Tetter (tet'-er) [AS., teter]. A name for various skin eruptions, particularly herpes, eczema, and psoriasis.
  • Teucrin (tu'-kriri), 1. C 21 H 24 O n or C^H^On. A crystalline glucosid from Teixrium fruti- cans. 2. A purified, sterilized aqueous extract of Teucrium scordium; a pungent brown liquid used in the treatment of tuberculous abscesses to arrest development. Hypoder- matic dose 50 min. (3 Cc); locally 10 gr. (0.65 Gm.) with lanolin once daily.
  • Teucrium (tu'-kre-um) [zzunptov, germander]. A genus of labiate plants, germander or spleenwort. T. scordium, water-germander, is tonic, diaphoretic, and anthelmintic.

Texas Fever. An infectious disease of cattle characterized by high fever, hemoglobinuria, and enlargement of the spleen. The disease is due to the parasite Pyrosoma bigeminum, which invades the red blood-corpuscle and is transmitted by the cattle-tick, Boophilus bovis.

  • Textiform (teks'-te-form) [textum, sl web; forma, form]. Reticular, forming a mesh.
  • Textural (teks'-tu-ral) [texum]. Pertaining to the tissues.
  • Thalamencephalon (thai - am -en-sef -al- on) [thalamus; encephalon]. The posterior portion of the anterior brain-vesicle; the interbrain. Syn., Diencephalon.
  • Thalami (thal'-am-i). Plural of Thalamus.
  • Thalamic (thal-am'-ik) [thalamus]. Pertain- ing to the thalamus.
  • Thalamo- (thal-am-o-) [thalamus]. A prefix denoting relation to the thalamus. • Thalamocele (tliaV -am-o-seT) [thalamo-; KotXca, a hollow]. The third ventricle.
  • Thalamocortical (thal-am-o-kor 1 '-tik-aV) [thal- amo-; cortex]. Pertaining to the thalamus and the cortex of the brain.
  • Thalamolenticular (thai - am - o -len-tik' -u-lar) [thalamo-; lenticular]. Pertaining to the thalamus and the lenticular nucleus.
  • Thalamotegmental (thal-am-o -ieg-ment'-at). Relating to the thalamus and tegmentum.
  • Thalamus (thai' -am-us) [dd.Xap.oc, couch; pi., thalami]. A mass of gray matter at the base of the brain, developed from the wall of the ves- icle of the third ventricle, and forming part of the wall of the latter cavity. The posterior part is called the pulvinar. The thalamus re- ceives fibers from all parts of the cortex, and is also connected with the tegmentum and with fibers of the optic tract. T., Optic, T. opti- cus. The same as Thalamus.
  • Thalassophobia (thal-as-o-fo'-be-ah) [OaXaaaa, sea; cpdfioc, fear]. A morbid fear of the sea.
  • Thalassotherapy (thal-as-o-ther'-ap-e) [daX- aaaa, sea; depa-eia, treatment]. Treatment of disease by sea-voyages, sea-bathing, etc.
  • Thallin (thai' -in) [OaXXoc, a green shoot], C 10 H 13 - ON. A liquid basic substance, tetrahydro- paramethyloxychinolin. The sulfate and tar- trate are used as germicides and antipyretics, and have been employed in typhoid fever and the fever of phthisis. Dose 1-4 gr. (0.065-0.26 Gm.). In gonorrhea the sulfate is employed as an injection in the strength of a 1.5 % solution.
  • Thallium (thal'-e-um) [see Thallin]. A metal- lic element having an atomic weight of 202.6, a specific gravity of 11. 19; symbol, Tl. The salts are poisonous. See Elements, Table of Chemic.
  • Thallophyte (thal'-o-fit) [OaXXoc, a green shoot; (fiuzov, a plant]. One of a class of very low cryptogams.
  • Thanato- (than-at-o-) [davazoc, death]. A pre- fix denoting pertaining to death.
  • Thanatognomonic (than-at-o g-no-mon'-ik) [thanato-; pjcopcov, sign]. Indicative of death.
  • Thanatoid (than' -at-oid) [davazoc, death; elooc, like]. Resembling death.
  • Thanatol (than' -at -ol). Same as Guaethol.
  • Thanatomania (than-at-o-ma' -ne-ah) [thanato-; pavia, madness]. Suicidal mania.
  • Thanatometer (than-at-om'-et-er) [thanato-; phpov, a measure]. A thermometer intro- duced into a body-cavity to determine if the depression of temperature is so great as to be a sign of death.
  • Thanatophobia (than-at-o-fo' -be-ah) [thanato-; 4>6ftoc, fear]. A morbid fear of death.

Thane's Method. To find the fissure of Rolando in operations upon the brain, the middle point of a line passing from the root of the nose to the occipital protuberance is determined. The upper extremity of the fissure lies half an inch behind this point.

  • Thaumatrope (thaiv'-mah-trop) [Oauua, wonder; zp6~oc, a. turning]. A device containing figures, on opposite sides of a rotating board, which blend when in motion. It shows the duration of visual impressions.
  • THEA 970 THERMALGESIA Thea (the' -ah). Tea; the dried leaves of Thea sinensis, a shrub of the order Ternstrcemiacece, containing the alkaloid thein, C 8 H 10 N 4 O 2 , identical with caffein. Thea is astringent and gently stimulant to the nervous system; its infusion is used as a beverage.
  • Theatrin (the'-at-rin). An ointment-vehicle consisting of wax, oil, and water.
  • Thebain (the' -ba-in) [Q^ac, Thebes], C 19 H 21 N- 3 . An alkaloid found in opium, analogous to strychnin in its physiologic effects.

Thebesian Foramens, T. Valve, T. Veins. See under Thebesius.

Thebesius' Foramens. The orifices of The- besius' veins. T.'s Valve, an endocardial fold at the orifice of the coronary vein in the right auricle. T.'s Veins, venae minimse cordis; the venules which convey the blood directly from the myocardium into the auricles.

  • Thebolactic Acid (theb-o-lak'-tik). A variety of lactic acid occurring in opium.
  • Theca (the'-kah) [Orjicrj, a sheath]. A sheath, especially one of a tendon. T. cerebri, the cranium. T. cordis, the pericardium. T. folliculi, a membranous formation around a graafian vesicle caused by fibrillation of a layer of young connective tissue subsequent to the increased vascularity accompanying the process of maturation. T. vertebralis, the membranes of the spinal cord.
  • Thecal (the'-kal) [theca]. Pertaining to a sheath.
  • Thecate (the'-kat) [theca]. Contained within a sheath.
  • Thecitis (the-sV -tis) [theca; trie, inflammation]. Inflammation of the sheath of a tendon.
  • Thein (the' -in). See under Thea.
  • Theism (the'-izm) [thea]. The morbid condition due to the excessive use of tea; it is character- ized by headache, palpitation, tremor, in- somnia, cachexia, etc.
  • Thelalgia (the-laV '-je-ah) [drjXrj, a nipple; dXyoc, pain]. Pain in the nipples.
  • Thele (the'-le) [drjXrj, a nipple]. The nipple of the female breast.
  • Thelitis (the-W -tis) [thele; acg, inflammation]. Inflammation of the nipples.
  • Thelium (the'-le-um) [thele]. A papilla; also, a layer of cells.
  • Theloncus (the-long'-kus) [thele; oynoc;, a tumor]. Tumor of the nipple.
  • Thelorrhagia (the-lor-aj'-e-ah) [thele; pe'cv, to flow]. Hemorrhage from the nipple.
  • Thelothism (the' '-lo-thizm) [thele; d>6ktv, to push]. Projection of the nipple, caused by contraction of the transverse muscular fibers.
  • Thelyblast (theV -e-blast) [dijhuc, female; ftkaoroc, a germ]. The female element of the bisexual nucleus; the ovum after the polar globules have been extruded.
  • Thenad (the f -nad) [thenar; ad, toward]. To- ward the thenar eminence.
  • Thenal (the'-nal) [thenar]. Pertaining to the palm, or the thenar eminence.
  • Thenar (the'-nar) [divap, palm], i. The palm of the hand. 2. The fleshy prominence of the palm corresponding to the base of the thumb. T. Eminence. See Thenar (2).
  • Theobroma (the-o-bro' -mah) [deof, a god; (Upti/ia, food]. A genus of trees of the Sterculiacece. The seeds of T. cacao yield a fixed oil (oleum theobromatis, U. S. P.), and contain the al- kaloid theobromin, C 7 H 8 N 4 2 , which is closely related to caffein and xanthin. The seeds are used in the preparation .of chocolate and cocoa; the oil (cacao-butter) is employed as an ingredient of cosmetic ointments and for making pills and suppositories. Theobromin acts similarly to caffein.
  • Theobromin (the-o-bro' -min). See under Theo- broma. T. Sodiosalicylate. See Diuretin.
  • Theocin (the'-o-sin). Synthetically prepared theophyllin, isomeric with theobromin, and used as a diuretic. Dose 4 gr. (0.25 Gm.) 2 or 3 times daily.
  • Theomania (the-o-ma'-ne-ah) [6e6c> a god; fiavia, madness]. 1. Religious mania. 2. Insanity in which the individual believes himself to be a divine being.
  • Theophyllin (the-o-fl' -in) [thea, tea; delv, to love]. Applied to microorganisms which develop best at relatively high temperatures — 5o°-55° C. or above.
  • Thermopile (ther' -mo-pll) [thermo-; pile]. A contrivance consisting of a series of connected metallic plates, in which, under the influence of heat, a current of electricity is produced which acts upon a registering index. By means of it very minute amounts of heat can be measured.
  • Thermopolypnea (ther-mo-pol-ip-ne' -ah) [ther- mo-; itoXug, many; nve'cv, to breathe]. Rapid respiration due to high temperature.
  • Thermostabile (ther-mo-sta' -biV) [thermo-; sta- bilis, firm; steadfast]. Not destroyed nor changed by heat.
  • Thermostat (ther' -mo-stat) [thermo-; orator, standing]. A device for automatically regu- lating and maintaining a constant tempera- ture.
  • Thermosystaltic (ther-mo-sis-tal'-tik) [thermo-; ouoxkXXetv, to contract]. Contracting under the influence of heat; pertaining to muscular contraction due to heat.
  • Thermotactic, Thermotaxic (ther-mo-tak'-tik, ther-mo-taks' -ik) [see Thermotaxis]. Regu- lating the heat of the body, as a thermotactic center.
  • Thermotaxis (ther-mo-taks' -is) [thermo-; xa^cc, from xaooecv, to arrange]. The regulation of the bodily heat.
  • Thermotherapy (ther-mo-ther'-ap-e) [thermo-; Oepamca, cure]. Treatment of disease by heat.
  • Thermotonometer (ther-mo-ton-om' -et-er) [ther- mo-; zovoc, a stretching; [ikzpov, a measure]. An apparatus fur determining the amount of muscular contraction induced by thermic stimuli.
  • Thermotracheotomy (ther-mo-tra-ke-ot'-o-me) . Tracheotomy by means of the actual cautery.
  • Theromorph (ther' -o-morf) [6r)p, a wild beast; /J.opcf)Tj, form]. A monstrosity resembling an animal.
  • Thialdin (thi-al'-din), C 6 H 13 NS 2 , a crystalline substance obtained by the action of sulfureted hydrogen on aldehyd ammonium; it is used as a heart stimulant.

Thiersch's Method of Skin-grafting. Long, broad strips of skin are removed from the arm or leg and placed on a wound previously deprived of its granulations by means of a sharp curet. T.'s Solution, a valuable anti- septic wash for the nose, throat, or stomach, consisting of salicylic acid, 2 parts; boric acid, 12 parts; water, 1000 parts.


  • Thigenol (thi'-jen-ol). The soda salt of a sulfur acid extracted from synthetic sulfur oil. It is used in the treatment of skin diseases in the form of pomades containing 20 parts in 100.
  • Thigh (thl) [AS., theoh]. The part of the lower limb extending from pelvis to knee.
  • Thilanin (thi'-lan-in) [delov, sulfur; lanolin]. A brownish-yellow substance derived from and resembling lanolin. It contains 3% of sulfur and is used in the treatment of eczema and other diseases of the skin.
  • Thio- (thi-o-) [de'cov, sulfur]. A prefix denoting containing sulfur.
  • Thioacid (thi-o-as'-id). One of a group of acids produced by the substitution of sulfur •for the oxygen in an oxygen acid.
  • Thiocol (thi'-o-kol). See Potassium-guaiacol Sulfonate.
  • Thiocyanic Acid (thi-o-si-an'-ik), CNHS. Sulfocyanic acid, a monobasic acid forming the thiocyanates or sulfocyanates. Potassium thiocyanate, CNKS, occurs in saliva.
  • Thiodinaphthyloxid (thi-o-di-naf-thil-oks'-id) . An orange-colored powder used in the treat- ment of skin diseases.
  • Thioether (thi-o -e' -ther). See Alkyl-sulfids.
  • Thioform (thi'-o-form). See Bismuth Dithio- salicylate.
  • Thiogenic (thi-o-jen'-ik) [thio-; yevvav, to pro- duce]. Applied to bacteria able to convert sulfureted hydrogen into higher sulfur com- pounds.
  • Thiol (thi'-oV) [de'cov, sulfur]. A substance pre- pared from gas-oil by heating with sulfur, and occurring in a dry and a liquid form. It has been used as an application to ulcers and in diseases of the skin.
  • Thiolin (thi'-ol-in). See Acid, Thiolinic.
  • Thionin (thi'-o-nin) [de'cov, sulfur], C 12 H 9 N 3 S. A sulfur compound of the aromatic group, used as a stain in microscopy. Its solutions are of a dark-blue color.
  • Thiophene (thi'-o-fen) [thio-; phenol], C 4 H 4 S. A hydrocarbon of the aromatic series ; a color- less, oily liquid, miscible with water. The iodid, C 4 H 2 I 2 S, has been used as a substitute for iodoform. T. Sodium Sulfonate, C 4 - H 3 S.NaS0 3 , a white powder used in prurigo.
  • Thiophil (thi'-o-fil) [thio-; cXe'cv, to love]. Loving sulfur; applied to microorganisms.
  • Thiopyrin (thi-o-pi'-rin). A derivative of antipyrin.
  • Thioresorcinol (thi-o-rez-or' -sin-ol) [thio-; res- orcinoT], C 6 H 4 (SO) 2 . A compound of sulfur and resorcinol used as a powder or ointment as a substitute for iodoform.
  • Thiosapol (thi-o-sa'-pol). A sulfureted soap containing 10% of sulfur.
  • Thiosavonals (thio-sav'-on-als). Potash sul- fur soaps that contain sulfur in a chemically combined state.
  • Thiosinamin (thi-o-sin' -am-in) [thio-; sinapis, mustard], C 4 H 8 N 2 S. A crystalline substance prepared from mustard-oil and ammonia. It is used in lupus, glandular enlargements, and night-sweats.
  • THIO SULFURIC ACID 973 THORMAEHLEN'S TEST Thiosulfuric Acid (thi-o-sul-fu'-rik) [thio-; sul- furic], H 2 S 2 3 . An acid derived from sulfuric acid by the substitution of sulfur for part of the oxygen. Thiourea (thi-o-u-re'-ah) [thio-; urea], CS(NH) 2 . Sulfocarbamid; a derivative of urea in which sulfur replaces the oxygen of the latter.

Third Cranial Nerve. The oculomotor nerve. See Motor oculi under Nerve.

  • Thirst (thurst) [AS., thurst]. A desire for drink.
  • Thiry's Fistula (the'-rez). A fistula for ob- taining the intestinal juice. A piece of intestine about four inches long is separated from the bowel without dividing the mesentery and its blood-vessels. One end of the tube is closed, and the other is stitched to the abdominal wound. The two ends of intestine from which the piece was cut out are then united by sutures. From the excised piece a pure intestinal juice is obtained.
  • Thiuret (thi'-u-ret) [deeov, sulfur], C 8 H 7 N 3 S 2 . A crystalline antiseptic which readily yields its sulfur in a nascent condition. On this property depends its antiseptic action.
  • Thlipsencephalus (thlip-sen-sef'-al-us) [OXc^cg, pressure; efukcpaXoc, brain]. A monster in which there is extensive exposure of the base of the brain from nondevelopment of the occipital bone and even of the upper vertebras.
  • Thliptol (thlip'-tol). A proprietary antiseptic and deodorant liquid, said to consist of benzo- boric acid combined with oil of eucalyptus, thyme, etc.

Thompson's Line. A red line along the border of the gums, frequently seen in pulmonary tuberculosis. T.'s Test, the collection of the morning urine in two glasses to determine whether a gonorrheal process is localized in the anterior portion of the urethra or whether it has extended into the posterior portion.

Thomson's Disease [after J. Thomsen, a German physician]. Myotonia congenita, a disease commonly congenital and occurring in families, and characterized by tonic spasm or rigidity of the muscles, coming on when they are first put in action after a period of rest. As the muscles are used the stiffness gradually wears off.

  • Thomsonianism (tom-so' -ne-an-izm) . A sys- tem of medicine introduced by Samuel Thomson (i 769-1843), of Massachusetts. It insisted on the use of vegetable remedies only.
  • Thoracalgia (tho-rak-al' -je-ah) [thorax; aXyoc, - pain]. Pain in the thorax.
  • Thoracentesis (tho-ras-en-te'-sis) [thorax; K£vtt)occ, a piercing]. Puncture of the thorax for the removal of fluid.
  • Thoracic (tho-ras'-ik) [thorax]. Pertaining to or situated in the chest or thorax, as the tho- racic aorta. T. Duct. See Duct, Thoracic. T. Index. See Index, Thoracic.
  • Thoracicohumeral (tho-ras-ik-o-hu' -mer-al) . Relating to the chest and upper arm.
  • Thoraco- (tho-rak-o-) [OuipaZ, thorax]. A prefix denoting pertaining to the thorax.
  • Thoracoacromial (tho -rak-o-ak-ro' '- me-at) . Acromiothoracic, relating to the chest and the shoulder; applied to a group of muscles.
  • Thoracoceloschisis (tho - rak -o-se- los f - kis-is) [thoraco-; KocX'ca, belly; aycacc, a cleaving]. Congenital fissure of the chest and abdomen.
  • Thoracocyrtosis (tho-rak-o-sur-to 1 '-sis) [tho- raco-; Kuproc, curved]. Excessive curvature of the thorax.
  • Thoracodidymus (tho-rak-o-did' '-im-us) [tho- raco-; ocoopoc, double]. A double monster joined at the thorax.
  • Thoracodynia (tho-rak-o-din'-e-ah) [thoraco-; oouvt), pain]. Pain in the chest.
  • Thoracogastrodidymus (tho-rak-o-gas-tro-did'- im-us) [thoraco-; yaor^p, belly; dioupoc, double]. A twin monstrosity united by the thorax and abdomen.
  • Thoracometer (tho-rak-om' '-et-er) [thoraco-; pkxpov, a measure]. A stethometer.
  • Thoracometry (tho-rak-om' -et-re) [see Thorac- ometer]. Measurement of the movement of the walls of the chest.
  • Thoracopagus (tho-rak-o p'-ag-us) [thoraco-; Tzayoc, that which is firmly set]. A double monster with portions of the thoraxes coal- escent.
  • Thoracoplasty (tho-rak' -o-plas-te) [thoraco-; nXaoascv, to form]. Plastic operation upon the thorax.
  • Thoracoschisis (tho-rak-os' -kis-is) [thoraco-; °X' ac ^i a cleaving]. Congenital fissure of the thorax.
  • Thoracoscope (tho-rak' -o-skop) [thoraco-; cko- Tie'cv, to view]. A stethoscope.
  • Thoracoscopy (tho-rak-os' -ko-pe) [see Thoraco- scope]. Examination of the chest, especially by the stethoscope.
  • Thoracostenosis (tho-rak-o-sten-o' -sis) [tho- raco-; stenosis]. Contraction or compression of the walls of the chest.
  • Thoracotomy (tho-rak-of -o-me) [thoraco-; zip- vscv, to cut]. Incision of the thorax or chest- wall.
  • Thoradelphus (tho-rad-el'-fus) [thorax; ddcX6c, brother]. A double monster united above the umbilicus, with one head, four lower and two upper extremities.
  • Thorax (tho'-raks) [ddjpa^, a breastplate]. The chest; the framework of bones and soft tissues bounded by the diaphragm below, the ribs and sternum in front, the ribs and dorsal portion of the vertebral column behind, and above by the structures in the lower part of the neck, and containing the heart inclosed in the pericardium, the lungs invested by the pleura, and the mediastinal structures. T., Region of. See Region, Thoracic.
  • Thorium (tho'-re-um) [Icel., Thorr]. A rare metal related chemically to tin. Symbol Th.

Pneumogastrics. 18,18. Phrenics. 19. Right lung. 20. Left lung. 21,21. Diaphragm. 22,22. Seventh pair of ribs.

  • Thorax (Anterior View). 1. Manubrium sterni. 2. Gladiolus. 3. Ensiform cartilage of xiphoid appendix. 4. Circumference of apex of thorax. 5. Circumference of base. 6. First rib. 7. Second rib. 8, 8. Third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh ribs. 9. Eighth, ninth, and tenth ribs. 10. Eleventh and twelfth ribs, n, 11. Costal cartilages.

THORN-APPLE 975 THYMIN in the presence of melanin a deep-blue color- ation will be produced.

Thorn-apple. See Stramonium.

Thornton's Sign. Violent pain in the flanks in nephrolithiasis.

Thornwaldt's Disease. Nasolaryngeal steno- sis associated with the formation of a cyst-like cavity in the midst of the racemose glands in the pharyngeal mucosa, and containing pus or mucopus.

Thorough wort. See Eupatorium.

Thought-transference. See Telepathy.

Threadworm. See Oxyuris.

Three -day Fever. Synonym of Dengue. 

  • Threpsology (threp-sol'-o-je) [Ope^cc, nutrition; Xoyoc, treatise]. The science of nutrition.
  • Threshold (thresh' -old). The lower limit of stimulus capable of producing an impression upon consciousness.

Thrill. A fine vibration felt by the hand. A thrill may be felt on palpation over an aneurysm, over a heart the seat of valvular disease, and over hydatid cysts. T., Presys- tolic, a thrill which can sometimes be felt before the systole when the hand is placed over the apex-beat. T., Purring, a thrill re- sembling that felt when the hand is placed on the back of a cat.


  • Throat (throt) [AS., throte, throat], i. The anterior part of the neck. 2. The pharynx and larynx; the fauces. T., Sore, pharyn- gitis. T., Sore, Clergyman's, laryngitis caused by overuse through public speaking.

Throb. A pulsation or beating.


  • Throbbing (throb' -ing). A rhythmic beating. T. Aorta, exaggerated pulsation of the abdominal aorta perceptible to the patient.
  • Thromballosis (throm-bal-o'-sis) [thrombus; aXXo'uvocc, a change]. The changed condition caused by coagulation of the venous blood.
  • Thrombin (throm' -bin) [thrombus]. The fibrin- ferment, the animal enzym that causes coagu- lation of shed blood.
  • Thrombo- (throm-bo-) [dpofifioc, a thrombus]. A prefix denoting pertaining to a thrombus.
  • Thromboarteritis (throm -bo -ar - ter - i' - Us) [thrombo-; arteritis]. Inflammation of an artery associated with thrombosis.
  • Thrombocystis (throm-bo-sis' -tis) [thrombo-; dioxtc, a bladder]. The sac sometimes enveloping a thrombus.
  • Thrombogen (throm' -bo-jen) [thrombo-; yzvvav, to produce]. In biology, producing or giving . rise to clots.
  • Thromboid (throm' -boid) [thrombo-; eldoc, like]. Resembling a thrombus.
  • Thrombophlebitis (throm -bo- fleb - V - tis) [thrombo-; phlebitis]. Inflammation of a vein associated with thrombosis.
  • Thrombosin (throm' -bo-sin) . One of the products of the cleavage of fibrinogen by acetic acid; it is a proteid body which passes into fibrin in the presence of soluble calcium salts.
  • Thrombosis (throm-bo' -sis) [thrombus]. The formation of a thrombus. T., Dilation, that which results from a slowing of the blood- current next to the vessel-walls, as the result of dilation of a vessel (as in aneurysms, varices) or of the heart.
  • Thrombotic (throm-bot'-ik) [thrombosis]. Per- taining to or produced by thrombosis.
  • Thrombus (throm'-bus) [6p6[i{3oc, a clot]. A clot of blood formed within the heart or blood- vessels, due usually to a slowing of the cir- culation or to alteration of the blood or vessel- walls.

Through-drainage. A method of drainage in which a perforated tube is carried through the cavity to be drained, so that the latter can be flushed through and through by the injection of fluid into one end of the tube.

Through-illumination. Transillumination.

Thrush. A form of stomatitis due to a specific fungus, Oidium albicans or Saccharomyces albicans, and characterized by the presence of diffuse white patches. It occurs especially in weakly children, but may affect adults de- pressed by wasting diseases.

  • Thrypsis (thrip'-sis) [dpo^cg, a crushing]. A comminuted fracture.
  • Thuja (hu'-jah). A genus of trees of the order Coniferce. T. occidentalis or arbor vitse has been used in intermittent fever, rheuma- tism, scurvy, and as an emmenagog.
  • Thumb (thum). The digit on the extreme radial side of the hand, differing from the other digits in having but two phalanges, and in that its metacarpal bone is separately movable.
  • Thuya (thu'-yah). See Thuja.
  • Thyma (thi'-mah). A corruption of ecthyma and also of thymion.
  • Thymacetin (thi-mas' -et-in) [thyme; acetum, vinegar], C 6 H 2 (CH 3 )(C 3 H 7 )(OC 2 H 5 )NH(C 2 - H s O). A derivative of thymol used as an antineuralgic. Dose 3-15 gr. (0.2-1.0 Gm.).
  • Thyme (tim) [66/j.ou, thyme]. The genus Thymus, of the order Labiatce. Thymus vulgaris yields a volatile oil in which are found cymene, thymene, and thymol. T., Oil of (oleum thymi, U. S. P.), a volatile oil distilled from the leaves and tops of Thymus vulgaris. Dose 3 min. (0.2 Cc).
  • Thymectomy (thi-mek'-to-me) [thymus; itcTOfir], excision]. Excision of the thymus.
  • Thymelcosis (thi-mel-ko'-sis) [thymus; ^Xkojocc, ulceration]. Ulceration of the thymus gland.
  • Thymene (ti'-men or thi'-men) [thyme]. An eleopten existing in oil of thyme.
  • Thymic (thi'-mik, also for first definition, ti'- mik) [thyme; thymus]. 1. Pertaining to or contained in thyme. 2. Pertaining to the thymus gland. T. Asthma, a form of laryn- gismus stridulus consisting in a temporary suspension of respiration, attributed to en- largement of the thymus.
  • Thymin (t hi' -min), C 5 H 6 N 2 2 . A crystalline body obtained by boiling nucleic acid from THYMINOL 976 THYROIDIN the thymus gland of the calf with dilute sulfuric acid.
  • Thyminol (ti'-min-ol). An antiseptic liquid said to be a solution of thymol, eucalyptol, menthol, Baptisia, benzoic, boric, and sal- icylic acids.
  • Thymion (thi'-me-on) [Oufieov]. A wart; a condyloma.
  • Thymitis (thi-mi'-tis) [thymus; cue, inflam- mation]. Inflammation of the thymus gland.
  • Thymoform (thi 1 '-mo-form). A reaction- product of thymol and formaldehyd; used as are iodoform and dermatol.
  • Thymol (ti'-mol or thi'-mol) [thyme; oleum, oil], Ci H, 3 .HO. A phenol derived from the volatile oils of Thymus vulgaris, Monarda punctata, and Carum ajowan. It is a crys- talline solid, melting at 44° C, very slightly soluble in water, and is used as a local anti- septic and deodorant in ulcers, leukorrhea, and stomatitis, as an intestinal antiseptic, and as an anthelmintic. Dose 1-2 gr. (0.065-0.13 Gm.). T. Carbonate, recom- mended as preferable to thymol in uncin- ariasis. Dose 30 gr. (2 Gm.). Syn., Thy- motol. T. Salicylate, C 10 H 13 O . C* 7 H 5 3 , an intestinal antiseptic.
  • Thymotol (thi'-mo-tol). See Thymol Car- bonate.
  • Thymoxalme (thi-moks-al'-me) [thyme; 6£uc, sharp; aXc, salt]. A mixture of thyme, vin- egar, and salt.
  • Thymozone (thi'-mo-zon). A combination of Eucalyptus globulus, Thymus vulgaris, and Pinus sylvestris, with benzoic, boric, and salicylic acids. A nonirritating compound used as an internal antiseptic and externally as is phenol.
  • Thymus (thi'-mus) [dome, the sweetbread]. . An organ situated in the anterior superior mediastinum. It continues to develop until the second year of life, afterward remains stationary until about the fourteenth, and then undergoes fatty metamorphosis and atrophy. The thymus consists of lobules largely com- posed of lymphadenoid tissue in which minute concentric bodies, the corpuscles of Hassal, are found. The latter are remnants of epithelial structures. 2. A genus of la- biate plants. See Thyme. T. Gland. Same as Thymus (1).
  • Thyraden (thi f -ra-den) . See Thyroidin.
  • Thyrein (thi'-re-in). See Iodothyrin.
  • Thyro- (thi-ro-) [dupeoc, a shield, and hence, from similarity of shape and function, the thyroid gland or cartilage]. A prefix sig- nifying relationship to the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroantitoxin (thi-ro-an-te-toks'-in) [thyro-; antitoxin]. 1. C 6 H n N 3 5 . A proteid con- stituent of the thyroid gland. 2. A prepa- ration of the thyroid gland used in exoph- thalmic goiter, bronchocele, etc. Dose 2 gr. (0.13 Gm.) daily. Thyroarytenoid (thi-ro-ar-if -en-oid) [thyro-; arytenoid]. Pertaining to the thyroid and arytenoid cartilages, as the thyroarytenoid ligaments, thyroarytenoid muscle(thyroary- tenoideus). Thyrocele (thi'-ro-sel) [thyro-; ktjXtj, a tumor].
  • Incision of the thyroid cartilage. Thyrocolloid (thi-ro-kol'-oid). A proprietary preparation of the thyroid glands of sheep. Thyroepiglottic (thi-ro-ep-e-glot'-ik) [thyro-; epiglottis]. Pertaining to the thyroid cartilage and the epiglottis, as the thyroepiglottic muscle (thyroepiglottideus) . Thyrogenous [thi-ro]' -en-us) [thyro-; ytyvav, to produce]. Originating in the thyroid gland. Thyroglandin (thi-ro- gland' -in). A compound of iodoglobulin and thyroidin, in the form and proportion in which they exist in the thyroid gland. Dose 3-5 gr. (0.19-0.32 Gm.) for myxedema and obesity. Thyroglobulin (thi-ro-glob'-u-lin). The iodin- proteid of the thyroid secreted by it and lodged in the colloid substance. Thyroglossal (thi-ro-glos'-al) [thyro-; yXcuooa, tongue]. Pertaining to the thyroid and the tongue. Thyrohyal(thi-ro-hi'-al). See Thyrohyoid. Thyrohyoid (thi-ro-hi'-oid) [thyro-; hyoid].

Extract. See under T. Gland. T. Fora- men. See Foramen, Thyroid. T. Gland, one of the socalled ductless glands, lying in front of the trachea, and consisting of two lat- eral lobes, connected centrally by an isthmus. The organ is composed of follicles lined by epithelium, producing a peculiar colloid ma- terial. The function of the organ is not definitely known, but it is supposed to be the production of some substance necessary to the body — an internal secretion that may counteract poisons produced in the system. Hypertrophy of the gland (goiter) is sometimes associated with a peculiar disease known as exophthalmic goiter; absence of the gland leads to cretinism or myxedema. An ex- tract prepared from the thyroid gland of animals (thyroid extract) and other prepara- tions of the gland are used medicinally. See Organotherapy. Thyroidectomy (thi-roi-dek'-to-me) [thyroid; EKzofirj, excision]. Excision of the thyroid gland. Thyroidin (thi-roi'-din) [thyroid; eldoc, like]. A proprietary lactose trituration of dried extract of thyroid gland; one part represents two parts of fresh gland. It is an alterative used in myxedema, struma, and psoriasis. Dose 15-24 gr. (1.0-1.5 Gm.) daily.


  • THYROIDISM 977 TINEA Thyroidism (thi'-roid-izm). i. Disturbances produced by hypertrophy of the thyroid gland. 2. A series of phenomena due to continued use of thyroid preparations. 3. Disturbances due to removal of the thyroid.
  • Thyroiditis (thi-roi-di'-tis) [thyroid; czcc, in- flammation]. Inflammation of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroidotomy (thi-roi-doV -o-me) [thyroid; ~ofxr h a cutting]. Incision of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroidotoxin (thi-roid-o-toks' -in) . A sub- stance specifically toxic for the cells of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyro igenous (thi-roi '-jen-us) . Originating in disturbances of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroiodin (thi-ro-i'-od-in). A substance found principally combined with a proteid, but also free in the thyroid gland. Syn., lodothyrin.
  • Tkyrolingual (thi-ro-lin'-gwal). Relating to the thyroid and the tongue; thyroglos- sal.
  • Thyrophyma (thi-ro-fi'-mah) [thyro-; (ftOfia, a tumor]. Enlargement of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroprival (thi-ro-pri'-val) [thyro-; privare, to deprive]. Due to loss of function or re- moval of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroprivus (thi-ro-pri'-vus) [thyroprival]. 1. Deprived of the thyroid gland. 2. A morbid condition due to loss of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroproteid (thi-ro-pro'-te-id). An albumin from the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroptosis (thi-ro-to'-sis) [thyro-; -zdboce, a falling]. Displacement of a goitrous thyroid so as to be concealed in the thorax.
  • Thyrotomy (thi-roV -o-me) [thyro-; ro/irj, a cut- ting]. Incision or splitting of the thyroid cartilage.
  • Tibia (tib'-e-ah) [L., "shin"]. The larger of the two bones of the leg, commonly called the shin-bone, articulating with the femur, fibula, and astragalus.
  • Tibial (tib'-e-al) [tibia]. Pertaining to or in relation with the tibia, as the tibial mus- cle (tibialis), tibial artery, tibial nerve.
  • Tibio- (tib-e-o-) [tibia]. A prefix meaning per- taining to the tibia.
  • Tibiofemoral (tib-e-o- j em' -or-al) [tibio-; femur]. Pertaining to the tibia and the femur.
  • Tibiofibular (tib-e-o- fib' -u-lar) [tibio-; fibula]. Pertaining to the tibia and the fibula.
  • Tibionavicular (tib-e-o-nav-ik' -u-lar) [tibio-; na-oicula, a boat]. Relating to the tibia and the scaphoid bone.
  • Tibiotarsal (tib-e-o-tar'-sal) [tibio-; tarsus]. Pertaining to the tibia and the tarsus.
  • Tic (tik) [Ft.]. A twitching, especially of the facial muscles. T. convulsif, T., Convul- sive, spasm of the facial muscles. T. dou- loureux, neuralgia of the trifacial nerve. T., Painless, the occurrence, at intervals, of sudden rapid involuntary contraction in a muscle or group of muscles.
  • Tick (tik). A name applied to several species of Acarus. T. Fever, Texas fever.
  • Tickle (tik'-l). To touch so as to cause a peculiar sensation (tickling or titillation), 63 usually associated with laughing and reflex muscular movements.

T. i. d. An abbreviation for ter in die, three times a day.

Tidal Air. See under Respiration. T. Wave. See Wave, Tidal.

Tiedemann's Glands. See Bartholin, Glands of. T.'s Nerve, a plexus of delicate nerve-fibers derived from the ciliary nerves, and surround- ing the central artery of the retina.


  • Tiglium (tig'-le-um). A plant, Croton tiglium, of the order Euphorbiacecc. It contains a fixed oil. Tiglii, Oleum (IT. S. P.), croton oil (oleum crotonis, B. P.); a powerful local irritant, and used, locally, as a counterirritant in gout, rheumatism, neuralgia, glandular swellings, etc. It is an active purgative, espe- cially useful when a prompt effect is desired, as in mania, coma, etc. Dose 1 or 2 drops (0.065-0.13 Cc).
  • Tigroid (ti-groid') [rcxpoecdr^, spotted]. A term applied to chromophil corpuscles. T. Masses. See NissVs Bodies.
  • Tilia (til'-e-ah) [L.]. A genus of exogenous trees — the linden or basswood.

Tillaux-Phocas' Disease. See Phocas' Dis- ease.


  • Tilmus (til'-mus) [nXp.6c, a pulling]. Car- phology.
  • Timbre (tam'-br) [Ft.]. The peculiar quality of a tone, other than pitch and intensity, that makes it distinctive. It depends upon the overtones of the vibrating bodv.

Tin. A silvery-white, metallic, malleable ele- ment, having a specific gravity of 7.25, an atomic weight of 118.1, an atomicity of two or four. Symbol Sn, from the Latin stannum. T. Chlorid, stannous chlorid, SnCl 2 +2H 2 0, is used as a reagent. T., Precipitated (galvanically), recommended as a vermifuge against tape-worm. Dose 9 gr. (0.5 Gm.) every fifteen minutes until five or six doses have been taken.


  • Tincture (tingk'-tur) [tinctura, from tingere, to tinge]. 1. A solution of the medicinal principles of a substance in a fluid other than water or glycerol. 2 . Specifically, an alcoholic solution of a medicinal substance. T., Am- moniated, one made with ammoniated al- cohol. T., Ethereal, one made with ether. T.s of Fresh Herbs (tinctures herbarum recen- tium, U. S. P.), prepared by macerating fresh herbs with alcohol.
  • Tinea (tin'-e-ah) [L., "a moth; a worm"]. Ringworm; a generic term applied to a class of skin diseases caused by parasitic fungi, formerly applied to many spreading cu- taneous diseases. T. amiantacea, T. as- bestina, seborrhea of the scalp in which the crusts resemble absestos. T. capitis, ringworm of the scalp. T. circinata. See under T. trichophytina. T. cruris. See under T. tricho- phytina. T. decalvans, alopecia areata. T, favosa, favus. T. furfuracea, seborrhcea TINGIBLE 978 TOBACCO sicca. T. imbricata, a disease occurring in the East Indies, and characterized by the formation of concentric scaly patches and intense itching. Syn., Bowditch Island ring- worm; Tokelau ringworm. T. kerion, a markedly inflammatory form of ringworm of the scalp (tinea tonsurans) , giving rise to the formation of an edematous, boggy swelling discharging a mucoid secretion. T. lu- pinosa. Same as T. favosa. T. nodosa, a nodose condition of the hair of the mustache, accompanied by thickening, roughness, and fragility. T. sycosis. See under T. tricho- phytina. T. tarsi, blepharitis ulcerosa. T. tonsurans. See under T. trichophytina. T. trichophytina, ringworm, a spreading, contagious disease of the skin due to a veg- etable fungus, the Trichophyton. On the nonhairy parts of the body (tinea trichophy- tina corporis, tinea circinata) it presents itself by spreading, scaly patches, tending to clear in the center. On the thighs and scrotum {tinea trichophytina cruris) it is apt to assume the appearance of eczema, hence it is also called eczema marginatum. The nails may be affected(tinea trichophytina unguium), becoming grayish, opaque, and brittle. On the scalp (tinea trichophytina capitis, tinea tonsurans) it forms rounded, grayish, slightly elevated, scaly patches, with brittleness and loss of the hair. Ringworm of the bearded region (tinea trichophytina barbce, tinea sycosis, parasitic sycosis, barber's itch) forms at first rounded, scaly patches, which soon become nodular and lumpy and tend to break down. T. versicolor, a disease of the skin due to a vegetable parasite, Microsporon furfur. It is characterized by brownish-yellow macules that coalesce to form extensive areas of eruption. There is usually slight itching. C. W. Allen's iodin test is of value for the recognition of suspected areas; it consists in the application of iodin solution, preferably Lugol's (iodin, 5; potassium iodid, 10; water, 100). The diseased portion will stain deep brown or mahogany color, in contrast to the light-yellow coloration of healthy tissue.
  • Tingible (tinj'-ib-l) [tingere, to tinge]. Capable of being stained; stainable.
  • Tinkling (tink' -ling) . A chinking sound, heard over a pneumothorax or a large pulmonary cavity. Syn., Metallic tinkling.
  • Tinnitus (tin-i'-tus or tin'-it-us) [tinnire, to tinkle]. A subjective ringing, roaring, or hissing sound heard in the ears. Syn., Tin- nitus aurium.
  • Tisane (te-zahn'). See Ptisan.
  • Tissue (tish'-u) [Fr., tissu, from L., texere, to weave]. An aggregation of similar cells and fibers, forming a distinct structure, and en- tering as such into the formation of an organ or organism. T., Adenoid. See 7\, Lymph- adenoid. T., Adipose, fatty tissue, a form of connective tissue consisting of fat-cells lodged in the meshes of areolar tissue. T., Areolar, a form of connective tissue consisting of cells and delicate, elastic fibers interlacing in every direction. T., Cancellous, the spongy tissue of bones. T., Cartilaginous. See Cartilage. T., Connective, a general term for all those tissues of the body that support the essential elements or parenchyma. The most important varieties are adipose tissue, areolar tissue, osseous tissue, cartil- aginous tissue, elastic tissue, fibrous tissue, lymphoid tissue. T., Epithelial. See Epi- thelium. T., Erectile, a spongy tissue that becomes expanded and hard when filled with blood. T., Lymphadenoid, T., Lymphoid, a form of connective tissue in which reticular meshes contain lymphoid cells; it composes the greater part of the lymphatic glands and is found in the spleen, tonsils, and the alimen- tary mucosa. T., Mucous, a connective tissue such as is present in the umbilical cord of the fetus. T., Muscular. See Muscular Tissue. T., Nervous, the intrinsic sub- stance of a nerve or nerve-fiber. T., Os- seous. See Bone. T., White Fibrous, a form of connective tissue consisting of ex- ceedingly fine, inelastic, transparent fila- ments. This tissue forms the greater part of ligaments, tendons, fascia, sheaths of mus- cles, periosteum, etc. T., Yellow Elastic, a very elastic yellowish tissue predominating in the subflavous ligament, vocal bands, inner coats of blood-vessels, and the longitu- dinal coats of the trachea and bronchi.
  • Titanium (tit-a' -ne-um) [Tcrav, Titan]. A metal having a certain relationship to iron, chromium, and tin. It is extremely infusible and will scratch glass. Its medicinal prop- erties are little understood. See Elements, Table of Chemic.
  • Titer, Titre (te'-ter). [Fr.]. A standard of fineness or strength.
  • Titillation (tit-il-a' -shun) [titillare, to tickle]. The act of tickling; the sensation produced by tickling.
  • Titration (tit-ra'-shun) [Fr., titre, standard of fineness]. Volumetric analysis by the aid of standard solutions.
  • Titubation (tit-u-ba' -shun) [titubare, to stagger]. A staggering gait seen especially in diseases of the cerebellum.

Tl. Symbol of thallium.

  • Tobacco (to-bak'-o) [Sp., tabaco, tobacco]. A plant, Nic.otiana tabacum, of the order SolanacecB, the dried leaves of which (tabaci folia, B. P.) contain a liquid alkaloid, nicotin, C 10 H U N 2 , which is also present in the seeds and root. Nicotin is one of the 'most active poisons known. Tobacco-smoke contains a series of bases, among which are pyridin, picolin, lutidin, parvolin, and others. Tobacco is used as a sedative in nearly all parts of the world, being smoked, chewed, or used as snuff. Its physiologic action is that of a nauseant, antispasmodic, and de- pressant ; it is also a loca 1 irritant. In medicine it has been employed as a relaxant in in- testinal obstruction, being given in the form of an enema, but it is now rarely used except in asthma and locally in hemorrhoids, Unof , "•^i TODD'S ASCENDING PROCESS 979 TONGUE T. -amblyopia, amblyopia produced by the prolonged and excessive use of tobacco. T. -heart, an irritable state of the heart, characterized by irregular action and pal- pitation, produced by excessive indulgence in tobacco. T., Indian. See Lobelia.

Todd's Ascending Process. See Scarpa's Fascia. T.'s Cirrhosis, hypertrophic cir- rhosis of the liver.

Toe [AS., td]. A digit of the foot. T. -brace, an appliance for correction of flat-foot and deformed toes. T. -clonus, contraction of the great toe on sudden extension of the first phalanx. T., Flexed, T., Hammer-, a claw-like permanent distortion of a toe in which it is abnormally flexed at the last joint, allowing the tip to rest on the ground while the first joint is raised above the proper level. T. Reflex. See Reflex, Toe.


  • Toilet (tot' -let) [OF., toilette, a cloth]. In surgery, the cleansing, washing, and dressing of an operative wound.

Tokelau Ringworm. See Tinea imbricata. 

  • Tokodynamometer (tok -o -di-nam-om' -et -er) [zokoc, birth; dynamometer]. An instrument for measuring the force of the expulsive efforts of the uterus in childbirth.
  • Tokology (tok-oV -o-je) [tokoc, birth; Xoyoc, science]. The science of obstetrics.
  • Tokomania (to - ko - ma' - ne - ah) [tokoc, birth; [lavca, madness]. Puerperal insanity.
  • Tolerance (toV -er-ans) [tolerare, to bear]. The ability of enduring the influence of a drug or poison, particularly when acquired by a con- tinued use of the substance.

Tollen's Reagent for Glucose. An ammo- niacal silver solution obtained by precipitating silver nitrate solution with caustic potash and adding just enough ammonia to dissolve the precipitate yielded. This solution is reduced by glucose.

  • Tolokno (to-lok'-no). A food prepared chiefly from oats. Used in Russia for superalimen- tation in tuberculosis.
  • Tolu (to-lu') [Santiago de Tolu, in the United States of Colombia, where it was first ob- tained]. Short for balsam of tolu. T., Balsam of (balsamum tolutanum, U. S. P., B. P.), a balsam obtained from Tolnifera balsamum, an evergreen tree of the order Leguminosce. It is used as a stimulant ex- pectorant. Dose 10-30 gr. (0.65-2.0 Gm.). T., Syrup of (syrupus tolutanus, U. S. P., B. P.). Dose 4 dr. (16 Cc). T., Tincture of (tinctura tolutana, U. S. P., B. P.). Dose 30 min. (2 Cc).
  • Toluene (tol'-u-en) [tolu], C 7 H 8 . Methylbeh- zene; a hydrocarbon obtained from coal-tar and also produced in the dry distillation of tolu balsam and many resins.
  • Toluidin (tol-u'-id-in) [tolu], C 7 H 7 .NH 2 . A homolog of anilin, prepared from toluene. T. Blue, dgH^NgSClZnCl'the double salt of zinc chlorid and dimethyltoluthionin. It occurs as a black powder dissolving in water and alcohol with a fine blue coloration. It acts upon lower organisms as a powerful poison and may be employed as is methylene- blue in infectious conjunctivitis, and also as a substitute for fluorescein in fixing the limits of corneal lesion.
  • Toluol (tol'-u-ol). Same as Toluene.
  • Tolylacetamid (tol-il-as-et-am' -id) , C 6 H 4 (CH 3 )- NH.(C 2 H 3 0). A derivative of coal-tar; used as an antiseptic. Dose 2-10 gr. (0.32-0.65 Gm.).

Tolylantipyrin. See Toly pyrin.

  • Tolypyrin (tol-e-pi'-rin), C 12 H }4 N 2 0. Color- less crystals of an intensely bitter taste, sol- uble in water and alcohol ; used as is antipyrin. T. Salicylate, C l2 H 14 N 2 O.C 7 H 6 3 . Dose, in rheumatism, etc., 15-30 gr. (1-2 Gm.).
  • Tolysal (tol'-is-al). Tolypyrin salicylate.

Tomaselli's Disease. Quinin fever, produced by large doses of quinin; it is attended with hematuria, dysuria, dyspnea, threatened col- lapse.

  • Tomentum (to-men' -turn) [L.]. A flock of wool. T. cerebri, the network of small blood-vessels of the pia penetrating the cortex of the brain.

Tomes' Fibers. Elongate, branched pro- cesses of the odontoblasts of the pulp filling the dentinal tubules of teeth.

  • Tomomania (tom-o-ma' -ne-ah) [rofirj, a cutting; fiavta, madness]. An excessive desire to per- form operations.
  • Tone (ton) [xbvoc, from reivetv, to stretch]. 1. A distinct sound. 2. The normal state of tension of a part or of the body.
  • Tonga (tong'-ah). A mixture of various barks, probably of Premna taitensis and Raphidophora vitiensis, brought from the Fiji islands, and used in neuralgia. Dose of a fluidextract i dr. (2 Cc).
  • Tongaline (ton' -gal-en). A proprietary prepa- ration said to contain tonga (bark of Premna taitensis), extract of Cimicifuga racemosa, sodium salicylate, pilocarpin salicylate, and colchicin salicylate. It is recommended in gouty diathesis.
  • Tongue (tung). The movable muscular organ attached to the floor of the mouth, and con- cerned in tasting, masticating, swallowing, and speaking. It consists of a number of muscles, and is covered by mucous membrane from which project numerous papillas, and in which are placed the terminal organs of taste. T., Black, a condition in which the dorsal surface of the tongue is covered with a black coating. T. -depressor, a spatula for pushing down the tongue during the ex- amination of the mouth and throat. T., Fern -leaf Pattern, a name given to a tongue presenting a well-marked central furrow(mid- rib) with lateral branches. T., Filmy, one with whitish, symmetric patches on both sides. T., Furred, a coated tongue the papillas of which are prominent, giving the mucous membrane the appearance of a whitish fur. T., Geographic, one with localized thickening of the epithelium, giving to the surface the appearance of a geographic chart. T., Hairy, one with a hyperplasia of the papillas, giving rise to hair-like projections. T. ? Strawberry, TONIC 980 TOOTH a hyperemic tongue, the fungiform papillas of which are very prominent; it is seen espe- cially in scarlatina. T. -swallowing, a condition in which there is an abnormal mobility of the organ, so that it falls backward, giving rise to danger of suffocation. T.-tie, a congenital shortening of the frenum of the tongue, interfering with its mobility. Syn., Ankyloglossia. T., Wooden, one the seat of actinomycosis.
  • Tonic (ton'-ik) [tone], i. Pertaining to tone; producing normal tone or tension. 2. Char- acterized by continuous tension or contraction, as a tonic spasm, tonic convulsion. 3. An agent or drug producing normal tone of an or- gan or part. T., Cardiac, strengthening the heart-muscle. T., Intestinal, one strength- ening the tone of the intestine. T., Nervine, one increasing the tone of the nervous system. T., Stomachic, one increasing the tone of the stomach. T., Vascular, one increasing the tone or tension of the blood-vessels.
  • Tonicity (ton-is' -it-e) [tone]. The condition of normal tone or tension of organs ; a state of tone.
  • Tonicize (ton'-is-lz) [tone]. To give tone or tension to anything.
  • Toninervin (ton-e-ner' -vin) . A water-soluble salt of quinin said to contain 4.5 % of iron. Dose as antipyretic 2-5 gr. (0.1-0.3 Cm.) every three hours; as tonic f gr. (0.05 Gm.) twice daily.
  • Tonitruphobia (ton-it-ru- fo'-be-ah) [tonitru, thunder; 6/?of, fear]. Morbid dread of thunder.
  • Tonka-bean (tong'-kah-ben). The seed of Dip- teryx odorata, a tree of South America; it con- tains coumarin, and is used as a flavoring agent.
  • Tonograph (ton' -o-graf) [tovoc, tension; ypafacv, to write]. A device for recording the tension of the arterial blood-current.
  • Tonometer (ton-om' -et-er) [tovoc, tone, tension; fxirpov, a measure]. An instrument to measure tension, as that of the eyeball. T., Gart- ner's, one for estimating blood-pressure. T., Musken's, one for measuring the tonicity of the achilles tendon.
  • Tonometry (ton-om' -et-re). The measurement of tonicity.
  • Tonoplasts (ton' -o-plasts) [tovoc, tension ; 71X0.0 p.a, a thing molded]. Small intracellular bodies which build up strongly osmotic substances within themselves and in this way swell to small vacuoles.
  • Tonoscope (ton'-o-skop) [tovoc, tone; okottzIv, to view]. An instrument for examination of the interior of the cranium by means of sound.
  • Tonsil (ton'-sil) [tonsilla]. 1. A small, almond- shaped body, situated on each side of the fauces, between the anterior and posterior pillars of the soft palate. It consists of an aggregation of from 10 to 18 lymph-follicles, and is covered by mucous' membrane, which dips into certain depressions called crypts. 2. A small lobe of the cerebellar hemisphere, situated on the inferior mesial aspect. T., Faucial. See Tonsil (1). T., Lingual, an accumulation of lymphadenoid tissue at the base of the tongue. T., Pharyngeal, a mass of lymphadenoid tissue in the pharynx, between the eustachian tubes. Tonsillar (ton' -sil-ar) [tonsil]. 1. Pertaining to the tonsil, as the tonsillar artery. 2. Af- fecting the tonsil, as tonsillar abscess. Tonsillitis (ton-sil-i'-tis) [tonsil; ncc, inflam- mation]. Inflammation of the tonsil. T., Follicular, a form in which the follicles are especially involved and project as whitish points from the surface of the tonsil. T., Herpetic, a form characterized by an eruption of herpetic vesicles, which soon rupture, leaving small, circular ulcers that coalesce and become covered with a fibrinous ex- udation. The disease has an acute onset, a continuous fever, and a critical decline, affects those subject to herpes elsewhere, and tends to recur. T., Lacunar. Same as T., Follicular. T., Mycotic, tonsillitis due to fungi. T., Pustular, a form characterized by the formation of pustules, as in smallpox. T., Suppurative. Synonym of Quinsy. Tonsillolith (tonsil' -o-lith) [tonsil; X'cOoc, a stone]. A concretion within the tonsil. Tonsillotomy (ton' -sil-o-tom) [tonsil; Toptrj, a cutting]. An instrument for removing or cutting off the tonsil.
  • Tonsillotomy (ton-sil-of -o-me) [see Tonsillotome]. The opera- tion of cutting out the tonsil. T. Rash. See Rash, Amygdalot- omy. Tonsilsector (ton-sil-sek' -tor) . A tonsillotome consisting of a pair of circular scissor-blades mov- ing inside a circular guarding ring. Tonus (to'-nus). See Tone. T., Chemic, the condition of the muscles when at rest and un- dergoing no mechanic exertion. Tooth(tooth) [AS., toth\ One of the small, bone-like organs occupying the alveolar proc- esses of the upper and lower jaws, and serving for tearing and comminuting the food. The teeth begin to appear in the human being about the sev- enth month; by the end of the third year, the eruption of the so-called temporary, deciduous, or milk-teeth, numbering 20, is completed. The permanent teeth begin to replace the de- ciduous teeth about the seventh year. In the adult, the per- manent teeth number 32, or 16 in each jaw, and are divided as follows: 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 bicuspids, and 3 molars in each lateral half of the jaw. Each tooth is composed of a crown, the exposed part, a constricted part, called the neck, and a Tonsillotome part within the alveolus, called 981 STYLOID PROCESS ORIGIN OF STYLOHYOID MANDIBLE INSERTION OF STYLOHYOID PULLEY OF DIGASTRIC Muscles of the Tongue, Viewed from the Right Side. —(Gerrish, after Testut.) Under Surface of Tongue and the Sublingual Space, Showing Openings of Salivary Ducts. — (Gerrish, aj„ Testut.) TOOTH'S TYPE 982 TOUCH the fang or root. In structure a tooth consists of an outer hard substance, the enamel, incasing the crown ; the dentin, within the enamel; and the pulp, a soft, vascular tissue filling the pulp-cavity. The dentin of the root is surrounded by the cement or crusta petrosa. T., Eye-, the upper canine tooth. Teeth, Hutchinson's. See Hutch- inson's Teeth. T., Stomach-, the lower canine tooth. T., Wisdom-, the third mo- lar tooth.

Tooth's Type of Progressive Muscular At- rophy. See Char cot-Marie's Type.


  • Topesthesia (top-es-the'-ze-ah) [totcoc, place; a'codrjotc, sensation]. Local tactile sensibility.
  • Tophaceous (to-fa'-shus) [tophus]. Of the na- ture of tophi; sandy, or gritty.
  • Tophi (to'-fi). Plural of tophus.
  • Tophus (to'-fus) [zd(f)of, stone], i. The hard, stone-like deposits occurring in gout, es- pecially about the knuckles and the car- tilages of the ear, and consisting of sodium urate. 2. The tartar of the teeth.
  • Topo- (to-po-) [tokoc, place]. A prefix meaning relating to a locality; localized.
  • Topoalgia (top-o-al '-je-ah) [topo-; akyoc, pain]. Localized pain, common in neurasthenia, and often appearing suddenly after emotional disturbances.
  • Topographic (top-o-graf'-ik) [see Topography]. Pertaining to a locality. T. Anatomy, the study of the regions occupied by a part, or in which anything occurs.
  • Topography (top-og'-ra-je) [topo-; ypa$et.v, to write]. A study of the regions of the body or its parts, as cerebral topography.
  • Topology (top-ol'-o-je) [topo-; Xoyoc, science]. Topographic anatomy.
  • Toponarcosis (top -o- nar - ko ' - sis) [topo-; vapucoacc, a benumbing]. Local insensibility or anesthesia.
  • Toponeurosis (top-o-nu-ro' '-sis) [topo-; neu- rosis]. A local neurosis.
  • Torcular herophili (tor'-ku-lar her-o} f -il-i) [L., "the wine-press of Herophilus "]. The expanded extremity of the superior longitu- dinal sinus, placed in a depression on the inner surface of the occipital bone. It re- ceives the blood from the occipital sinus, and from it is derived the lateral sinus of the side to which it is deflected.
  • Toril (tor'-il). An extract of meat containing its albuminoids prepared with the addition of savory herbs.
  • Tormen (tor' -men). See Tormina.
  • Tormina (tor' -min-ah) [plural of tormen, a racking pain]. Griping pains in the bowel. T. ventriculi nervosa. See Hyper peri- stalsis. • Torosity (to-ros'-it-e) [torosus, brawny; mus- cular]. Muscular strength.
  • Torpent (tor' -pent) [torpor]. 1. Incapable of the active performance of a function. 2. A medicine or agent that reduces or subdues irritative action.
  • Torpescence (tor-pes' -ens) [torpor]. Numb- ness; torpidity.
  • Torpid (tor'-pid) [torpor]. Affected with torpor.
  • Torpify (tor'-pe-fi). To make numb or torpid; to stupefy.
  • Torpitude (tor' -pe-tud\ Torpidity; numbness.
  • Torpor (tor'-por) [L.]. Sluggishness; inactivity. T. retinae, dulled perceptive power of the retina.
  • Torricellean Vacuum (to-re-tsheV -e-an) [Tor- ricelli, an Italian physicist]. The vacuum above the mercury-column of a barometer.
  • Torsiometer (tor-se-om' -et-er) [torsion; fihpjv, a measure]. An instrument for measuring ocular torsion.
  • Torsion (tor' -shun) [torquere, to twist]. 1. A twisting; also, the rotation of the eye about the visual axis. 2. The tilting of the vertical meridian of the eye.
  • Torsoclusion (tor-sok-lu'-zhun) [torsion; oc- clusion]. A form of acupressure in which the point of the pin is pushed through a portion of the tissue parallel with the course of the vessel to be secured, then carried over its anterior surface, and at the same time swept around until brought to a right angle with the artery, when the point is thrust into the soft parts beyond.

Tort [torquere, to turn]. To tilt the vertical meridian of the eye. Extort, to tilt the ver- tical meridian outward. Intort, to tilt the vertical meridian inward. Intorter, the muscle tilting the vertical meridian of the eye inward.


  • Torticollis (tor-te-kol'-is) [tort; collum, neck]. Wry-neck, a contraction of one or more of the cervical muscles, usually of one side, re- sulting in an abnormal position of the head. T., Rheumatic, stiff-neck, a form due to rheumatism of the sternomastoid or other muscle of the neck. T., Spasmodic, spas- modic contraction of the "muscles of the neck of one side, especially the sternomastoid, causing a drawing of the head toward the opposite side.
  • Torula (tor'-u-lah) [torulus, a small tuft]. 1. A genus of fungi reproducing by budding, many species of which are alcoholic ferments.

2. A chain of spheric bacteria. T. cere- visiae. See Saccharomyces cerevisioz.


  • Torulose (tor'-u-loz) [torula]. Knobbed.
  • Torus (tor' -us) [L.]. 1. A surface having a reg- ular curvature, with two principal meridians of dissimilar curvature at right angles to each other. 2. An elevation or prominence.

3. The tuber cinereum of the brain. T. fron- talis, a protuberance in the region of the frontal sinuses, at the root of the nose. T. palatinus, a protuberance on the surface of the hard palate, marking the point of junction of the intermaxillary and palatomaxillary su- tures.


  • Touch (tuch) [Fr., tou'cher]. 1. The tactile sense. 2. The act of judging by the tactile TOUR BE MAITRE 983 TOXINEMIA sense; palpation, especially palpation of a part with the finger, as rectal touch, vagi- nal touch. T. -corpuscle, a tactile cor- puscle.
  • Tour de Maitre (toor-d'-matr) [Ft., "the master's turn"]. A method of passing a catheter into the bladder in which it is intro- duced into the urethra with the convexity upward, the shaft lying obliquely across the left thigh of the patient, and as the point enters the bulb, the handle is swept around toward the abdomen, when the beak passes into the membranous urethra, and is carried into the bladder by depressing the shaft be- tween the patient's thighs. A sound may be introduced into the uterus in an analogous manner, by entering the instrument with the convexity upward, and then sweeping the shaft around.

Tourette's Disease [Gilles de la Tourette, a French physician]. A convulsive form of tic characterized by motor incoordination with echolalia and coprolalia. T.'s Sign, inversion of the ratio existing normally be- tween the earthy phosphates and alkaline phosphates of the urine; it is found in parox- ysms of hysteria.


  • Tourniquet (toor-nik-et) [Ft., from tourner, to turn]. An instrument for controlling the circulation by means of compression, usually consisting of two metallic plates united by a thumb-screw, and a strap pro- vided with a pad. The strap is fastened about the part, the pad being made to lie over the artery to be occluded. The screw is placed diametrically opposite the pad, and the strap tightened by separating the metallic plates of the screw. T., Dupuytren's, one for compressing the abdominal aorta, con- sisting of a semicircle of metal with a pad at one extremity. T., Esmarch's, one con- sisting of a stout, elastic rubber band applied above the proximal turn of an elastic bandage passing around the part to be rendered blood- less. T., Field-, one consisting of a strap and buckle with a pad to be placed over the artery. T., Horseshoe, one shaped like a horseshoe, to compress only two points, and thus permit venous return. T., Provisional, one applied loosely, so that it may be tightened at once upon the recurrence of hemorrhage. T., Signorini's. See T., Horseshoe.

Tow. The coarse part of flax or hemp, used as an absorbent.


  • Tox-, Toxico-, Toxo- (toks-, toks-ik-o-, toks-o-) [zo^cnov, poison]. Prefixes signifying poison- ous or caused by a poison.
  • Toxalbumin (toks-al-bu'-min) [tox-; albumin]. A poisonous proteid. Toxalbumins have been obtained from cultures of bacteria and from certain plants. See Toxin (2).
  • Toxanemia (toks-an-e' '-me-ah) [tox-; anemia]. Anemia produced by poison.
  • Toxemia (toks-e' '-me-ah) [tox-; alpta, blood]. Blood-poisoning, a condition in which the blood contains poisonous products, either those produced by the body-cells or those due to the growth of microorganisms.
  • Toxemic (toks-em'-ik, toks-e'-mik) [see Toxemia]. Pertaining to, affected with, or caused by toxemia.
  • Toxenzym (toks' -en-zim) . . A toxic enzym.
  • Toxic (toks'-ik) [toxin]. Poisonous; produced by a poison.
  • Toxicant (toks' -ik-ant) [toxic]. 1. Poisonous or toxic. 2. A poisonous agent.
  • Toxichemitosis (toks -ik-em-it-o' - sis) [toxic; dljia, blood]. Blood-poisoning.
  • Toxicity (toks-is' -it-e) [toxic]. The quality of being toxic.
  • Toxicoderma (toks-ik-o-der'-mah) [toxico-; dip/xa, skin]. Disease of the skin due to poison.
  • Toxicogenic (toks-ik-o-jen' -ik) [toxico-; jzvvav, to produce]. Producing poisons.
  • Toxicology (toks-ik-ol'-o-je) [toxico-; ~kbjoc, science]. The science of the nature and effects of poisons, their detection, and the treatment of their effects.
  • Toxicomania (toks- ik-o- ma' -ne- ah) [toxico-; [xavca, madness]. 1. Morbid desire to con- sume poison. 2. Toxiphobia.
  • Toxicopathy (toks-ik-op' -a-ihe) [toxico-; nadog, disease]. Disease of toxic origin.
  • Toxicosis (toks-ik-o' -sis) [toxin]. A state of poisoning.
  • Toxiferous (toks-if -er-us) [toxin; jerre, to bear]. Producing or conveying poison.

Toxin [to^ckov, poison]. 1. Any poisonous ni- trogenous compound produced by animal or vegetable cells. 2. Any poisonous substance, proteid in nature, produced by animal or vegetable cells, by immunization with which specific antitoxins may be obtained. Syn., Toxalbumin. T., Animal, one produced by the metabolic activity of animal cells, as snake-venom. T., Bacterial, one produced by the metabolic activity of bacteria, as diph- theria toxin. T., Extracellular, a bacterial toxin elaborated by a microorganism and thrown off into the surrounding medium. The majority of the best known toxins are extra- cellular. T., Intracellular, a bacterial toxin contained in the bodies of the bacteria themselves. T.s, Ponogenic, toxins such as are characteristic of nerve-tissue waste. T.- unit, consists of two parts, a haptophore complex which unites it with the cell receptor (or lateral chain), and the toxophore complex, which is the poisonous element. T., Vege- table. 1. Any toxin produced by vegetable cells. 2. Specifically, one produced by higher plants, as ricin (produced by the ' castor-oil plant), abrin (produced by the jequirity plant).


  • Toxiphobia (toks-e-fo'-be-ah) (toxin; 6pog, fear]. Morbid dread of being poisoned.
  • Toxiphoric (toks-if-or' -ik) . See Toxijerous. T. Side-chain, applied by Ehrlich to atom groups which combine with the toxin of any particular disease-germ.
  • Toxis (toks'-is). See Toxicosis.
  • Toxitherapy (toks-e-ther 1 '-ap-e) . The thera- peutic use of antitoxins.
  • Toxoid (toks'-oid) [toxin; sldo?, likeness]. A toxin transformation-product destitute of toxic effect.
  • Toxomucin (toks-o-mu'-sin) [toxo-; mucus]. A toxic substance obtained from cultures of tubercle bacilli.
  • Toxon (toks'-on) [toxin], Ehrlich' s name for any one of several substances which appear in fresh toxins; they neutralize antitoxin and are feebly poisonous.
  • Toxonosis (toks-on-o'-sis) [toxo-; voaoc, disease]. An affection resulting from the action of a poison.
  • Toxopeptone (toks-o-pep'-ton). A poisonous proteid, resembling peptone in its behavior to heat and reagents, produced in peptone cultures by the comma bacillus.
  • Toxophore (toks'-o-for) [toxo-; ips~iv, to bear]. That complex of atoms of a toxin-unit which is the poisonous element of a toxin.
  • Toxosozin (toks-o-so' '-zin) . See under Sozin.

Toynbee's Corpuscles [Toynbee, an English otologist]. The corneal corpuscles. T^s Ex- periment, rarefaction of the air contained in the tympanic cavity by swallowing while the mouth and nose are closed. T.'s Law. See Gull-Toynbee's Law. T.'s Ligament, the tensor ligament; the fibrous sheath of the tendon of the tensor tympani.


  • Trabecula (tra-bek'-u-lah) [L., "a small beam"]. Any one of the fibrous bands extending from the capsule into the interior of an organ.
  • Trace (tras). A mark. T., Primitive. See Primitive Streak.
  • Trachea (tra'-ke-ah) [xpa%e~ca, a windpipe]. The windpipe; the cartilaginous and membra- nous tube extending from the lower part of the larynx to its division into the two bronchi.
  • Tracheal (tra'-ke-al) [trachea]. Pertaining to or produced in the trachea. T. Tugging, the downward tugging movement of the larynx, sometimes observed in aneurysm of the aortic arch.
  • Trachealis Muscle (trak-e-a' -lis) [trachea]. The intrinsic transverse muscle-fibers found in the trachea.
  • Tracheitis (tra-ke-i' '-tis) [trachea; tree, inflam- mation]. Inflammation of the trachea.
  • Trachelalis (trak-el-a' -lis) [xpa%r)\oc, neck]. The trachelomastoid muscle. See under Muscle.
  • Trachelectomopexia (tra - kel -ek-to-mo- peks'- e-ah) [rpaxrj Xoc, neck; iKxoptrj, excision; nf^cg, a fixing]. Partial excision with fixation of the neck of the uterus.
  • Trachelectomy (tra-kel-ek'-to-me) [trachelo-; enTOfiT), excision]. Excision of the neck of the uterus.
  • Trachelian (tra-ke' '-le-an) [xpa%7)Xof, neck]. Pertaining to the neck, particularly its dorsal part.
  • Trachelismus (tra-kel-is'-mus) [xphxrjloc, neck]. Spasmodic contraction of the muscles of the neck.
  • Trachelitis (tra-kel-i'-tis) [trachelo-; exec, inflam- mation]. Inflammation of the neck of the uterus.
  • Trachelo- (trak-el-o-) [xpaxr)Xoc, neck]. A pre- fix denoting pertaining to the neck.
  • Trachelobregmatic (tra -kel-o- breg - mat' - ik) [trachelo-; bregma]. Relating to the neck and the bregma.
  • Trachelomastoid (trak-el-o -mas' '-toid) [trach- elo-; mastoid]. Pertaining to the neck and the mastoid process.
  • Trachelooccipital (tra-kel-o-ok-sip'-it-aV). Re- lating to the nape of the neck and the occiput.
  • Trachelopexia (tra-kel-o-peks'-e-ah) [trach- elo-; 7:rj$ec- } a fixing]. Fixation of the neck of the uterus.
  • Tracheoplasty (trak' ' -el-o-plas-te) [trachelo-; TiXaoaecv, to mold]. Plastic operation on the neck of the uterus.
  • Trachelorrhaphy (trak-el-or'-a-fe) [trachelo-; pa7], suture]. Repair of a laceration of the cervix uteri.
  • Trachelotomy (trak-el-ot'-o-me) [trachelo-; xo/nr], a cutting]. Incision into the cervix uteri.
  • Tracheo- (tra-ke-o-) [xpax^ia, trachea]. A pre- fix denoting connection with or relation to the trachea.
  • Tracheoaerocele (tra-ke-o-a' -er-o-sel) [tracheo-; df)p, air; ktjXt], tumor]. A diverticulum of the trachea.
  • Tracheobronchitis (tra-ke-o-brong-ki' -tis) [tra- cheo-; bronchitis]. Inflammation of the tra- chea and bronchi.
  • Tracheocele (tra' -ke-o-seV) [tracheo-; ktjXt], tu- mor], i . Protrusion of the mucous membrane of the trachea. 2. Goiter.
  • Tracheoesophageal (tra -ke-o -es-of-aj'- e-al) [tracheo-; esophagus]. Pertaining to the tra- chea and the esophagus.
  • Tracheolaryngeal (tra -ke-o-lar- in' - je - al) [tracheo-; larynx]. Pertaining to the trachea and the larynx.
  • Tracheoplasty (tra'-ke-o-plast-e). Plastic sur- gery of the trachea.
  • Tracheoschisis (tra -ke- os' - kis - is) [tracheo-; oxK tlv i to split]. Fissure of the trachea.
  • Tracheoscopy (tra -ke-os'-ko- pe) [tracheo-; GKOize'cv, to inspect]. Inspection of the in- terior of the trachea by means of a laryngo- scopic mirror and reflected light.
  • Tracheostenosis (tra-ke-o-sten-o'-sis) [tracheo-; stenosis]. Stenosis of the trachea.
  • TRACHEOTOME 985 TRANSFORATION Tracheotome (tra'-lze-o-tom) [tracheo-; xo[ir), close to the septum as high as the eleventh a cutting]. A cutting instrument used in dorsal segment, tracheotomy. Traction (trak' -shun) [trahere, to draw]. The Tracheotomist (tra-ke-ot'-om-ist). One skilled act of drawing or pulling. T. -aneurysm, in tracheotomy. an aneurysm due to traction on the aorta by Tracheotomize (tra-ke-ot r -om-iz). To per- an incompletely atrophied ductus arteriosus, form tracheotomy upon. T., Axis-, traction in the axis or direction of Tracheotomy (tra-ke-ot'-o-me) [see Tracheo- a channel, as of the pelvis, through which a tome]. The operation of cutting into the body is to be drawn. T., Axis-, Forceps, trachea through the cricothyroid membrane, an obstetric forceps for performing axis- or through the cricoid cartilage and the upper traction in the delivery of the fetus. T.-di- part of the trachea. T., Inferior, one per- verticulum, a circumscribed sacculation of formed below the isthmus of the thyroid gland. the esophagus from the traction of adhesions.
  • Trachielcosis (tra-ke-el-ko' -sis) [tracheo-; eXuoc, Tractoration (trak-tor-a' -shun) [tractor]. Treat- an ulcer]. Ulceration of the trachea. ment by metallic tractors. See Perkinism.
  • Trachielcus (tra-ke-el r -kus). An ulcer of the Tractus (trak'-tus). See Tract.
  • trachea. Tragacanth (trag'-a-kanth) [xpafanavda, "goat- Trachitis (tra-ki' -tis) . See Tracheitis. thorn"]. A gummy exudation from various Trachoma (tra-ko'-mah) [rpayug, rough]. A species of A stragalus, of the order Leguminosce, contagious disease of the eyelids characterized constituting the tragacantha of the U. S. P.

by small, sago-like elevations on the con- and B. P. It resembles gum-arabic, and junctiva, and later by cicatricial contraction is used as a demulcent, and is added to water and deformity of the lids. The friction of to suspend insoluble powders and for making the elevations (trachoma-granulations) against troches. T., Glycerin of (glycerinum trag- the cornea often produces ulcer or pannus. acanthce, B. P.). T., Mucilage of (mucilago Syn., Granular conjunctivitis; Granular lids. tragacanthce, U. S. P.). Dose 4 dr. (16 Cc).

  • T. deformans, a name given to a form of T., Powder of, Compound (pulvis trag- vulvitis at the stage when it results in diffuse acanthce compositus, B. P.). Dose 30 gr.-i dr.
  • choma. Tragal (tra'-gaT) [tragus]. Pertaining to the Trachomatous (tra-ko' -mat -us) [trachoma]. tragus.
  • Trachyphonia (trak-if-o'-ne-ah) [zpa%ur, rough; Tragus (tra'-gus) [zpayog, goat]. The small ffxovr], voice]. Roughness or hoarseness of prominence of cartilage projecting over the the voice. meatus of the external ear.

Tract [tractus]. 1. A distinct, more or less Trajector (tra-jek' -tor) [L., "a piercer"]. An defined region having considerable length. instrument used to determine the approximate 2. Any one of the columns of white matter location of a bullet in the cranium, of the spinal cord. 3. A track or course. Trance (trans) [transire, to pass over]. A form T., Alimentary, the alimentary canal, ex- of abnormal sleep from which the patient tending from the mouth to the anus. T., ordinarily cannot be aroused, and which is Cerebellar, an ascending tract of fibers at dependent upon hysteria (hysteric trance) the periphery of the posterior portion of the or hypnotism.

lateral column of the spinal cord. T., De- Trans- [trans, across]. A prefix denoting scending Anterolateral, a few long fibers through or across. scattered in the anterior and lateral ground- Transaudient (trans-aw' -de-ent) [trans-; audire, bundles of the spinal cord. T., Digestive, to hear]. Allowing the transmission of sound, the alimentary tract. T., Direct Cerebellar. Transcortical (trans-kor 1 '-tik-al) [trans-; cortex].

See TV, Cerebellar. T., Genitourinary, Across the cortex.

tinuation in the spinal cord of the ventral 2. See Telepathy.


  • Transformation (trans- for-ma' -shun) [trans-; formare, to form]. A change of form or constitution; degeneration.
  • Transfusion (trans-fu' '-zhun) [trans-; fundere, to pour]. The pouring of liquid from one vessel into another; especially the introduction into a vessel of the body of blood or other liquid. T., Arterial, transfusion of blood into an artery. T., Direct, T., Immediate, the transfusion of blood from one person to another without exposure of the blood to the air. T., Indirect, T., Mediate, the intro- duction of blood that was first drawn into a vessel. T., Venous, transfusion into a vein.
  • Transic (trans'-ik) [trance]. Relating to a trance.
  • Transillumination (trans -il-u- min -a'- shun) [trans-; illumination]. Illumination of the walls of a cavity by a light passed through them.
  • Translation (trans-la' -shun) [L., translatus]. A change of location.
  • Translucent (trans-lu' -sent) [trans-; lucere, to shine]. Permitting a partial transmission of light; somewhat transparent.
  • Transmigration (trans-mi-gra'-shun) [trans-; migrare, to wander]. A wandering across or through; as transmigration of the ovum, transmigration of the white corpuscles. T., External, the passage of an ovum from one ovary to the opposite oviduct without traver- sing the uterus. T., Internal, the passage of the ovum through its proper oviduct into the uterus and across to the opposite oviduct.
  • Transmission (trans-mish' -un) [trans-; mittere, to send]. The communication or transfer of anything, especially disease, from one person or place to another.
  • Transonance (trans' -o-nans) [trans-; sonare, to sound]. Transmitted resonance; the trans- mission of sound through an organ, as of the cardiac sounds through the lungs and chest- wall.
  • Transparent (trans-pa' -rent) [trans-; par ere, to appear]. Having the property of permitting the passage of light-rays without material obstruction, so that objects beyond the body can be seen.
  • Transpiration (trans-pir-a' -shun) [trans-; spi- rare, to breathe], i. The act of exhaling fluid or gas through the skin. 2. The material exhaled.
  • Transplantation (trans-plan-ta' -shun) [trans-; plantare, to plant]. The operation of trans- planting or of applying to a part of the body tissues taken from another body or from an- other part of the same body. See Graft.
  • Transposition (trans-po-zish'-un) [trans-; po- sition]. A change of position. T. of the Viscera, a change in the position of the viscera whereby they are placed on the side opposite to that normally occupied.
  • Transthoracic (trans - tho - ras ' - ik) [trans-; thorax]. Extending across the thorax.
  • Transthoracotomy (trans -tho-rak-ot' '-o -me) [trans-; thorax; zo/xrj, a cutting]. The opera- tion of cutting across the thorax.
  • Transudate (trans' -u-dat) [trans-; sudare, to perspire]. A liquid or other substance pro- duced by transudation.
  • Transudation (trans-u-da' -shun) [transudate]. 1. The passing of fluid through a membrane, especially of blood-serum through the vessel- walls. 2. Transudate.
  • Transversalis (trans-ver-sa' -lis) [trans-; vertere, to turn]. Transverse; an artery (transversalis colli) or a muscle (transversalis abdominis) running transversely. See under Artery and under Muscle. T. Fascia, the fascia on the inner surface of the transversalis abdominis between the latter and the peritoneum.
  • Transverse (trans-vers') [trans-; vertere, to turn]. Crosswise; at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the body. T. Presentation, a pre- sentation of the fetus at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the uterus.
  • Transversectomy (trans-ver-sek'-to-me) [trans- verse; iKTOfir/, excision]. Removal of the transverse process of a vertebra.
  • Transversus (trans-ver'-sus) [L.]. Transverse, as transversus muscle. See under Muscle.
  • Trapeziometacarpal (tra-pe-ze-o-met-ah-kar'- pal) [trapezium; metacarpal]. Pertaining to the trapezium and the metacarpus.
  • Trapezium (tra-pe'-ze-um) [rpane^a, a table]. 1. The multangulum majus, the first bone of the second row of carpal bones. 2. A tract of transverse fibers situated in the lower part of the pons, inclosing the superior olivary nucleus, and connected with the accessory auditory nucleus.
  • Trapezoid (trap' -ez-oid) [xpane^a, a table; ddoc, like]. A geometric four-sided figure having two parallel and two diverging sides. T. Bone, or simply trapezoid, the multangulum minus, the second bone of the second row of the carpus. T. Ligament. See Ligament, Trapezoid.

Trapp's Formula. The product obtained by doubling the last two figures of the specific gravity of the urine roughly indicates the number of grams of solids per 1000 Cc. of urine.

Traube's Corpuscles. Normal red blood- corpuscles appearing as pale yellowish rings. Syn., Phantom corpuscles. T.'s Curves, large rhythmic undulations seen in a sphygmo- graphic tracing soon after respiration has ceased; they are attributed to stimulation of the vasomotor center in the oblongata. T.'s Dyspnea, dyspnea with slow respiratory movements, marked expansion of the thorax during inspiration, and collapse during ex- piration; it is noted in diabetes mellitus. T.'s Phenomenon, a double sound, systolic and diastolic, heard over peripheral arteries, es- pecially the femoral, in aortic insufficiency, occasionally also in mitral stenosis, lead-poison- TRAUBE-HERING'S CURVES 987 TRIANGLE ing, etc. T.'s Plugs. See Dittrich's Plugs. T.'s Semilunar Space, the space in which the tympanitic sound- of the stomach can be heard within the thorax under normal con- ditions; it is bounded by the liver, the lower border of the left lung, the spleen, and the arch of the free ribs.

Traube-Hering's Curves. See Traube's Curves.


  • Trauma (traw'-mah) [rpaBfia, a wound]. A wound; an injury.
  • Traumatic (traw-maf -ik) [trauma]. Per- taining to or caused by a wound or injury.
  • Traumaticin (traiv-maV '-is-in) [trauma]. A solution of guttapercha in chloroform used for closing superficial wounds.
  • Traumatism (tra-vo' -mat-izm) [trauma], i". The condition produced by trauma. 2. Improp- erly, trauma.
  • Traumatol (trcew'-mat-ot) [trauma]. Iodo- cresol, C 7 H 7 IO, obtained by the action of iodin on cresol. It is an odorless, reddish- violet precipitate containing 54% of iodin, soluble in chloroform and carbon sulfid, insoluble in water, acid, and alcohol. It is a surgical antiseptic, used pure as a dusting- powder and in 5-10% pastes and ointments.
  • Traumatology (traw-mat-oV '-o-je) [trauma; Aoyoc, science]. The science of wounds.
  • Traumatopnea (traw-mat-op-ne'-ah) [trauma; -vor h breath]. The passage of respiratory air through a wound in the chest-wall.
  • Treacle (tre'-kl). The uncrystallized residue remaining after the refining of cane-sugar.
  • Treatment (tret'-ment) [tractare, to treat]. The means employed in effecting the cure of disease; the management of disease or of diseased patients. T., Calot's, a method of forcible reduction of angular deformity of the spine.
  • Trefusia (tre-fu' -ze-ah) . A red-brown, soluble powder, obtained by drying defibrinated blood. It is used in chlorosis.
  • Trehalose (tre-hal'-os), C 12 H 22 O n . A carbo- hydrate resembling sugar, derived from ergot and from trehala manna.

Tfeitz's Hernia. Retroperitoneal hernia; duo- denojejunal hernia. T.'s Muscle, the sus- pensory muscle of the duodenum; a thin, triangular muscle that arises from the left crus of the diaphragm and the connective tissue surrounding the celiac axis, and is inserted into the duodenojejunal flexure.


  • Trematode (trem'-at-od) [-pr^a, hole; slooc, like]. A member of the Trematoda, a class of worms, some of which are parasitic in man and the lower animals.
  • Tremograph (trem'-o-graf) [tremor; rpa$r n a writing]. A device for recording tremor.
  • Tremolo (trem'-o-lo). An apparatus for per- forming massage; a vibrator.
  • Tremor (trem'-or) [tremere, to shake]. A trem- bling of the voluntary muscles. T., Fib- rillary, tremor caused by consecutive contractions of separate muscle-fibrils. T., Intention-, one appearing on voluntary movement. T. potatorum, delirium tremens. T., Purring. Synonym of Thrill, Purring.
  • Tremulous (trem'-u-lus) [tremor]. Trembling, quivering, as tremulous iris.
  • Trepan (tre-pan') [xpu-av, bore]. An old form of the word trephine.
  • Trephine (tre-fin') [Fr., trephine]. 1. An in- strument for cutting out a circular piece of bone, usually from the skull. 2. To operate with the trephine.
  • Trephining (tre-fi'-ning) [trephine]. The op- eration of cutting out a piece of bone with a trephine.
  • Trepidation ( trep -id -a' -slum) [trepidare, to tremble]. 1. Trembling. 2. A peculiar os- cillatory movement at times seen in the mus- cles after hemiplegia.

Tretrop's Test for Albumin in Urine. Four or 5 Cc. of fresh urine are heated in a test-tube nearly to boiling-point, and a few drops of 40% formalin added after it is removed from the flame. If there is any albumin in the urine, it coagulates like the white of an egg, and accumulates on the surface of the urine and on the walls of the tube.

Treves' Bloodless Fold. The ileoappendicular fold. A quadrilateral fold of the peritoneum attached by its upper border to the ileum, opposite the mesenteric attachment, and by its lower border to the mesoappendix or to the appendix itself. The outer or right border is attached to the inner aspect of the cecum as far down as the appendix, the left or inner concave margin being free.

Tri- [t|0£?c, or tres, three]. A prefix denoting three.


  • Triacid (tri-as'-id) [tri-; acidum, acid]. Of an alcohol, containing three atoms of hydrogen replaceable by a base.
  • Triad (tri' -ad). See under Quantivalence.
  • Triakaidekaphobia (tri -a- ki - dek - af-o'-be-ah) [rpcaKawsKa, thirteen; (frbfoc, fear]. Insane fear of the number thirteen.

Trial -glasses, T. -lenses. A graduated set of concave, convex, cylindric, and prismatic lenses used in testing vision.


  • Triallylamin (tri-al-il-am' -in) . A volatile base having the formula (C 3 H 5 ) 3 N.
  • Triamin (tri-am r -in) . A compound derived from three molecules of ammonia in which the hydrogen has in part or wholly been re- placed by bases.
  • Triangle (tri'-ang-gl) [tri-; anguhts, an angle]. A figure having three sides and three angles. T. of Bryant. See T., Iliofemoral. T., Carotid, Inferior, a triangle located in the neck; it is bounded in front by the median line of the neck, behind by the anterior mar- gin of the sternomastoid, and above by the anterior belly of the omohyoid. Its floor is formed by the longus colli below and the scalenus anticus above. The common TRIANGLE 9S8 TRIANGLE carotid artery, internal jugular vein, vagus nerve, superficialis colli nerve, a branch of the communicans noni, the inferior thy- roid artery, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, the sympathetic nerve, the trachea, thyroid gland, and larynx are the important structures within it. Syn., Triangle of necessity. T., Carotid, Superior, a triangle located in the neck; it is bounded behind by the sternomas- toid, in front by the anterior belly of the omohyoid, and above by the posterior belly of the digastric. Its floor is formed by the thyrohyoid, hyoglossus, and inferior and middle constrictors of the pharynx. The most important structures contained within it are the common carotid artery and its bi- furcation into the external and internal carot- ids, the superior thyroid artery, the lingual artery, the facial artery, the occipital and ascending laryngeal arteries, the internal jugular vein, and the veins corresponding to the arteries mentioned, the descendens noni, hypoglossal, pneumogastric, sympathetic, spinal accessory, superior laryngeal, and external laryngeal nerves. Syn., Triangle of election. T., Cephalic, a triangle on the anteroposterior plane of the skull, bounded by lines joining the occiput with the forehead and with the chin and a line joining the latter two. T., Digastric. See T., Submaxil- lary. T. of Elbow, a triangle lying in front of the elbow with the base directed upward toward the humerus, and bounded externally by the supinator longus and internally by the pronator radii teres. Its floor is formed by the brachialis anticus and supinator brevis. Its contents are the brachial artery and veins, the radial and ulnar arteries, the median and musculospiral nerves, and the tendon of the biceps. T. of Election. See T., Carotid, Superior. T., Fascial, a triangle formed by lines uniting the basion with the alveolar and nasal points and a line joining the latter two. T., Frontal, a triangle bounded by the maximum frontal diameter and lines joining its extremities and the glabella. T. of Hesselbach. See Hesselbach's Triangle. T., Hypoglossohyoid, a triangular space in the lateral subhyoid region, limited above by the hypoglossal nerve, in front by the posterior border of the mylohyoid muscle, behind and below by the tendon of the digastric muscle. The area is occupied by the hyoglossal mus- cle, which covers the lingual artery. T., Iliofemoral, a triangle located at the hip. Its hypothenuse is formed by Nelaton's line, a second side by the continuation outward of a line drawn through the two superior iliac spines, and the third by a line drawn at right angles to this from the summit of the greater trochanter. T., Inferior Occipital, a tri- angle having the bimastoid diameter for its base and the inion for its apex. T., Infra- clavicular, a triangle situated below the clavicle; it is bounded above by the clavicle, below and to the inner side by the upper border of the great pectoral muscle, and to the outer side by the anterior border of the deltoid. It contains the axillary artery. T., Inguinal. Same as TV, Scarpa's. T. of Lesser, a triangle located in the neck. Its boundaries are as follows : at its upper border, the hypoglossal nerve; the two sides are formed by the anterior and posterior bellies of the digastric muscle. It is covered by the skin, superficial and deep fascias, and apex of the submaxillary gland. The floor is formed by the hyoglossus muscle. It con- tains the ranine vein and hypoglossal nerve. T., Lumbocostoabdominal, a triangle bounded anteriorly by the external oblique, superiorly by. the lower border of the serratus posticus inferior and the point of the twelfth rib, posteriorly by the outer edge of the erector spinae, and inferiorly by the internal oblique. T., Malgaigne's. See T., Carotid, Superior. T., Mylohyoid, the space bounded by the mylohyoid and the two bellies of the digastric. T. of Necessity. Same as T., Carotid, In- ferior. T. of the Neck, Anterior, a triangle bounded anteriorly by a line extending from the chin to the sternum, posteriorly by the anterior margin of the sternomastoid, the base being formed by the lower border of the body of the inferior maxilla and a con- tinuation of this line to the mastoid process of the temporal bone. It is subdivided into three smaller triangles by the digastric muscle above and the anterior belly of the omohyoid below. These are named from below upward the inferior carotid, the superior carotid, and the submaxillary. T. of the Neck, Posterior, a triangle bounded anteriorly by the sternomastoid muscle, posteriorly by the anterior margin of the trapezius; the base is formed by the upper border of the clavicle; the apex corresponds to the occiput. It is divided by the posterior belly of the omo- hyoid muscle into two triangles, the occipital or upper, and the subclavian or loafer. T., Occipital, a triangle with the following boundaries: anteriorly, the sternomastoid muscle; posteriorly, the trapezius; and below, the omohyoid muscle. Its important contents are the spinal accessory nerve, the ascending and descending branches of the cervical plexus, and the transversalis colli artery and vein. T. of Petit. See Petti' s Triangle. T., Scarpa's, a triangle located in the proximal third of the thigh. The boundaries are, externally, the sartorius muscle; internally, the adductor longus muscle, and above, Poupart's ligament. Its important contents are the femoral artery and vein, the anterior crural nerve, and the crural branch of the genitocrural nerve. T., Subclavian, a triangle bounded above by the posterior belly of the omohyoid muscle, below by the upper border of the clavicle. Its base is formed by the sternomastoid muscle. It contains the subclavian artery and occa- sionally the vein, the brachial plexus of nerves, the suprascapular vessels, the trans- versalis colli artery and vein, and the external jugular vein. T., Submaxillary, a triangle TRIANGULAR 989 TRICHOGLOSSIA formed above by the lower border of the body of the inferior maxilla and a con- tinuation of this line to the mastoid process of the temporal bone, below by the posterior belly of the digastric and the stylohyoid muscle, and anteriorly by the middle line of the neck. It contains the submaxillary gland, the facial artery and vein, the submental artery, the mylohyoid artery and nerve, and the stylomaxillary ligament, behind which is the external carotid artery. T., Suboccip- ital, a triangle in the posterior part of the neck, formed by the rectus capitis posticus major and superior and inferior oblique muscles, and containing the vertebral artery. T., Suprameatal. See Mace-wen's Triangle.
  • Triangular (tri-ang' -gii-lar) [triangle]. Hav- ing three sides or angles, as the triangular ligament.
  • Triangularis (tri-ang-gu-la'-ris). A triangular muscle. See under Muscle.
  • Triatomic (tri-at-om'-ik) [tri-; atom], i. Con- sisting of three atoms. 2. Having three atoms of replaceable hydrogen.
  • Tribadism (trib'-ad-izm) [zpc^ecv, to rub]. Sexual intercourse between women produced by friction of the genitals.
  • Tribasic (tri-ba'-sik) [tri-; basis, a base]. Hav- ing three hydrogen atoms replaceable by bases.
  • Tribromid (tri-brom'-id) [tri-; bromid]. A compound of bromin containing three atoms of bromin to one of the base.
  • Tribrommethane (tri - brom - meth' - an) [tri-; bromin; methane]. Bromoform.
  • Tribromosalol, Tribromsalol (tri-bro-mo-sa'- lol, tri-brom-sa'-lol), C 6 H 5 .C 7 H 2 Br 3 3 . A crystalline substance used as an intestinal antiseptic and hypnotic.
  • Tribromphenol (tri-brom-)e' -nol) [tri-; J3pu)jj.oc, stench; phenol], C 6 H 2 BrOH. A substance produced by the reaction of phenol with bromin. It is antiseptic, especially for the intestinal tract. Dose 1-4 gr.(0.06-0.26 Gm.).
  • Tricalcic (tri-kal'-sik) [tri-; calcium]. Con- taining three atoms of calcium.
  • Tricaudalis (tri-kaw-da' -lis) [tri-; cauda, a tail]. The retrahens aurem muscle; so called be- cause it is composed of three slips.
  • Triceps (tri'-seps) [tri-; caput, head]. Three- headed; a muscle having three heads. See under Muscle.
  • Trich-, Tricho- (trik-, trik-o-) [dpc£, a hair]. A prefix signifying pertaining to a hair.
  • Trichangeia (trik-an-je'-ah) [trich-; ayytuov, a vessel]. The capillary blood-vessels.
  • Trichangeiectasis (trik-an-je-ek-ta' -sis) [trich- angeia; 'inzaacc, extension]. Dilation of the capillaries.
  • Trichauxis (trik-awks'-is) [trich-; auyj}otc, in- crease]. Hypertrichiasis.
  • Trichesthesia (trik-es-the' -ze-ah) [trich-; aioQ-T)otc, sensibility]. 1. A peculiar form of tactile sensibility in regions covered with hairs. 2. See Trichoesthesia.
  • Trichiasis (trik-i' -as-is) [dpi$, a hair]. A state of abnormal position of the eyelashes, so that they produce irritation by friction upon the globe. T. of the Anus, an incur- vation of the hairs about the anus, so that they irritate the mucous membrane.
  • Trichina (trik-i'-nah) [dpc$, a hair]. A genus of nematode worms, of which one species, T. spiralis, is parasitic in the hog and at times in man. See Trichinosis.
  • Trichinoscope (trik-i' -no- skop). A micro- scope for the detection of Trichina spiralis.
  • Trichinosis (trik-in-o'-sis) [trichina]. A dis- ease produced by the ingestion of pork con- taining Trichina spiralis. It is characterized by nausea, vertigo, fever, diarrhea, prostration, stiffness and painful swelling of the muscles, edema of the face, and in some cases perspi- ration, insomnia, and delirium.
  • Trichinous (trik' -in-us) [trichina]. Infested with or containing trichinae.
  • Trichismus (trik-iz'-mus) [Opc^, a hair]. 1. A scarcely perceptible fracture. 2. A capillary fissure or crack.
  • Trichitis (trik-i' -tis) [trich-; exec, inflammation]. Inflammation of the hair-bulbs.
  • Trichloracetic Acid (tri - klor -as-e' - tik) . See A cid, Trichloracetic* Trichlorhydrin (tri-klor-hi'-drin), C 3 H 5 C1 3 . A colorless oily liquid with odor of alcohol.
  • Trichlorid (tri-klor'-id) [tri-; chlorid]. A com- pound containing chlorin in the proportion of three atoms to one of the base.
  • Trichloroquinone (tri-klo-ro-kin'-on), C 6 HC1 3 - 2 . A crystalline substance obtained from a sulfuric-acid solution of phenol by action of potassium chlorate with HC1.
  • Trichlorphenol (tri-klor-fe'-nol) [tri-; x^ajpoc, green; phenol], C 6 H 2 Cl 3 (OH). A derivative of phenol used as a disinfectant.
  • Trichobacteria (trik-o-bak-te'-re-ah). 1. Fla- gellate bacteria. 2. Filamentous bacteria.
  • Trichobezoar (trik-o-be'-zo-ar) [tricho-; bezoar]. See Egagropilus.
  • Trichocardia (trik-o-kar'-de-ah) [tricho-; mpd'ca, heart]. Inflammation of the pericardium with pseudomembranous elevations.
  • Trichocephaliasis (trik -o-sef-al-i' -as - is) [tricho cephalus]. The diseased condition pro- duced by threadworms.
  • Trichocephalus (trik-o-sef -al-us) [tricho-; Ke<$aX-q, head]. A genus of nematode worms, the threadworms. T. dispar, a variety parasitic in the intestine, especially the large intestine.
  • Trichocirsus (trik-o-sir'-sus) [tricho-; ncpobc, a varix]. Abnormal capillary dilation.
  • Trichoclasia (trik-o-kla' -ze-ah) . See Trichor- rhexis nodosa.
  • Trichoepithelioma (trik -o- ep-e- the- le -o'-mah) [tricho-; epithelioma]. A skin-tumor origin- ating in the hair-follicles.
  • Trichoesthesia (trik-o-es-the' -ze-ah) [tricho-; a'iodeacc, sensibility]. The sensation per- ceived when a hair is touched.
  • Trichoglossia (trik-o-glos'-e-ah) [tricho-; yXtuooa, tongue]. Hairy tongue, a thickening of the papillas, producing an appearance as if the tongue were covered with hair, TRICHOID 990 TRIHYDRIC Trichoid (trik'-oid) [tricho-; eldog, like]. Re- sembling hair.
  • Trichology (trik-ol'-o-je) [tricho-; Xoyoc, science]. The science of the hair.
  • Trichomatose (trik-o' -mat-os) [rp'cx^p-a, a growth of hair]. Matted together.
  • Trichomatosis (trik-o-mat-o' -sis) [see Tricho- matose]. An affection of the hair charac- terized by a matted condition due to fungoid growths. See Plica polonica.
  • Trichomonas (trik-om' '-o-nas) [tricho-; \xovac, a. monad]. A genus of infusorians. T. vagi- nalis, a species occasionally found, in the vagina.
  • Trichomycosis (trik - o- mi - ko ' - sis) [tricho-; mycosis]. A disease of the hair produced by a vegetable parasite.
  • Trichopathy (trik-o p'-ath-e) [tricho-; nadog, disease]. Any disease of -the hair.
  • Trichophytic (trik-o f -it' -ik). i. Relating to the genus Trichophyton. 2. [cf)6ecv, to grow.] Promoting the growth of hair. 3. An agent promoting the growth of hair.
  • Trichophyton (tri-kof -it-on) [tricho-; ox6v, a plant]. A fungus parasitic upon the hair, and causing tinea trichophytina, or ring- worm.
  • Trichorrhexis (trik-or-eks'-is) [tricho-; prj^cg, a breaking]. Brittleness of the hair. T. no- dosa, an atrophic condition of the hair, affecting more often the male beard, and characterized by irregular thickenings re- sembling nodes on the hair-shaft, the hairs often breaking with a "green-stick fracture" immediately through a node.
  • Trichotillomania (trik -o-til-o- ma' -ne- ah) [tricho-; x'cXXecv, to pluck out; p.avla, madness]. An uncontrollable impulse to pull out one's hair.
  • Trichotoxicon (trik - o- toks ' - i - kon) [tricho-; to^ckov, a poison]. A supposed toxin, existing in respired air, which, when introduced into the blood, exerts a poisonous action upon the hair, thus causing alopecia.
  • Trichotoxin (trik-o-toks' -in) . A cytotoxin ob- tained by E. Metchnikoff from the capillary epithelia.
  • Trichroic (tri-kro' -ik) [trichroism]. Possessing trichroism.
  • Trichroism (tri' -kro-izm) [tri-;' xpba, color]. The property of exhibiting three different colors when viewed under three different aspects.
  • Trichromat (tri - kro' - mat) [rpelg, three; Xpaj/ia, color]. Persons for whom the end regions of the spectrum are of constant hue and differ only in intensity. Just inside of each end region there is an intermediate region in which any color can be produced by mixtures of the end color with the color of the inter- mediate region. Between these intermediate regions lies the middle region, which requires the presence of some third color in addition to colors from the end regions. Most all women and about 96 % of men belong to this class. Cf. Dichromat; Monochromat.
  • Tricipital (tri-sip' -it-al) [triceps, three-headed]. 1. Three-headed. 2. Pertaining to the tri- ceps.
  • Tricornis (tri-kor' -nis) [tri-; cornu, horn]. Having three horns.
  • Tricresol (tri-kre'-sol). A refined mixture of metacresol, 40%; paracresol, 33%; ortho- cresol, 27%; soluble in 40 parts of water. It has three times the germicidal value of phenol.
  • Tricresolamin (tri-kres-ol-am'-in). A solution containing 2 % each of ethylenediamin and tricresol; it is a clear, colorless, alkaline liquid turning yellow on exposure. It is stronger and less irritating than tricresol.
  • Tricrotic (tri-krot'-ik) [tri-; npozog, stroke]. Having three waves corresponding to one pulse-beat.
  • Tricrotism (tri' -krot-izm) [see Tricrotic], The quality of being tricrotic.
  • Tricuspid (tri-kus' -pid) [tri-; cuspis, a point]. 1. Having three cusps, as the tricuspid valve. 2. Affecting or produced' at the tri- cuspid valve.
  • Triethylamin (tri-eth-il-am'-in) [tri-; ethyl; amin], C 6 H 15 N. A ptomain obtained from putrid haddock. See Ptomains, Table of.
  • Trifacial Nerve (tri-fa'-shal) [tri-; fades, face]. The fifth cranial nerve, so called because it divides into three main branches that supply the face.
  • Trif errin (tri-fer'-in) . See Iron Paranucleinate.
  • Trifolium (tri-fo' -le-um) [tri-; folium, leaf]. Clover.
  • Trigemin (tri-jem'-in). A substance obtained from pyramidon by action of butyl-chloral hydrate, forming white needles soluble in water; antineuralgic. Dose 8-20 gr. (0.5-1.3 Gm.).
  • Trigeminal (tri-jem 1 '-in-al) [tri-; geminus, twin- born]. 1. Triple; dividing into three parts, as the trigeminal nerve. 2. Pertaining to the trigeminal nerve. See Trifacial.
  • Trigeminus (tri-jem' -in-us) [see Trigeminal]. The trifacial nerve.

Trigger-finger. A condition in which flexion or extension of a finger is at first impeded, but finally accomplished with a jerk.


  • Trigone, Trigonum (tri'-gon, tri-go'-num) [tri-; fcovia, angle]. Triangle. T. of the Bladder, a smooth triangular space on the inside of the bladder, immediately behind the orifice of the urethra. Trigonum lumbale. See Petit's Triangle. T., Olfactory, the gray root of origin of the olfactory tract. Trigonum 3 vesicae. See T. of the Bladder.
  • Trihydrate (tri-hi'-drat) [tri-; hydrate]. A } compound containing the hydroxyl-radicle in the proportion of three to one atom of the base.
  • Trihydric (tri-hi'-drik) [tri-; hydric]. Con- , taining three atoms of hydrogen replaceable by bases, TRIHYDROXID 991 TRITICEOGLOSSUS Trihydroxid (tri-hi-droks' -id). See Trihydrate.
  • Triiodid (tri-i'-o-did) [tri-; iodid]. A compound containing iodin in the proportion of three atoms to one of the base.
  • Trilabe (tri'-lab) [tri-; Xafx^avecv, to grasp]. A three-pronged instrument for withdrawing small calculi through the urethral passage.
  • Trilateral (tri-lat'-er-al) [tri-; latus, a side]. Having three sides.
  • Trimethylamin (tri - meth - il - am' - in) [tri-; methyl; amin], A colorless liquid ptomain obtained from herring-brine and various animal and vegetable substances. See Pto- mains, Table of.
  • Trimethylenediamin (tri-meth-il-en-di-am' -in) [tri-; methylene; diamin]. A ptomain ob- tained from cultures of the comma bacillus on beef-broth. It causes convulsions and muscle-tremor. See Ptomains, Table of.
  • Trineuric (tri-nu'-rik) [tri-; veupov, nerve]. Applied to a nerve-cell provided with three neuraxons.
  • Trinitrate (tri-ni' -trat) [tri-; nitrate]. A ni- trate containing three nitric-acid radicles.
  • Trinitrin (tri-ni' -trin). See Nitroglycerin.
  • Trinitrocresol (tri-ni-tro-kre'-sol), C 7 H 5 N 3 7 . Antiseptic crystals, obtained from nitration of coal-tar cresol; antiseptic.
  • Trinophenon (tri-no-fe'-non). A remedy for burns said to be an aqueous solution of picric acid.
  • Triocephalus (tri-o-sef '-al-us) [tri-; KefaXr), head]. A monster characterized by an absence of the ocular, nasal, and buccal apparatus, the head being merely a small spheroid mass.

Trional [tri' -on -at) [rpelc, three], C 2 H 5 - CH 3 — C— (S0 2 C 2 H 5 ) 2 . Diethylsulfonemethyl- methane, a hypnotic. Dose 15 gr. (1 Gm.).


  • Triorchid (tri-or' -kid) [tri-; bpx^C, a testicle]. 1. Having three testicles. 2. An individual having three testicles.
  • Trioxid (tri-oks' -id) [tri-; oxid]. A compound containing oxygen in the proportion of three atoms to one of the base.
  • Tripara (trip' -ar-ah) [tri-; parere, to bear]. A woman who has borne three children.
  • Triphasic (tri- fa' 'sik) . Having three phases or variations.
  • Triphenamin (tri-fen'-am-in). A mixture of phenocoll, phenocoll salicylate, and phenocoll acetate; recommended in rheumatic com- plaints.
  • Triphenin (tri- fen' -in). Propionyl-phenetidin, C 6 H 4 OC 2 H 5 NHC 2 H 5 CO, obtained by boiling paraphenetidin with propionic acid. It is used as an antipyretic and sedative. Daily dose 46 gr. (3 Gm.); single dose 8-15 gr. (0.5-1.0 Gm.). Syn., M ethyl phenacetin.
  • Triphenyl Albumin (tri-fen'-il). A culture- medium made by heating dry egg-albumen with phenol. It is odorless, tasteless, insoluble in water, alcohol, and potassa solution, but soluble in phenol.

Tripier's Amputation. One differing from Chopart's only in that the portion of the os calcis below the sustentaculum tali is removed.


  • Triple (trip -I) [L., triplus]. Threefold. T. Phosphate, ammoniomagnesium phosphate, a phosphate occurring in urine and in phos- phatic calculi.
  • Triplet (trip -let) [triple]. 1. One of three chil- dren born at one birth. 2. In optics, a sys- tem consisting of three lenses.
  • Triplex (trip'-leks) [L.]. Triple. T. Pills, pilulce triplices, pills containing three prin- cipal ingredients.
  • Triploblastic (trip-lo-blas'-tik) [triple; /?Aaar6c, a germ]. Possessing three blastodermic mem- branes.
  • Triplopia (trip-W -pe-ah) [triple; axp, eye]. A disturbance of vision in which three images of a single object are seen.
  • Triquetrous (tri-kwef -rus) [triquetrum]. Three- cornered, as the triquetrous bone (os tri- quetrum), a wormian bone. See Triquetrum.
  • Triquetrum (tri-kwef -rum) [triquetrus, three- cornered]. 1. Any one of the wormian bones. 2. The cuneiform bone of the carpus.
  • Triradius (tri-ra' -de-us) [tres, three; radius, ray; pi., triradii]. In the impression of the palmar surface in the Galton system a triangular area composed of transverse ridges at the base of each of the four fingers; used in the class- ification of palmar impressions.
  • Trismoid (triz'-moid) [trismus]. A form of trismus neonatorum thought to be due to pressure on the occipital bone during labor.
  • Trismus (triz'-mus) [xptap.bc, from rpc^ecv, to gnash]. Lockjaw, a tonic spasm of the muscles of mastication. ■ T. nascentium, T. neonatorum, a form of trismus occurring in newborn infants, and supposed to be due to septic infection of the umbilical stump.
  • Trisplanchnic (tri-splangk'-nik) [tri-; oTzXajxvov, viscus]. Distributed to the viscera of the three largest cavities of the body, as the tri- splanchnic nerve (the sympathetic nerve).
  • Tristearin (tri-ste' -ar-in) [tri-; oxkap, fat], C 3 H 5 - (C 18 H 35 2 )3. See Stearin.
  • Trisubstituted (tri-sub' ' -sti-tu-ted) [tri-; substi- tuere, to substitute]. Having three atoms or radicles substituted by other atoms or rad- icles.
  • Trisulfid (tri-sul'-fid) [tri-; sulfur]. A com- pound containing sulfur in the proportion of three atoms to one of the base.
  • Triticeoglossus (trit-is-e-o-glos'-us) [triticum; ■fkcbooa, tongue]. An anomalous muscle having its origin from the arytenoid cartilage and its insertion in the side of the tongue, TRITICEOUS 992 TROPEINISM Triticeous (trit-ish' -us) [triticum]. Having the shape of a grain of wheat. T. Nodule, corpus triticeum, a small cartilaginous nodule in the thyrohyoid ligament.
  • Triticum (trif -ik-um) [L.]. A genus of the Gramineoe. T. sativum (T. vulgare) is wheat. Triticum is official in the U. S. P. in the form of the rhizome of Agropyron repens, and is used in cystitis and irritable bladder. T., Fluidextract of (jiuidextr actum tritici, U. S. P.). Dose 3-6 dr. (12-24 Cc).
  • Tritipalm (trif -e-pahm) . A proprietary gen- itourinary tonic said to consist of the fluid- extract of saw palmetto, Serenoa serrulata, and couch-grass, Agropyron repens.
  • Tritol (tri'-tol). Any emulsion of oil, 4 parts, and diastasic extract of malt, 1 part.
  • Tritopin (tri'-to-pin), C 42 H 54 N 2 6 7 . An alkaloid from opium.
  • Tritorium, Triturium (tri-to'-re-um, tri-tu'- re-um) [tritus, a rubbing]. A vessel used in separating liquids of different density.
  • Tritotoxin (tri-to-toks' -in) [xp'cxoc, third; xo^ckov, poison]. One of the third group into which Ehrlich classifies toxins, according to the avidity with which they combine with anti- toxins, tritotoxin combining least readily.
  • Tritoxid (tri-toks' -id) [xpcxoc, third; d^uc, acid]. Same as Trioxid.
  • Triturate (tritf -u-rat) [triturare, from terere, to rub]. 1. To reduce to a fine powder. 2. A finely divided powder. In the U. S. P. a medicinal substance rubbed up with milk- sugar. T., Tablet-, a triturate compressed into tablet form.
  • Trituration (trit-u-ra' -shun) [triturate]. The process of reducing a solid substance to a powder by rubbing.
  • Trivalent (triv' -al-ent) [tri-; valere, to be worth]. Combining with or equivalent to three atoms of hydrogen.
  • Trivalve (tri'-valv) [tri-; valva, door]. Having three valves.
  • Trocar (tro'-kar) [Ft., trois-quarts, from its triangular point]. An instrument for piercing the wall of a cavity in paracentesis.
  • Trochanter (tro-kan' -ter) [xpoxavxi}p, from Tpo%6c, a wheel or pulley]. One of two pro- cesses on the upper extremity of the femur below the neck. The greater trochanter is situated on the outer, and the lesser trochanter on the inner, side of the bone.
  • Trochanteric (tro-kan-ter'-ik) [trochanter]. Per- taining to a trochanter.
  • Trochantin (tro-kan' -tin) [trochanter]. The lesser trochanter.
  • Troche (tro'-ke) [rpoxoc, a wheel]. A lozenge. T.s, Tannic Acid (trochisci acidi tannici U. S. P), each contains 1 gr. (0.06 Gm.) of tannic acid.
  • Trochin, Trochinus (tro'-kin, trok'-in-us) [Tpo^oc, a wheel]. The lesser tuberosity of trie head of the humerus.
  • Trochlea (trok'-le-ah) [xpoxd'ca, pulley]. A part having the nature of a pulley. T. of the Humerus, a surface acting as a pulley at the lower extremity of the humerus. T. of the Orbit, T. of the Superior Oblique, the ligamentous ring or pulley attached to the upper margin of the orbit, which trans- mits the tendon of the superior oblique muscle of the eye. Trochlear (trok'-le-ar) [see Trochlea]. 1. Per- taining to or of the nature of a pulley. 2. Per- taining to the trochlear muscle. 3. Pertaining to the trochlear nerve. Trochlearis (trok-le-a'-ris) [see Trochlea]. Pul- ley-shaped, as the trochlearis muscle or simply trochlearis, the superior oblique mus- cle of the eye. Trochoides (tro-koi 1 '-dez) [rpoxoc, a wheel]. A pivot-joint or pulley-joint, such as the atloaxoid joint. (von) Troeltsch's Corpuscles. Spindle-shaped connective-tissue corpuscles, stellate on trans- verse section, found between the middle fibrous and inner circular layers of the mem- brana tympani. v. T.'s Spaces, two small pockets formed in the upper part of the attic of the middle ear by folds of mucous mem- brane. Troisier's Ganglion, T.'s Sign. Enlarge- ment of the left supraclavicular lymph-glands, an indication of malignant disease of the intraabdominal region. Trolard's Vein. The anastomotic vein that extends from the superior longitudinal sinus to the superior petrosal or the cavernous sinus. Trommer's Test for Glucose. To the liquid rendered alkaline by caustic soda a fairly strong solution of cupric sulfate is added drop by drop until a little of the copper hydrate formed remains undissolved on shak- ing. On warming in the presence of glucose, a yellow reduction of hydrated suboxid of copper is first formed, and then red suboxid separates, even below the boiling-point. If not enough copper salt has been used, the re- action will be yellowish -brown in color; but if the copper salt is in excess, the excess of hydrate is changed by boiling into a dark- brown hydrate, which interferes with the test. Tropacocain (tro-pa-ko' -ka-in) [atropin; cocain]. An alkaloid obtained from a small-leaved coca-plant of Java. T . Hydrochlorid, C 8 H 14 - NO.C 6 H 5 CO.HCl, in 2 to 3 % solutions, is preferred to cocain hydrochlorid as a local anesthetic, as being less toxic and more reliable. Tropaeolin. See Tropeolin. Tropein (tro'-pe-in). A salt of tropin and an organic acid. Tropeinism (tro'-pe-in-izm). Poisoning by any of the tropeins or by plants (Solanacece) con- taining tropeins. It is characterized in light cases by dryness of the mouth, dysphagia, and acceleration of the pulse; in severer cases by dilation of the pupils, ataxia, clonic spasms, psychic disturbances with excessive excite- ment; the severest cases are marked by loss of consciousness, anesthesia, paralysis of the sphincters, and cardiac and respiratory par- alysis.
  • TROPEOLIN 993 TRYPSIN Tropeolin (tro-pe r -o-lin) . One of a group of orange anilin dyes, so called from the resem- blance of their colors to those of the flowers of Tropceolum, the garden nasturtium. Its solutions are turned brown by free acids, and are used as a test for such acids.
  • Tropesis (tro-pe' -sis) [zpoviTj, a turn]. Incli- nation.
  • Trophesy (tr.of'-es-e) [rporj, nourishment]. An albuminous substance obtained from animal and vegetable sources, containing 90% of albumin. It is a light brown, nonhygro- scopic powder, intended as a nutrient for convalescents. One teaspoonful to one table- spoonful is given with each meal in cocoa, soup, etc. Trousseau's Disease. Stomachal vertigo. T.'s Marks, "taches cerebrales," circumscribed spots produced by mechanic irritation in tuberculous meningitis and other diseases seriously affecting the nutrition of the nervous system. T.'s Points apophysaires, points sensitive to pressure over the dorsal and lumbar vertebras in intercostal and lumboabdominal neuralgias. See Valleix' 's Points douloureux. T.'s Roseola, rubeola; rotheln. T.'s Symp- tom, the production of paroxysms of tetany by pressure upon the principal nerve-trunks or blood-vessels of the parts affected; it is observed in tetany. T.'s Test for Bile -pig- ments. See Smith's Reaction. Troy Ounce. A unit in troy weight, equal to 480 grains. T. Weight. See Weights and Measures. True. Real; not false. T. Aneurysm. See Aneurysm, True. T. Corpus luteum, the cor- pus luteum of pregnancy. T. Pelvis, that part of the pelvic cavity situated below the ilio- pectineal line. T. Rib. See Rib, True. T. Skin, the corium. T. Vocal Bands, the inferior bands, or those concerned in the production of the voice. Truncal (trung'-kal) [trunk]. Pertaining to a trunk. Truncated (trung'-ka-ted) [trunk]. Deprived of limbs or accessory parts. Trunecek's Method. See under Serum, Trunecek's. Trunk [truncus, a trunk]. 1. The body except the head and limbs. 2. The main stem of a nerve or artery. Truss (trus) [Ft., trousse]. An apparatus for maintaining a hernia in place after reduction. Trypanosoma itri--pan-o-so' -mah) [xpbnavov, a borer; ad)p.a, body]. A genus of Hematozoa. T. brucei, the cause of tsetse-fly disease. T. evansi, the cause of the infectious disease called surra, a grave pernicious anemia occurring among horses, camels, etc., in trop- ical countries. Trypanosme itri'-pan-o-som). One of any species of Trypanosoma. Trypanosomiasis (tri-pan-o-so-mi' -a-sis) [Try- panosoma]. Any of the several diseases due to infection with the various species of Try- panosoma. Trypesis (trip-e' -sis) [xp'j-av, to bore]. The operation of trephining. Trypsase (trip'-saz). See Trypsin. Trypsin (trip 1 '-sin) [rpc(p(c, a rubbing]. The proteolytic ferment of the pancreatic juice, which in an alkaline medium converts pro- TRYPSINOGEN 994 TUBERCULIN teids into peptones. It has lately been ad- vocated for curative use in cancer.
  • Trypsinogen (trip-sin' -o-jen) [trypsin; yswav, to produce]. The zymogen from which trypsin is formed.
  • Tryptic (trip'-tik) [trypsin]. Pertaining to or caused by trypsin.
  • Tryptolytic (trip-tol-it'-ik) [trypsin; Xuscv, to loose]. Of or pertaining to the peculiar cleavage properties of trypsin.
  • Tryptone (trip'-ton) [trypsin]. Peptone formed by the action of trypsin.
  • Tsetse-fly (tset'-se). Glossina morsitans, a dipterous insect of South Africa, which carries the parasite of , tsetse-fly disease. T. Disease. See Disease, Tsetse- fly.
  • Tsuga (tsu'-gah). A genus of Conifer ce, a species of which, T. canadensis, yields Canada pitch.
  • Tubal (tu'-baT) [tube]. Pertaining to a tube, especially the fallopian tube or the renal tubules.
  • Tube (tub) [tuba, a tube]. A hollow, cylindric structure, especially the fallopian tube or the eustachian tube. T. -casts, casts of the renal tubules; they indicate disease of the kidneys. T., Crookes', T., Geissler's, T., Hittorf's. See under Rays, Roentgen-. T., Drainage-, a hollow tube of glass, rubber, or other material inserted into a wound or cavity to allow of the escape of fluids. T., Sediment, a glass cylinder constricted to a fine point at one end and both ends open; it is used in precipitating urine. T., Vacuum-, a sealed glass tube out of which the air has been pumped and which has at each end a piece of platinum wire passed through the glass and entering the tube.
  • Tuber (tu'-ber) [L., "a bump or swelling"]. i. A thickened portion of an underground stem. 2. Any rounded swelling. T. cin- ereum, a tract of gray matter extending from the optic chiasm to the corpora albicantia, and forming part of the floor of the third ventricle.
  • Tubercle (tu'-ber-kl) [tuberculum, a tubercle], i. A small nodule. 2. A rounded prominence on a bone. 3. The specific lesion produced by the tubercle bacillus, consisting of a col- lection of round-cells and epithelioid cells, with at times giant-cells. T., Acoustic, the nucleus of the dorsal cochlear nerve, a leaf-like mass of cinerea wrapped about the dorsolateral surface of the restis. T., Adduc- tor, a slight protuberance at the lower end of the internal supracondylar line of the femur, giving attachment to the tendon of the adduc- tor magnus. T., Amygdaloid, a promi- nence on the roof of the descending cornu of the lateral ventricle. T., Anatomic, a wart-like tuberculous growth sometimes appearing on the hands of dissectors. T., Anterior, a tubercle at the anterior part of the extremity of the transverse process of certain vertebras. T. Bacillus. See under Bacteria. T., Carotid, a prominence of the sixth cervical vertebra on the anterior part of its transverse process. T., Conoid, a broad projection of the clavicle on its posterior bor- der at the union of its middle and outer thirds, to which the conoid ligament is attached. T., Deltoid, a projection on the anterior border of the clavicle, giving origin to a part of the deltoideus. T., Dissection, anatomic tubercle. T., Fibrous, a tubercle which has been modified by the formation of con- nective tissue within its structure. T., Genial, one of the tubercles on each side of the middle line on the inner surface of the lower maxilla. T., Genital, the rudimentary penis or clitoris in the urogenital region of the embryo in front of the cloaca. T., Gray. See Tubercle (3). T. of Lower, a small eminence on the wall of the right auricle, between the orifices of the venae cavae. T., Lymphoid, a tubercle consisting chiefly of round or lymphoid cells. T., Mammillary. See Corpora albicantia. T., Miliary. See Tubercle (3). T., Olfactory. See Bulb, Olfactory. T., Painful, a painful nodule in the subcutaneous tissue in the region of the joints. T., Posterior, a tubercle at the posterior end of the lumbar and several of the thoracic vertebras. T., Postglenoid, a process of the temporal bone that descends behind the condyle of the jaw and prevents backward displacement during mastication. T., Prostatic, the middle lobe of the prostate. T., Pterygoid, a tubercle on the inner surface of the inferior maxilla; it gives attachment to the internal pterygoid muscle. T. of Rolando, one of the rounded masses close under the sur- face of the lateral columns of the medulla ob- longata, formed by the enlarged dorsal horns of the gray matter. T., Scalene-, a tubercle on the first rib, giving attachment to the an- terior scalene muscle. T. of the Vagina, a prominence on 4 the anterior wall of the vagina.
  • Tubercular (tu -ber' -ku- lar) [tubercle]. 1 . Pre- senting the appearance of a tubercle. 2. Pro- vided with tubercles.
  • Tuberculid (tu-ber' -ku-lid) . Any cutaneous manifestation due to the toxins of the tu- bercle bacilli.
  • Tuberculin (tu-ber' -ku-lin) [tubercle]. A gly- cerol extract of cultures of the bacillus of tuberculosis. It is a brownish, neutral liquid, soluble in water, and is used as a means of diagnosing tuberculosis, especially in the domestic animals; when injected into tuberculous individuals, a reaction is produced which differs from that given by healthy individuals. Syn., Paratoloid. T. A, the result of extracting the bacilli with a 10 % normal caustic soda solution and filtering and neutralizing the product. T., New, an unsterilized, unfiltered, glycerol-water semisolution of living, dried, pulverized, and washed bacilli. T., Purified, the resultant redissolved precipitate of the tuberculin original with 60% of alcohol.
  • Tuberculocidin (tu-ber -ku-lo-si' -din) [tubercle; ccedere, to kill]. An albumose obtained from tuberculin by precipitation with platinum chlorid. It is said to possess the beneficial effects of tuberculin without producing an injurious reaction.
  • Tuberculoderma (tu-ber -ku-lo-der' -mah). A cutaneous manifestation of the action of tubercle bacilli, a tuberculid.
  • Tuber culofibroid (tu-ber-ku-lo-fi'-broid). Re- lating to a tubercle that has undergone fi- broid degeneration.
  • Tuberculoma (tu-ber-ku-lo' -mah). A tuber- culous tumor.
  • Tuberculoplasmin (tu - ber - ku-lo - plaz r -min) . The filtered watery solution of the protoplasm of moist living bacilli, extracted by crushing with hydraulic pressure.
  • Tuberculosis (tu-ber-ku-lo' -sis) [tubercle]. An infectious disease due to Bacillus tuber- culosis, discovered by Koch. The lesion produced by the growth of the bacillus is the tubercle (miliary or gray tubercle or nodule), a small, grayish, translucent nodule, from jo to 2 mm. in diameter, firmly embedded in the surrounding tissues. By the coalescence of neighboring tubercles larges masses, the socalled tuberculous infiltrations, are produced. The tendency of tuberculous lesions is to undergo cheesy necrosis. For this degen- eration two factors are responsible: the ab- sence of blood-vessels and the action of peculiar poisons elaborated by the bacillus. The breaking down of tuberculous areas in the interior of organs gives rise to cavities, which may be seen in muscles, bones, brain, lymphatic glands, and elsewhere, but are most pronounced in the lungs. On surfaces — skin and mucous membranes — tuberculosis often leads to the formation of ulcers. The most frequent seats of tuberculosis are the lung, the intestinal tract, the lymphatic glands, the serous membranes, the bones, the skin, the tes- ticle, the epididymis, the brain, the fallopian tubes, the uterus, the spleen. The symptoms of tuberculosis vary with the localization of the disease. A few general phenomena are common to nearly all forms, viz., emaci- ation, loss of strength, anemia, fever, and sweats. T., Acute Miliary, an acute febrile disease, characterized by the forma- tion of minute tubercles in great numbers in various parts of the body. It is due to the discharge into the circulatory stream of tubercle bacilli. Three forms are usually described:(i) a general or typhoid form; (2) one with marked pulmonary symptoms; (3) one in which cerebral symptoms predom- inate. T., Avian, tuberculosis affecting birds. T., Bovine, tuberculosis occurring in cattle. Syn., Pearl disease. T., General Miliary. See T., Acute Miliary. T., Lar- yngeal, tuberculosis of the larynx, usually secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, but in rare cases primary. T., Miliary, tubercu- losis characterized by the formation deposit of miliary tubercles. T., Surgical, tuberculosis of parts amenable to surgical treatment, as the bones and joints.
  • Tuberculotoxin (tu-ber -ku-lo-toks' -in). A tox- in generated by the tubercle bacillus.
  • Tuberculous (tu-ber' -ku-lus) [tubercle]. Af- fected with or caused by tuberculosis.
  • Tuberculum (tu-ber' -ku-lum) [L.]. See Tu- bercle.
  • Tuberose (tu'-ber-os) [tuber]. Resembling a tuber.
  • Tuberosity (tu-ber -0 s' -it-e) [tuber]. A protu- berance on a bone. T., Greater, a rough projection on the outer side of the head of the humerus. T. of the Ischium, a thick, downward projection of the ischium, on which the body rests in sitting. T., Les- ser, a small tuberosity in front of the head and on the inner side of the bicipital groove of the humerus.
  • Tuberous (tu'-ber-us) [tuber]. Like a tuber, as tuberous angioma.

Tubingen Heart. A disease of the heart, first observed at Tubingen, marked by cardiac dilation and hypertrophy and believed to be due to overindulgence in alcoholic drinks.


  • Tubo- ' (tu-bo-) [tube]. A prefix meaning re- lating to a tube.
  • Tuboabdominal (tu-bo-ab-dom' -in-al) [tubo-; abdomen]. Pertaining to a fallopian tube and to the abdomen.
  • Tuboligamentous (tu-bo-lig-ah-menf -us) . Re- lating to the oviduct and the broad liga- ment.
  • Tuboovarian (tu-bo-o-va'-re-an) [tubo-; ovary]. Pertaining to the fallopian tube and the ovary.
  • Tuboperitoneal (tu-bo-per-it-on-e'-al). Relat- ing to the oviduct and the peritoneum.
  • Tubular (tu'-bu-lar) [tubulus, a small tube]. 1. Shaped like a tube. 2. Pertaining to or affecting tubules, as tubular nephritis. 3. Produced in a tube, as tubular breathing. T. Breathing. See Breath-sounds, Table of. T. Membrane. See Neurilemma.
  • Tubulature (tu'-bu-la-tur) [tubule]. The short tube of a retort or receiver.
  • Tubule (tu'-bul) [tubulus, dim. of tubus, a tube]. A small tube. T., Seminiferous, any one of the tubules of the testicles. T., Urinif- erous, one of the numerous winding tubules of the kidney.
  • Tubulus (tu'-bu-lus) [L.]. A tubule.
  • Tumefaction (tu-me-fak' -shun) [tumere, to swell; facere, to make]. A swelling.
  • Tumenol (tu'-men-ol) [bitumen; oleum, oil]. A thick, dark-brown liquid prepared from certain bituminous oils; it is used in skin- diseases.
  • Tumescence (tu-mes' -ens) [tumescere, to swell]. The condition of growing tumid; a swell- ing.
  • Tumid (tu'-mid) [see Tumescence]. Swollen.
  • Tumor (tu'-mor) [tumere, to swell]. 1. A swelling. 2. A newgrowth not the result of inflammation. The appended classification is based, at least as regards classes A and B, on the blastodermic origin of the dominant tissue of the tumor. 3. A mass of cells, tissues, or organs, resembling those normally present in the body, but arranged atypically, growing at the expense of the body, but subserving no useful purpose therein. T. albus, white swelling; tuberculous en- largement of a joint. T., Benign, one which does not give rise to metastasis nor recur after removal. T., Gubler's, a prom- inence on the back of the wrist seen in wrist- drop. T., Gummy, a syphilitic gumma. T., Heterologous, one composed of tissue differing from that in which it grows. T., Homologous, one composed of tissue resem- bling that from which it grows. T., Malig- nant, one which gives metastasis or recurs, or does both, and eventually destroys life. T., Phantom. See Phantom-tumor. T., Splenic, a term sometimes applied to an enlarged spleen.
  • Tumultus (tu-mul'-tus) [L.]. Tumult. T. cor- dis, irregular heart-action. T. sermonis, a stuttering manner of reading, from pathologic cause.
  • Tungsten (tung'-sten) [Swed., "heavy stone"]. A metallic element having a specific gravity of 19.26, an atomic weight of 182.6. Symbol W (from the German name Wolfram). It forms tungstic acid, H 2 Wo 4 , the latter com- bining with bases to form tungstates, which are used as reagents. See Elements, Table of Chemic.
  • Tunic (tu'-nik) [tunica]. A coat or mem- brane.
  • Tunica (tu'-nik-ah) [L.]. A tunic. T. ad- ventitia, the outer coat of an artery. T. albuginea oculi, the sclerotic coat of the eye. T. albuginea ovarii, the compact connective tissue immediately under the epi- thelium of the cortex of the ovary. T. albuginea testis, the fibrous covering of the testis. T. intima, the inner coat of an artery. T. media, the middle coat of . an artery. T. ruyschiana, the layer of capillary ves- sels of the choroid coat of the eye. T. vaginalis, the serous covering of the testis derived from the peritoneum. T. vas- culosa, the vascular layer of the testis, called also the pia mater of the testis.
  • Tunicin (tu'-nis-in), (C 2 H 10 O 5 ). A substance obtained from the mantles of ascidians; considered by some as identical with vege- table cellulose, by some as identical with ani- mal cellulose, and by others as a distinct body convertible into sugar.

Tunnel-anemia. See Ankylostomiasis. Tunnel-disease. See Caisson-disease.

  • Tupelo (tu'-pel-o). The Nyssa grandidentata, of the order Comacece. Its root has been used for making tents (tupelo-tent) .
  • Turbinal (tur' -bin-al) [turbo, top]. 1. Tur- binated. 2. A turbinated bone.
  • TURBINATED 997 TYLOSIS Turbinated (tur'-bin-a-ted) [turbinaT]. Top- shaped; scroll-shaped. T. Bone, one of the three (superior, middle, and inferior) bony projections upon the outer wall of each nasal fossa. They are covered by an erectile vascular mucous membrane.
  • Turbinectomy (tur - bin - ek'- to - me) [turbinal; SKTOfxrj, sl cutting out]. Excision of a tur- binated bone.
  • Turbinotome (tur'-bin-ot-om). An instrument used in turbinotomy.
  • Turbinotomy (tur-bin-of -o-me) [turbinal; zofirj, a cutting]. Incision into a turbinated bone.

Tiirck's Bundle. A tract of nerve-fibers pass- ing from the cortex of the temporosphenoid lobe through the outer portion of the crusta of the cerebral peduncle and the pons into the internal geniculate body. T.'s Column. See Column of Tiirck. T.'s Degeneration. See Degeneration, Tiirck's. T.'s Hemianes- thesia, anesthesia affecting the functions of the posterior spinal roots of one side, at times also those of the nerves of special sense. It is caused by lesions of the posterior portion of the capsula and the contiguous region of the corona radiata. T.'s Trachoma, gran- ular laryngitis affecting the posterointernal wall of the larynx. Syn., Laryngitis sicca.

  • Turgid (tur'-jid) [turgidus, swollen]. Swollen; congested.
  • Turgor (tur'-gor) [L., "a swelling"]. Active hyperemia; turgescence.
  • Turpentine (tur' -pen-tin) [zepeftvdoc, tere- binth]. A concrete or liquid oleoresin ob- tained from various species of Coniferce. The ordinary or white turpentine (terebinthina, U. S. -P. ; thus americanum, B. P.), derived from Pinus palustris and other species of Pinus, contains a volatile oil, oil or spirits of turpentine. T. -camphor, terpene hydro- chlorate. T., Canada (terebinthina cana- densis, U. S. P., B. P.), is obtained from Pinus balsamea, and under the name of Canada balsam is used as a mounting medium in microscopy. T., Chian, collected on the island of Chios, from Pistacia terebinthus, was formerly used in cancer. T., Common European, T., Bordeaux, is obtained from several species of pine; chiefly Pinus syl- vestris and Pinus maritima. It yields large quantities of oil of turpentine. T., Con- fection of (confectio ter.ebinthince, B. P.). Dose §-i dr. (2-4 Gm.). T., Enema of (enema terebinthina, B. P.), oil of turpentine, oz. ; mucilage of starch, 15 oz. T. Lin- iment(linimentum terebinthince, U. S. P., B. P.), resin cerate and oil of turpentine. T., Liniment of, and Acetic Acid (linimentum terebinthina aceticum, B. P.), oil of turpentine, acetic acid, liniment of camphor, of each, oz. T., Oil of (oleum terebinthince, U. S. P., B. P.), a volatile oil, recently distilled from turpentine. When pure, it consists only of carbon and hydrogen, but on exposure absorbs oxygen. Oil of turpentine is stimulant, diuretic, and anthelmintic; in large doses it acts as a cathartic ; locally it is a rubefacient. In overdoses it acts as an irritant, especially to the kidneys, producing bloody urine and strangury. It is used as a stimulant in ty- phoid and other low fevers; in tympanites; as a hemostatic; in chronic renal diseases, dysentery, and whooping-cough; as an in- halation in bronchitis; as a cathartic in the form of enema, and as a teniafuge. Dose 5-30 min. (0.32-2.0 Cc). T., Oil of, Emulsion of (emulsum olei terebinthince, U. S. P.). Dose 1 dr. (4 Cc). T., Oil of, Rectified (oleum terebinthince recti ficatum, U. S. P.). Dose 5-30 min. (0.32-2.0 Cc). T., Ointment of (unguentum terebinthince, B. P.), used on burns. T., Strasburg, a variety derived from Abies picea. T., Venice, a variety obtained from Larix euro- pcea; it yields oil of turpentine.
  • Turpeth (tur'-peth) [Pers., turbad, a purgative root]. The Ipomcea turpethum, a purgative plant resembling jalap, found in Asia. T. Mineral, subsulfate of mercury, used as an emetic. See Mercury Subsulfate.
  • Turpethin (tur' -peth-in) , C 34 H 56 Oj 3 . A glucosid obtained from the root of Ipomcea turpethum.
  • Tussal (tus'-al) [tussis, cough]. Pertaining to or of the nature of a cough.
  • Tussicular (tus-ik'-u-lar) [tussicula, a slight cough]. Characterized by a slight cough.
  • Tussilago (tus-il-a' -go) . A genus of plants of the order Compositce. The leaves of T. farfara, coltsfoot, and also other parts of the plant are used as a demulcent in pulmonary affections associated with cough.
  • Tussis (tus'-is) [L.]. A cough. T. convulsiva, whooping-cough.
  • Tussive (tus'-iv) [tussis]. Pertaining to or caused by cough.
  • Tussol (tus'-ol). Antipyrin mandelate.
  • Tutty (tut'-e) [Tamul word, tutum]. Impure oxid of zinc deposited as an incrustation on the chimneys of furnaces during the smelting of lead ores containing zinc; used as an ex- ternal desiccant when pulverized.

Twelfth Cranial Nerve. The hypoglossal nerve. See under Nerve.

Twin. One of two individuals born at the same birth.


  • Tyle (ti'-le) [zuXoc, a knob]. A callus.
  • Tylion (til'-e-on) [tyle]. A craniometric point on the anterior border of the optic groove in the mesal line.
  • Tyloma (ti-lo'-mah) [tyle]. A callus.
  • Tylosis (ti-lo'-sis) [tyle]. 1. A state character- ized by the formation of callus. 2. A form of blepharitis with thickening and hardening of the edge of the lid.
  • Tympanic (tim - pan' - ik) [tympanum]. Per- taining to the tympanum. T. Bone, T. Plate, the thin plate of bone separating the tympanum from the cranial cavity. T. Membrane. See Membrane, Tympanic. T. Ring, an osseous ring forming part of the temporal bone at the time of birth and which develops into the tympanic plate. T. Teg- men, the bony plate forming the roof of the tympanum.
  • Tympanism (tim' -pan-izm) [tympanum]. Dis- tention with gas; tympanites.
  • Tympanites (tim-pan-i' -tez) [tympanum]. A distention of the abdominal walls from ac- cumulation of gas in the intestine or peri- toneal Cavity.
  • Tympanitic (tim - pan - it' - ik) [tympanites]. Caused by or of the nature of tympanites. T. Resonance, the note obtained on per- cussing a cavity distended with gas.
  • Tympanitis (tim-pan-i' -tis) [tympanum; exec, inflammation]. Inflammation of the tym- panum; otitis media.
  • Tympanoeustachian (tim-pan-o-u-sta'-ke-an) [tympanum; eustachian]. Pertaining to the tympanum and the eustachian tube.
  • Tympanohyal (tim-pan-o-hi' -at) [tympanum; hyoid]. A small cartilage of the human fetus subsequently fusing with the styloid process of the temporal bone.
  • Tympanomastoiditis (tim- pan-o-mas-toid-i'- tis). Inflammation of the tympanum and mastoid cells.
  • Tympanotomy (tim-pan-of -o-me) [tympanum; rofirj, a cutting]. Incision of the membrana tympani.
  • Tympanous (tim'-pan-us). Distended with gas; relating to tympanism.
  • Tympanum (tim'-pan-um) [xu/mavov, drum]. The middle ear.
  • Tympany (tim'-pan-e). 1. Tympanites. 2. A tympanitic percussion-note.

Typewriter's Cramp. See under Spasms, Fatigue.

  • Typhase (ti'-faz). The special bacteriolytic enzym of Bacillus typhi abdominalis.
  • Typhemia (ti-fe'-me-ah) [xucfroc, smoke; alfia, blood]. An impoverished condition of the blood following typhus.
  • Typhlenteritis (tif-len-ter-i'-tis) [xo^Xbv, cecum; 'ivxepov, bowel; exe$, inflammation]. A proposed substitute for the word appendi- citis.
  • Typhlitis (tif-W '-tis) [xucpXbv, cecum ; exec, inflam- mation]. Inflammation of the cecum.
  • Typhlo- (tif-lo-) [xuXbv, cecum]. A prefix signifying relating to the cecum.
  • Typhlodicliditis (tif-lo-di-kli-di'-tis) [typhlo-; denX'ec, a folding door; exec, inflammation]. Inflammation of the ileocecal valve.
  • Typhloempyema (tif-lo-em-pi-e'-mah) [typhlo-) empyema]. Abscess attending typhlitis.
  • Typhloid (tif'Joid) [xo$Xbc, blind]. Having defective vision.
  • Typhlolithiasis (tif-lo-lith-i'-as-is) [typhlo-; lithiasis]. The formation of calculi in the cecum.
  • Typhlosis (tif-lo'-sis) [xuoc, stupor]. An acute contagious disease chiefly characterized by a petechial rash, marked nervous symptoms, and a high fever, ending by crisis in from 10 to 14 days. The only peculiar lesions noted postmortem are a dark fluid state of the blood and a staining of the endocardium and intima of the blood-vessels. After a period of incubation of from a few hours to two weeks, the disease sets in abruptly with pains in the head, back, and limbs, the fever rising rapidly to 104 or 105 F. The nervous symptoms resemble those of typhoid fever. The eruption appears on the fourth or fifth day as rose-colored spots scattered over all the body, and quickly becoming hemorrhagic. It does not disappear on pressure. The chief complications are hy- perpyrexia, pneumonia, ana nephritis. Syn., Jail-fever; Ship-fever. T. icterodes. Syn- onym of Yellow fever.
  • Typoscope (ti'-po-skop) [ruitoc, a stamp ; gkotzs'cv, to look]. A small device to exclude ex- traneous light, for the use of cataract patients and amblyopes in reading.

Tyree's Antiseptic Powder. A proprietary- preparation said to contain alum, sodium biborate, eucalyptus, phenol, thymol, winter- green, and peppermint; it is recommended for leukorrheal and purulent discharges.

  • Tyrein (ti'-re-in) [rupoc, cheese]. Coagulated casein.
  • Tyremesis (ti-rem'-es-is) [rupoc, cheese; s/xsocc, a vomiting]. The vomiting of caseous mat- ter; an ailment common among nursing infants.
  • Tyro- (ti-ro-) [rupdc, cheese]. A prefix meaning cheese or cheese-like.
  • Tyroid • (ti'-roid) [tyro-; eldoc, like]. Cheese- like.
  • Tyroma (ti-ro' -mah) [tyro-; bfia, tumor]. 1. A caseous mass. 2. A tuberculous tumor.
  • Tyrosal (ti'-ro-sal). See Salipyrin.
  • Tyrosin (ti'-ro-sin) [rupoc, cheese], CgH^NOv A crystalline amidoacid, a decomposition product of proteids. T., Tests for. See Hoffmann, Piria, Scherer, (von) Udransky, Wurster.
  • Tyrosinase (ti-ro' -sin-dz) [tyrosin]. An oxid- izing enzym found in many fungi, and in dahlia and beet-root. It acts upon all the cresols.
  • Tyrosis (ti-ro'-sis) [rupoc, cheese]. Caseation.
  • Tyrotoxicon (ti-ro-toks' -ik-on) [tyro-; ro^cKov, a poison]. A ptomain obtained from poisonous cheese, milk, ice-cream, etc. It induces vertigo, nausea, vomiting, chills, rigors, severe pains in the epigastric region, di- lation of the pupils, griping and purging, a sensation of numbness or of pins and needles, especially in the limbs, and marked prostra- tion or even death. The poison is thought to be the cause of many cases of summer diarrhea of infants. See Ptomains, Table of.
  • Tyrotoxin (ti-ro-toks' -in) [see Tyrotoxicon]. A curara-like poison from poisonous cheese; it is not identical with tyrotoxicon.
  • Tyrotoxism (ti-ro-toks' -izm). Cheese-poison- ing.

Tyrrell's Fascia. See Denonvillier's Fascia.

Tyson's Glands. The sebaceous glands of the corona glandis and the inner layer of the prepuce, secreting the smegma.

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