Thoracic aortic aneurysm

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Aneurysm of the thoracic aorta is called thoracic aortic aneurysm.

Types of thoracic aortic aneurysm

Depending on the location of the aneurysm, thoracic aortic aneurysm can be of many types:

  • Aneurysm of the ascending aorta
  • Aneurysm of the descending aorta

Risk factors for Thoracic aortic aneurysm

  • Age
  • Smoking
  • Gender
  • Genes
  • Connective tissue diseases such as Marfans
  • Syphilis
  • Injuries

==Symptoms of thoracic aortic aneurysm==
Aneurysms evolve gradually over numerous years. Most patients have no symptoms until the aneurysm starts to leak or expand. The aneurysm may be found only when imaging tests are done for other causes.

Symptoms often start abruptly when:

  • The aneurysm augments quickly
  • The aneurysm tears open (called a rupture)
  • Blood leaks along the wall of the aorta (aortic dissection)

If the aneurysm presses on nearby structures, the following symptoms may occur:

  • Hoarseness
  • ingesting troubles
  • High-pitched respiring (stridor)
  • enlarging in the neck

Other symptoms may encompass:

  • Chest or top back agony
  • Clammy skin
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • fast heart rate
  • Sense of impending doom

How to test for thoracic aortic aneurysm

The physical examination is often usual unless a rupture or leak has occurred.

Most thoracic aortic aneurysms are noticed by tests presented for other reasons, generally a chest x-ray, echocardiogram, or a chest CT scan or MRI. A chest CT scan displays the dimensions of the aorta and the accurate location of the aneurysm.

An aortogram (a exceptional set of x-ray images made when dye is injected into the aorta) can identify the aneurysm and any parts of the aorta that may be engaged.

Options for treatment for thoracic aortic aneurysm

There is a risk that the aneurysm may open up (rupture) if you do not have surgery to fix it.

The treatment counts on the position of the aneurysm. The aorta is made of three components:

The first part moves up in the direction of the head. It is called the ascending aorta.
The middle part is bent. It is called the aortic arch.
The last part moves downward, in the direction of the feet. It is called the descending aorta.
For patients with aneurysms of the ascending aorta or aortic arch:

Surgery for thoracic aortic aneurysm

Surgery to restore the aorta is suggested if an aneurysm is bigger than 5 - 6 centimeters.
A cut is made in the middle of the chest bone.
The aorta is restored with a artificial or fabric graft.
This is major surgery that requires a heart-lung appliance.
For patients with aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta:

Majory surgery is finished to replace the aorta with a fabric graft if the aneurysm is bigger than 6 centimeters.
This surgery is finished through a cut on the left side of the chest, which may come to to the abdomen.
Endovascular stenting is a less invasive option. A stent is a tiny steel or plastic tube that is utilised to hold an artery open. Stents can be put into the body without cutting the chest. Not all patients with descending thoracic aneurysms are candidates for stenting, however.
Outlook (Prognosis)
The long-term outlook for patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm depends on other medical troubles, such as heart disease, high blood force, and diabetes, which may have caused or assisted to the status.

Serious complications after aortic surgery

  • Bleeding
  • Graft contamination
  • Heart attack
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Kidney impairment
  • Paralysis
  • Stroke

Death shortly after the operation happens in 5 - 10% of patients.

difficulties after aneurysm:

stenting encompass impairment to the blood vessels delivering the leg, which may require another procedure.

When to get help for aneurysm

Tell your medical practitioner if you have:

  • A family history of connective tissue disorders (such as Marfan syndrome)
  • barrel or back discomfort
  • avoidance
  • To prevent atherosclerosis:
  • Keep blood pressure under control
  • Do not smoke.
  • Eat a healthy diet.
  • workout regularly.

Also see Abdominal aortic aneurysm

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