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Topical

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This refers to external application of the drug to the surface for localized action. It is often more convenient as well as encouraging to the patient. Drugs can be efficiently delivered to the localized lesions on skin, oropharyngeal/nasal mucosa, eyes, ear canal, anal canal or vagina in the form of lotion, ointment, cream, powder, rinse, paints, drops, spray, lozengens, suppositories or pesseries. Nonabsorbable drugs given orally for action on gastro intestinal mucosa (sucralfate, vancomycin), inhalation of drugs for action on bronchi (salbutamol, cromolyn sodium) and irrigating solutions/jellys (povidone iodine, lidocaine) applied to urethra are other forms of topical medication.

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