Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare multisystem autosomal dominant genetic disease that causes non-cancerous tumours to grow in the brain and on other vital organs such as the kidneys, heart, eyes, lungs, and skin.
It usually affects the central nervous system. In addition to the benign tumors that frequently occur in TSC, other common symptoms include seizures,impaired intellectual development, behavior problems, and skin abnormalities.
TSC may be present at birth, but signs of the disorder can be subtle and full symptoms may take some time to develop.
Three types of brain tumors are associated with TSC: cortical tubers, which generally form on the surface of the brain; subependymal nodules, which form in the walls of the ventricles (the fluid-filled cavities of the brain); and giant-cell astrocytomas, a type of tumor that can block the flow of fluids within the brain.
The prognosis for individuals with TSC depends on the severity of symptoms. Individuals with mild symptoms generally do well and live long productive lives, while individuals with the more severe form may have serious disabilities.
In rare cases, seizures, infections, or tumors in vital organs such as the kidneys and brain can lead to severe complications and even death. However, with appropriate medical care, most individuals with the disorder can look forward to normal life expectancy.
There is no cure for TSC, although treatment is available for a number of the symptoms. Rapamycin and related drugs are not yet approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for any purpose in individuals with TSC. The FDA has approved the drug everolimus (Afinitor®) to treat subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA brain tumors) and angiomyolipoma kidney tumors. Antiepileptic drugs such as vigabatrin may be used to control seizures and medications may be prescribed for behavior problems.