Vanadium is a trace element that exists in multiple oxidation states and forms complexes with proteins. Vanadium has not been shown to be an essential element and, indeed, is absorbed poorly. No deficiency state of vanadium has been demonstrated in humans. High doses of vanadium are toxic to animals and can cause neurologic, hematologic, renal and hepatic toxicity. Feeding of high doses to humans causes gastrointestinal upset, but vanadium has not been linked to hepatotoxicity due to dietary intake or environmental exposures in humans.
Trace Elements in Tissues and Biologic Systems
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