Whey

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Whey or milk serum is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained. It is a by-product of the manufacture of cheese or casein and has several commercial uses. Sweet whey is manufactured during the making of rennet types of hard cheese like cheddar or Swiss cheese. Acid whey (also known as "sour whey") is a by-product produced during the making of acid types of dairy products such as cottage cheese or strained yogurt.

Production

To produce cheese, rennet or an edible acid is added to heated milk. This makes the milk coagulate or curdle, separating the milk solids (curds) from the liquid whey.[1] Sweet whey is the byproduct of rennet-coagulated cheese and acid whey (also called sour whey) is the byproduct of acid-coagulated cheese. Sweet whey has a pH greater than or equal to 5.6, acid whey has a pH less than or equal to 5.1.[2]

Uses

Whey is used to produce whey cheeses such as ricotta, whey butter, so-called brown cheeses such as Brunost (technically not cheeses at all), and many other products for human consumption. It is also an additive in many processed foods, including breads, crackers, and commercial pastry, and in animal feed. Whey proteins consist primarily of α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin. Depending on the method of manufacture, whey may also contain glycomacropeptides (GMP).

Dairy whey remaining from home-made cheesemaking has many uses. It is a flour conditioner and can be substituted for skim milk in most baked good recipes that require milk (bread, pancakes, muffins, etc.).

Whey protein (derived from whey) is often sold as a nutritional supplement. Such supplements are especially popular in the sport of bodybuilding. In Switzerland, where cheese production is an important industry, whey is used as the basis for a carbonated soft drink called Rivella. In Iceland, MS manufactures and sells liquid whey as Mysa in 1-liter cartons (for 100 g: energy 78 kJ or 18 kcal, calcium 121 mg, protein 0.4 g, carbohydrates 4.2 g, sodium 55 mg).[3]

Throughout history, whey was a popular drink in inns and coffee houses. When Joseph Priestley was at college at Daventry Academy 1752–1755, he records that, during the morning of Wednesday 22 May 1754, he “went with a large company to drink whey.”[4] This was probably ‘sack whey’ or ‘wine whey.'

Another use of whey is to make ‘Cream of Tartar Whey’: "Put a pint of blue milk [blue milk is characterized by the appearance on its surface, eighteen or twenty-four hours after it is drawn, of small, indigo-blue fungal spots that rapidly enlarge until the whole surface is covered with a blue film.] over the fire, when it begins to boil, put in two tea spoonfuls of cream of tartar, then take it off the fire, and let it stand till the curd settles to the bottom of the pan, then put it into a basin to cool, and drink it milk warm.”[5]

Whey was also used in central Spain to enrich bakery products. In some traditions, it was used instead of water to produce bread dough.

In areas where cheese is made, excess whey byproduct is sometimes sprayed over hay fields as a fertilizer.

Whey cream and butter

Cream can be skimmed from whey. Whey cream is more salty, tangy, and “cheesy” than ("sweet") cream skimmed from milk, and can be used to make whey butter. Whey cream and butter are suitable for making butter-flavoured food, as they have a stronger flavour of their own. They are also cheaper than sweet cream and butter.

Health

Because whey contains lactose, it should be avoided by those who are lactose intolerant. Dried whey, a very common food additive, contains 76.9% lactose.[6] When used as a food additive, whey can contribute to quantities of lactose far above the level of tolerance of most lactose-intolerant individuals.

Liquid whey contains lactose, vitamins, protein, and minerals, along with traces of fat. In 2005, researchers at Lund University in Sweden discovered that whey appears to stimulate insulin release, in type 2 diabetics.[7] Writing in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, they also discovered that whey supplements can help regulate and reduce spikes in blood sugar levels among people with type 2 diabetes by increasing insulin secretion.

Individuals can also be whey intolerant, meaning that they can handle forms of cheese or milk that drain out excess whey. The whey protein can be altered by high heat, which means that forms of milk that have been altered are more likely to be tolerated by whey intolerant individuals. This can include evaporated or boiled milk, as well as milk powder. [8]

Protein

Whey protein is the name of globular proteins that can be isolated from whey. It is typically a mixture of globinstagers beta-lactoglobulin (~65%), alpha-lactalbumin (~25%), and serum albumin (~8%), which are soluble in their native culture forms, independent of pH.

See also

References

Metabolic.jpg

Featured disease

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of the most dangerous heart attack risk factors: diabetes and prediabetes, abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol and high blood pressure.

Affects one in three adults

Affecting about 35 percent of all adults in the United States according to the CDC, metabolic syndrome contributes to weight gain, by causing a state of internal starvation called metabolic starvation. This in turn leads to increases hunger, sugar cravings and increased portions leading to overeating and weight gain.

Cause and effect misunderstood

Since we traditionally thought that the portion control (which in turn was attributed wrongly to poor will power)is the cause of weight gain, rather than the effect of this metabolic starvation, all our traditional ideas about cause and effect of obesity were not only wrong but lead to the “blame the victim” attitude when it comes to obesity.

Secret of weight gain revealed

Secret of weight gain, and metabolic syndrome revealed - it has been recently proven that metabolic syndrome, and the weight gain itself are caused by a process called insulin resistance. Check your metabolic syndrome risk using the free Metabolic syndrome meter. Watch this amazing Ted Med video that reveals the secret of weight loss - Stop blaming the victim for obesity


External links

Calories and Nutritional Information of Foods


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Glossary of healthy eating | Nutritional value of foods: UK Foods | US Foods | Dietary Supplements | Nutrition values of foods | Nutrition lookup (USDA) Portions of content adapted from Wikipedias article on Whey licensed under GNU FDL.

References

Metabolic.jpg

Featured disease

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of the most dangerous heart attack risk factors: diabetes and prediabetes, abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol and high blood pressure.

Affects one in three adults

Affecting about 35 percent of all adults in the United States according to the CDC, metabolic syndrome contributes to weight gain, by causing a state of internal starvation called metabolic starvation. This in turn leads to increases hunger, sugar cravings and increased portions leading to overeating and weight gain.

Cause and effect misunderstood

Since we traditionally thought that the portion control (which in turn was attributed wrongly to poor will power)is the cause of weight gain, rather than the effect of this metabolic starvation, all our traditional ideas about cause and effect of obesity were not only wrong but lead to the “blame the victim” attitude when it comes to obesity.

Secret of weight gain revealed

Secret of weight gain, and metabolic syndrome revealed - it has been recently proven that metabolic syndrome, and the weight gain itself are caused by a process called insulin resistance. Check your metabolic syndrome risk using the free Metabolic syndrome meter. Watch this amazing Ted Med video that reveals the secret of weight loss - Stop blaming the victim for obesity


  1. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named wiley
  2. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named miller
  3. Mysa contents as cited on packaging from Mjólkursamsalan
  4. Tony Rail and Beryl Thomas; Joseph Priestley’s Journal while at Daventry Academy, 1754, transcribed from the original shorthand; Enlightenment and Dissent (University of Wales, Aberystwyth), 1994, 13, 49–113.
  5. Elizabeth Raffald; The Experienced English Housekeeper; Eighth edition; London, R. Baldwin, 1782; p. 314.
  6. ALLSA, 2014. Food-milk allergy and intolerance retrieved from http://www.allergysa.org/c_ol_food_015.asp

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