Zika

From WikiMD
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Zika virus 3 D

An infection that is caused by the Zika virus, which is primarily transmitted via mosquitoes; it is characterized by fever, skin rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis.

Glossary of Zika terms

Research shows that getting Zika during pregnancy can cause birth defects in the developing fetus. In 2015, Zika virus infection was linked to microcephaly in newborn babies—a condition in which the brain and skull are smaller than normal. It also was linked to other problems with the adult nervous system.

Since then, public health agencies across the world, including NICHD, have tracked the outbreak and are conducting and funding research to understand how Zika infection affects health.

Prevention and Transmission

What We Know

  • Zika is spread mostly by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). These mosquitoes bite during the day and night.
  • Prevent Zika by avoiding mosquito bites.
  • Zika can be passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus. Infection during pregnancy can cause certain birth defects.
  • Zika can be passed through sex from a person who has Zika to his or her sex partners. Condoms can reduce the chance of getting Zika from sex. Condoms include male and female condoms.
  • No vaccine is currently available.
  • In 2018, no local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission has been reported in the continental United States.
  • The mosquitoes that can spread Zika are found throughout the United States.

What You Can Do

Use the tips below to protect yourself & others from Zika

  • Following these tips will help to protect you, your partner, your family, your friends, and your community from Zika. The more steps you take, the more protected you are.
  • If you are caring for a family member or friend with Zika, take steps to protect yourself from exposure to the person’s blood and body fluids.

Prevent mosquito bites

  • Zika virus is spread to people mainly through the bite of an infected mosquito.
  • Mosquitoes that spread Zika and other viruses bite during the day and night.
  • The best way to prevent Zika is to protect yourself from mosquito bites.

What you can do

  • Check CDC’s travel recommendations for areas with risk of Zika.
  • Take steps to prevent mosquito bites.
  • Take steps to control mosquitoes inside and outside your home.

Plan for travel

  • Outbreaks of Zika have occurred in different countries and territories.
  • Zika virus will continue to infect people. It is difficult to know when and where Zika virus will occur in the future.

What you can do

  • Check CDC’s travel recommendations for areas with risk of Zika.
  • Plan for travel (both before AND after your trip)
  • Protect yourself during sex

Protect yourself during sex

  • Zika can be passed through sex from a person who has Zika to his or her sex partners.
  • We know that Zika can remain in semen longer than in other body fluids, including vaginal fluids, urine, and blood.

What you can do

  • Not having sex can eliminate the risk of getting Zika from sex.
  • Condoms can reduce the chance of getting Zika from sex.
    • Condoms include male and female condoms.
    • To be effective, condoms should be used from start to finish, every time during vaginal, anal, and oral sex and the sharing of sex toys.
    • Dental dams (latex or polyurethane sheets) may also be used for certain types of oral sex (mouth to vagina or mouth to anus).
  • Learn how to protect yourself during sex.

If you have Zika, protect others

  • During the first week of infection, Zika virus can be found in the blood and passed from an infected person to another mosquito through mosquito bites. An infected mosquito can then spread the virus to other people.
  • Zika can be passed through sex from a person who has Zika to his or her partners. Sex includes vaginal, anal and oral sex, and the sharing of sex toys.

What you can do

  • Take steps to prevent mosquito bites.
  • Protect yourself during sex if your partner lives in or has traveled to an area with risk of Zika.

How Zika Spreads


Through mosquito bites

Zika virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). These are the same mosquitoes that spread dengue and chikungunya viruses.

  • These mosquitoes typically lay eggs in or near standing water in things like buckets, bowls, animal dishes, flower pots, and vases. They prefer to bite people, and live indoors and outdoors near people.
    • Mosquitoes that spread chikungunya, dengue, and Zika bite during the day and night.
  • Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites.

From mother to child

  • A pregnant woman can pass Zika virus to her fetus during pregnancy. Zika is a cause of microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. We are studying the full range of other potential health problems that Zika virus infection during pregnancy may cause.
  • A pregnant woman already infected with Zika virus can pass the virus to her fetus during the pregnancy or around the time of birth.
  • Zika virus has been found in breast milk. Possible Zika virus infections have been identified in breastfeeding babies, but Zika virus transmission through breast milk has not been confirmed. Additionally, we do not yet know the long-term effects of Zika virus on young infants infected after birth. Because current evidence suggests that the benefits of breastfeeding outweigh the risk of Zika virus spreading through breast milk, CDC continues to encourage mothers to breastfeed, even if they were infected or lived in or traveled to an area with risk of Zika. CDC continues to study Zika virus and the ways it can spread and will update recommendations as new information becomes available.

Through sex

  • Zika can be passed through sex from a person who has Zika to his or her partners. Zika can be passed through sex, even if the infected person does not have symptoms at the time. Learn how to protect yourself during sex.
    • It can be passed from a person with Zika before their symptoms start, while they have symptoms, and after their symptoms end.
    • Though not well documented, the virus may also be passed by a person who carries the virus but never develops symptoms.
  • Studies are underway to find out how long Zika stays in the semen and vaginal fluids of people who have Zika, and how long it can be passed to sex partners. We know that Zika can remain in semen longer than in other body fluids, including vaginal fluids, urine, and blood.

Through blood transfusion

  • To date, there have not been any confirmed blood transfusion transmission cases in the United States.
  • There have been multiple reports of possible blood transfusion transmission cases in Brazil.
  • During the French Polynesian outbreak, 2.8% of blood donors tested positive for Zika and in previous outbreaks, the virus has been found in blood donors.

Through laboratory and healthcare setting exposure

  • There are reports of laboratory acquired Zika virus infections, although the route of transmission was not clearly established in all cases.
  • To date, no cases of Zika virus transmission in healthcare settings have been identified in the United States. Recommendations are available for healthcare providers to help prevent exposure to Zika virus in healthcare settings.

Risks

  • Anyone who lives in or travels to an area with risk of Zika and has not already been infected with Zika virus can get it from mosquito bites. Once a person has been infected, he or she is likely to be protected from future infections.

Symptoms of Zika virus

Many people infected with Zika virus won’t have symptoms or will only have mild symptoms. The most common symptoms of Zika are

  • Fever
  • Rash
  • Headache
  • Joint pain
  • Conjunctivitis (red eyes)
  • Muscle pain

How long symptoms last

Zika is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week. People usually don’t get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they very rarely die of Zika. For this reason, many people might not realize they have been infected. Symptoms of Zika are similar to other viruses spread through mosquito bites, like dengue and chikungunya.

How soon you should be tested

Zika virus usually remains in the blood of an infected person for about a week. See your doctor or other healthcare provider if you develop symptoms and you live in or have recently traveled to an area with risk of Zika. Your doctor or other healthcare provider may order blood or urine tests to help determine if you have Zika. Once a person has been infected, he or she is likely to be protected from future infections.

When to see a doctor or healthcare provider

See your doctor or other healthcare provider if you have the symptoms described above and have visited an area with risk of Zika. This is especially important if you are pregnant.  Be sure to tell your doctor or other healthcare provider where you traveled.

Treatment

There is no specific medicine or vaccine for Zika virus.

  • Treat the symptoms.
  • Get plenty of rest.
  • Drink fluids to prevent dehydration.
  • Take medicine such as acetaminophen (Tylenol®) to reduce fever and pain.
  • Do not take aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) until dengue can be ruled out to reduce the risk of bleeding.
  • If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to your healthcare provider before taking additional medication.

If you think you may have or had Zika

Tell your doctor or healthcare provider and take these steps to protect others.

If you are caring for a person with Zika

Take steps to protect yourself from exposure to the person’s blood and body fluids (urine, stool, vomit). If you are pregnant, you can care for someone with Zika if you follow these steps.

  • Do not touch blood or body fluids or surfaces with these fluids on them with exposed skin.
  • Wash hands with soap and water immediately after providing care.
  • Immediately remove and wash clothes if they get blood or body fluids on them. Use laundry detergent and water temperature specified on the garment label. Using bleach is not necessary.
  • Clean the sick person’s environment daily using household cleaners according to label instructions.
  • Immediately clean surfaces that have blood or other body fluids on them using household cleaners and disinfectants according to label instructions.

If you visit a family member or friend with Zika in a hospital, you should avoid contact with the person’s blood and body fluids and surfaces with these fluids on them. Helping the person sit up or walk should not expose you. Make sure to wash your hands before and after touching the person.

WikiMD is a free medical encyclopedia and wellnesspedia moderated by medical professionals.


Articles on Zika

This article is a stub. YOU can help Wikimd by expanding it!

WikiMD resources 360 on Zika - scientific articles to social media

Articles

Policies / Guidelines Social Media
Flickr

Media

Patient Resources / Community
Reddit
Facebook posts
Tweets

Evidence Based Medicine

Healthcare Provider Resources
YouTube videos
Tumblr

Clinical Trials

News
Yelp.png
Quora.png
Pins
Instagram
Bing.png
External:W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep & MedSpa Wellness Topics A-Z Other resources
W8md-logo.jpg

A | B | C | D | E | F | G

H | I | J | K | L | M | N

O | P | Q | R | S | T | U

V | W | X | Y | Z

Ad. Tired of being overweight? W8MD's insurance weight loss* program can HELP | Advertise on WikiMD

Disclaimer: The entire contents of WIKIMD.ORG are for informational purposes only and do not render medical advice or professional services. If you have a medical emergency, you should CALL 911 immediately! Given the nature of the wiki, the information provided may not be accurate and or incorrect. Use the information on this wiki at your own risk! See full Disclaimer. * Individual results may vary.