Adiponectin

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Template:PBB Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene.[1] It is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.

Structure

Adiponectin is a 244-amino-acid-long polypeptide. There are four distinct regions of adiponectin. The first is a short signal sequence that targets the hormone for secretion outside the cell; next is a short region that varies between species; the third is a 65-amino acid region with similarity to collagenous proteins; the last is a globular domain. Overall this gene shows similarity to the complement 1Q factors (C1Q). However, when the 3-dimensional structure of the globular region was determined, a striking similarity to TNFα was observed, despite unrelated protein sequences.[2]

Function

Adiponectin is a protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid oxidation.[3] Adiponectin is exclusively secreted from adipose tissue (and also from the placenta in pregnancy[4]) into the bloodstream and is very abundant in plasma relative to many hormones. Levels of the hormone are inversely correlated with body fat percentage in adults,[5] while the association in infants and young children is less clear. Transgenic mice with increased adiponectin show impaired adipocyte differentiation and increased energy expenditure associated with protein uncoupling.[6] The hormone plays a role in the suppression of the metabolic derangements that may result in type 2 diabetes,[5] obesity, atherosclerosis,[3] non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome.[7] Adiponectin in combination with leptin has been shown to completely reverse insulin resistance in mice.[8]

Adiponectin is secreted into the bloodstream where it accounts for approximately 0.01% of all plasma protein at around 5-10 μg/mL. Plasma concentrations reveal a sexual dimorphism, with females having higher levels than males. Levels of adiponectin are reduced in diabetics compared to non-diabetics. Weight reduction significantly increases circulating levels.[9]

Adiponectin automatically self-associates into larger structures. Initially, three adiponectin molecules bind together to form a homotrimer. The trimers continue to self-associate and form hexamers or dodecamers. Like the plasma concentration, the relative levels of the higher-order structures are sexually dimorphic, where females have increased proportions of the high-molecular weight forms. Recent studies showed that the high-molecular weight form may be the most biologically active form regarding glucose homeostasis.[10] High-molecular-weight adiponectin was further found to be associated with a lower risk of diabetes with similar magnitude of association as total adiponectin.[11] However, coronary artery disease has been found to be positively associated with high molecular weight adiponectin, but not with low molecular weight adiponectin.[12]

Adiponectin exerts some of its weight reduction effects via the brain. This is similar to the action of leptin,[13] but the two hormones perform complementary actions, and can have synergistic effects.

Receptors

Adiponectin binds to a number of receptors. So far, two receptors have been identified, with homology to G protein-coupled receptors and one receptor similar to the cadherin family:[14][15]

These have distinct tissue specificities within the body and have different affinities to the various forms of adiponectin. The receptors affect the downstream target AMP kinase, an important cellular metabolic rate control point. Expression of the receptors is correlated with insulin levels, as well as reduced in mouse models of diabetes, particularly in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.[16][17]

Discovery

Adiponectin was first characterised in 1996 in mice as the mRNA transcript most highly expressed in adipocytes.(Maeda, 1996 ((citation #1, below))) In 2007, adiponectin was identified as an transcript highly expressed in preadipocytes[18] (precursors of fat cells) differentiating into adipocytes.[18][19]

The human homologue was identified as the most abundant transcript in adipose tissue. Contrary to expectations, despite being produced in adipose tissue, adiponectin was found to be decreased in obesity.[3][5][13] This downregulation has not been fully explained. The gene was localised to chromosome 3q27, a region highlighted as affecting genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and obesity. Supplementation by differing forms of adiponectin were able to improve insulin control, blood glucose and triglyceride levels in mouse models.

The gene was investigated for variants that predispose to type 2 diabetes.[13][18][20][21][22][23] Several single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding region and surrounding sequence were identified from several different populations, with varying prevalences, degrees of association and strength of effect on type 2 diabetes. Berberine, an herbal folk medicine, has been shown to increase adiponectin expression[24] which partly explains its beneficial effects on metabolic disturbances. Mice fed the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have shown increased plasma adiponectin.[25]

Phylogenetic distribution includes expression in birds[26] and fish.[27]

Metabolic

Adiponectin effects:

Regulation of adiponectin'

  • Obesity is associated with decreased adiponectin.
    • TNF-alpha decreases adiponectin

Hypoadiponectinemia

A low level of adiponectin is an independent risk factor for developing:

Other

Lower levels of adiponectin associated with ADHD in adults.[28]

Administration

Because this substance is a protein, oral administration of adiponectin is not effective, as enzymes in the digestive system break it down into its constituent amino-acid parts. The only way to introduce the hormone into the blood stream is intravenous administration, which itself poses significant logistical challenges.

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References

Metabolic.jpg

Featured disease

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of the most dangerous heart attack risk factors: diabetes and prediabetes, abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol and high blood pressure.

Affects one in three adults

Affecting about 35 percent of all adults in the United States according to the CDC, metabolic syndrome contributes to weight gain, by causing a state of internal starvation called metabolic starvation. This in turn leads to increases hunger, sugar cravings and increased portions leading to overeating and weight gain.

Cause and effect misunderstood

Since we traditionally thought that the portion control (which in turn was attributed wrongly to poor will power)is the cause of weight gain, rather than the effect of this metabolic starvation, all our traditional ideas about cause and effect of obesity were not only wrong but lead to the “blame the victim” attitude when it comes to obesity.

Secret of weight gain revealed

Secret of weight gain, and metabolic syndrome revealed - it has been recently proven that metabolic syndrome, and the weight gain itself are caused by a process called insulin resistance. Check your metabolic syndrome risk using the free Metabolic syndrome meter. Watch this amazing Ted Med video that reveals the secret of weight loss - Stop blaming the victim for obesity


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