Each capsule consists of two layers:
- an outer layer (stratum fibrosum) composed of avascular white fibrous tissue
- an inner layer (stratum synoviale) which is a secreting layer, and is usually described separately as the synovial membrane.
On the inside of the capsule, articular cartilage covers the end surfaces of the bones that articulate within that joint.
The outer layer is highly innervated by the same nerves which perforate through the adjacent muscles associated with the joint.
The fibrous membrane of articular capsule (fibrous capsule) is attached to the whole circumference of the articular end of each bone entering into the joint, and thus entirely surrounds the articulation.
- Articular capsule of the humerus
- Articular capsule of the knee joint
- Atlanto-axial joint
- Capsule of atlantooccipital articulation
- Capsule of hip joint
- Capsule of temporomandibular joint
Affects one in three adults
Affecting about 35 percent of all adults in the United States according to the CDC, metabolic syndrome contributes to weight gain, by causing a state of internal starvation called metabolic starvation. This in turn leads to increases hunger, sugar cravings and increased portions leading to overeating and weight gain.
Cause and effect misunderstood
Since we traditionally thought that the portion control (which in turn was attributed wrongly to poor will power)is the cause of weight gain, rather than the effect of this metabolic starvation, all our traditional ideas about cause and effect of obesity were not only wrong but lead to the “blame the victim” attitude when it comes to obesity.
Secret of weight gain revealed
Secret of weight gain, and metabolic syndrome revealed - it has been recently proven that metabolic syndrome, and the weight gain itself are caused by a process called insulin resistance. Check your metabolic syndrome risk using the free Metabolic syndrome meter. Watch this amazing Ted Med video that reveals the secret of weight loss - Stop blaming the victim for obesity