Difference between revisions of "Asperger syndrome"

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A disorder most often diagnosed in the pediatric years in which the individual displays marked impairment in social interaction and a repetitive, stereotyped pattern of behavior. The individual, however, displays no delay in language or cognitive development, which differentiates asperger syndrome from autism.
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Asperger syndrome (AS) is a developmental disorder.  It is an [[autism spectrum disorder]] (ASD), one of a distinct group of neurological conditions characterized by a greater or lesser degree of impairment in language and communication skills, as well as repetitive or restrictive patterns of thought and behavior.
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== '''Characteristics''' ==
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Unlike many children with ASD, children with Asperger syndrome do not have early language delays, and often have well developed language skills and normal to above average intelligence. However, they may use unusual speech patterns and have a hard time understanding irony, humor, and sarcasm or gestures and social cues important to normal conversation.[3] Many children with Asperger syndrome develop an obsessive interest in one topic or object. They may use high-level vocabulary or complex statistics in conversation.
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Children with Asperger syndrome may have delayed motor skills and thus can appear uncoordinated and clumsy compared to their peers. Other features of Asperger syndrome include difficulty interacting with peers, inappropriate social or emotional behavior, and engaging in repetitive routines.
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Both children and adults with Asperger syndrome are at an increased risk for depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood and anxiety disorders, and other mental health disorders.
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== '''Cause''' ==
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The cause of Asperger syndrome, like most ASDs, is not fully understood, but there is a strong genetic basis, which means it does tend to run in families. Multiple environmental factors are also thought to play an important role in the development of all ASDs.
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== '''Inheritance''' ==
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Asperger syndrome, like all autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), has a strong genetic basis, however the way it runs in families is complex. Doctors believe this is because although a baby may inherit a genetic change that increases their risk for developing Asperger syndrome (genetic predisposition), other factors in the environment are involved in the development and course of the syndrome.
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== '''Diagnosis''' ==
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Standard diagnostic criteria require impairment in social interaction and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, activities, and interests, without significant delay in language or cognitive development. Unlike the international standard, the DSM-IV-TR criteria also required significant impairment in day-to-day functioning; DSM-5 eliminated AS as a separate diagnosis in 2013, and folded it into the umbrella of autism spectrum disorders. Other sets of diagnostic criteria have been proposed by Szatmari et al. and by Gillberg and Gillberg.
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Diagnosis is most commonly made between the ages of four and eleven. A comprehensive assessment involves a multidisciplinary team that observes across multiple settings,and includes neurological and genetic assessment as well as tests for cognition, psychomotor function, verbal and nonverbal strengths and weaknesses, style of learning, and skills for independent living.The "gold standard" in diagnosing ASDs combines clinical judgment with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), a semistructured parent interview; and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), a conversation and play-based interview with the child. Delayed or mistaken diagnosis can be traumatic for individuals and families; for example, misdiagnosis can lead to medications that worsen behavior.
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== '''Treatment''' ==
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Treatment for Asperger syndrome depends on each person's age and needs, and the recommendation is for treatment to begin as early as possible. Many people with Asperger syndrome can learn strategies to manage their symptoms. Treatment may include [[behavioral therapy]], [[speech and language therapy]], support in school, and mental health counseling. Medications may sometimes be used for behavioral or mood disorders.
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== '''Prognosis''' ==
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With behavioral and educational assistance, people with Asperger syndrome can learn ways to manage their symptoms.In some cases, adults may do so well, they no longer meet the criteria for being diagnosed with Asperger syndrome.However, many people continue to struggle with social interactions and relationships throughout adulthood. This is especially true if the person has one or more mental health disorders in addition to Asperger syndrome. While some adults with Asperger syndrome may continue to need support with meeting demands of everyday living, many are able to find employment, develop social relationships, and/or live independently.
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{{Pervasive developmental disorders}}
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{{Mental and behavioural disorders|selected=childhood}}
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{{Authority control}}
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[[Category:Asperger syndrome| ]]
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[[Category:Autism]]
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[[Category:Childhood psychiatric disorders]]
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[[Category:Genetic disorders by system]]
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[[Category:Learning disabilities]]
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[[Category:Mental and behavioural disorders]]
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[[Category:Neurological disorders]]
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[[Category:Neurological disorders in children]]
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[[Category:Pervasive developmental disorders]]
 
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Latest revision as of 10:21, 31 July 2020

Asperger syndrome (AS) is a developmental disorder. It is an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one of a distinct group of neurological conditions characterized by a greater or lesser degree of impairment in language and communication skills, as well as repetitive or restrictive patterns of thought and behavior.

Characteristics

Unlike many children with ASD, children with Asperger syndrome do not have early language delays, and often have well developed language skills and normal to above average intelligence. However, they may use unusual speech patterns and have a hard time understanding irony, humor, and sarcasm or gestures and social cues important to normal conversation.[3] Many children with Asperger syndrome develop an obsessive interest in one topic or object. They may use high-level vocabulary or complex statistics in conversation. Children with Asperger syndrome may have delayed motor skills and thus can appear uncoordinated and clumsy compared to their peers. Other features of Asperger syndrome include difficulty interacting with peers, inappropriate social or emotional behavior, and engaging in repetitive routines. Both children and adults with Asperger syndrome are at an increased risk for depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood and anxiety disorders, and other mental health disorders.

Cause

The cause of Asperger syndrome, like most ASDs, is not fully understood, but there is a strong genetic basis, which means it does tend to run in families. Multiple environmental factors are also thought to play an important role in the development of all ASDs.

Inheritance

Asperger syndrome, like all autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), has a strong genetic basis, however the way it runs in families is complex. Doctors believe this is because although a baby may inherit a genetic change that increases their risk for developing Asperger syndrome (genetic predisposition), other factors in the environment are involved in the development and course of the syndrome.

Diagnosis

Standard diagnostic criteria require impairment in social interaction and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, activities, and interests, without significant delay in language or cognitive development. Unlike the international standard, the DSM-IV-TR criteria also required significant impairment in day-to-day functioning; DSM-5 eliminated AS as a separate diagnosis in 2013, and folded it into the umbrella of autism spectrum disorders. Other sets of diagnostic criteria have been proposed by Szatmari et al. and by Gillberg and Gillberg.

Diagnosis is most commonly made between the ages of four and eleven. A comprehensive assessment involves a multidisciplinary team that observes across multiple settings,and includes neurological and genetic assessment as well as tests for cognition, psychomotor function, verbal and nonverbal strengths and weaknesses, style of learning, and skills for independent living.The "gold standard" in diagnosing ASDs combines clinical judgment with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), a semistructured parent interview; and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), a conversation and play-based interview with the child. Delayed or mistaken diagnosis can be traumatic for individuals and families; for example, misdiagnosis can lead to medications that worsen behavior.

Treatment

Treatment for Asperger syndrome depends on each person's age and needs, and the recommendation is for treatment to begin as early as possible. Many people with Asperger syndrome can learn strategies to manage their symptoms. Treatment may include behavioral therapy, speech and language therapy, support in school, and mental health counseling. Medications may sometimes be used for behavioral or mood disorders.

Prognosis

With behavioral and educational assistance, people with Asperger syndrome can learn ways to manage their symptoms.In some cases, adults may do so well, they no longer meet the criteria for being diagnosed with Asperger syndrome.However, many people continue to struggle with social interactions and relationships throughout adulthood. This is especially true if the person has one or more mental health disorders in addition to Asperger syndrome. While some adults with Asperger syndrome may continue to need support with meeting demands of everyday living, many are able to find employment, develop social relationships, and/or live independently.

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