Dermatology

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Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the hair, nails, skin and its diseases.[1][2] It is a unique specialty with both medical and surgical aspects.[2][3][4] A dermatologist takes care of diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails.[2][5]

Etymology

Attested in English in 1819, the word dermatology derives from the Greek "δέρματος" (dermatos), genitive of "δέρμα" (derma), "skin"[6] (itself from "δέρω" – dero, "to flay"[7]) + "-logy, "the study of".

History

Template:Main Readily visible alterations of the skin surface have been recognized since the dawn of history, with some being treated, and some not. In 1801 the first great school of dermatology became a reality at the famous Hôpital Saint-Louis in Paris, while the first textbooks (Willan's, 1798–1808) and atlases (Alibert's, 1806–1814) appeared in print during the same period of time.[8]

Training

Template:Infobox Occupation Template:Globalize/US After earning a medical degree (M.D. or D.O.), the length of training in the United States for a general dermatologist to be eligible for Board Certification by the American Academy of Dermatology, American Board of Dermatology or the American Osteopathic Board of Dermatology is a total of four years. This training consists of an initial medical, transitional, or surgical intern year followed by a three-year dermatology residency.[2][9][10] Following this training, one- or two- year post-residency fellowships are available in immunodermatology, phototherapy, laser medicine, Mohs micrographic surgery, cosmetic surgery or dermatopathology. For the past several years, dermatology residency positions in the United States have been one of the most competitive to obtain.[11][12][13]

Fellowships

Cosmetic dermatology

File:Obagijf1938.JPG
A Cosmetic dermatology in SM City North Edsa, Philippines

Dermatologists have been leaders in the field of cosmetic surgery.[14] Some dermatologists complete fellowships in surgical dermatology. Many are trained in their residency on the use of botox, fillers, and laser surgery. Some dermatologists perform cosmetic procedures including liposuction, blepharoplasty, and face lifts.[15][16][17] Most dermatologists limit their cosmetic practice to minimally invasive procedures. Despite an absence of formal guidelines from the American Board of Dermatology, many cosmetic fellowships are offered in both surgery and laser medicine.

Dermatopathology

A dermatolopathologist is a pathologist or dermatologist who specializes in the pathology of the skin. This field is shared by dermatologists and pathologists. Usually a dermatologist or pathologist will complete one year of dermatopathology fellowship. This usually includes six months of general pathology, and six months of dermatopathology.[18] Alumni of both specialties can qualify as dermatopathologists. At the completion of a standard residency in dermatology, many dermatologists are also competent at dermatopathology. Some dermatopathologists qualify to sit for their examinations by completing a residency in dermatology and one in pathology.[19]

Immunodermatology

This field specializes in the treatment of immune-mediated skin diseases such as lupus, bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, and other immune-mediated skin disorders.[19][20] Specialists in this field often run their own immunopathology labs.

Mohs surgery

Template:Main The dermatologic subspecialty called Mohs surgery focuses on the excision of skin cancers using a tissue-sparing technique that allows intraoperative assessment of 100% of the peripheral and deep tumor margins developed in the 1930s by Dr. Frederic E. Mohs. The procedure is defined as a type of CCPDMA processing. Physicians trained in this technique must be comfortable with both pathology and surgery, and dermatologists receive extensive training in both during their residency. Physicians who perform Mohs surgery can receive training in this specialized technique during their dermatology residency, but many will seek additional training either through preceptorships to join the American Society for Mohs Surgery[21] or through formal one- to two-year Mohs surgery fellowship training programs administered by the American College of Mohs Surgery.[22]

Pediatric dermatology

Physicians can qualify for this specialization by completing both a pediatric residency and a dermatology residency. Or they might elect to complete a post-residency fellowship.[23] This field encompasses the complex diseases of the neonates, hereditary skin diseases or genodermatoses, and the many difficulties of working with the pediatric population.

Teledermatology

Template:Main Teledermatology is a form of dermatology where telecommunication technologies are used to exchange medical information via all kinds of media (audio, visual and also data communication, but typically photos of dermatologic conditions) usually made by non-dermatologists for evaluation off-site by dermatologists).[24][25] This subspecialty deals with options to view skin conditions over a large distance to provide knowledge exchange,[26] to establish second-opinion services for experts[27] or to use this for follow-up of individuals with chronic skin conditions.[28][29] Teledermatology can reduce wait times by allowing dermatologists to treat minor conditions online while serious conditions requiring immediate care are given priority for appointments.[30]

Therapies

File:Dermatology treatment.jpg
Facial cleansing pores in Meditec at ITESM CCM(2012)

Therapies provided by dermatologists include, but not restricted to:

  • Cosmetic filler injections
  • Hair removal with laser or other modalities
  • Hair transplantation – a cosmetic procedure practiced by many dermatologists.
  • Intralesional treatment – with steroid or chemotherapy.
  • Laser therapy – for both the management of birth marks, skin disorders (like vitiligo), Tattoo removal, and cosmetic resurfacing and rejuvenation.
  • Photodynamic therapy – for the treatment of skin cancer and precancerous growths.
  • Phototherapy – including the use of narrowband UVB, broadband UVB, psoralen and UVB.
  • Tattoo removal with laser.
  • Tumescent liposuction – liposuction was invented by a gynecologist. A dermatologist (Dr. Jeffrey A. Klein) adapted the procedure to local infusion of dilute anesthetic called tumescent liposuction. This method is now widely practiced by dermatologists, plastic surgeons and gynecologists.[31]
  • Cryosurgery – for the treatment of warts, skin cancers, and other dermatosis.
  • Radiation therapy – although rarely practiced by dermatologists, many dermatologist continue to provide radiation therapy in their office.
  • Vitiligo surgery – Including procedures like autologous melanocyte transplant, suction blister grafting and punch grafting.
  • Allergy testing – 'Patch testing' for contact dermatitis.
  • Systemic therapies – including antibiotics, immunomodulators, and novel injectable products.
  • Topical therapies – dermatologists have the best understanding of the numerous products and compounds used topically in medicine.

Most dermatologic pharmacology can be categorized based on the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, specifically the ATC code D.

See also

Notes

  1. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. Random House, Inc. 2001. Page 537. ISBN 037572026.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 http://www.aad.org/public/specialty/what.html
  3. http://www.aad.org
  4. δέρμα, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  5. δέρω, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  6. Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. Page 3. ISBN 0-07-138076-0.
  7. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=news}}
  8. James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology (10th ed.). Saunders. Page 895. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.
  9. [1]Template:Dead link
  10. 19.0 19.1 [2]Template:Dead link
  11. [3]Template:Dead link
  12. [4]Template:Dead link
  13. [5]Template:Dead link
  14. Burg G, Soyer H.P, Chimenti S. (2005): Teledermatology In: Frisch P, Burgdorf W.: EDF White Book, Skin Diseases in Europe. Berlin, 130-133
  15. Douglas A. Perednia, M.D., Nancy A. Brown, M.L.S., OregonHealthSciencesUniversity Teledermatology: one application of telemedicine
  16. DermNet NZ: the dermatology resource
  17. The Community for Dermatology | Teledermatology
  18. Ebner et al. 2006 e&i
  19. H. Peter Soyer, Rainer Hofmann-Wellenhof, Cesare Massone, Gerald Gabler, Huiting Dong, Fezal Ozdemir, Giuseppe Argenziano telederm.org: Freely Available Online Consultations in Dermatology

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Health science - Medicine
Anesthesiology - Dermatology - Emergency Medicine - General practice - Intensive care medicine - Internal medicine - Neurology - Obstetrics & Gynecology - Pediatrics - Podiatry - Public Health & Occupational Medicine - Psychiatry - Radiology - Surgery
Branches of Internal medicine
Cardiology - Endocrinology - Gastroenterology - Hematology - Infectious diseases - Nephrology - Oncology - Pulmonology - Rheumatology
Branches of Surgery
General surgery - Cardiothoracic surgery - Neurosurgery - Ophthalmology - Orthopedic surgery - Otolaryngology (ENT) - Plastic surgery - Podiatric surgery - Urology - Vascular surgery