Difference between revisions of "Glossary of nutritional labels"

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(Tag: 2017 source edit)
(Tag: 2017 source edit)
 
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'''Glossary of Nutritional Fact Labels'''
 
'''Glossary of Nutritional Fact Labels'''
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==A==
 
==A==
  
* [[Acid-Base Balance]]
+
* '''[[Acid-Base Balance]]'''
  
 
In medicine, the state of having the right amount of acid
 
In medicine, the state of having the right amount of acid
 +
 
and base in the blood and other body fluids. Keeping a
 
and base in the blood and other body fluids. Keeping a
 +
 
normal acid-base balance is important for the body to
 
normal acid-base balance is important for the body to
 +
 
work the way it should. Also called acid-base equilibrium.
 
work the way it should. Also called acid-base equilibrium.
  
  
* [[Amino Acid]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Amino Acid]]'''
 +
 
 
A large organic molecule that is the basic building block
 
A large organic molecule that is the basic building block
 +
 
of proteins. There are 20 different amino acids that link
 
of proteins. There are 20 different amino acids that link
 +
 
together in various order to form proteins. The order of
 
together in various order to form proteins. The order of
 +
 
amino acids is determined by the genetic sequence.
 
amino acids is determined by the genetic sequence.
  
  
* [[Antioxidant]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Antioxidant]]'''
  
 
A substance that protects cells from the damage caused
 
A substance that protects cells from the damage caused
 +
 
by free radicals (unstable molecules made by the process
 
by free radicals (unstable molecules made by the process
 +
 
of oxidation during normal metabolism). Free radicals may
 
of oxidation during normal metabolism). Free radicals may
 +
 
play a part in cancer, heart disease, stroke, and other
 
play a part in cancer, heart disease, stroke, and other
 +
 
diseases of aging. Antioxidants include beta-carotene,
 
diseases of aging. Antioxidants include beta-carotene,
 +
 
lycopene, vitamins A, C, and E, and other natural and
 
lycopene, vitamins A, C, and E, and other natural and
 +
 
manufactured substances.
 
manufactured substances.
  
 
==C==
 
==C==
* [[Calorie]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Calorie]]'''
  
 
A unit commonly used to measure energy content of
 
A unit commonly used to measure energy content of
 +
 
foods and beverages as well as energy use (expenditure)
 
foods and beverages as well as energy use (expenditure)
 +
 
by the body. A calorie is equal to the amount of energy
 
by the body. A calorie is equal to the amount of energy
 +
 
(heat) required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water
 
(heat) required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water
 +
 
1 degree centigrade. Energy is required to sustain the
 
1 degree centigrade. Energy is required to sustain the
 +
 
body’s various functions, including metabolic processes
 
body’s various functions, including metabolic processes
 +
 
and physical activity. Carbohydrate, fat, protein, and
 
and physical activity. Carbohydrate, fat, protein, and
 +
 
alcohol provide all of the energy supplied by foods
 
alcohol provide all of the energy supplied by foods
 +
 
and beverages.
 
and beverages.
  
  
* [[Calorie Balance]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Calorie Balance]]'''
  
 
The balance between calories consumed through eating
 
The balance between calories consumed through eating
 +
 
and drinking and calories expended through physical
 
and drinking and calories expended through physical
 +
 
activity and metabolic processes.
 
activity and metabolic processes.
  
  
* [[Carbohydrate, Total]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Carbohydrate, Total]]'''
  
 
One of three macronutrients in food that provide calories,
 
One of three macronutrients in food that provide calories,
 +
 
or “energy” for the body. There are several types of
 
or “energy” for the body. There are several types of
 +
 
carbohydrate: sugars, sugar alcohols, starches, and
 
carbohydrate: sugars, sugar alcohols, starches, and
 +
 
dietary fiber.
 
dietary fiber.
  
  
* [[Cardiovascular Disease]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Cardiovascular Disease]]'''
  
 
Heart disease as well as diseases of the blood vessel
 
Heart disease as well as diseases of the blood vessel
 +
 
system (arteries, capillaries, veins) that can lead to heart
 
system (arteries, capillaries, veins) that can lead to heart
 +
 
attack, chest pain (angina), or stroke.
 
attack, chest pain (angina), or stroke.
  
  
* [[Cell Membrane]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Cell Membrane]]'''
  
 
The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell
 
The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell
 +
 
from its external environment and regulates the transport
 
from its external environment and regulates the transport
 +
 
of materials entering and exiting the cell. It consists of a
 
of materials entering and exiting the cell. It consists of a
 +
 
phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins.
 
phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins.
  
  
* [[Cholesterol]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Cholesterol]]'''
  
 
A natural sterol present in all animal tissues. Free
 
A natural sterol present in all animal tissues. Free
 +
 
cholesterol is a component of cell membranes and
 
cholesterol is a component of cell membranes and
 +
 
serves as a precursor for steroid hormones (estrogen,
 
serves as a precursor for steroid hormones (estrogen,
 +
 
testosterone, aldosterone), and for bile acids. Humans
 
testosterone, aldosterone), and for bile acids. Humans
 +
 
are able to synthesize sufficient cholesterol to meet
 
are able to synthesize sufficient cholesterol to meet
 +
 
biologic requirements, and there is no evidence for a
 
biologic requirements, and there is no evidence for a
 +
 
dietary requirement for cholesterol.
 
dietary requirement for cholesterol.
  
  
* [[Cholesterol, Blood]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Cholesterol, Blood]]'''
  
 
Cholesterol that travels in the serum of the blood as
 
Cholesterol that travels in the serum of the blood as
 +
 
distinct particles containing both lipids and proteins
 
distinct particles containing both lipids and proteins
 +
 
(lipoproteins). Also referred to as serum cholesterol.
 
(lipoproteins). Also referred to as serum cholesterol.
 +
 
There are two kinds of lipoproteins: high-density
 
There are two kinds of lipoproteins: high-density
 +
 
lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein
 
lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein
 +
 
(LDL) cholesterol.
 
(LDL) cholesterol.
  
  
* [[Cholesterol, Dietary]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Cholesterol, Dietary]]'''
  
 
Cholesterol found in foods of animal origin, including meat,
 
Cholesterol found in foods of animal origin, including meat,
 +
 
seafood, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. Plant foods
 
seafood, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. Plant foods
 +
 
(such as beans, fruits, grains, nuts, peas, seeds, vegetables,
 
(such as beans, fruits, grains, nuts, peas, seeds, vegetables,
 +
 
and vegetable oils) do not contain dietary cholesterol.
 
and vegetable oils) do not contain dietary cholesterol.
  
 
==D==
 
==D==
* [[Daily Value]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Daily Value]]'''
  
 
The amount of a nutrient (in grams, milligrams, or
 
The amount of a nutrient (in grams, milligrams, or
 +
 
micrograms) recommended per day for Americans
 
micrograms) recommended per day for Americans
 +
 
4 years of age and older. The Nutrition Facts Label lists
 
4 years of age and older. The Nutrition Facts Label lists
 +
 
the Daily Values for some key nutrients. These are given
 
the Daily Values for some key nutrients. These are given
 +
 
for both a 2,000 and 2,500 calorie daily diet.
 
for both a 2,000 and 2,500 calorie daily diet.
  
  
* [[Diabetes]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Diabetes]]'''
  
 
A disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses
 
A disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses
 +
 
digested food (specifically carbohydrate) for growth and
 
digested food (specifically carbohydrate) for growth and
 +
 
energy. In diabetes, the pancreas either produces little or
 
energy. In diabetes, the pancreas either produces little or
 +
 
no insulin (a hormone that helps glucose, the body’s main
 
no insulin (a hormone that helps glucose, the body’s main
 +
 
source of fuel, get into cells), or the cells do not respond
 
source of fuel, get into cells), or the cells do not respond
 +
 
appropriately to the insulin that is produced, which causes
 
appropriately to the insulin that is produced, which causes
 +
 
too much glucose to be released in the blood. The three
 
too much glucose to be released in the blood. The three
 +
 
main types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational
 
main types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational
 +
 
diabetes. If not controlled, diabetes can lead to serious
 
diabetes. If not controlled, diabetes can lead to serious
 +
 
complications.
 
complications.
  
* [[Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension(DASH)]]
+
* '''[[Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension(DASH)]]'''
  
 
An eating plan designed to increase intake of foods
 
An eating plan designed to increase intake of foods
 +
 
expected to lower blood pressure while being heart
 
expected to lower blood pressure while being heart
 +
 
healthy and meeting nutrient recommendations. It is
 
healthy and meeting nutrient recommendations. It is
 +
 
available at specific calorie levels. It was adapted from
 
available at specific calorie levels. It was adapted from
 +
 
the dietary pattern developed for the DASH research
 
the dietary pattern developed for the DASH research
 +
 
trials. In the trials, the DASH dietary pattern lowered blood
 
trials. In the trials, the DASH dietary pattern lowered blood
 +
 
pressure and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
 
pressure and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
 +
 
levels, resulting in reduced cardiovascular disease risk.
 
levels, resulting in reduced cardiovascular disease risk.
 +
 
The DASH Eating Plan is low in saturated fats and rich in
 
The DASH Eating Plan is low in saturated fats and rich in
 +
 
potassium, calcium, and magnesium, as well as dietary
 
potassium, calcium, and magnesium, as well as dietary
 +
 
fiber and protein. It also is lower in sodium than the typical
 
fiber and protein. It also is lower in sodium than the typical
 +
 
American diet, and includes menus with two levels of
 
American diet, and includes menus with two levels of
 +
 
sodium, 2,300 and 1,500 mg per day. It meets the Dietary
 
sodium, 2,300 and 1,500 mg per day. It meets the Dietary
 +
 
Reference Intakes for all essential nutrients and stays
 
Reference Intakes for all essential nutrients and stays
 +
 
within limits for overconsumed nutrients, while allowing
 
within limits for overconsumed nutrients, while allowing
 +
 
adaptable food choices based on food preferences, cost,
 
adaptable food choices based on food preferences, cost,
 +
 
and availability.
 
and availability.
  
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==E==
 
==E==
* [[Energy Drink]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Energy Drink]]'''
  
 
A beverage that contains caffeine as an ingredient, along
 
A beverage that contains caffeine as an ingredient, along
 +
 
with other ingredients, such as taurine, herbal supplements,
 
with other ingredients, such as taurine, herbal supplements,
 +
 
vitamins, and added sugars. It is usually marketed as a
 
vitamins, and added sugars. It is usually marketed as a
 +
 
product that can improve perceived energy, stamina,
 
product that can improve perceived energy, stamina,
 +
 
athletic performance, or concentration.
 
athletic performance, or concentration.
  
  
* [[Enrichment]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Enrichment]]'''
  
 
The addition of specific nutrients (i.e., iron, thiamin,
 
The addition of specific nutrients (i.e., iron, thiamin,
 +
 
riboflavin, and niacin) to refined grain products in order to
 
riboflavin, and niacin) to refined grain products in order to
 +
 
replace losses of the nutrients that occur during processing.
 
replace losses of the nutrients that occur during processing.
 +
 
Enrichment of refined grains is not mandatory; however,
 
Enrichment of refined grains is not mandatory; however,
 +
 
those that are labeled as enriched (e.g., enriched flour)
 
those that are labeled as enriched (e.g., enriched flour)
 +
 
must meet the standard of identity for enrichment set by
 
must meet the standard of identity for enrichment set by
 +
 
FDA. When cereal grains are labeled as enriched, it is
 
FDA. When cereal grains are labeled as enriched, it is
 +
 
mandatory that they be fortified with folic acid.
 
mandatory that they be fortified with folic acid.
  
  
* [[Enzyme]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Enzyme]]'''
  
 
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body.
 
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body.
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==F==
 
==F==
  
* [[Fast Food]]
+
* '''[[Fast Food]]'''
 +
 
  
  
 
Foods designed for ready availability, use, or consumption
 
Foods designed for ready availability, use, or consumption
 +
 
and sold at eating establishments for quick availability
 
and sold at eating establishments for quick availability
 +
 
or take-out. Fast food restaurants also are known as
 
or take-out. Fast food restaurants also are known as
 +
 
quick-service restaurants.
 
quick-service restaurants.
  
  
* [[Fat, Monounsaturated]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Fat, Monounsaturated]]'''
  
 
Fatty acids that have one double bond and are usually
 
Fatty acids that have one double bond and are usually
 +
 
liquid at room temperature. Plant sources rich in
 
liquid at room temperature. Plant sources rich in
 +
 
monounsaturated fats include vegetable oils (e.g., canola,
 
monounsaturated fats include vegetable oils (e.g., canola,
 +
 
olive, high oleic safflower and sunflower), as well as nuts.
 
olive, high oleic safflower and sunflower), as well as nuts.
  
  
* [[Fat, Polyunsaturated]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Fat, Polyunsaturated]]'''
  
 
Fatty acids that have two or more double bonds and are
 
Fatty acids that have two or more double bonds and are
 +
 
usually liquid at room temperature. Primary sources are
 
usually liquid at room temperature. Primary sources are
 +
 
vegetable oils and some nutsand seeds. Polyunsaturated
 
vegetable oils and some nutsand seeds. Polyunsaturated
 +
 
fats provide essential fats such as n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.
 
fats provide essential fats such as n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.
  
  
* [[Fat, Saturated]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Fat, Saturated]]'''
  
 
Fatty acids that have no double bonds. Saturated fats are
 
Fatty acids that have no double bonds. Saturated fats are
 +
 
usually solid at room temperature. Major sources include
 
usually solid at room temperature. Major sources include
 +
 
animal products (e.g., meats and dairy products) and
 
animal products (e.g., meats and dairy products) and
 +
 
tropical oils (e.g., coconut and palm oils).
 
tropical oils (e.g., coconut and palm oils).
  
  
* [[Fat, Solid]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Fat, Solid]]'''
  
 
Fats that are usually not liquid at room temperature. Solid
 
Fats that are usually not liquid at room temperature. Solid
 +
 
fats are found in animal foods, except for seafood, and
 
fats are found in animal foods, except for seafood, and
 +
 
can be made from vegetable oils through hydrogenation.
 
can be made from vegetable oils through hydrogenation.
 +
 
Some tropical oil plants, such as coconut and palm, are
 
Some tropical oil plants, such as coconut and palm, are
 +
 
considered as solid fats due to their fatty acid composition.
 
considered as solid fats due to their fatty acid composition.
 +
 
Solid fats contain more saturated fats and/or trans fats
 
Solid fats contain more saturated fats and/or trans fats
 +
 
than liquid oils (e.g., soybean, canola, and corn oils), with
 
than liquid oils (e.g., soybean, canola, and corn oils), with
 +
 
lower amounts of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated
 
lower amounts of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated
 +
 
fatty acids. Common fats considered to be solid fats
 
fatty acids. Common fats considered to be solid fats
 +
 
include: butter, beef fat (tallow), chicken fat, pork fat (lard),
 
include: butter, beef fat (tallow), chicken fat, pork fat (lard),
 +
 
shortening,coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil. Foods
 
shortening,coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil. Foods
 +
 
high in solid fats include: full-fat (regular) cheeses, creams,
 
high in solid fats include: full-fat (regular) cheeses, creams,
 +
 
whole milk, ice cream, marbled cuts of meats, regular
 
whole milk, ice cream, marbled cuts of meats, regular
 +
 
ground beef, bacon, sausages, poultry skin, and many
 
ground beef, bacon, sausages, poultry skin, and many
 +
 
baked goods made with solid fats (such as cookies,
 
baked goods made with solid fats (such as cookies,
 +
 
crackers, doughnuts, pastries, and croissants).
 
crackers, doughnuts, pastries, and croissants).
  
  
* [[Fat, Total]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Fat, Total]]'''
  
 
One of three macronutrients in food that provide calories,
 
One of three macronutrients in food that provide calories,
 +
 
or “energy,” for the body. There are two types of fat:
 
or “energy,” for the body. There are two types of fat:
 +
 
saturated and unsaturated.
 
saturated and unsaturated.
  
  
* [[Fat, Trans]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Fat, Trans]]'''
  
 
Unsaturated fatty acids that are structurally different from
 
Unsaturated fatty acids that are structurally different from
 +
 
the unsaturated fatty acids that occur naturally in plant
 
the unsaturated fatty acids that occur naturally in plant
 +
 
foods. Sources of trans fat include partially hydrogenated
 
foods. Sources of trans fat include partially hydrogenated
 +
 
vegetable oils used in processed foods (e.g., desserts,
 
vegetable oils used in processed foods (e.g., desserts,
 +
 
microwave popcorn, frozen pizza, some margarines, and
 
microwave popcorn, frozen pizza, some margarines, and
 +
 
coffee creamer). Trans fats also are present naturally in
 
coffee creamer). Trans fats also are present naturally in
 +
 
foods that come from ruminant animals (e.g., cattle and
 
foods that come from ruminant animals (e.g., cattle and
 +
 
sheep), such as dairy products, beef, and lamb.
 
sheep), such as dairy products, beef, and lamb.
  
  
* [[Fiber, Dietary]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Fiber, Dietary]]'''
  
 
Dietary fiber consists of non-digestible carbohydrates and
 
Dietary fiber consists of non-digestible carbohydrates and
 +
 
lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants (i.e., the fiber
 
lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants (i.e., the fiber
 +
 
naturally occurring in foods).000 calorie diet.
 
naturally occurring in foods).000 calorie diet.
  
* [[Food Groups]]
+
* '''[[Food Groups]]'''
  
 
A method of grouping similar foods for descriptive and
 
A method of grouping similar foods for descriptive and
 +
 
guidance purposes. Food groups are defined as vegetables,
 
guidance purposes. Food groups are defined as vegetables,
 +
 
fruits, grains, dairy, and protein foods. Some of these
 
fruits, grains, dairy, and protein foods. Some of these
 +
 
groups are divided into subgroups, such as dark-green
 
groups are divided into subgroups, such as dark-green
 +
 
vegetables or whole grains, which may have intake goals
 
vegetables or whole grains, which may have intake goals
 +
 
or limits. Foods are grouped within food groups based on
 
or limits. Foods are grouped within food groups based on
 +
 
their similarity in nutritional composition and other dietary
 
their similarity in nutritional composition and other dietary
 +
 
benefits. For assignment to food groups, mixed dishes are
 
benefits. For assignment to food groups, mixed dishes are
 +
 
disaggregated into their major component parts.
 
disaggregated into their major component parts.
  
  
* [[Fortification]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Fortification]]'''
  
 
The deliberate addition of one or more essential nutrients
 
The deliberate addition of one or more essential nutrients
 +
 
to a food, whether or not it is normally contained in the
 
to a food, whether or not it is normally contained in the
 +
 
food. Fortification may be used to prevent or correct a
 
food. Fortification may be used to prevent or correct a
 +
 
demonstrated deficiency in the population or specific
 
demonstrated deficiency in the population or specific
 +
 
population groups; restore naturally occurring nutrients
 
population groups; restore naturally occurring nutrients
 +
 
lost during processing, storage, or handling; or to add a
 
lost during processing, storage, or handling; or to add a
 +
 
nutrient to a food at the level found in a comparable
 
nutrient to a food at the level found in a comparable
 +
 
traditional food. When cereal grains are labeled as enriched,
 
traditional food. When cereal grains are labeled as enriched,
 +
 
it is mandatory that they be fortified with folic acid.
 
it is mandatory that they be fortified with folic acid.
  
  
* [[Fruit, Whole]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Fruit, Whole]]'''
  
 
All fresh, frozen, canned, and dried fruit but not fruit juice.
 
All fresh, frozen, canned, and dried fruit but not fruit juice.
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==G==
 
==G==
* [[Glucose]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Glucose]]'''
  
 
A simple form of sugar that acts as the body’s fuel. It is
 
A simple form of sugar that acts as the body’s fuel. It is
 +
 
produced when foods are metabolized in the digestive
 
produced when foods are metabolized in the digestive
 +
 
system and carried by the blood to cells for energy.
 
system and carried by the blood to cells for energy.
  
  
* [[Grain, Refined]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Grain, Refined]]'''
  
 
Grains and grain products with the bran and germ
 
Grains and grain products with the bran and germ
 +
 
removed; any grain product that is not a whole-grain
 
removed; any grain product that is not a whole-grain
 +
 
product. Many refined grains are low in fiber but enriched
 
product. Many refined grains are low in fiber but enriched
 +
 
with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron, and fortified with
 
with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron, and fortified with
 +
 
folic acid.
 
folic acid.
  
  
* [[Grain, Whole]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Grain, Whole]]'''
  
 
Grains and grain products made from the entire grain
 
Grains and grain products made from the entire grain
 +
 
seed, usually called the kernel, which consists of the bran,
 
seed, usually called the kernel, which consists of the bran,
 +
 
germ, and endosperm. If the kernel has been cracked,
 
germ, and endosperm. If the kernel has been cracked,
 +
 
crushed, or flaked, it must retain the same relative
 
crushed, or flaked, it must retain the same relative
 +
 
proportions of bran, germ, and endosperm as the original
 
proportions of bran, germ, and endosperm as the original
 +
 
grain in order to be called whole grain. Many, but not all,
 
grain in order to be called whole grain. Many, but not all,
 +
 
whole grains are also sources ofdietary fiber.
 
whole grains are also sources ofdietary fiber.
  
 
==H==
 
==H==
* [[Health]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Health]]'''
  
 
A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
 
A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
 +
 
and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
 
and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
  
  
* [[Hormones]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Hormones]]'''
  
 
Chemicals produced by glands in the body and circulated
 
Chemicals produced by glands in the body and circulated
 +
 
in the bloodstream. Hormones control the actions of
 
in the bloodstream. Hormones control the actions of
 +
 
certain cells or organs.
 
certain cells or organs.
  
  
* [[Hypertension]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Hypertension]]'''
  
 
A condition, also known as high blood pressure, in which
 
A condition, also known as high blood pressure, in which
 +
 
blood pressure remains elevated over time. Hypertension
 
blood pressure remains elevated over time. Hypertension
 +
 
makes the heart work too hard, and the high force of the
 
makes the heart work too hard, and the high force of the
 +
 
blood flow can harm arteries and organs, such as the
 
blood flow can harm arteries and organs, such as the
 +
 
heart, kidneys, brain, and eyes. Uncontrolled hypertension
 
heart, kidneys, brain, and eyes. Uncontrolled hypertension
 +
 
can lead to heart attacks, heart failure, kidney disease,
 
can lead to heart attacks, heart failure, kidney disease,
 +
 
stroke, and blindness. Prehypertension is defined as blood
 
stroke, and blindness. Prehypertension is defined as blood
 +
 
pressure that is higher than normal but not high enough to
 
pressure that is higher than normal but not high enough to
 +
 
be defined as hypertension.
 
be defined as hypertension.
  
  
* [[Ingredient List]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Ingredient List]]'''
  
 
The ingredient list on a food package is usually located
 
The ingredient list on a food package is usually located
 +
 
near the name of the food’s manufacturer and often below
 
near the name of the food’s manufacturer and often below
 +
 
the Nutrition Facts Label. It shows each ingredient in a
 
the Nutrition Facts Label. It shows each ingredient in a
 +
 
food by its common or usual name in descending order
 
food by its common or usual name in descending order
 +
 
by weight. The ingredient with the greatest contribution
 
by weight. The ingredient with the greatest contribution
 +
 
to the product weight is listed first, and the ingredient
 
to the product weight is listed first, and the ingredient
 +
 
contributing the least by weight is listed last.
 
contributing the least by weight is listed last.
  
 
==M==
 
==M==
  
* [[Macronutrient]]
+
* '''[[Macronutrient]]'''
  
 
A dietary component that provides energy. Macronutrients
 
A dietary component that provides energy. Macronutrients
 +
 
include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and alcohol.
 
include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and alcohol.
  
  
* [[Meats and Poultry]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Meats and Poultry]]'''
  
 
Foods that come from the flesh of land animals (e.g., all
 
Foods that come from the flesh of land animals (e.g., all
 +
 
forms of beef, pork, lamb, veal, goat, and non-bird game)
 
forms of beef, pork, lamb, veal, goat, and non-bird game)
 +
 
and birds (e.g., all forms of chicken, turkey, duck, geese,
 
and birds (e.g., all forms of chicken, turkey, duck, geese,
 +
 
guineas, and game birds). Organs (such as liver) are also
 
guineas, and game birds). Organs (such as liver) are also
 +
 
considered to be meat or poultry.
 
considered to be meat or poultry.
  
  
* [[Meats and Poultry, Lean]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Meats and Poultry, Lean]]'''
  
 
Any meat or poultry that contains less than 10 g of fat,
 
Any meat or poultry that contains less than 10 g of fat,
 +
 
4.5 g or less of saturated fat, and less than 95 mg of
 
4.5 g or less of saturated fat, and less than 95 mg of
 +
 
cholesterol per 100 g and per labeled serving size, based
 
cholesterol per 100 g and per labeled serving size, based
 +
 
on USDA definitions for food label use. Examples include
 
on USDA definitions for food label use. Examples include
 +
 
95% lean cooked ground beef, beef top round steak or
 
95% lean cooked ground beef, beef top round steak or
 +
 
roast, beef tenderloin, pork top loin chop or roast, pork
 
roast, beef tenderloin, pork top loin chop or roast, pork
 +
 
tenderloin, ham or turkey deli slices, skinless chicken
 
tenderloin, ham or turkey deli slices, skinless chicken
 +
 
breast, and skinless turkey breast.
 
breast, and skinless turkey breast.
  
  
* [[Meats and Poultry, Processed]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Meats and Poultry, Processed]]'''
  
 
All meat or poultry products preserved by smoking, curing,
 
All meat or poultry products preserved by smoking, curing,
 +
 
salting, and/or the addition of chemical preservatives.
 
salting, and/or the addition of chemical preservatives.
 +
 
Processed meats and poultry include all types of meat or
 
Processed meats and poultry include all types of meat or
 +
 
poultry sausages (e.g., bologna, frankfurters, luncheon
 
poultry sausages (e.g., bologna, frankfurters, luncheon
 +
 
meats and loaves, sandwich spreads, chorizo, kielbasa,
 
meats and loaves, sandwich spreads, chorizo, kielbasa,
 +
 
pepperoni, salami, and Vienna and summer sausages),
 
pepperoni, salami, and Vienna and summer sausages),
 +
 
bacon, smoked or cured ham or pork shoulder, corned
 
bacon, smoked or cured ham or pork shoulder, corned
 +
 
beef, pastrami, pig’s feet, beef jerky, marinated chicken
 
beef, pastrami, pig’s feet, beef jerky, marinated chicken
 +
 
breasts, and smoked turkey products.
 
breasts, and smoked turkey products.
  
* [[Metabolism]]
+
* '''[[Metabolism]]'''
  
 
The set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms
 
The set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms
 +
 
in order to maintain life, and refers to the way cells
 
in order to maintain life, and refers to the way cells
 +
 
chemically change food so that it can be used to store
 
chemically change food so that it can be used to store
 +
 
or use energy and make the proteins, fats, and sugars
 
or use energy and make the proteins, fats, and sugars
 +
 
needed by the body.
 
needed by the body.
  
  
* [[Micronutrient]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Micronutrient]]'''
  
 
An essential nutrient, such as a trace mineral or vitamin
 
An essential nutrient, such as a trace mineral or vitamin
 +
 
that is required by an organism in smaller amounts. All
 
that is required by an organism in smaller amounts. All
 +
 
nutrients other than proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and
 
nutrients other than proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and
 +
 
water (macronutrients) are micronutrients.
 
water (macronutrients) are micronutrients.
  
  
* [[Minerals]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Minerals]]'''
  
 
Inorganic substances that are required by the body in
 
Inorganic substances that are required by the body in
 +
 
relatively small amounts (also called micronutrients) for
 
relatively small amounts (also called micronutrients) for
 +
 
normal growth and activity.
 
normal growth and activity.
  
  
* [[Mixed Dishes]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Mixed Dishes]]'''
  
 
Savory food items eaten as a single entity that include
 
Savory food items eaten as a single entity that include
 +
 
foods from more than one food group. These foods
 
foods from more than one food group. These foods
 +
 
often are mixtures of grains, protein foods, vegetables,
 
often are mixtures of grains, protein foods, vegetables,
 +
 
and/or dairy. Examples of mixed dishes include burgers,
 
and/or dairy. Examples of mixed dishes include burgers,
 +
 
sandwiches, tacos, burritos, pizzas, macaroni and cheese,
 
sandwiches, tacos, burritos, pizzas, macaroni and cheese,
 +
 
stir-fries, spaghetti and meatballs, casseroles, soups, egg
 
stir-fries, spaghetti and meatballs, casseroles, soups, egg
 +
 
rolls, and Caesar salad.
 
rolls, and Caesar salad.
  
Line 430: Line 672:
  
 
==N==
 
==N==
* [[Nutrient]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Nutrient]]'''
  
 
A substance in food that contributes to growth and health;
 
A substance in food that contributes to growth and health;
 +
 
nutrients provide energy, cell building and structural
 
nutrients provide energy, cell building and structural
 +
 
materials, and agents that regulate body chemistry.
 
materials, and agents that regulate body chemistry.
 +
 
Nutrients include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins,
 
Nutrients include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins,
 +
 
minerals, and water.
 
minerals, and water.
  
  
* [[Nutrient-Dense]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Nutrient-Dense]]'''
  
 
A characteristic of foods and beverages that provide
 
A characteristic of foods and beverages that provide
 +
 
vitamins, minerals, and other substances that contribute
 
vitamins, minerals, and other substances that contribute
 +
 
to adequate nutrient intakes or may have positive health
 
to adequate nutrient intakes or may have positive health
 +
 
effects, with little or no saturated fats, added sugars,
 
effects, with little or no saturated fats, added sugars,
 +
 
refined starches, and sodium. Ideally, these foods and
 
refined starches, and sodium. Ideally, these foods and
 +
 
beverages also are in forms that retain naturally occurring
 
beverages also are in forms that retain naturally occurring
 +
 
components, such as dietary fiber. All vegetables, fruits,
 
components, such as dietary fiber. All vegetables, fruits,
 +
 
whole grains, seafood, eggs, beans and peas, unsalted
 
whole grains, seafood, eggs, beans and peas, unsalted
 +
 
nuts and seeds, fat-free and low-fat dairy products, and
 
nuts and seeds, fat-free and low-fat dairy products, and
 +
 
lean meats and poultry—when prepared with little or no
 
lean meats and poultry—when prepared with little or no
 +
 
added saturated fats, sugars, refined starches, and
 
added saturated fats, sugars, refined starches, and
 +
 
sodium—are nutrient-dense foods. These foods contribute
 
sodium—are nutrient-dense foods. These foods contribute
 +
 
to meeting food group recommendations within calorie
 
to meeting food group recommendations within calorie
 +
 
and sodium limits. The term “nutrient dense” indicates the
 
and sodium limits. The term “nutrient dense” indicates the
 +
 
nutrients and other beneficial substances in a food have
 
nutrients and other beneficial substances in a food have
 +
 
not been “diluted” by the addition of calories from added
 
not been “diluted” by the addition of calories from added
 +
 
saturated fats, sugars, or refined starches, or by the solid
 
saturated fats, sugars, or refined starches, or by the solid
 +
 
fats naturally present in the food.
 
fats naturally present in the food.
  
  
* [[Nutrient, Essential]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Nutrient, Essential]]'''
  
 
A vitamin, mineral, fatty acid, or amino acid required for
 
A vitamin, mineral, fatty acid, or amino acid required for
 +
 
normal body functioning that either cannot be synthesized
 
normal body functioning that either cannot be synthesized
 +
 
by the body at all, or cannot be synthesized in amounts
 
by the body at all, or cannot be synthesized in amounts
 +
 
adequate for good health, and thus must be obtained
 
adequate for good health, and thus must be obtained
 +
 
from a dietary source. Other food components, such as
 
from a dietary source. Other food components, such as
 +
 
dietary fiber, while not essential, also are considered to
 
dietary fiber, while not essential, also are considered to
 +
 
be nutrients.
 
be nutrients.
  
  
* [[Nutrient of Concern]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Nutrient of Concern]]'''
  
 
Nutrients that are overconsumed or underconsumed
 
Nutrients that are overconsumed or underconsumed
 +
 
and current intakes may pose a substantial public
 
and current intakes may pose a substantial public
 +
 
health concern. Data on nutrient intake, corroborated
 
health concern. Data on nutrient intake, corroborated
 +
 
with biochemical markers of nutritional status where
 
with biochemical markers of nutritional status where
 +
 
available, and association with health outcomes are all
 
available, and association with health outcomes are all
 +
 
used to establish a nutrient as a nutrient of concern.
 
used to establish a nutrient as a nutrient of concern.
 +
 
Underconsumed nutrients, or “shortfall nutrients,” are
 
Underconsumed nutrients, or “shortfall nutrients,” are
 +
 
those with a high prevalence of inadequate intake either
 
those with a high prevalence of inadequate intake either
 +
 
across the U.S. population or in specific groups, relative
 
across the U.S. population or in specific groups, relative
 +
 
to expert group standards. Overconsumed nutrients are
 
to expert group standards. Overconsumed nutrients are
 +
 
those with a high prevalence of excess intake either
 
those with a high prevalence of excess intake either
 +
 
across the population or in specific groups, relative to
 
across the population or in specific groups, relative to
 +
 
expert group standards.
 
expert group standards.
  
Line 492: Line 777:
 
==O==
 
==O==
  
* [[Obesity]]
+
* '''[[Obesity]]'''
  
 
A condition marked by an abnormally high, unhealthy
 
A condition marked by an abnormally high, unhealthy
 +
 
amount of body fat.
 
amount of body fat.
  
  
* [[Oils]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Oils]]'''
  
 
Fats that are liquid at room temperature. Oils come from
 
Fats that are liquid at room temperature. Oils come from
 +
 
many different plants and some fish. Some common oils
 
many different plants and some fish. Some common oils
 +
 
include canola, corn, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean,
 
include canola, corn, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean,
 +
 
and sunflower oils. A number of foods are naturally high
 
and sunflower oils. A number of foods are naturally high
 +
 
in oils such as nuts, olives, some fish, and avocados.
 
in oils such as nuts, olives, some fish, and avocados.
 +
 
Foods that are mainly made up of oil include mayonnaise,
 
Foods that are mainly made up of oil include mayonnaise,
 +
 
certain salad dressings, and soft (tub or squeeze) margarine
 
certain salad dressings, and soft (tub or squeeze) margarine
 +
 
with no trans fats. Oils are higher in monounsaturated
 
with no trans fats. Oils are higher in monounsaturated
 +
 
or polyunsaturated fats, and lower in saturated fats than
 
or polyunsaturated fats, and lower in saturated fats than
 +
 
solid fats. A few plant oils, termed tropical oils (including
 
solid fats. A few plant oils, termed tropical oils (including
 +
 
coconutoil, palm oil, and palm kernel oil), are high in
 
coconutoil, palm oil, and palm kernel oil), are high in
 +
 
saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be
 
saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be
 +
 
considered as solid fats. Partially hydrogenated oils that
 
considered as solid fats. Partially hydrogenated oils that
 +
 
contain trans fats should also be considered as solid fats
 
contain trans fats should also be considered as solid fats
 +
 
for nutritional purposes.
 
for nutritional purposes.
  
  
* [[Percent Daily Value]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Percent Daily Value]]'''
  
 
The Percent Daily Value (%DV) on the Nutrition Facts
 
The Percent Daily Value (%DV) on the Nutrition Facts
 +
 
Label shows how much of a nutrient is in one serving of
 
Label shows how much of a nutrient is in one serving of
 +
 
the food. The %DVs are based on the Daily Values for key
 
the food. The %DVs are based on the Daily Values for key
 +
 
nutrients, which are the amounts (in grams, milligrams,
 
nutrients, which are the amounts (in grams, milligrams,
 +
 
or micrograms) of nutrients recommended per day for
 
or micrograms) of nutrients recommended per day for
 +
 
Americans 4 years of age and older. The %DV is the
 
Americans 4 years of age and older. The %DV is the
 +
 
percentage of the Daily Value for each nutrient in one
 
percentage of the Daily Value for each nutrient in one
 +
 
serving of the food.
 
serving of the food.
  
* [[Physical Activity]]
+
* '''[[Physical Activity]]'''
  
 
Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of
 
Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of
 +
 
skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above
 
skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above
 +
 
a basal level; generally refers to the subset of physical
 
a basal level; generally refers to the subset of physical
 +
 
activity that enhances health.
 
activity that enhances health.
  
  
* [[Portion Size]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Portion Size]]'''
  
 
The amount of a food served or consumed in one eating
 
The amount of a food served or consumed in one eating
 +
 
occasion. A portion is not a standardized amount, and the
 
occasion. A portion is not a standardized amount, and the
 +
 
amount considered to be a portion is subjective and varies.
 
amount considered to be a portion is subjective and varies.
  
  
* [[Protein]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Protein]]'''
  
 
One of three macronutrients in food that provide calories,
 
One of three macronutrients in food that provide calories,
 +
 
or “energy,” for the body. Proteins are composed of
 
or “energy,” for the body. Proteins are composed of
 +
 
amino acids and are a major functional and structural
 
amino acids and are a major functional and structural
 +
 
component of every animal cell.
 
component of every animal cell.
  
Line 554: Line 873:
 
==S==
 
==S==
  
* [[Seafood]]
+
* '''[[Seafood]]'''
  
 
Marine animals that live in the sea and in freshwater lakes
 
Marine animals that live in the sea and in freshwater lakes
 +
 
and rivers. Seafood includes fish (e.g., salmon, tuna, trout,
 
and rivers. Seafood includes fish (e.g., salmon, tuna, trout,
 +
 
and tilapia) and shellfish (e.g., shrimp, crab, and oysters).
 
and tilapia) and shellfish (e.g., shrimp, crab, and oysters).
  
  
* [[Serving size]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Serving size]]'''
  
 
Serving Size on the Nutrition Facts Label is the amount
 
Serving Size on the Nutrition Facts Label is the amount
 +
 
of food that is customarily eaten at one time and is
 
of food that is customarily eaten at one time and is
 +
 
determined based on the Reference Amounts Customarily
 
determined based on the Reference Amounts Customarily
 +
 
Consumed (RACC) for foods that have similar dietary
 
Consumed (RACC) for foods that have similar dietary
 +
 
usage, product characteristics, and customarily consumed
 
usage, product characteristics, and customarily consumed
 +
 
amounts for consumers to make “like product”
 
amounts for consumers to make “like product”
 +
 
comparisons.
 
comparisons.
  
  
* [[Sodium]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Sodium]]'''
  
 
A mineral and an essential nutrient needed by the human
 
A mineral and an essential nutrient needed by the human
 +
 
body in relatively small amounts (provided that substantial
 
body in relatively small amounts (provided that substantial
 +
 
sweating does not occur). Sodium is important for many
 
sweating does not occur). Sodium is important for many
 +
 
body processes, such as fluid balance, muscle contraction,
 
body processes, such as fluid balance, muscle contraction,
 +
 
and nervous system function. Sodium is primarily consumed
 
and nervous system function. Sodium is primarily consumed
 +
 
as salt (sodium chloride).
 
as salt (sodium chloride).
  
  
* [[Starch]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Starch]]'''
  
 
Many glucose units linked together into long chains.
 
Many glucose units linked together into long chains.
 +
 
Examples of foods containing starch include beans and
 
Examples of foods containing starch include beans and
 +
 
peas (e.g., garbanzo beans, kidney beans, lentils, and
 
peas (e.g., garbanzo beans, kidney beans, lentils, and
 +
 
split peas), grains (e.g., barley, brown rice, corn, oats,
 
split peas), grains (e.g., barley, brown rice, corn, oats,
 +
 
and wheat), and vegetables (e.g., carrots and potatoes).
 
and wheat), and vegetables (e.g., carrots and potatoes).
  
  
* [[Sugar Alcohols]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Sugar Alcohols]]'''
  
 
A type of carbohydrate that chemically has characteristics
 
A type of carbohydrate that chemically has characteristics
 +
 
of both sugars and alcohols. Sugar alcohols are found
 
of both sugars and alcohols. Sugar alcohols are found
 +
 
naturally in small amounts in a variety of fruits and
 
naturally in small amounts in a variety of fruits and
 +
 
vegetables and are also commercially produced from
 
vegetables and are also commercially produced from
 +
 
sugars and starch. Commercially produced sugar alcohols
 
sugars and starch. Commercially produced sugar alcohols
 +
 
are added to foods as reduced-calorie sweeteners and are
 
are added to foods as reduced-calorie sweeteners and are
 +
 
found in many sugar-free and reduced-sugar products.
 
found in many sugar-free and reduced-sugar products.
  
  
* [[Sugars]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Sugars]]'''
  
 
Composed of one unit (a monosaccharide, such as
 
Composed of one unit (a monosaccharide, such as
 +
 
glucose or fructose) or two joined units (a disaccharide,
 
glucose or fructose) or two joined units (a disaccharide,
 +
 
such as lactose or sucrose). Sugars include those
 
such as lactose or sucrose). Sugars include those
 +
 
occurring naturally in foods and beverages and those
 
occurring naturally in foods and beverages and those
 +
 
added to foods and beverages during processing and
 
added to foods and beverages during processing and
 +
 
preparation.
 
preparation.
  
  
* [[Sugars, Added]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Sugars, Added]]'''
  
 
Syrups and other caloric sweeteners used as a sweetener
 
Syrups and other caloric sweeteners used as a sweetener
 +
 
in other food products. Naturally occurring sugars such as
 
in other food products. Naturally occurring sugars such as
 +
 
those in fruit or milk are not added sugars. Added sugars
 
those in fruit or milk are not added sugars. Added sugars
 +
 
are included on the ingredient list on food and beverage
 
are included on the ingredient list on food and beverage
 +
 
packages. Specific examples of added sugars that can
 
packages. Specific examples of added sugars that can
 +
 
be listed as an ingredient include: brown sugar, corn
 
be listed as an ingredient include: brown sugar, corn
 +
 
sweetener, corn syrup, dextrose, fructose sweetener,
 
sweetener, corn syrup, dextrose, fructose sweetener,
 +
 
fruit juice concentrates, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup,
 
fruit juice concentrates, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup,
 +
 
honey, invert sugar, lactose, maltose, malt syrup, maple
 
honey, invert sugar, lactose, maltose, malt syrup, maple
 +
 
syrup, molasses, pancake syrup, raw sugar, sucrose,
 
syrup, molasses, pancake syrup, raw sugar, sucrose,
 +
 
trehalose, and turbinado sugar.
 
trehalose, and turbinado sugar.
  
  
* [[Sugar-Sweetened Beverages]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Sugar-Sweetened Beverages]]'''
  
 
Liquids that are sweetened with various forms of added
 
Liquids that are sweetened with various forms of added
 +
 
sugars. These beverages include, but are not limited to,
 
sugars. These beverages include, but are not limited to,
 +
 
soda (regular, not sugar-free), fruitades, sports drinks,
 
soda (regular, not sugar-free), fruitades, sports drinks,
 +
 
energy drinks, sweetened waters, and coffee and tea
 
energy drinks, sweetened waters, and coffee and tea
 +
 
beverages with added sugars.
 
beverages with added sugars.
  
Line 639: Line 1,007:
 
==V==
 
==V==
  
* [[Variety]]
+
* '''[[Variety]]'''
  
 
A diverse assortment of foods and beverages across and
 
A diverse assortment of foods and beverages across and
 +
 
within all food groups and subgroups selected to fulfill
 
within all food groups and subgroups selected to fulfill
 +
 
the recommended amounts without exceeding the limits
 
the recommended amounts without exceeding the limits
 +
 
for calories and other dietary components. For example,
 
for calories and other dietary components. For example,
 +
 
in the vegetables food group, selecting a variety of foods
 
in the vegetables food group, selecting a variety of foods
 +
 
could be accomplished over the course of a week by
 
could be accomplished over the course of a week by
 +
 
choosing from all subgroups, including dark green, red
 
choosing from all subgroups, including dark green, red
 +
 
and orange, legumes (beans and peas), starchy, and
 
and orange, legumes (beans and peas), starchy, and
 +
 
other vegetables.
 
other vegetables.
  
  
* [[Vitamins]]
+
 
 +
* '''[[Vitamins]]'''
  
 
Organic substances that are required by the body in
 
Organic substances that are required by the body in
 +
 
relatively small amounts (also called micronutrients) for
 
relatively small amounts (also called micronutrients) for
 +
 
normal growth and activity.
 
normal growth and activity.
 +
  
  
 
{{food}}
 
{{food}}

Latest revision as of 15:08, 14 July 2019


Glossary of Nutritional Fact Labels

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

A

In medicine, the state of having the right amount of acid

and base in the blood and other body fluids. Keeping a

normal acid-base balance is important for the body to

work the way it should. Also called acid-base equilibrium.


A large organic molecule that is the basic building block

of proteins. There are 20 different amino acids that link

together in various order to form proteins. The order of

amino acids is determined by the genetic sequence.


A substance that protects cells from the damage caused

by free radicals (unstable molecules made by the process

of oxidation during normal metabolism). Free radicals may

play a part in cancer, heart disease, stroke, and other

diseases of aging. Antioxidants include beta-carotene,

lycopene, vitamins A, C, and E, and other natural and

manufactured substances.

C

A unit commonly used to measure energy content of

foods and beverages as well as energy use (expenditure)

by the body. A calorie is equal to the amount of energy

(heat) required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water

1 degree centigrade. Energy is required to sustain the

body’s various functions, including metabolic processes

and physical activity. Carbohydrate, fat, protein, and

alcohol provide all of the energy supplied by foods

and beverages.


The balance between calories consumed through eating

and drinking and calories expended through physical

activity and metabolic processes.


One of three macronutrients in food that provide calories,

or “energy” for the body. There are several types of

carbohydrate: sugars, sugar alcohols, starches, and

dietary fiber.


Heart disease as well as diseases of the blood vessel

system (arteries, capillaries, veins) that can lead to heart

attack, chest pain (angina), or stroke.


The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell

from its external environment and regulates the transport

of materials entering and exiting the cell. It consists of a

phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins.


A natural sterol present in all animal tissues. Free

cholesterol is a component of cell membranes and

serves as a precursor for steroid hormones (estrogen,

testosterone, aldosterone), and for bile acids. Humans

are able to synthesize sufficient cholesterol to meet

biologic requirements, and there is no evidence for a

dietary requirement for cholesterol.


Cholesterol that travels in the serum of the blood as

distinct particles containing both lipids and proteins

(lipoproteins). Also referred to as serum cholesterol.

There are two kinds of lipoproteins: high-density

lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein

(LDL) cholesterol.


Cholesterol found in foods of animal origin, including meat,

seafood, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. Plant foods

(such as beans, fruits, grains, nuts, peas, seeds, vegetables,

and vegetable oils) do not contain dietary cholesterol.

D

The amount of a nutrient (in grams, milligrams, or

micrograms) recommended per day for Americans

4 years of age and older. The Nutrition Facts Label lists

the Daily Values for some key nutrients. These are given

for both a 2,000 and 2,500 calorie daily diet.


A disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses

digested food (specifically carbohydrate) for growth and

energy. In diabetes, the pancreas either produces little or

no insulin (a hormone that helps glucose, the body’s main

source of fuel, get into cells), or the cells do not respond

appropriately to the insulin that is produced, which causes

too much glucose to be released in the blood. The three

main types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational

diabetes. If not controlled, diabetes can lead to serious

complications.

An eating plan designed to increase intake of foods

expected to lower blood pressure while being heart

healthy and meeting nutrient recommendations. It is

available at specific calorie levels. It was adapted from

the dietary pattern developed for the DASH research

trials. In the trials, the DASH dietary pattern lowered blood

pressure and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol

levels, resulting in reduced cardiovascular disease risk.

The DASH Eating Plan is low in saturated fats and rich in

potassium, calcium, and magnesium, as well as dietary

fiber and protein. It also is lower in sodium than the typical

American diet, and includes menus with two levels of

sodium, 2,300 and 1,500 mg per day. It meets the Dietary

Reference Intakes for all essential nutrients and stays

within limits for overconsumed nutrients, while allowing

adaptable food choices based on food preferences, cost,

and availability.

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

E

A beverage that contains caffeine as an ingredient, along

with other ingredients, such as taurine, herbal supplements,

vitamins, and added sugars. It is usually marketed as a

product that can improve perceived energy, stamina,

athletic performance, or concentration.


The addition of specific nutrients (i.e., iron, thiamin,

riboflavin, and niacin) to refined grain products in order to

replace losses of the nutrients that occur during processing.

Enrichment of refined grains is not mandatory; however,

those that are labeled as enriched (e.g., enriched flour)

must meet the standard of identity for enrichment set by

FDA. When cereal grains are labeled as enriched, it is

mandatory that they be fortified with folic acid.


A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body.

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

F


Foods designed for ready availability, use, or consumption

and sold at eating establishments for quick availability

or take-out. Fast food restaurants also are known as

quick-service restaurants.


Fatty acids that have one double bond and are usually

liquid at room temperature. Plant sources rich in

monounsaturated fats include vegetable oils (e.g., canola,

olive, high oleic safflower and sunflower), as well as nuts.


Fatty acids that have two or more double bonds and are

usually liquid at room temperature. Primary sources are

vegetable oils and some nutsand seeds. Polyunsaturated

fats provide essential fats such as n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.


Fatty acids that have no double bonds. Saturated fats are

usually solid at room temperature. Major sources include

animal products (e.g., meats and dairy products) and

tropical oils (e.g., coconut and palm oils).


Fats that are usually not liquid at room temperature. Solid

fats are found in animal foods, except for seafood, and

can be made from vegetable oils through hydrogenation.

Some tropical oil plants, such as coconut and palm, are

considered as solid fats due to their fatty acid composition.

Solid fats contain more saturated fats and/or trans fats

than liquid oils (e.g., soybean, canola, and corn oils), with

lower amounts of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated

fatty acids. Common fats considered to be solid fats

include: butter, beef fat (tallow), chicken fat, pork fat (lard),

shortening,coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil. Foods

high in solid fats include: full-fat (regular) cheeses, creams,

whole milk, ice cream, marbled cuts of meats, regular

ground beef, bacon, sausages, poultry skin, and many

baked goods made with solid fats (such as cookies,

crackers, doughnuts, pastries, and croissants).


One of three macronutrients in food that provide calories,

or “energy,” for the body. There are two types of fat:

saturated and unsaturated.


Unsaturated fatty acids that are structurally different from

the unsaturated fatty acids that occur naturally in plant

foods. Sources of trans fat include partially hydrogenated

vegetable oils used in processed foods (e.g., desserts,

microwave popcorn, frozen pizza, some margarines, and

coffee creamer). Trans fats also are present naturally in

foods that come from ruminant animals (e.g., cattle and

sheep), such as dairy products, beef, and lamb.


Dietary fiber consists of non-digestible carbohydrates and

lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants (i.e., the fiber

naturally occurring in foods).000 calorie diet.

A method of grouping similar foods for descriptive and

guidance purposes. Food groups are defined as vegetables,

fruits, grains, dairy, and protein foods. Some of these

groups are divided into subgroups, such as dark-green

vegetables or whole grains, which may have intake goals

or limits. Foods are grouped within food groups based on

their similarity in nutritional composition and other dietary

benefits. For assignment to food groups, mixed dishes are

disaggregated into their major component parts.


The deliberate addition of one or more essential nutrients

to a food, whether or not it is normally contained in the

food. Fortification may be used to prevent or correct a

demonstrated deficiency in the population or specific

population groups; restore naturally occurring nutrients

lost during processing, storage, or handling; or to add a

nutrient to a food at the level found in a comparable

traditional food. When cereal grains are labeled as enriched,

it is mandatory that they be fortified with folic acid.


All fresh, frozen, canned, and dried fruit but not fruit juice.

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G

A simple form of sugar that acts as the body’s fuel. It is

produced when foods are metabolized in the digestive

system and carried by the blood to cells for energy.


Grains and grain products with the bran and germ

removed; any grain product that is not a whole-grain

product. Many refined grains are low in fiber but enriched

with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron, and fortified with

folic acid.


Grains and grain products made from the entire grain

seed, usually called the kernel, which consists of the bran,

germ, and endosperm. If the kernel has been cracked,

crushed, or flaked, it must retain the same relative

proportions of bran, germ, and endosperm as the original

grain in order to be called whole grain. Many, but not all,

whole grains are also sources ofdietary fiber.

H

A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being

and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.


Chemicals produced by glands in the body and circulated

in the bloodstream. Hormones control the actions of

certain cells or organs.


A condition, also known as high blood pressure, in which

blood pressure remains elevated over time. Hypertension

makes the heart work too hard, and the high force of the

blood flow can harm arteries and organs, such as the

heart, kidneys, brain, and eyes. Uncontrolled hypertension

can lead to heart attacks, heart failure, kidney disease,

stroke, and blindness. Prehypertension is defined as blood

pressure that is higher than normal but not high enough to

be defined as hypertension.


The ingredient list on a food package is usually located

near the name of the food’s manufacturer and often below

the Nutrition Facts Label. It shows each ingredient in a

food by its common or usual name in descending order

by weight. The ingredient with the greatest contribution

to the product weight is listed first, and the ingredient

contributing the least by weight is listed last.

M

A dietary component that provides energy. Macronutrients

include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and alcohol.


Foods that come from the flesh of land animals (e.g., all

forms of beef, pork, lamb, veal, goat, and non-bird game)

and birds (e.g., all forms of chicken, turkey, duck, geese,

guineas, and game birds). Organs (such as liver) are also

considered to be meat or poultry.


Any meat or poultry that contains less than 10 g of fat,

4.5 g or less of saturated fat, and less than 95 mg of

cholesterol per 100 g and per labeled serving size, based

on USDA definitions for food label use. Examples include

95% lean cooked ground beef, beef top round steak or

roast, beef tenderloin, pork top loin chop or roast, pork

tenderloin, ham or turkey deli slices, skinless chicken

breast, and skinless turkey breast.


All meat or poultry products preserved by smoking, curing,

salting, and/or the addition of chemical preservatives.

Processed meats and poultry include all types of meat or

poultry sausages (e.g., bologna, frankfurters, luncheon

meats and loaves, sandwich spreads, chorizo, kielbasa,

pepperoni, salami, and Vienna and summer sausages),

bacon, smoked or cured ham or pork shoulder, corned

beef, pastrami, pig’s feet, beef jerky, marinated chicken

breasts, and smoked turkey products.

The set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms

in order to maintain life, and refers to the way cells

chemically change food so that it can be used to store

or use energy and make the proteins, fats, and sugars

needed by the body.


An essential nutrient, such as a trace mineral or vitamin

that is required by an organism in smaller amounts. All

nutrients other than proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and

water (macronutrients) are micronutrients.


Inorganic substances that are required by the body in

relatively small amounts (also called micronutrients) for

normal growth and activity.


Savory food items eaten as a single entity that include

foods from more than one food group. These foods

often are mixtures of grains, protein foods, vegetables,

and/or dairy. Examples of mixed dishes include burgers,

sandwiches, tacos, burritos, pizzas, macaroni and cheese,

stir-fries, spaghetti and meatballs, casseroles, soups, egg

rolls, and Caesar salad.

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N

A substance in food that contributes to growth and health;

nutrients provide energy, cell building and structural

materials, and agents that regulate body chemistry.

Nutrients include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins,

minerals, and water.


A characteristic of foods and beverages that provide

vitamins, minerals, and other substances that contribute

to adequate nutrient intakes or may have positive health

effects, with little or no saturated fats, added sugars,

refined starches, and sodium. Ideally, these foods and

beverages also are in forms that retain naturally occurring

components, such as dietary fiber. All vegetables, fruits,

whole grains, seafood, eggs, beans and peas, unsalted

nuts and seeds, fat-free and low-fat dairy products, and

lean meats and poultry—when prepared with little or no

added saturated fats, sugars, refined starches, and

sodium—are nutrient-dense foods. These foods contribute

to meeting food group recommendations within calorie

and sodium limits. The term “nutrient dense” indicates the

nutrients and other beneficial substances in a food have

not been “diluted” by the addition of calories from added

saturated fats, sugars, or refined starches, or by the solid

fats naturally present in the food.


A vitamin, mineral, fatty acid, or amino acid required for

normal body functioning that either cannot be synthesized

by the body at all, or cannot be synthesized in amounts

adequate for good health, and thus must be obtained

from a dietary source. Other food components, such as

dietary fiber, while not essential, also are considered to

be nutrients.


Nutrients that are overconsumed or underconsumed

and current intakes may pose a substantial public

health concern. Data on nutrient intake, corroborated

with biochemical markers of nutritional status where

available, and association with health outcomes are all

used to establish a nutrient as a nutrient of concern.

Underconsumed nutrients, or “shortfall nutrients,” are

those with a high prevalence of inadequate intake either

across the U.S. population or in specific groups, relative

to expert group standards. Overconsumed nutrients are

those with a high prevalence of excess intake either

across the population or in specific groups, relative to

expert group standards.

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O

A condition marked by an abnormally high, unhealthy

amount of body fat.


Fats that are liquid at room temperature. Oils come from

many different plants and some fish. Some common oils

include canola, corn, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean,

and sunflower oils. A number of foods are naturally high

in oils such as nuts, olives, some fish, and avocados.

Foods that are mainly made up of oil include mayonnaise,

certain salad dressings, and soft (tub or squeeze) margarine

with no trans fats. Oils are higher in monounsaturated

or polyunsaturated fats, and lower in saturated fats than

solid fats. A few plant oils, termed tropical oils (including

coconutoil, palm oil, and palm kernel oil), are high in

saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be

considered as solid fats. Partially hydrogenated oils that

contain trans fats should also be considered as solid fats

for nutritional purposes.


The Percent Daily Value (%DV) on the Nutrition Facts

Label shows how much of a nutrient is in one serving of

the food. The %DVs are based on the Daily Values for key

nutrients, which are the amounts (in grams, milligrams,

or micrograms) of nutrients recommended per day for

Americans 4 years of age and older. The %DV is the

percentage of the Daily Value for each nutrient in one

serving of the food.

Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of

skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above

a basal level; generally refers to the subset of physical

activity that enhances health.


The amount of a food served or consumed in one eating

occasion. A portion is not a standardized amount, and the

amount considered to be a portion is subjective and varies.


One of three macronutrients in food that provide calories,

or “energy,” for the body. Proteins are composed of

amino acids and are a major functional and structural

component of every animal cell.

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S

Marine animals that live in the sea and in freshwater lakes

and rivers. Seafood includes fish (e.g., salmon, tuna, trout,

and tilapia) and shellfish (e.g., shrimp, crab, and oysters).


Serving Size on the Nutrition Facts Label is the amount

of food that is customarily eaten at one time and is

determined based on the Reference Amounts Customarily

Consumed (RACC) for foods that have similar dietary

usage, product characteristics, and customarily consumed

amounts for consumers to make “like product”

comparisons.


A mineral and an essential nutrient needed by the human

body in relatively small amounts (provided that substantial

sweating does not occur). Sodium is important for many

body processes, such as fluid balance, muscle contraction,

and nervous system function. Sodium is primarily consumed

as salt (sodium chloride).


Many glucose units linked together into long chains.

Examples of foods containing starch include beans and

peas (e.g., garbanzo beans, kidney beans, lentils, and

split peas), grains (e.g., barley, brown rice, corn, oats,

and wheat), and vegetables (e.g., carrots and potatoes).


A type of carbohydrate that chemically has characteristics

of both sugars and alcohols. Sugar alcohols are found

naturally in small amounts in a variety of fruits and

vegetables and are also commercially produced from

sugars and starch. Commercially produced sugar alcohols

are added to foods as reduced-calorie sweeteners and are

found in many sugar-free and reduced-sugar products.


Composed of one unit (a monosaccharide, such as

glucose or fructose) or two joined units (a disaccharide,

such as lactose or sucrose). Sugars include those

occurring naturally in foods and beverages and those

added to foods and beverages during processing and

preparation.


Syrups and other caloric sweeteners used as a sweetener

in other food products. Naturally occurring sugars such as

those in fruit or milk are not added sugars. Added sugars

are included on the ingredient list on food and beverage

packages. Specific examples of added sugars that can

be listed as an ingredient include: brown sugar, corn

sweetener, corn syrup, dextrose, fructose sweetener,

fruit juice concentrates, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup,

honey, invert sugar, lactose, maltose, malt syrup, maple

syrup, molasses, pancake syrup, raw sugar, sucrose,

trehalose, and turbinado sugar.


Liquids that are sweetened with various forms of added

sugars. These beverages include, but are not limited to,

soda (regular, not sugar-free), fruitades, sports drinks,

energy drinks, sweetened waters, and coffee and tea

beverages with added sugars.

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V

A diverse assortment of foods and beverages across and

within all food groups and subgroups selected to fulfill

the recommended amounts without exceeding the limits

for calories and other dietary components. For example,

in the vegetables food group, selecting a variety of foods

could be accomplished over the course of a week by

choosing from all subgroups, including dark green, red

and orange, legumes (beans and peas), starchy, and

other vegetables.


Organic substances that are required by the body in

relatively small amounts (also called micronutrients) for

normal growth and activity.


Portal:Food

Calories and Nutritional Information of Foods


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Glossary of healthy eating | Nutritional value of foods: UK Foods | US Foods | Dietary Supplements | Nutrition values of foods | Nutrition lookup (USDA)