Glycemic load

From WikiMD free medical encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The glycemic load (GL) of food is a number that estimates how much the food will raise a person's blood glucose level after eating it. One unit of glycemic load approximates the effect of consuming one gram of glucose.[1] Glycemic load accounts for how much carbohydrate is in the food and how much each gram of carbohydrate in the food raises blood glucose levels. Glycemic load is based on the glycemic index (GI), and is defined as the fraction of available carbohydrate in the food times the food's GI.

Glycemic load estimates the impact of carbohydrate consumption using the glycemic index while taking into account the amount of carbohydrate that is consumed. GL is a GI-weighted measure of carbohydrate content. For instance, watermelon has a high GI, but a typical serving of watermelon does not contain much carbohydrate, so the glycemic load of eating it is low. Whereas glycemic index is defined for each type of food, glycemic load can be calculated for any size serving of a food, an entire meal, or an entire day's meals.

Glycemic load of a serving of food can be calculated as its carbohydrate content measured in grams (g), multiplied by the food's GI, and divided by 100. For example, watermelon has a GI of 72. A 100-g serving of watermelon has 5 g of available carbohydrates (it contains a lot of water), making the calculation 5 x 72/100=3.6, so the GL is 3.6. A food with a GI of 100 and 10 g of available carbohydrates has a GL of 10 (10 x 100/100=10), while a food with 100 g of carbohydrate and a GI of just 10 also has a GL of 10 (100 x 10/100=10).

For one serving of a food, a GL greater than 20 is considered high, a GL of 11-19 is considered medium, and a GL of 10 or less is considered low. Foods that have a low GL in a typical serving size almost always have a low GI. Foods with an intermediate or high GL in a typical serving size range from a very low to very high GI.

One 2007 study has questioned the value of using glycemic load as a basis for weight-loss programmes. Das et al. conducted a study on 36 healthy, overweight adults, using a randomised test to measure the efficacy of two diets, one with a high glycemic load and one with a low GL. The study concluded that there is no statistically significant difference between the outcome of the two diets.[2]

Glycemic load appears to be beneficial in dietary programs targeting metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and weight loss; studies have shown that sustained spikes in blood sugar and insulin levels may lead to increased diabetes risk.[3] The Shanghai Women's Health Study concluded that women whose diets had the highest glycemic index were 21 percent more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than women whose diets had the lowest glycemic index.[4] Similar findings were reported in the Black Women's Health Study.[5] A diet program that manages the glycemic load aims to avoid sustained blood-sugar spikes and can help avoid onset of type 2 diabetes.[6] For diabetics, glycemic load is a highly recommended tool for managing blood sugar.

The data on GI and GL listed in this article is from the University of Sydney (Human Nutrition Unit) GI database.[7]

The GI was invented in 1981 by Dr Thomas Wolever and Dr David Jenkins at the University of Toronto and is a measure of how quickly a food containing 25 or 50 grams of carbohydrate raises blood-glucose levels. Because some foods typically have a low carbohydrate content, Harvard researchers created the GL, which takes into account the amount of carbohydrates in a given serving of a food and so provides a more useful measure.

List of foods and their glycemic load, per 100 g serving

All numeric values provided in the table are approximate.

Food Glycemic index Carbohydrate
(% by weight)
Glycemic Load Insulin index
Baguette, white, plain Template:Nts (high) Template:Nts Template:Nts
Banana, Mean of 10 studies Template:Ntsh52 (low)–{{#expr:79*.7}}±{{#expr:10*.7}} (low)[8] Template:Nts Template:Ntsh10–{{#expr:79*.7*.2}}±{{#expr:10*.7*.2}}[9] Template:Nts±{{#expr:5*.7}}[8]
Cabbage Template:Nts (low) Template:Nts Template:Nts
Carrots, mean of 4 studies Template:Nts (low) Template:Nts Template:Nts
Corn tortilla Template:Nts (low) Template:Nts Template:Nts
Potato, mean of 5 studies Template:Ntsh50 (low)–{{#expr:141*.7}}±{{#expr:35*.7}} (high)[8] Template:Nts Template:Ntsh9.3–{{#expr:141*.7*.186}}±{{#expr:35*.7*.186}}[9] Template:Nts±{{#expr:11*.7}}[8]
Rice, boiled white, mean of 12 studies Template:Ntsh64±9 (medium)[10]–{{#expr:110*.7}}±{{#expr:15*.7}} (high)[8]–83±13 (high)[10]–93±11 (high)[10] Template:Ntsh77.5[10] –79.9[10] –79.6[10] Template:Ntsh{{#expr:64*.775}}±{{#expr:9*.775}}[11] –{{#expr:110*.7*(.775+.799+.796)/3}}±{{#expr:15*.7*(.775+.799+.796)/3}}[9] –{{#expr:83*.799}}±{{#expr:13*.799}}[11] –{{#expr:93*.796}}±{{#expr:11*.796}}[11] Template:Ntsh40±10[10] –{{#expr:79*.7}}±{{#expr:12*.7}}[8] –67±15[10] -67±11[10]
Watermelon Template:Nts (high) Template:Nts Template:Nts

See also

{{#if: |{{{content}}}



  1. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5
    Note: Glucose Score & Insulin Score multiplied by 0.7 for Glycemic index & Insulin index respectively.
  2. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Calculation using data already tabulated and data from Holt, 1997.
  3. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8
  4. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Calculation based on Miller, 1992

External links

Calories and Nutritional Information of Foods

Nutritional value of foods: UK Foods | US Foods | Dietary Supplements Portions of content adapted from Wikipedia's article on the same topic licensed under GNU FDL.

WikiMD Sponsors - W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep and MedSpa Centers

Pronounced weightMD, our state of the art W8MD weight loss, sleep, holistic IV nutrition and aesthetic medicine programs can help you not only to lose weight, and sleep better but also look your best! Since its inception in 2011, W8MD’s insurance physician weight loss program has successfully helped thousands of patients.

W8MD Weight Loss

W8MD’s Physician weight loss is unique in many ways with a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to weight loss. Weight Loss Success Stories....

W8MD Sleep Services

Sleep medicine program uses state of the art technology to diagnose and treat over 80 different sleep disorders. W8MD Sleep Services…

W8MD Medical Aesthetic Services

Medical aesthetic program offers a wide variety of advanced laser skin treatments including oxygen super facials, photofacials and Affordable Botox. W8MD Aesthetic Services…

IM and IV nutrition therapy includes booster shots for B12, vitamin B complex, Vitamin C, Detox treatments and IV nutrition therapy. W8MD IV Nutrition…

W8MD weight loss | Philadelphia medical weight loss | NYC medical weight loss | NJ medical weight loss

W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep & Medical Aesthetics

Intro to W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep & Medical Aesthetics

Disclaimer: The entire contents of WIKIMD.ORG are for informational purposes only and do not render medical advice or professional services. If you have a medical emergency, you should CALL 911 immediately! Given the nature of the wiki, the information provided may not be accurate and or incorrect. Use the information on this wiki at your own risk! See full Disclaimers.WikiMD is supported by W8MD Weight loss, Poly-Tech Sleep & Medical Aesthetic Centers of America.