Gray's Anatomy

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Anatomy > Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body

Introduction to Gray's Anatomy

THE TERM human anatomy comprises a consideration of the various structures which make up the human organism. In a restricted sense it deals merely with the parts which form the fully developed individual and which can be rendered evident to the naked eye by various methods of dissection. Regarded from such a standpoint it may be studied by two methods: (1) the various structures may be separately considered—systematic anatomy or (2) the organs and tissues may be studied in relation to one another—topographical or regional anatomy

It is, however, of much advantage to add to the facts ascertained by naked-eye dissection those obtained by the use of the microscope. This introduces two fields of investigation, viz., the study of the minute structure of the various component parts of the body—histology—and the study of the human organism in its immature condition, i. e the various stages of its intrauterine development from the fertilized ovum up to the period when it assumes an independent existence—embryology Owing to the difficulty of obtaining material illustrating all the stages of this early development, gaps must be filled up by observations on the development of lower forms—comparative embryology or by a consideration of adult forms in the line of human ancestry—comparative anatomy The direct application of the facts of human anatomy to the various pathological conditions which may occur constitutes the subject of applied anatomy Finally, the appreciation of structures on or immediately underlying the surface of the body is frequently made the subject of special study—surface anatomy

SYSTEMATIC ANATOMY.—The various systems of which the human body is composed are grouped under the following headings:

  • Osteology—the bony system or skeleton.
  • Syndesmology—the articulations or joints.
  • Myology—the muscles. With the description of the muscles it is convenient to include that of the fasciæ which are so intimately connected with them.
  • Angiology—the vascular system, comprising the heart, bloodvessels, lymphatic vessels, and lymph glands.
  • Neurology—the nervous system. The organs of sense may be included in this system.
  • Splanchnology—the visceral system.

Topographically the viscera form two groups, viz., the thoracic viscera and the abdomino-pelvic viscera. The heart, a thoracic viscus, is best considered with the vascular system. The rest of the viscera may be grouped according to their functions: ('a') the respiratory apparatus ('b') the digestive apparatus and (c) the urogenital apparatus Strictly speaking, the third subgroup should include only such components of the urogenital apparatus as are included within the abdomino-pelvic cavity, but it is convenient to study under this heading certain parts which lie in relation to the surface of the body, e. g the testes and the external organs of generation.

For descriptive purposes the body is supposed to be in the erect posture, with the arms hanging by the sides and the palms of the hands directed forward. The median plane is a vertical antero-posterior plane, passing through the center of the trunk. This plane will pass approximately through the sagittal suture of the skull, and hence any plane parallel to it is termed a sagittal plane A vertical plane at right angles to the median plane passes, roughly speaking, through the central part of the coronal suture or through a line parallel to it; such a plane is known as a frontal plane or sometimes as a coronal plane A plane at right angles to both the median and frontal planes is termed a transverse plane The terms anterior or ventral and posterior or dorsal are employed to indicate the relation of parts to the front or back of the body or limbs, and the terms superior or cephalic and inferior or caudal to indicate the relative levels of different structures; structures nearer to or farther from the median plane are referred to as medial or lateral respectively.

The terms superficial and deep are strictly confined to descriptions of the relative depth from the surface of the various structures; external and internal are reserved almost entirely for describing the walls of cavities or of hollow viscera. In the case of the limbs the words proximal and distal refer to the relative distance from the attached end of the limb.


Gray's Anatomy Subject Index

Embryology

  1. Gray's Anatomy > The Animal Cell
  2. Gray's Anatomy > The Ovum
  3. Gray's Anatomy > The Spermatozoön
  4. Gray's Anatomy > Fertilization of the Ovum
  5. Gray's Anatomy > Segmentation of the Fertilized Ovum
  6. Gray's Anatomy > The Neural Groove and Tube
  7. Gray's Anatomy > The Notochord
  8. Gray's Anatomy > The Primitive Segments
  9. Gray's Anatomy > Separation of the Embryo
  10. Gray's Anatomy > The Yolk-sac
  11. Gray's Anatomy > Development of the Fetal Membranes and Placenta
  12. Gray's Anatomy > The Branchial Region
  13. Gray's Anatomy > Development of the Body Cavities
  14. Gray's Anatomy > The Form of the Embryo at Different Stages of Its Growth

Gray's Anatomy > Bibliography

Osteology

  1. Gray's Anatomy > Introduction
  2. Gray's Anatomy > Bone
  3. Gray's Anatomy > The Vertebral Column

a. Gray's Anatomy > General Characteristics of a Vertebra

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Cervical Vertebræ
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Thoracic Vertebræ
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Lumbar Vertebræ
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Sacral and Coccygeal Vertebræ

b. Gray's Anatomy > The Vertebral Column as a Whole

  1. Gray's Anatomy > The Thorax
    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Sternum
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Ribs
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Costal Cartilages
  2. Gray's Anatomy > The Skull

a.The Cranial Bones

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Occipital Bone
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Parietal Bone
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Frontal Bone
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Temporal Bone
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Sphenoid Bone
    6. Gray's Anatomy > Ethmoid bone

b.The Facial Bones

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Nasal Bones
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Maxillæ (Upper Jaw)
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Lacrimal Bone
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Zygomatic Bone
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Palatine Bone
    6. Gray's Anatomy > The Inferior Nasal Concha
    7. Gray's Anatomy > The Vomer
    8. Gray's Anatomy > The Mandible (Lower Jaw)
    9. Gray's Anatomy > The Hyoid Bone

c. Gray's Anatomy > The Exterior of the Skull d. Gray's Anatomy > The Interior of the Skull

  1. Gray's Anatomy > The Extremities

a.The Bones of the Upper Extremity

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Clavicle
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Scapula
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Humerus
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Ulna
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Radius

b.The Hand

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Carpus
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Metacarpus
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Phalanges of the Hand

c.The Bones of the Lower Extremity

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Hip Bone
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Pelvis
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Femur
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Patella
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Tibia
    6. Gray's Anatomy > The Fibula

d.The Foot

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Tarsus
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Metatarsus
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Phalanges of the Foot
    4. Gray's Anatomy > Comparison of the Bones of the Hand and Foot
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Sesamoid Bones


Syndesmology

  1. Gray's Anatomy > Introduction
  2. Gray's Anatomy > Development of the Joints
  3. Gray's Anatomy > Classification of Joints
  4. Gray's Anatomy > The Kind of Movement Admitted in Joints

Articulations of the Trunk

    1. Gray's Anatomy > Articulations of the Vertebral Column
    2. Gray's Anatomy > Articulation of the Atlas with the Epistropheus or Axis
    3. Gray's Anatomy > Articulations of the Vertebral Column with the Cranium
    4. Gray's Anatomy > Articulation of the Mandible
    5. Gray's Anatomy > Costovertebral Articulations
    6. Gray's Anatomy > Sternocostal Articulations
    7. Gray's Anatomy > Articulation of the Manubrium and Body of the Sternum
    8. Gray's Anatomy > Articulation of the Vertebral Column with the Pelvis
    9. Gray's Anatomy > Articulations of the Pelvis

Articulations of the Upper Extremity

    1. Gray's Anatomy > Sternoclavicular Articulation
    2. Gray's Anatomy > Acromioclavicular Articulation
    3. Gray's Anatomy > Humeral Articulation or Shoulder-joint
    4. Gray's Anatomy > Elbow-joint
    5. Gray's Anatomy > Radioulnar Articulation
    6. Gray's Anatomy > Radiocarpal Articulation or Wrist-joint
    7. Gray's Anatomy > Intercarpal Articulations
    8. Gray's Anatomy > Carpometacarpal Articulations
    9. Gray's Anatomy > Intermetacarpal Articulations
    10. Gray's Anatomy > Metacarpophalangeal Articulations
    11. Gray's Anatomy > Articulations of the Digits

Articulations of the Lower Extremity

    1. Gray's Anatomy > Coxal Articulation or Hip-joint
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Knee-joint
    3. Gray's Anatomy > Articulations between the Tibia and Fibula
    4. Gray's Anatomy > Talocrural Articulation or Ankle-joint
    5. Gray's Anatomy > Intertarsal Articulations
    6. Gray's Anatomy > Tarsometatarsal Articulations
    7. Gray's Anatomy > Intermetatarsal Articulations
    8. Gray's Anatomy > Metatarsophalangeal Articulations
    9. Gray's Anatomy > Articulations of the Digits of Lower Limb
    10. Gray's Anatomy > Arches of the Foot

Myology

  1. Gray's Anatomy > Mechanics of Muscle
  2. Gray's Anatomy > Development of the Muscles
  3. Gray's Anatomy > Tendons, Aponeuroses, and Fasciæ

The Fasciæ and Muscles of the Head

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles of the Scalp
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles of the Eyelid
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles of the Nose
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles of the Mouth
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles of Mastication

The Fasciæ and Muscles of the Anterolateral Region of the Neck

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Superficial Cervical Muscle
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Lateral Cervical Muscles
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Supra- and Infrahyoid Muscles
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Anterior Vertebral Muscles
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Lateral Vertebral Muscles

The Fasciæ and Muscles of the Trunk

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Deep Muscles of the Back
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Suboccipital Muscles
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles of the Thorax
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Abdomen
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Pelvis
    6. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Perineum

The Fascia and Muscles of the Upper Extremity

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles Connecting the Upper Extremity to the Vertebral Column
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles Connecting the Upper Extremity to the Anterior and Lateral Thoracic Walls
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Shoulder
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Arm
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Forearm
    6. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Hand

The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Lower Extremity

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Iliac Region
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Thigh
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Leg
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Fasciæ Around the Ankle
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Muscles and Fasciæ of the Foot

Gray's Anatomy > Bibliography

Angiology

  1. Gray's Anatomy > Introduction
  2. Gray's Anatomy > The Blood
  3. Gray's Anatomy > Development of the Vascular System
  4. Gray's Anatomy > The Thoracic Cavity
    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Pericardium
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Heart
    3. Gray's Anatomy > Peculiarities in the Vascular System in the Fetus
  5. Gray's Anatomy > Bibliography

The Arteries

  1. Gray's Anatomy > Introduction
  2. Gray's Anatomy > The Aorta

The Arteries of the Head and Neck

a. The Common Carotid Artery

  1. Gray's Anatomy > Relations
  2. Gray's Anatomy > The External Carotid Artery
  3. Gray's Anatomy > The Triangles of the Neck
  4. Gray's Anatomy > The Internal Carotid Artery

Gray's Anatomy > The Arteries of the Brain

The Arteries of the Upper Extremity

a. Gray's Anatomy > The Subclavian Artery b. The Axilla

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Axillary Artery
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Brachial Artery
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Radial Artery
  1. Gray's Anatomy > The Ulnar Artery

The Arteries of the Trunk

a. The Descending Aorta

  1. Gray's Anatomy > The Thoracic Aorta
  2. Gray's Anatomy > The Abdominal Aorta

b. The Common Iliac Arteries

  1. Gray's Anatomy > The Hypogastric Artery
  2. Gray's Anatomy > The External Iliac Artery

The Arteries of the Lower Extremity

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Femoral Artery
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Popliteal Fossa
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Popliteal Artery
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Anterior Tibial Artery
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Arteria Dorsalis Pedis
    6. Gray's Anatomy > The Posterior Tibial Artery

Gray's Anatomy > Bibliography

The Veins

  1. Gray's Anatomy > Introduction
  2. Gray's Anatomy > The Pulmonary Veins

The Systemic Veins

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Veins of the Heart

The Veins of the Head and Neck

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Veins of the Exterior of the Head and Face
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Veins of the Neck
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Diploic Veins
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Veins of the Brain
    5. [[Gray's Anatomy > The Sinuses of the Dura Mater

Ophthalmic Veins and Emissary Veins

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Veins of the Upper Extremity and Thorax
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Veins of the Lower Extremity, Abdomen, and Pelvis
  1. Gray's Anatomy > The Portal System of Veins

The Lymphatic System

  1. Gray's Anatomy > Introduction
  2. Gray's Anatomy > The Thoractic Duct
  3. Gray's Anatomy > The Lymphatics of the Head, Face, and Neck
  4. Gray's Anatomy > The Lymphatics of the Upper Extremity
  5. Gray's Anatomy > The Lymphatics of the Lower Extremity
  6. Gray's Anatomy > The Lymphatics of the Abdomen and Pelvis
  7. Gray's Anatomy > The Lymphatic Vessels of the Thorax

Gray's Anatomy > Bibliography

Neurology

  1. Gray's Anatomy > Structure of the Nervous System
  2. Gray's Anatomy > Development of the Nervous System
  3. Gray's Anatomy > The Spinal Cord or Medulla Spinalis
  4. Gray's Anatomy > The Brain or Encephalon
    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Hind-brain or Rhombencephalon
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Mid-brain or Mesencephalon
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Fore-brain or Prosencephalon
    4. Gray's Anatomy > Composition and Central Connections of the Spinal Nerves
    5. Gray's Anatomy > Composition and Central Connections of the Spinal Nerves
    6. Gray's Anatomy > Pathways from the Brain to the Spinal Cord
    7. Gray's Anatomy > The Meninges of the Brain and Medulla Spinalis
    8. Gray's Anatomy > The Cerebrospinal Fluid
  5. Gray's Anatomy > The Cranial Nerves
    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Olfactory Nerves
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Optic Nerve
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Oculomotor Nerve
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Trochlear Nerve
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Trigeminal Nerve
    6. Gray's Anatomy > The Abducent Nerve
    7. Gray's Anatomy > The Facial Nerve
    8. Gray's Anatomy > The Acoustic Nerve
    9. Gray's Anatomy > The Glossopharyngeal Nerve
    10. Gray's Anatomy > The Vagus Nerve
    11. Gray's Anatomy > The Accessory Nerve
    12. Gray's Anatomy > The Hypoglossal Nerve
  6. Gray's Anatomy > The Spinal Nerves
    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Posterior Divisions
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Anterior Divisions
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Thoracic Nerves
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Lumbosacral Plexus
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Sacral and Coccygeal Nerves
  7. Gray's Anatomy > The Sympathetic Nerves
    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Cephalic Portion of the Sympathetic System
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Cervical Portion of the Sympathetic System
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Thoracic Portion of the Sympathetic System
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Abdominal Portion of the Sympathetic System
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Pelvic Portion of the Sympathetic System
    6. Gray's Anatomy > The Great Plexuses of the Sympathetic System

Gray's Anatomy > Bibliography

The Organs of the Senses and the Common Integument

  1. The Peripheral Organs of the Special Senses
    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Organs of Taste
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Organ of Smell
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Organ of Sight
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Tunics of the Eye
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Refracting Media
    6. Gray's Anatomy > The Accessory Organs of the Eye

d. Gray's Anatomy > The Organ of Hearing

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The External Ear
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Middle Ear or Tympanic Cavity
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Auditory Ossicles
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Internal Ear or Labyrinth

e.Gray's Anatomy > Peripheral Terminations of Nerves of General Sensations

  1. Gray's Anatomy > The Common Integument

Splanchnology

  1. Gray's Anatomy > The Respiratory Apparatus
    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Larynx
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Trachea and Bronchi
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Pleuræ
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Mediastinum
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Lungs
  2. Gray's Anatomy > The Digestive Apparatus
    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Mouth
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Fauces
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Pharynx
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Esophagus
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Abdomen
    6. Gray's Anatomy > The Stomach
    7. Gray's Anatomy > The Small Intestine
    8. Gray's Anatomy > The Large Intestine
    9. Gray's Anatomy > The Liver
    10. Gray's Anatomy > The Pancreas

The Urogenital Apparatus

    1. Gray's Anatomy > Development of the Urinary and Generative Organs

b. The Urinary Organs

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Kidneys
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Ureters
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Urinary Bladder
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Male Urethra
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Female Urethra

c. The Male Genital Organs

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Testes and their Coverings
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Ductus Deferens
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Vesiculæ Seminales
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Ejaculatory Ducts
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Penis
    6. Gray's Anatomy > The Prostate
    7. Gray's Anatomy > The Bulbourethral Glands

d. Gray's Anatomy > The Female Genital Organs

    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Ovaries
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Uterine Tube
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Uterus
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Vagina
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The External Organs
    6. Gray's Anatomy > The Mammæ
  1. The Ductless Glands
    1. Gray's Anatomy > The Thyroid Gland
    2. Gray's Anatomy > The Parathyroid Glands
    3. Gray's Anatomy > The Thymus
    4. Gray's Anatomy > The Hypophysis Cerebri
    5. Gray's Anatomy > The Pineal Body
    6. Gray's Anatomy > The Chromaphil and Cortical Systems
    7. Gray's Anatomy > The Spleen

Surface Anatomy and Surface Markings

  1. Gray's Anatomy > Surface Anatomy of the Head and Neck
  2. Gray's Anatomy > Surface Markings of Special Regions of the Head and Neck
  3. Gray's Anatomy > Surface Anatomy of the Back
  4. Gray's Anatomy > Surface Markings of the Back
  5. Gray's Anatomy > Surface Anatomy of the Thorax
  6. Gray's Anatomy > Surface Markings of the Thorax
  7. Gray's Anatomy > Surface Anatomy of the Abdomen
  8. Gray's Anatomy > Surface Markings of the Abdomen
  9. Gray's Anatomy > Surface Anatomy of the Perineum
  10. Gray's Anatomy > Surface Markings of the Perineum
  11. Gray's Anatomy > Surface Anatomy of the Upper Extremity
  12. Gray's Anatomy > Surface Markings of the Upper Extremity
  13. Gray's Anatomy > Surface Anatomy of the Lower Extremity
  14. Gray's Anatomy > Surface Markings of the Lower Extremity

External links and references