Neurosurgery

From WikiMD free medical encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Template:For Template:Infobox occupation

Neurosurgery (or neurological surgery) is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.[1][2]

Education and training

In the US

In the United States, a neurosurgeon must generally complete four years of college, four years of medical school, a one year internship (PGY-1) that is usually affiliated with their residency program, and five to seven years of neurosurgery residency (PGY-2-7).[3] Most, but not all, residency programs have some component of basic science or clinical research. Some programs offer an internal Ph.D. during the residency program as well. Neurosurgeons may pursue an additional training in a fellowship, after residency or in some cases, as a senior resident. These fellowships include pediatric neurosurgery, trauma/neurocritical care, functional and stereotactic surgery, surgical neuro-oncology, radiosurgery, neurovascular surgery, Interventional neuroradiology, peripheral nerve, spine surgery and skull base surgery.[4] Neurosurgeons can also pursue fellowship training in neuropathology and rehabilitation. In the U.S., neurosurgery is considered an extremely competitive specialty composed of only 0.6% of all practicing physicians and attracts only the top students of medical schools per year (with a <60% match rate).

In the UK

In the UK, students must gain entry into medical school. MBBS qualification (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery) takes 4–6 years depending on the student's route. The newly qualified Doctor must then complete Foundation training lasting two years; this is a paid training program in a hospital or clinical setting covering a range of medical specialties including surgery. Junior doctors then apply to enter the neurological pathway. Unlike other surgical specialties, it currently has its own independent training pathway which takes around eight years (ST1-8); before being able to sit, consult exams with great amounts of experience behind them, and practice.[5]

Neurosurgical methods

Template:Interventions infobox Neuroradiology methods are used in modern neurosurgical diagnosis and treatment, including computer assisted imaging computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and the stereotactic surgery. Some neurosurgical procedures involve the use of MRI and functional MRI intraoperatively.

Microsurgery is utilized in many aspects of neurological surgery. Microvascular anastomosis are required when EC-IC surgery is performed. The clipping of aneurysms is performed using a microscope. Minimally invasive spine surgery utilizes these techniques. Procedures such as microdiscectomy, laminectomy, and artificial discs rely on microsurgery.[6]

Minimally invasive endoscopic surgery is utilized by neurosurgeons. Techniques such as endoscopic endonasal surgery is used for pituitary tumors, craniopharyngiomas, chordomas, and the repair of cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Ventricular endoscopy is used for colloid cysts and neurocysticercosis. Endoscopic techniques can be used to assist in the evacuation of hematomas and trigeminal neuralgia. Repair of craniofacial disorders and disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid circulation is done by neurosurgeons, and depending on the situation, maxillofacial and plastic surgeons. Conditions such as chiari malformation, craniosynostosis, and syringomyelia are treated. This is called cranioplasty.

Neurosurgeons are involved in Stereotactic Radiosurgery along with Radiation Oncologists for tumor and AVM treatment. Radiosurgical methods such as Gamma knife, Cyberknife and Novalis Shaped Beam Surgery are used.[7]

Neurosurgeons have begun to utilize endovascular image guided procedures for the treatment of aneurysms, AVMs, carotid stenosis, strokes, and spinal malformations, and vasospasms. Also, nonvascular procedures such as Vertoplasty and Kyphoplasty are used by neurosurgeons. Techniques such as angioplasty, stenting, clot retrieval, embolization, and diagnostic angiography are utilized.[8]

Conditions

Other conditions treated by neurosurgeons include:

See also

References

  1. http://www.casattexas.com/NEURObody.cfm
  2. AANS - Patient Information
  3. ABNS.org
  4. http://www.aans.org/medical_students/questions.asp
  5. Template:Dead link
  6. Cyber Museum of Neurosurgery
  7. Stereotactic Radiosurgery Program | UCLA Neurosurgery
  8. Neuroradiology - Information for Patients & Referring Physicians

External links


Health science - Medicine
Anesthesiology - Dermatology - Emergency Medicine - General practice - Intensive care medicine - Internal medicine - Neurology - Obstetrics & Gynecology - Pediatrics - Podiatry - Public Health & Occupational Medicine - Psychiatry - Radiology - Surgery
Branches of Internal medicine
Cardiology - Endocrinology - Gastroenterology - Hematology - Infectious diseases - Nephrology - Oncology - Pulmonology - Rheumatology
Branches of Surgery
General surgery - Cardiothoracic surgery - Neurosurgery - Ophthalmology - Orthopedic surgery - Otolaryngology (ENT) - Plastic surgery - Podiatric surgery - Urology - Vascular surgery

Template:Neurosurgical procedures Template:Neuroscience

World's largest food, health, wellness and weight loss encyclopedia

If you are a medical professional or an expert in any field of medicine, please join us in building the world's largest weight loss and wellness encyclopedia created by experts in the field, not by the crowd. Since its inception in 2011, W8MD’s insurance physician weight loss program has successfully helped thousands of patients succeed in not only losing weight but also keep it off with an ongoing maintenance plan.

W8MD’s physician weight loss program is unique in many ways with a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to weight loss addresses all the complex issues leading to weight gain, both in adults and children. The Center’s team of practitioners are among the most qualified, dedicated and hospitable professionals in the industry. Learn Learn more


Support our sponsors

W8MD weight loss, sleep and medspa centers sponsors WikiMD.

W8MD's Locations for losing weight, sleeping better and looking your best

Pennsylvania

Philadelphia

King of Prussia

New York

New Jersey

Medications for weight loss (diet pills) reviewed!

weight loss videos

W8MD weight loss, sleep and medical spa blogs

Health Topics | Health Encyclopedia | First Aid | Weight Loss | Drugs


Health science - Medicine
Anesthesiology - Dermatology - Emergency Medicine - General practice - Intensive care medicine - Internal medicine - Neurology - Obstetrics & Gynecology - Pediatrics - Podiatry - Public Health & Occupational Medicine - Psychiatry - Radiology - Surgery
Branches of Internal medicine
Cardiology - Endocrinology - Gastroenterology - Hematology - Infectious diseases - Nephrology - Oncology - Pulmonology - Rheumatology
Branches of Surgery
General surgery - Cardiothoracic surgery - Neurosurgery - Ophthalmology - Orthopedic surgery - Otolaryngology (ENT) - Plastic surgery - Podiatric surgery - Urology - Vascular surgery

WikiMD Sponsors - W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep and MedSpa Centers

Pronounced weightMD, our state of the art W8MD weight loss, sleep, holistic IV nutrition and aesthetic medicine programs can help you not only to lose weight, and sleep better but also look your best! Since its inception in 2011, W8MD’s insurance physician weight loss program has successfully helped thousands of patients.

W8MD Weight Loss

W8MD’s Physician weight loss is unique in many ways with a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to weight loss. Weight Loss Success Stories....

W8MD Sleep Services

Sleep medicine program uses state of the art technology to diagnose and treat over 80 different sleep disorders. W8MD Sleep Services…

W8MD Medical Aesthetic Services

Medical aesthetic program offers a wide variety of advanced laser skin treatments including oxygen super facials, photofacials and Affordable Botox. W8MD Aesthetic Services…

IM and IV nutrition therapy includes booster shots for B12, vitamin B complex, Vitamin C, Detox treatments and IV nutrition therapy. W8MD IV Nutrition…

W8MD weight loss | Philadelphia medical weight loss | NYC medical weight loss | NJ medical weight loss

W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep & Medical Aesthetics

Intro to W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep & Medical Aesthetics


Disclaimer: The entire contents of WIKIMD.ORG are for informational purposes only and do not render medical advice or professional services. If you have a medical emergency, you should CALL 911 immediately! Given the nature of the wiki, the information provided may not be accurate and or incorrect. Use the information on this wiki at your own risk! See full Disclaimers.WikiMD is supported by W8MD Weight loss, Poly-Tech Sleep & Medical Aesthetic Centers of America.