Pediatric ophthalmology

From WikiMD
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Template:Globalize/North America Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases, visual development, and vision care in children.

Training

In the United States, pediatric ophthalmologists are physicians who have completed medical school, a 1-year internship, 3-year residency in ophthalmology, and a 1-2 year fellowship in pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus. Pediatric ophthalmology fellowships in the United States are accredited by the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus.

Clinical expertise

Pediatric ophthalmologists focus on the development of the visual system and the various diseases that disrupt visual development in children. Pediatric ophthalmologists also have expertise in managing the various ocular diseases that affect children. Pediatric ophthalmologists are qualified to perform complex eye surgery as well as to manage children's eye problems using glasses and medications. Many ophthalmologists and other physicians refer pediatric patients to a pediatric ophthalmologist for examination and management of ocular problems due to children's unique needs. In addition to children with obvious vision problems, children with head turns, head tilts, squinting of the eyes, or preferred head postures (torticollis) are typically referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist for evaluation. Pediatric ophthalmologists typically also manage adults with eye movement disorders (such as nystagmus or strabismus) due to their familiarity with strabismus conditions.

Eye problems in children

Public education poster urging eye exams for children (Works Progress Administration, circa 1937)

Children experience a variety of eye problems, many quite distinct from adult eye diseases. Pediatric ophthalmologists are specially trained to manage the following disorders:

  • Infections (Conjunctivitis).
  • Strabismus is a misalignment of the eyes that affects 2-4% of the population; it is often associated with amblyopia. The inward turning gaze commonly referred to as "crossed-eyes" is an example of strabismus. The term strabismus applies to other types of misalignments, including an upward, downward, or outward turning eye.
  • Amblyopia (aka lazy eye) occurs when the vision of one eye is significantly better than the other eye, and the brain begins to rely on the better eye and ignore the weaker one. Amblyopia affects 4% of the population and is clinically diagnosed when the refractive error of one eye is more than 1.5 diopters different than the other eye (anisometropia) or one of the eye is misaligned for a long period of time (Strabismus). The management of amblyopia involves correcting of significant refractive errors and using techniques that encourage the brain to pay attention to the weaker eye such as patching the stronger eye(occlusion therapy).
  • Blocked tear ducts.
  • Ptosis
  • Retinopathy of prematurity
  • Nystagmus
  • Visual inattention [1]
  • Pediatric cataracts
  • Pediatric glaucoma
  • Abnormal vision development
  • Genetic disorders often cause eye problems for affected children. Since approximately 30% of genetic syndromes affect the eyes, examination by a pediatric ophthalmologist can help with the diagnosis of genetic conditions. Many pediatric ophthalmologists participate with multi-disciplinary medical teams that treat children with genetic syndromes.
  • Congenital malformations affecting vision or the tear drainage duct system can be evaluated and possibly surgically corrected by a pediatric ophthalmologist.
  • Orbital tumours
  • Refractive errors such as myopia (near-sightedness), hyperopia (far-sightedness) and astigmatism can often be corrected with prescriptions for glasses or contacts.
  • Accommodative insufficiency
  • Convergence insufficiency and asthenopia
  • Evaluation of visual issues in education, including dyslexia and attention deficit disorder.

Pediatric ophthalmologists often work in conjunction with orthoptists in the treatment of strabismus.

History

Frank D. Costenbader was an American physician frequently credited as the world's first pediatric ophthalmologist.[2] Costenbader and Marshall M. Parks (his mentee who would later be known to many as "the father of pediatric ophthalmology") began the first ophthalmology fellowship trained program of any subspecialty at the Children's Hospital in Washington, D.C., now known as the Children's National Medical Center.[3][4] Parks trained many pediatric ophthalmologists during his career and was instrumental in the establishment of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, a national organization dedicated to improving the quality and management of pediatric ocular disease. Over time, over 30 programs were developed for the training of pediatric ophthalmologists throughout the United States. The American Academy of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus works with the American Academy of Pediatrics on issues related to pediatric eye disease and vision screening guidelines.

Other notable pediatric ophthalmologists have included: Jack Crawford, John T. Flynn, David S. Friendly, Eugene R. Folk David Guyton, Eugene Helveston, Arthur Jampolsky, Barrie Jay, Phillip Knapp, Burton J. Kushner, Henry Metz, Marilyn T. Miller, John Pratt-Johnson, Arthur Rosenbaum, William E. Scott, Gunter K. von Noorden, and Mette Warburg.

See also

References

Metabolic.jpg

Featured disease

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of the most dangerous heart attack risk factors: diabetes and prediabetes, abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol and high blood pressure.

Affects one in three adults

Affecting about 35 percent of all adults in the United States according to the CDC, metabolic syndrome contributes to weight gain, by causing a state of internal starvation called metabolic starvation. This in turn leads to increases hunger, sugar cravings and increased portions leading to overeating and weight gain.

Cause and effect misunderstood

Since we traditionally thought that the portion control (which in turn was attributed wrongly to poor will power)is the cause of weight gain, rather than the effect of this metabolic starvation, all our traditional ideas about cause and effect of obesity were not only wrong but lead to the “blame the victim” attitude when it comes to obesity.

Secret of weight gain revealed

Secret of weight gain, and metabolic syndrome revealed - it has been recently proven that metabolic syndrome, and the weight gain itself are caused by a process called insulin resistance. Check your metabolic syndrome risk using the free Metabolic syndrome meter. Watch this amazing Ted Med video that reveals the secret of weight loss - Stop blaming the victim for obesity


External links

  • Your Baby's Eyes-Development, Vision Examination and Eye Problems Explained
  • Marshall MM. "The History of the Costenbader Society: Costenbader's Challenges." March 19, 2000.
  • Joe Holley. "D.C. Physician Illuminated The Ailments of Young Eyes." Washington Post. Sunday, August 21, 2005; Page C11.
  • "Marshal M. Parks, M.D." Obituary. Accessed September 19, 2006.
  • Tired of being overweight or obese? W8MD's insurance weight loss program can HELP

    Laser scar treatment before and after
    • W8MD IV Nutrition: Our IM and IV nutrition therapy includes booster shots for B12, vitamin B complex, Vitamin C, Detox treatments and IV nutrition therapy. learn more…
    W8MD weight loss locations: Philadelphia weight loss | King of Prussia, PA weight loss | NYC weight loss | NJ weight loss

    Medical Aesthetics

    Contact us (718) 946-5501 | Why advertise on WikiMD?


    Disclaimer: The entire contents of WIKIMD.ORG are for informational purposes only and do not render medical advice or professional services. If you have a medical emergency, you should CALL 911 immediately! Given the nature of the wiki, the information provided may not be accurate and or incorrect. Use the information on this wiki at your own risk! See full Disclaimers.WikiMD is supported by W8MD Weight loss, Poly-Tech Sleep & Medical Aesthetic Centers of America.